An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgment, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; HEMIPARESIS; reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A rare form of DEMENTIA that is sometimes familial. Clinical features include APHASIA; APRAXIA; CONFUSION; ANOMIA; memory loss; and personality deterioration. This pattern is consistent with the pathologic findings of circumscribed atrophy of the poles of the FRONTAL LOBE and TEMPORAL LOBE. Neuronal loss is maximal in the HIPPOCAMPUS, entorhinal cortex, and AMYGDALA. Some ballooned cortical neurons contain argentophylic (Pick) bodies. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Apr;8(2):339-54; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1057-9)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Moving oneself through space while confused or otherwise cognitively impaired. Patterns include akathisia, exhibiting neuroleptic-induced pacing and restlessness; exit seekers who are often newly admitted institution residents who try to open locked exit doors; self-stimulators who perform other activities such as turning doorknobs, in addition to continuous pacing; and modelers who shadow other pacers.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living. (www.alfa.org)
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.

Assessment of competence to complete advance directives: validation of a patient centred approach. (1/3586)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient centred approach for the assessment of competence to complete advance directives ("living wills") of elderly people with cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews. SETTING: Oxfordshire. SUBJECTS: 50 elderly volunteers living in the community, and 50 patients with dementia on first referral from primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychometric properties of competence assessment. RESULTS: This patient centred approach for assessing competence to complete advance directives can discriminate between elderly persons living in the community and elderly patients with dementia. The procedure has good interrater (r=0.95) and test-retest (r=0.97) reliability. Validity was examined by relating this approach with a global assessment of competence to complete an advance directive made by two of us (both specialising in old age psychiatry). The data were also used to determine the best threshold score for discriminating between those competent and those incompetent to complete an advance directive. CONCLUSION: A patient centred approach to assess competence to complete advance directives can be reliably and validly used in routine clinical practice.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (2/3586)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease). A vascular etiology of dementia. (3/3586)

A 51-yearold man with moderate intermittent hypertension had a rapidly progressive, profound dementia in the absence of significant localizing neurological signs. Postmortem examination disclosed the vascular alterations and diffuse white matter degeneration which characterize subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) or Binswanger's disease. The case underscores the need to consider vascular disease as an etiology of dementia -- even in the absence of focal neurological deficit.  (+info)

Are sex and educational level independent predictors of dementia and Alzheimer's disease? Incidence data from the PAQUID project. (4/3586)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the age specific risk of Alzheimer's disease according to sex, and to explore the role of education in a cohort of elderly community residents aged 65 years and older. METHODS: A community based cohort of elderly people was studied longitudinally for 5 years for the development of dementia. Dementia diagnoses were made according to the DSM III R criteria and Alzheimer's disease was assessed using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Among the 3675 non-demented subjects initially included in the cohort, 2881 participated in the follow up. Hazard ratios of dementia were estimated using a Cox model with delayed entry in which the time scale is the age of the subjects. RESULTS: During the 5 year follow up, 190 incident cases of dementia, including 140 cases of Alzheimer's disease were identified. The incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease were 0.8/100 person-years in men and 1.4/100 person-years in women. However, the incidence was higher in men than in women before the age of 80 and higher in women than in men after this age. A significant interaction between sex and age was found. The hazard ratio of Alzheimer's disease in women compared with men was estimated to be 0.8 at 75 years and 1.7 at 85 years. The risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were associated with a lower educational attainment (hazard ratio=1.8, p<0.001). The increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in women was not changed after adjustment for education. CONCLUSION: Women have a higher risk of developing dementia after the age of 80 than men. Low educational attainment is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, the increased risk in women is not explained by a lower educational level.  (+info)

Evaluation of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in the differentiation of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. (5/3586)

OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now reliant on the use of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Other diseases causing dementia are being increasingly recognised--for example, frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Historically, these disorders have not been clearly demarcated from AD. This study assesses the capability of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria to accurately distinguish AD from FTD in a series of pathologically proved cases. METHODS: The case records of 56 patients (30 with AD, 26 with FTD) who had undergone neuropsychological evaluation, brain imaging, and ultimately postmortem, were assessed in terms of whether at initial diagnosis the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were successful in diagnosing those patients who had AD and excluding those who did not. RESULTS: (1) The overall sensitivity of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria in diagnosing "probable" AD from 56 patients with cortical dementia (AD and FTD) was 0.93. However, the specificity was only 0.23; most patients with FTD also fulfilled NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD. (2) Cognitive deficits in the realms of orientation and praxis significantly increased the odds of a patient having AD compared with FTD, whereas deficits in problem solving significantly decreased the odds. Neuropsychological impairments in the domains of attention, language, perception, and memory as defined in the NINCDS-ADRDA statement did not contribute to the clinical differentiation of AD and FTD. CONCLUSION: NINCDS-ADRDA criteria fail accurately to differentiate AD from FTD. Suggestions to improve the diagnostic specificity of the current criteria are made.  (+info)

Relationship between brain atrophy estimated by a longitudinal computed tomography study and blood pressure control in patients with essential hypertension. (6/3586)

To evaluate the relationship between blood pressure control and the progression of brain atrophy in the elderly, patients with essential hypertension and brain atrophy were longitudinally evaluated using computerized tomography (CT). The study evaluated 48 patients with essential hypertension aged 46-78 years, and 30 sex- and age-matched normotensive control subjects. The extent of brain atrophy as determined by caudate head index (CHI), the inverse cella media index (iCMI), and Evans' ratio (ER) was estimated twice at an interval of 5-9 years (mean, 6.9 years). The mean annual increases in CHI (deltaCHI), iCMI (delta iCMI), and ER (deltaER) were evaluated. Mean blood volume in the common carotid artery (BF) and the decrease in BF per year (deltaBF) were also determined. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER increased with age in the hypertensive subjects as well as the control group across all age groups evaluated. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly greater in the patients with essential hypertension in their 50 s as compared with the controls. In patients with essential hypertension aged 65 years or older, the deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly lower in the group in whom the blood pressure was controlled within the range of borderline hypertension than the groups in which it was controlled in the range of normal or mild hypertension. In the younger patients under the age of 65 with essential hypertension, blood pressure control did not affect the deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER. The deltaCHI, delta iCMI, and deltaER were significantly correlated with deltaBF in both groups. These findings indicate that control of systolic blood pressure within the range of borderline hypertension may delay the progression of brain atrophy in elderly patients with essential hypertension.  (+info)

EEG findings in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. (7/3586)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the EEG in the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: Standard EEG recordings from 14 patients with DLB confirmed at postmortem were examined and were compared with the records from 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease confirmed at postmortem RESULTS: Seventeen of the total of 19 records from the patients with DLB were abnormal. Thirteen showed loss of alpha activity as the dominant rhythm and half had slow wave transient activity in the temporal lobe areas. This slow wave transient activity correlated with a clinical history of loss of consciousness. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were less likely to show transient slow waves and tended to have less marked slowing of dominant rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: The greater slowing of the EEG in DLB than in Alzheimer's disease may be related to a greater loss of choline acetyltransferase found in DLB. Temporal slow wave transients may be a useful diagnostic feature in DLB and may help to explain the transient disturbance of consciousness which is characteristic of the disorder.  (+info)

Outcome measures for routine use in dementia services: some practical considerations. (8/3586)

OBJECTIVES: To work with specialist community teams to assess the practicality and acceptability of identified outcome measures for routine use in dementia services. SETTING: Seven specialist dementia services: four multidisciplinary teams, a specialist service for carers, a community psychiatric nurse team, and a day hospital. SUBJECTS: 20 members of staff from the specialist dementia services including psychiatry, community psychiatric nursing, social work, occupational therapy, Admiral nursing, ward management, geriatric nursing. MAIN MEASURE: A questionnaire designed to assess staff views on the use of six outcome measures in routine practice in terms of practicality, relevance, acceptability, and use in improving care. RESULTS: Each of the outcome measures took 15 to 30 minutes to administer. All were rated as easy to use and as relevant to dementia services and to carers. Staff commented that the measures could be useful in routine practice for structured assessment and service evaluation, but highlighted the need for sensitive use of measures with carers. CONCLUSIONS: These measures consider the main domains of functioning for people with dementia and their carers. The measures are suitable for use in routine practice in dementia services and are acceptable to staff and carers. The project underlined the need for management support, staff ownership of measures, and training in using outcome measures. Staff concerns about service evaluation need to be acknowledged.  (+info)

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

Vascular dementia is a type of dementia that is caused by damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This damage can result from conditions such as stroke, chronic high blood pressure, diabetes, or other diseases that affect the circulatory system. The interruption in blood flow to the brain can lead to damaged or dead brain cells, which can impair cognitive function and cause symptoms similar to those seen in other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease.

The symptoms of vascular dementia can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage to the blood vessels. However, common symptoms include difficulties with memory, attention, and decision-making; problems with language and speech; changes in mood or behavior; and difficulty walking or performing other physical tasks. Vascular dementia is typically a progressive condition, meaning that the symptoms tend to worsen over time.

It's important to note that vascular dementia can coexist with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, and this is known as mixed dementia. Proper diagnosis and management of underlying medical conditions that contribute to vascular dementia can help slow down the progression of cognitive decline and improve quality of life for individuals living with this condition.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is a specific type of dementia that is caused by multiple small strokes or mini-strokes (known as transient ischemic attacks or TIAs) in the brain. Also known as vascular dementia, multi-infarct dementia results from the interruption of blood flow to parts of the brain, leading to damage and death of brain tissue.

The term 'multi-infarct' refers to multiple areas (or infarcts) of damaged or dead tissue in the brain due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients caused by these small strokes. Over time, as more areas of the brain are affected, cognitive decline becomes apparent, leading to symptoms such as memory loss, difficulty with problem-solving, disorientation, language problems, and changes in mood or behavior.

Multi-infarct dementia is typically a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms worsen over time. However, the rate of progression can vary depending on factors such as the number and severity of strokes, underlying medical conditions, and lifestyle factors. It's important to note that multi-infarct dementia can be prevented or delayed by controlling risk factors for stroke, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and high cholesterol.

Lewy body disease, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is a type of progressive degenerative dementia that affects thinking, behavior, and movement. It's named after Dr. Friedrich Lewy, the scientist who discovered the abnormal protein deposits, called Lewy bodies, that are characteristic of this disease.

Lewy bodies are made up of a protein called alpha-synuclein and are found in the brain cells of individuals with Lewy body disease. These abnormal protein deposits are also found in people with Parkinson's disease, but they are more widespread in Lewy body disease, affecting multiple areas of the brain.

The symptoms of Lewy body disease can vary from person to person, but they often include:

* Cognitive decline, such as memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving
* Visual hallucinations and delusions
* Parkinsonian symptoms, such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty walking or moving
* Fluctuations in alertness and attention
* REM sleep behavior disorder, where a person acts out their dreams during sleep

Lewy body disease is a progressive condition, which means that the symptoms get worse over time. Currently, there is no cure for Lewy body disease, but medications can help manage some of the symptoms.

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. It is also known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or HIV encephalopathy. ADC is characterized by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and behavioral changes that can significantly affect the individual's daily functioning and quality of life.

The symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex may include:
- Difficulty with concentration and memory
- Slowness in thinking, processing information, or making decisions
- Changes in mood or personality, such as depression, irritability, or apathy
- Difficulty with coordination, balance, or speech
- Progressive weakness and wasting of muscles
- Difficulty with swallowing or speaking

The exact cause of ADC is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the direct effects of HIV on the brain. The virus can infect and damage nerve cells, leading to inflammation and degeneration of brain tissue. Treatment for ADC typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control HIV replication, as well as medications to manage specific symptoms. In some cases, supportive care such as physical therapy or occupational therapy may also be recommended.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a medical term used to describe a stage between the cognitive changes seen in normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. It's characterized by a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, such as memory or thinking skills, that are greater than expected for an individual's age and education level, but not significant enough to interfere with daily life.

People with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease, compared to those without MCI. However, it's important to note that not everyone with MCI will develop dementia; some may remain stable, and others may even improve over time.

The diagnosis of MCI is typically made through a comprehensive medical evaluation, including a detailed medical history, cognitive testing, and sometimes brain imaging or laboratory tests.

Atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in size and wasting of an organ or tissue due to the disappearance of cells, shrinkage of cells, or decreased number of cells. This process can be caused by various factors such as disuse, aging, degeneration, injury, or disease.

For example, if a muscle is immobilized for an extended period, it may undergo atrophy due to lack of use. Similarly, certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, and heart failure can lead to the wasting away of various tissues and organs in the body.

Atrophy can also occur as a result of natural aging processes, leading to decreased muscle mass and strength in older adults. In general, atrophy is characterized by a decrease in the volume or weight of an organ or tissue, which can have significant impacts on its function and overall health.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A nursing home, also known as a skilled nursing facility, is a type of residential healthcare facility that provides round-the-clock care and assistance to individuals who require a high level of medical care and support with activities of daily living. Nursing homes are designed for people who cannot be cared for at home or in an assisted living facility due to their complex medical needs, mobility limitations, or cognitive impairments.

Nursing homes provide a range of services, including:

1. Skilled nursing care: Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses provide 24-hour medical care and monitoring for residents with chronic illnesses, disabilities, or those recovering from surgery or illness.
2. Rehabilitation services: Physical, occupational, and speech therapists help residents regain strength, mobility, and communication skills after an injury, illness, or surgery.
3. Personal care: Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) help residents with activities of daily living, such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and using the bathroom.
4. Meals and nutrition: Nursing homes provide three meals a day, plus snacks, and accommodate special dietary needs.
5. Social activities: Recreational programs and social events are organized to help residents stay active and engaged with their peers.
6. Hospice care: Some nursing homes offer end-of-life care for residents who require palliative or comfort measures.
7. Secure environments: For residents with memory impairments, specialized units called memory care or Alzheimer's units provide a secure and structured environment to help maintain their safety and well-being.

When selecting a nursing home, it is essential to consider factors such as the quality of care, staff-to-resident ratio, cleanliness, and overall atmosphere to ensure the best possible experience for the resident.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein that develop in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. They are named after Frederick Lewy, a German-American neurologist who discovered them while working with Dr. Alois Alzheimer. The presence of Lewy bodies is a hallmark feature of Lewy body dementia, which includes both Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Lewy bodies can lead to the dysfunction and death of neurons in areas of the brain that control movement, cognition, and behavior. This can result in a range of symptoms, including motor impairments, cognitive decline, visual hallucinations, and mood changes. The exact role of Lewy bodies in the development and progression of these disorders is not fully understood, but they are believed to contribute to the neurodegenerative process that underlies these conditions.

Tau proteins are a type of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) found primarily in neurons of the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and structure of microtubules, which are essential components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Tau proteins bind to and stabilize microtubules, helping to regulate their assembly and disassembly.

In Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, tau proteins can become abnormally hyperphosphorylated, leading to the formation of insoluble aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within neurons. These aggregates disrupt the normal function of microtubules and contribute to the degeneration and death of nerve cells, ultimately leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with these disorders.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are involved in decision-making, behavior, emotion, and language. FTLD can be divided into several subtypes based on the specific clinical features and the underlying protein abnormalities.

The three main subtypes of FTLD are:

1. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD): This subtype is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and judgment. People with bvFTD may lose their social inhibitions, become impulsive, or develop compulsive behaviors. They may also have difficulty with emotional processing and empathy.
2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA): This subtype is characterized by the gradual deterioration of language skills. People with PPA may have difficulty speaking, understanding spoken or written language, or both. There are three subtypes of PPA: nonfluent/agrammatic variant, semantic variant, and logopenic variant.
3. Motor neuron disease (MND) with FTLD: This subtype is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. People with MND with FTLD may develop symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), such as muscle weakness, stiffness, and twitching, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes associated with FTLD.

The underlying protein abnormalities in FTLD include:

1. Tau protein: In some forms of FTLD, the tau protein accumulates and forms clumps called tangles inside nerve cells. This is also seen in Alzheimer's disease.
2. TDP-43 protein: In other forms of FTLD, the TDP-43 protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.
3. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein: In a small number of cases, the FUS protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.

FTLD is typically a progressive disorder, meaning that symptoms worsen over time. There is currently no cure for FTLD, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Neurofibrillary tangles are a pathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Alzheimer's disease. They are intracellular inclusions composed of abnormally phosphorylated and aggregated tau protein, which forms paired helical filaments. These tangles accumulate within the neurons, leading to their dysfunction and eventual death. The presence and density of neurofibrillary tangles are strongly associated with cognitive decline and disease progression in Alzheimer's disease and other related dementias.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a gene that provides instructions for making a protein involved in the metabolism of fats called lipids. One variant of this gene, APOE4, is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

The APOE4 allele (variant) is less efficient at clearing beta-amyloid protein, a component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. This can lead to an accumulation of beta-amyloid and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that having one or two copies of the APOE4 allele does not mean that a person will definitely develop Alzheimer's disease, but it does increase the risk. Other factors, such as age, family history, and the presence of other genetic variants, also contribute to the development of this complex disorder.

A geriatric assessment is a comprehensive, multidimensional evaluation of an older adult's functional ability, mental health, social support, and overall health status. It is used to identify any medical, psychological, or social problems that could affect the person's ability to live independently and safely, and to develop an individualized plan of care to address those issues.

The assessment typically includes a review of the person's medical history, medications, cognitive function, mobility, sensory function, nutrition, continence, and mood. It may also include assessments of the person's social support network, living situation, and financial resources. The goal of the geriatric assessment is to help older adults maintain their independence and quality of life for as long as possible by addressing any issues that could put them at risk for disability or institutionalization.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Pick's disease, also known as Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), is a rare form of degenerative brain disorder that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. It is characterized by progressive shrinkage (atrophy) of these regions, resulting in a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, and language difficulties.

The medical definition of Pick's disease includes the following key features:

1. Progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, including memory, judgment, and problem-solving skills.
2. Changes in personality, emotional blunting, and loss of social inhibitions.
3. Language difficulties, such as difficulty with word finding, grammar, and comprehension.
4. Presence of abnormal protein deposits called Pick bodies or Pick cells in the affected brain regions.
5. Exclusion of other causes of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or Lewy body dementia.

Pick's disease typically affects people between the ages of 40 and 60, and it tends to progress more rapidly than other forms of dementia. Currently, there is no cure for Pick's disease, and treatment focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Psychomotor agitation is a state of increased physical activity and purposeless or semi-purposeful voluntary movements, usually associated with restlessness, irritability, and cognitive impairment. It can be a manifestation of various medical and neurological conditions such as delirium, dementia, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance withdrawal. Psychomotor agitation may also increase the risk of aggressive behavior and physical harm to oneself or others. Appropriate evaluation and management are necessary to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Homes for the Aged," as it is more commonly referred to in social work or public health contexts. However, I can provide you with some related information:

"Homes for the Aged" are typically residential facilities designed to provide housing, support services, and care for older adults, often with lower levels of medical needs compared to nursing homes. These facilities might offer assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and managing medications. They can be an alternative to aging in place or moving in with family members.

In a broader public health context, "Homes for the Aged" may fall under the category of congregate housing or assisted living facilities. These settings aim to promote social interaction, autonomy, and independence while offering help with daily tasks and ensuring the safety of their residents.

It is essential to research and visit various facilities to ensure they meet individual needs, preferences, and healthcare requirements when considering Homes for the Aged for yourself or a loved one.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Behavioral symptoms refer to changes or abnormalities in a person's behavior, which may be indicative of an underlying medical or psychological condition. These symptoms can manifest as a wide range of observable behaviors that are unusual, disruptive, or distressing for the individual experiencing them or those around them. Examples of behavioral symptoms include:

1. Agitation: A state of irritability, restlessness, or excitement, often accompanied by aggressive or disruptive behavior.
2. Aggression: Hostile or violent behavior directed towards others, including verbal or physical attacks.
3. Apathy: A lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
4. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns: Significant fluctuations in the amount or frequency of food intake or sleep, which can be indicative of various medical or psychological conditions.
5. Disinhibition: A loss of restraint or impulse control, leading to inappropriate behavior in social situations.
6. Hallucinations: Perception of sensory stimuli (such as sight, sound, touch) without an external source, often associated with certain mental illnesses or neurological disorders.
7. Hyperactivity: Increased activity levels, often accompanied by impulsivity and difficulty focusing attention.
8. Impaired judgment: Poor decision-making abilities, often resulting in risky or harmful behavior.
9. Inattention: Difficulty focusing or sustaining attention on a task or activity.
10. Mood changes: Fluctuations in emotional state, such as depression, anxiety, or euphoria.
11. Psychosis: A severe mental disorder characterized by detachment from reality, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking or behavior.
12. Repetitive behaviors: Engaging in repetitive actions or movements, often associated with certain developmental disorders or neurological conditions.
13. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions or activities, often indicative of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns.
14. Thought disturbances: Disorganized or disrupted thinking patterns, such as racing thoughts, tangential thinking, or loose associations between ideas.

Behavioral symptoms can be caused by various factors, including medical conditions (such as infections, brain injuries, or neurodegenerative diseases), mental health disorders (such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia), substance abuse, and environmental factors (such as stress or trauma). Accurate assessment and diagnosis are crucial for determining appropriate treatment interventions.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Wandering behavior in a medical context often refers to the movement of individuals, particularly those with cognitive impairments such as dementia, who may aimlessly walk or wander away from safe environments. This behavior can pose risks to the individual's safety, as they may become disoriented, lost, or exposed to environmental hazards. It's important to note that wandering is not a diagnosis but a symptom of an underlying condition.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

'Institutionalization' in a medical context refers to the process or state of becoming accustomed to or dependent on a institution, such as a hospital or long-term care facility, for one's care and living arrangements. This can occur over time as an individual becomes more reliant on the services and structure provided by the institution. It can also refer to the social and psychological effects that may result from living in an institutional setting for a long period of time, which can include decreased initiative, dependency, and difficulty functioning in a less structured environment. Institutionalization can have negative impacts on an individual's quality of life and overall well-being, and efforts are often made to help individuals maintain their independence and community connections whenever possible.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ) are small protein fragments that are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. They are derived from a larger transmembrane protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a series of proteolytic cleavage events.

The two primary forms of Aβ peptides are Aβ40 and Aβ42, which differ in length by two amino acids. While both forms can be harmful, Aβ42 is more prone to aggregation and is considered to be the more pathogenic form. These peptides have the tendency to misfold and accumulate into oligomers, fibrils, and eventually insoluble plaques that deposit in various areas of the brain, most notably the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The accumulation of Aβ peptides is believed to initiate a cascade of events leading to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death, which are all hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact role of Aβ in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's is still under investigation, it is widely accepted that they play a central part in the development of this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

Amyloid plaque is a pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. It refers to extracellular deposits of misfolded proteins that accumulate in various tissues and organs, but are most commonly found in the brain. The main component of these plaques is an abnormally folded form of a protein called amyloid-beta (Aβ). This protein is produced through the normal processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but in amyloid plaques, it aggregates into insoluble fibrils that form the core of the plaque.

The accumulation of amyloid plaques is thought to contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and other related disorders. The exact mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood, but it is believed that the aggregation of Aβ into plaques leads to the disruption of neuronal function and viability, as well as the activation of inflammatory responses that can further damage brain tissue.

It's important to note that while amyloid plaques are a key feature of Alzheimer's disease, they are not exclusive to this condition. Amyloid plaques have also been found in other neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in some normal aging brains, although their significance in these contexts is less clear.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Nootropic agents, also known as cognition enhancers or smart drugs, are substances that are believed to improve cognitive functions such as memory, motivation, creativity, and executive functions. The term "nootropic" is derived from the Greek words "nous," meaning mind, and "tropos," meaning a turn or bend.

Nootropics can be divided into several categories, including dietary supplements, prescription medications, and illicit substances. Some examples of nootropics include:

* Piracetam and other racetams
* Caffeine and other stimulants
* Nicotine and other cholinergic compounds
* Modafinil and other wakefulness-promoting agents
* Certain antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and bupropion
* Illicit substances, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamines (Adderall), which are sometimes used off-label for cognitive enhancement.

It is important to note that while some nootropic agents have been shown to have cognitive benefits in certain studies, their effectiveness and safety are not fully understood. Additionally, the long-term use of some nootropics can have potential risks and side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or medication regimen for cognitive enhancement.

Residential facilities, in the context of healthcare and social services, refer to facilities where individuals can reside and receive ongoing care, treatment, and support. These facilities can vary in the level and type of care they provide, depending on the needs of the residents. Here are some examples:

1. Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs): Also known as nursing homes, these facilities provide 24-hour skilled nursing care for individuals who require a higher level of medical attention and assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs).

2. Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs): These facilities offer housing, personal care services, and support for individuals who need help with ADLs but do not require constant medical supervision.

3. Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs): These are residential campuses that offer various levels of care, including independent living, assisted living, and skilled nursing care. Residents can transition between these levels as their needs change over time.

4. Group Homes: These are residential facilities for individuals with developmental disabilities, mental health disorders, or substance abuse issues. They provide a structured living environment with support services to help residents develop daily living skills and integrate into the community.

5. Hospice Care Facilities: These residential facilities specialize in providing end-of-life care and support for individuals with terminal illnesses. The focus is on comfort, pain management, and emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and their family members.

It's important to note that definitions and regulations regarding residential facilities may vary depending on the country, state, or region.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Mental competency, also known as mental capacity, is a legal term that refers to a person's ability to make informed decisions and understand the nature and consequences of their actions. In a medical context, mental competency is often assessed in patients who are making decisions about their own medical care, such as whether to consent to a particular treatment or procedure.

A determination of mental competency typically involves an evaluation of a person's ability to:

* Understand and retain information about their medical condition and the proposed treatment
* Evaluate the risks and benefits of different treatment options
* Make and communicate a clear and consistent decision based on this information
* Understand the potential consequences of their decision

Mental competency can be affected by various factors, including mental illness, cognitive impairment, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. A healthcare provider may seek a formal evaluation of a patient's mental competency if there are concerns about their ability to make informed decisions about their care. This evaluation may involve input from psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health professionals.

It is important to note that mental competency is not the same as legal competency, which refers to a person's ability to understand and participate in legal proceedings. A person may be deemed mentally competent for medical purposes but not for legal purposes, or vice versa.

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of language capabilities, while other cognitive abilities remain preserved. It is a type of dementia that primarily affects speech and language. Unlike other forms of aphasia that result from stroke or head injury, PPA is degenerative and gets worse over time.

There are three main types of PPA:

1. Semantic Variant PPA (svPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty in understanding words and objects, despite having no trouble with the mechanics of speech or writing. Over time, people with svPPA may lose their ability to understand spoken or written language, as well as to recognize objects and faces.

2. Nonfluent/Agrammatic Variant PPA (nfvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with speaking and writing, including producing grammatical sentences and articulating words. People with nfvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

3. Logopenic Variant PPA (lvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with word-finding and sentence repetition, while speech remains fluent. People with lvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

The exact cause of PPA is not known, but it is believed to be related to degeneration of specific areas of the brain involved in language processing, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area. There is currently no cure for PPA, but speech and language therapy can help to slow down the progression of the disorder and improve communication skills.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by progressive and persistent loss of neuronal structure and function, often leading to cognitive decline, functional impairment, and ultimately death. These conditions are associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genetic mutations in the brain. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). The underlying causes and mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood, and there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Geriatric nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on the care of older adults, typically those aged 65 and over. It involves providing comprehensive nursing care to this population group, addressing their unique healthcare needs and promoting their overall well-being. Geriatric nurses work in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, community health centers, and home health agencies.

The primary goals of geriatric nursing are to:

1. Promote functional independence and quality of life for older adults.
2. Prevent or manage chronic conditions and disabilities that commonly occur in later life.
3. Provide patient-centered care that respects the autonomy, dignity, and cultural diversity of older adults.
4. Collaborate with interdisciplinary teams to develop individualized care plans that address physical, mental, emotional, and social needs.
5. Educate older adults, their families, and caregivers about health promotion strategies, disease prevention, and self-care management.
6. Advocate for the rights and access to healthcare services for older adults.

Geriatric nurses must have a deep understanding of the aging process, common age-related diseases and conditions, and evidence-based practices for managing them. They also need excellent communication skills, empathy, patience, and a strong commitment to providing compassionate care to this vulnerable population.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of brain cells that regulate movement, thoughts, behavior, and eye movements. The term "supranuclear" refers to the location of the damage in the brain, specifically above the level of the "nuclei" which are clusters of nerve cells that control voluntary movements.

The most common early symptom of PSP is a loss of balance and difficulty coordinating eye movements, particularly vertical gaze. Other symptoms may include stiffness or rigidity of muscles, slowness of movement, difficulty swallowing, changes in speech and writing, and cognitive decline leading to dementia.

PSP typically affects people over the age of 60, and its progression can vary from person to person. Currently, there is no cure for PSP, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and maintaining quality of life.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment, which can cause people to be easily distracted and unable to focus on any one topic for very long. It can also lead to rapid changes in emotions, perception, behavior, sleep-wake cycle, and hallucinations. Delirium is caused by various underlying medical conditions, such as infection, illness, or medication side effects, and it can be a symptom of severe illness or brain disorder. It can develop quickly, often over the course of hours or days, and it may come and go.

Delirium is different from dementia, which is a chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities, although delirium can occur in people with dementia. Delirium is also different from a mental illness such as schizophrenia, which involves persistent disturbances in thinking and perception that are not caused by a medical condition or medication.

Delirium is a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment. If you suspect someone may have delirium, it's important to seek medical attention right away.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. These disorders can be caused by narrowing, blockage, or rupture of the blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain. The most common types of cerebrovascular disorders include:

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach brain cells. This can lead to permanent damage or death of brain tissue.
2. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked, often by a blood clot. Symptoms may last only a few minutes to a few hours and typically resolve on their own. However, a TIA is a serious warning sign that a full-blown stroke may occur in the future.
3. Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakened or bulging area in the wall of a blood vessel. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
4. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An AVM is a tangled mass of abnormal blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. This can lead to bleeding in the brain or stroke.
5. Carotid stenosis: Carotid stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup. This can increase the risk of stroke.
6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This condition occurs when the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply blood to the back of the brain, become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and difficulty swallowing.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Risk factors for these conditions include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and family history. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further complications.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used clinician-rated scale for assessing the severity of psychopathology in individuals with mental illness. It consists of 18 items, each rated on a 7-point scale (1=not present to 7=extremely severe), that measure various symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, hallucinations, and unusual thoughts. The BPRS is often used in research and clinical settings to monitor treatment response and symptom changes over time.

Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something. In medical terms, it's often described as a loss of motivation or a decreased level of enthusiasm or concern for activities or events that one would normally care about. Apathy can be a symptom of various medical and neurological conditions, such as depression, dementia, traumatic brain injury, or Parkinson's disease. It can also be a side effect of certain medications. If severe or persistent, it can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

Assisted Living Facilities (ALFs) are residential facilities that provide housing, personal care services, and health care services to individuals who require assistance with activities of daily living (such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and toileting) but do not need the level of care provided in a nursing home.

ALFs are designed to promote independence and autonomy while ensuring that residents receive the support they need to maintain their health and safety. The specific services offered by ALFs may vary, but typically include:

* Meals and dining services
* Housekeeping and laundry services
* Medication management
* Personal care assistance (such as help with bathing, dressing, grooming, and toileting)
* Social activities and programming
* Transportation to medical appointments and other outings

In addition, some ALFs may offer additional services such as memory care for residents with dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

It is important to note that the specific regulations governing ALFs can vary by state, so it is essential to research the licensing and regulatory requirements in your area before selecting a facility.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Memantine is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, which is a type of glutamate receptor found in nerve cells. It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, as it can help slow down cognitive decline and improve symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning. Memantine works by blocking the excessive activation of NMDA receptors, which can contribute to the damage and death of nerve cells in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease. It is available in oral formulations, including tablets, capsules, and oral solution.

Aphasia is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to communicate. It is caused by damage to the language areas of the brain, most commonly as a result of a stroke or head injury. Aphasia can affect both spoken and written language, making it difficult for individuals to express their thoughts, understand speech, read, or write.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Expressive aphasia (also called Broca's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to speak and write clearly. Individuals with expressive aphasia know what they want to say but have difficulty forming the words or sentences to communicate their thoughts.
2. Receptive aphasia (also called Wernicke's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to understand spoken or written language. Individuals with receptive aphasia may struggle to follow conversations, comprehend written texts, or make sense of the words they hear or read.
3. Global aphasia: This is the most severe form of aphasia and results from extensive damage to the language areas of the brain. People with global aphasia have significant impairments in both their ability to express themselves and understand language.
4. Anomic aphasia: This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to recall the names of objects, people, or places. Individuals with anomic aphasia can speak in complete sentences but often struggle to find the right words to convey their thoughts.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which aims to help individuals regain as much communication ability as possible. The success of treatment depends on various factors, such as the severity and location of the brain injury, the individual's motivation and effort, and the availability of support from family members and caregivers.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

DNA repeat expansion is a genetic alteration in which a particular sequence of DNA base pairs is repeated multiple times. In normal genes, these repeats are relatively short and stable, but in certain diseases, the number of repeats can expand beyond a threshold, leading to changes in the structure or function of the gene. This type of mutation is often associated with neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. The expanded repeats can also be unstable and may increase in size over generations, leading to more severe symptoms or earlier age of onset.

Phenylcarbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a functional group consisting of a six-carbon ring, with the formula -C6H5) bonded to a carbamate group (-NHCOO-). Carbamates are compounds that contain a carbonyl (>C=O) group bonded to a nitrogen atom that is also bonded to two organic substituents.

In the medical field, phenylcarbamates have been used as drugs for various purposes. For example, some phenylcarbamates have been used as anticonvulsants, while others have been investigated for their potential as anti-cancer agents. However, it is important to note that many phenylcarbamates also have toxic properties and must be used with caution.

One well-known example of a phenylcarbamate is phenytoin, an anticonvulsant medication used to treat seizures. Phenytoin works by slowing down the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, which can help prevent or reduce the severity of seizures.

It's worth noting that while phenylcarbamates have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, they are not a widely used class of drugs and further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

Other common causes include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and mixed dementia (commonly ... "What is mixed dementia". Dementia UK. Retrieved 2020-12-13. Wilson H, Pagano G, Politis M (March 2019). "Dementia spectrum ... More than one type of dementia, known as mixed dementia, may exist together in about 10% of dementia cases. The most common ... In some types of dementia, such as dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, personality changes and difficulty ...
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... proactively enroll them in dementia-related safety programs and make dementia specific disaster preparedness a priority (i.e. ... A review of medical records of 83 people with dementia living in Los Angeles found that only 8% of the records included a ... Wandering occurs when a person with dementia roams around and becomes lost or confused about their location. It is a common ... It is estimated to be the most common form of disruption from people with dementia within institutions. Although it occurs in ...
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The three types of vascular dementia are subcortical vascular dementia, multi-infarct dementia, and stroke related dementia. ... ICD-11 lists vascular dementia as dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. DSM-5 lists vascular dementia as either major or ... www.dementiauk.org/understanding-dementia/types-and-symptoms/mixed-dementia/%7Caccess-date=2020-12-13%7Cwebsite=Dementia UK} ... Subcortical vascular dementia is brought about by damage to the small blood vessels in the brain. Multi-infarct dementia is ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dementia 13. Wikiquote has quotations related to Dementia 13. Dementia 13 at the ... Dementia 13 was released on Blu-ray April 26, 2011. Dementia 13 was restored to a director's cut in 2017 that was released to ... Institute Catalog Dementia 13 is available for free viewing and download at the Internet Archive Dementia 13 at IMDb Dementia ... Dementia 13 was one of several appearances that she made in AIP productions. Most of these films had been directed by Roger ...
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Caring for someone with dementia is especially challenging due to the fact that dementia patients soon lose the ability to ... These terms are used in reference to all patient populations, not just dementia patients. To communicate with dementia patients ... and can also benefit those caring for people with dementia in this setting. Implementing best practice in dementia care needs a ... People with dementia are more likely to have problems with incontinence: they are three times more likely to have urinary and ...
"What is frontotemporal dementia". Dementia UK. Retrieved 2020-10-19. Finger, EC (April 2016). "Frontotemporal Dementias". ... The main subtypes of frontotemporal dementia are behavioral variant FTD, semantic dementia, progressive nonfluent aphasia, and ... Alcoholic dementia Lewy body dementia Logopenic progressive aphasia Mini-SEA Proteopathy Transportin 1 Vascular dementia Perez ... These are behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia. An overlap between ...
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Dementia' is my way of saying let the past stay in the past. Don't let the 'What ifs' frequent your mind too much. Put that ... "Dementia" is a song by American electronica project Owl City from his second extended play Shooting Star. The song features ... On April 17, 2012, "Dementia" was leaked onto the internet, before the song officially premiered via Alternative Press on May ... Katie Hasty (April 17, 2012). "EXCLUSIVE first listen: Owl City combines with Mark Hoppus for new track Dementia". Uproxx. ...
However, in "subcortical" dementia these high-level behaviours are less affected. In most common types of dementias there is ... Charcot described dementia as a feature in Parkinson's disease. McHugh introduced the concept of subcortical dementia. Mayeux ... Subcortical Dementias - Memory loss and the brain Mayeux, R; Stern, Y (1987). "Subcortical dementia". Archives of Neurology. 44 ... HIV-associated dementia Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Benson, D. Frank (1984). "Subcortical Dementia: Review of an Emerging Concept". ...
"Alzheimer Europe - Dementia - Other forms of dementia - Neurodegenerative diseases - Fronto-Temporal Degeneration - Semantic ... "Alzheimer Europe - Dementia - Other forms of dementia - Neurodegenerative diseases - Fronto-Temporal Degeneration - Semantic ... such as those with semantic dementia (SD), show impaired comprehension of these emotions. Moreover, several dementia patients, ... Semantic dementia generally affects semantic memory, which refers to long-term memory that deals with common knowledge and ...
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... is the first live album by British power metal band DragonForce, released in Japan on 8 September 2010, the ... Twilight Dementia' for September 13th 2010 Release". DragonForce. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 10 ...
Agitation in dementia overlaps with psychomotor agitation but is not always equal to it, depending on whose definition is used ... Agitation is often part of dementia and often precedes the diagnosis of common age-related disorders of cognition such as ... Agitation in predementia and dementia is distressed affect that leads to poor moods and often aggression toward other people, ... James M. Ellison (February 1, 2008). "Agitation in dementia: Update and prospectus". Psychiatric Times. 25 (2). (Articles with ...
... is the seventh studio album by the American heavy metal band Chastain, released in 1997 through Leviathan Records. ... ISBN 978-1-894959-62-9. "Chastain - In Dementia". Encyclopaedia Metallum. Retrieved 2011-11-20. v t e (Articles with short ... "In Dementia" - 5:44 "House of Stone" - 5:43 "Conformity" - 6:35 "Desperately" - 8:44 Kate French - lead and backing vocals, ... In Dementia review". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2011-11-20. Popoff, Martin (August 1, 2007). The Collector's Guide ...
Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers ... research in the field of dementia studies. Its editors-in-chief are Dr. Pamela Roach (University of Calgary) [1]and Dr. ...
Dementia (Spanish: Trastorno) is a 2006 Spanish psychological thriller film directed by Fernando Cámara [es] from a screenplay ...
... has been reported in a single family spanning three generations, with there being nine reported cases ... In most cases, paranoid psychosis occurs after the age of 50, followed by dementia. The majority of patients die in their ... Familial Danish Dementia is an extremely rare, neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cataracts, loss of ... first described Familial Danish Dementia as heredopathia opthalmo-oto-encephalica. It was discovered in 9 members of a Danish ...
... (PDD) is dementia that is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Together with dementia with ... Gomperts SN (April 2016). "Lewy Body Dementias: Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia". Continuum (Minneap ... Parkinson's disease dementia is the diagnosis when Parkinson's disease is well established before the dementia occurs; that is ... "Current concepts and controversies in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies". F1000Res ...
The term "steroid dementia" was coined by Varney et al. (1984) in reference to the effects of long-term glucocorticoid use in ... Dementia-like symptoms have been found in some individuals who have been exposed to glucocorticoid medication, often dispensed ... Steroid dementia syndrome describes the signs and symptoms of hippocampal and prefrontal cortical dysfunction, such as deficits ... His doctors were surprised at the improvement, since the results were inconsistent with a diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer's ...
The use of art in dementia care is a valuable tool in enriching the lives of people with dementia. Being engaged with visual ... Caring for people with dementia The Society for the Arts in Dementia Care "Alzheimer's Society Canada". Retrieved 7 August 2010 ... Oliver James (20 December 2008). "The Guardian, Art - the key to unlocking dementia". "Alzheimer's and Dementia Weekly magazine ... Through the process of creating an image or participating in a song for example, a person with dementia may access long or ...
"Severe Dementia on Facebook". facebook.com. Retrieved 18 January 2019. "Severe Dementia singer Riasat Azmi interview". ... Severe Dementia is a Bangladeshi metal band formed in Dhaka in January 2004. Their initial name was 666. They are considered to ... "Severe Dementia Band Bangladesh Ktmrocks Ides of March Nepal Full Concert". World News. Archived from the original on 27 March ... In February 2007, Severe Dementia signed a deal with Demonstealer Records (India) to release an EP in a split album Rise of the ...
The prevention of dementia involves reducing the number of risk factors for the development of dementia, and is a global health ... Since vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia (after Alzheimer's disease), reducing the risk of ... The effect of alcohol on the risk of dementia is a J curve: high alcohol consumption increases the risk of dementia while low ... Estrogen may also help in the prevention of dementia but cannot help when dementia is already present and when cognitive ...
Test footage for Dementia Dementia at IMDb Dementia at AllMovie Dementia at Rotten Tomatoes (Pages with non-numeric formatnum ... Dementia is a 2014 Filipino horror film directed by Perci Intalan, in his directorial debut. The film stars Nora Aunor as Mara ... "Jun Lana on Dementia star Nora Aunor: "She exceeded our expectations."". PEP. Retrieved January 22, 2014. "Jasmine Curtis-Smith ... In the hopes of helping her aunt Mara (Nora Aunor) better deal with her dementia, Rachel (Jasmine Curtis) moves her out to ...
The Clinical Dementia Rating or CDR is a numeric scale used to quantify the severity of symptoms of dementia (i.e. its 'stage ... "Clinical Dementia Rating Assignment". Utility of the Clinical Dementia Rating in Asian Populations - Lim et al. 5 (1): 61 - ... Thus the CDR is a reliable and valid tool for assessing and staging dementia. With increasing clinical focus on dementia, there ... Without the ability to reliably assess dementia across the board, the misuse of anti-dementia compounds could have negative ...
179-180 Dementia at IMDb Dementia at the TCM Movie Database Dementia is available for free viewing and download at the Internet ... "Dementia (1955)". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020. "Dementia (Daughter of ... ISBN 978-0-140-27525-4. Schultz, Ian (2020). Dementia and the Art of Horror. Dementia (Blu-ray booklet notes). British Film ... Dementia was conceived as a short film by writer-director Parker and was based on a dream relayed to him by his secretary, ...
... (ARD) is a form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, ... Probable alcohol-related dementia A. The criteria for the clinical diagnosis of probable alcohol-related dementia include the ... The onset of alcohol dementia can occur as early as age 30, although it is far more common that the dementia will reveal itself ... "Dementia test". Dementia Test. Retrieved 7 June 2019. David Pingitore-Randy A. Sansone (1998-10-15). "Using DSM-IV Primary Care ...
Alzheimers disease is a brain disease and the most common form of a group of brain diseases called dementias, accounting for ... Other forms of dementia include vascular dementia, mixed dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia. ... Building Our Largest Dementia(BOLD) Infrastructureplus icon *BOLD Public Health Centers of Excellence Recipients ... Recognizing Symptoms of Dementia and Seeking Helpplus icon *10 Warning Signs of Alzheimers ...
People with dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Affects the ability ... HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Who is at risk for dementia?. Certain factors can raise your risk for developing dementia, ... Having close family members who have dementia. What are the symptoms of dementia?. The symptoms of dementia can vary, depending ... For example, some people have both Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia.. Other conditions can cause dementia or dementia- ...
Secondary outcomes included CIND, a composite outcome of dementia or CIND, and a composite of dementia or deaths. ... Dementia or Deaths. 1908. 3.04. 2092. 3.54. 0.86 (0.81 - 0.92). , .0001. Serious Adverse Event. 6201. 9.16. 6329. 9.86. 0.94 ( ... dementia or cognitive impairment, or dementia or deaths. ... All-cause dementia, the primary outcome, was significantly ... Dementia or Cognitive Impairment. 3174. 5.31. 3542. 6.34. 0.84 (0.81 - 0.87). , .0001. ...
... progressive dementia, and psychiatric and/or behavioral disturbance. In 1872, George Huntington, MD, presented a disease ... This dementia pattern resembles such pathologies as HD, Parkinson disease (PD), supranuclear palsy, and dementia of the frontal ... Patients with subcortical dementias (eg, HD, PD, subcortical vascular dementias) have more motor symptoms than those with ... Other conditions associated with dementia. When classifying degenerative dementias, 2 major profiles may be considered. The ...
By category , Global Dementia Observatory (GDO). Dementia legislation. Existence of dementia legislation Also available:. * ... Existence of dementia legislation. Published. 2017. Western Pacific. China. No. Existence of dementia legislation. Published. ... Existence of dementia legislation. Published. 2017. Europe. Czechia. No. Existence of dementia legislation. Published. 2017. ... Existence of dementia legislation. Published. 2017. Europe. Israel. No. Existence of dementia legislation. Published. 2017. ...
Tags dementia, healthy lifestyle Can a Healthy Lifestyle Reduce Your Risk of Dementia Regardless of Your Genes?. A large ... Can a Healthy Lifestyle Reduce Your Risk of Dementia Regardless of Your Genes? - Part II. A new, long term cohort study ... "Globally, about 47 million people were living with dementia in 2015, and this number is projected to triple by Read More , ... suggests that healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk for dementia among people considered at lower and intermediate ...
Although dementia mainly affects older people, it is not a normal part of ageing. The World Health Organization/Alzheimers ... Dementia is a progressive and chronic condition in which there is disturbance of brain functions like memory, thinking, ... Two-thirds of older people with dementia live in low and middle income countries. In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region ... A clearly negative effect of rapid ageing of the population is the increase in the number of people with dementia. ...
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Other common causes include vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and mixed dementia (commonly ... "What is mixed dementia". Dementia UK. Retrieved 2020-12-13. Wilson H, Pagano G, Politis M (March 2019). "Dementia spectrum ... More than one type of dementia, known as mixed dementia, may exist together in about 10% of dementia cases. The most common ... In some types of dementia, such as dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, personality changes and difficulty ...
Are you aware of the latest research in the dementia subtypes? Test yourself with a quick quiz. ... Dementia is currently the seventh leading cause of death worldwide and is a major cause of disability and dependency among ... The term "dementia" refers to several diseases that affect thought, memory, and the ability to perform daily activities. The ... In 2019, dementia expenses cost world economies about $1.3 trillion, with about half of these costs attributable to care ...
... get the latest diagnostic criteria and guidelines for diagnosis of Alzheimers disease and other dementias. ... Dementia Diagnosis. Diagnostic Criteria. The Alzheimers Association and the National Institute on Aging (NIA) jointly issued ... Supporting Research in Health Disparities, Policy and Ethics in Alzheimers Disease and Dementia Research (HPE-ADRD) ... Together, we can achieve our vision of a world without Alzheimers and all other dementia. ...
Rapidly Progressive Dementia Due to Mycobacterium neoaurum Meningoencephalitis On This Page The Case Conclusions Cite This ... CSF detection of the 14-3-3 protein in unselected patients with dementia. Neurology. 2001;56:1528-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Rapidly Progressive Dementia Due to Mycobacterium neoaurum Meningoencephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(5):924- ... Dementia developed in a patient with widespread neurologic manifestations; she died within 5 months. Pathologic findings showed ...
... this article covers 11 myths about dementia, including the role of vitamins and supplements and ways to reduce risk. ... Other types of dementia include frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and Lewy body dementia. ... 4. Dementia only affects older adults. Age is a risk factor for dementia, but dementia can affect younger adults in rare cases ... 6. Dementia signals the end of a meaningful life. Thankfully, this is not the case. Many people with a dementia diagnosis lead ...
Alzheimers disease is the most common type of dementia. Older women, Hispanics, and African Americans are at greatest risk. ... Building Our Largest Dementia(BOLD) Infrastructureplus icon *BOLD Public Health Centers of Excellence Recipients ... Recognizing Symptoms of Dementia and Seeking Helpplus icon *10 Warning Signs of Alzheimers ... You can learn more about Alzheimers disease, other types of dementia, and access resources for caregivers at Alzheimers ...
The truth about dementia is clouded by fear, confusion, and misinformation among health care professionals as well as patients ... 7. Perceptions of Dementia: 2022 AARP Focus Groups and In-Depth Interviews on Dementia and Cognitive Decline (PDF) ... 2021 AARP Survey on the Perceptions Related to a Dementia Diagnosis: Adults Age 40+. Washington, DC: AARP Research, June 2021. ... and perception of how individuals with dementia or cognitive impairment are treated feed many of the stigmas around dementia. ...
Mario F. Mendez answered E! News questions about aphasia and dementia-and what living with this condition means for patients ... Why does an aphasia diagnosis turn into aphasia and dementia?. Dementia simply means a decline in cognition, Mendez said, ... Do head injuries cause aphasia and dementia?. Asked if theres link between head trauma and aphasia, Mendez put it this way: I ... How long might a person have aphasia before developing dementia?. Mendez said two years was the usual arbitrary cutoff for ...
dementia. Subject(s): Dementia. Date of publication: 21 August 2023 Result type. General practice indicator suitable for use in ... dementia. risk:- What are the effects of early HRT use on the risk of dementia. ? Any explanatory... ... Effects of HRT on dementia risk:- What are the effects of early HRT use on the risk of dementia? ... dementia. whose care plan has been reviewed in a face-to-face review in the preceding 12 months Subject(s):... ...
Including real stories from people affected by dementia and the latest on dementia research studies. ... The latest dementia news, blog posts, audio and visual updates from Alzheimers Society. ... Sign up for dementia support by email. Our regular support email includes the latest dementia advice, resources, real stories ... Watch our dementia videos, listen to our dementia podcasts and read our factsheets. All the advice you need with personal ...
He wants us to stop thinking that people with dementia are victims of [...] ... so are the ways we-both family members and professionals-respond to those with dementia. Thats Dr. G. Allen Powers ... Just about everything you think you know about Alzheimers disease and other dementias is wrong. And because the conventional ... Dementia Beyond Disease is his second provocative look at memory loss. In 2010, Dementia Beyond Drugs challenged the overuse of ...
But there are medicines and other treatments that can help with dementia symptoms. ... Dementia cannot be cured and the condition will gradually cause more severe problems. ... Medicines for dementia symptoms are important, but are only one part of the care for a person with dementia. Other treatments, ... Theres evidence that these medicines can also help treat dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons disease dementia, as well ...
... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 1;111(13):4743-4. doi: 10.1073/pnas. ...
Help Jack Stedman raise money to support Race Against Dementia ...
In a sample of nearly 3,000 older adults who took vision tests and cognitive tests during home visits, the risk of dementia was ... Those who had more than one kind of vision impairment were also 35% more likely to have dementia than those with normal vision. ... Minds & eyes: Study shows dementia more common in older adults with vision issues Even when wearing their glasses or contacts, ... It also builds on previous work about cataract surgery that showed lower rates of dementia over time in adults who had had ...
Jackie Dibb was told to enjoy the remainder of her life after being told she had frontal temporal dementia ... She was told to enjoy the remainder of her life after being diagnosed as suffering from frontal temporal dementia and she went ... People advised me to just give her whatever she wanted while she could still enjoy it - but she never even had dementia. ... But a CT scan made neurologists deal her the death sentence dementia blow - which later was discovered to be severe anxiety ...
... and lifestyle changes that can help treat dementia. Lets look at the pros and cons of each. ... Vascular dementia. (n.d).. https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-dementia/types-of-dementia/vascular-dementia. ... Types of dementia. Dementia can have many different causes. Some of the most common types of dementia include:. *Alzheimers ... nonmedication dementia treatment. Certain forms of dementia, such as vascular dementia, may be part of the progression of ...
Wendy Williams diagnosed with dementia, primary progressive aphasia. The talk show host has been receiving treatment after she ...
... but does not increase the risk of dementia, reveals a new study. ... Dementia Dementia has become a very big concern as we have an ... Vascular Dementia Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia. Though it has no cure, you can still learn to ... Dementia has become a very big concern as we have an aging population across the world. Dementia is also terrifying to us ... Were saying that smoking doesnt appear to cause dementia in this population," added Abner.. Advertisement ...
People who rate their health as poor or fair are significantly more likely to develop dementia, a new study finds. ... Pass it on: People who rate their health as poor are at increased risk of dementia, a study says. ... The risk of dementia was 70 percent higher in people who rated their health as poor, and 34 percent higher in people who rated ... People in the study who rated their health as poor or fair were significantly more likely to develop dementia later in life ...

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