Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water Pollution, RadioactiveSwimming PoolsAquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.United StatesRain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Carbonated Water: Water naturally or artificially infused with CARBON DIOXIDE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Water would be diverted from the Gila through perforated pipes in an infiltration gallery, or simply pumped from the river. ... Soussan, Tania (March 15, 2004). "Gila in Demand". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved 1 June 2011. ... Ground water was expected to satisfy local requirements through 2010, and the dam would impact critical habitat for two species ... The project was planned to provide 18,000 acre feet (0.022 km3)/year of water to western New Mexico. Hooker Dam was to be ...
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND; AMMONIA; WASTE WATER; PHOSPHORUS; METALS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; EVALUATION; EXPERIMENTAL DATA. SAMPLE ... Criteria of evaluation were the quantity and quality of the resulting fermented sludge, biogas, and process water. In view of ... Each member country committed to supply the referenced document on demand, whether from its own collections or through ... on biogas production and process water burden. (orig.) Classification Code 10U Biomass energy Terms BIOLOGICAL WASTES; SEWAGE ...
Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (May 4, 2009). "Water Supply and Demand". Retrieved 2009-08-16. Massachusetts Water ... Though a boil-water order was issued for fear that the water would not be safe to drink, following heavy treatment with ... Chestnut Hill Reservoir was taken offline in 1978 as it was no longer needed for regular water supply distribution, but is ... Completion to the Dorchester Tunnel in 1978 allowed the demands of the southern systems to be removed from the Sudbury Aqueduct ...
"Water Demand and Supply". Resource Issues. Pit River Watershed Alliance. Retrieved 2014-04-28. Svoboda, Deborah (2013-09-20). " ... Clawson, Robert F.; Boles, Gerald L. (December 1982). "Pit River Water Quality Study" (PDF). California Department of Water ... "Hat Creek 1 & 2 Power Project: Water Quality Certification for Federal Permit or License" (PDF). California State Water ... and water rights were a contentious issue. Some of these disputes were resolved in court in the 1930s, with water allocations ...
Deep water source cooling. *Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). *Displacement ventilation. *District cooling ...
Deep water source cooling. *Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). *Displacement ventilation. *District cooling ... "Table of Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants: Organic Chemicals". Ground Water and Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. ... In addition to drinking water, VOCs are regulated in pollutant discharges to surface waters (both directly and via sewage ... water, and land. The federal regulations issued under the Safe Drinking Water Act set maximum contaminant level standards for ...
Deep water source cooling. *Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). *Displacement ventilation. *District cooling ... so an intermediate fluid such as chilled water is used instead. The plant circulates cold water to terminal chilled water ... The monoblock type collects the water in a bucket or tray and stops when full. The air-to-air type re-evaporates the water and ... In addition, if water is condensed in the room, the amount of heat previously needed to evaporate that water also is re- ...
Demand control ventilation. *Digital controls. *Balance air & water flows. *Chiller upgrade. Reduced Risk to Future Earnings ... Upgrades to heating, cooling, and hot water systems[edit]. *Upgrade to non-atmospheric vented combustion units that either vent ... Improvement to or replacement of the existing distribution systems for heating, cooling, and/or hot water, including changes to ... Upgrade to units that are correctly sized for the heating and cooling load demands of an altered building ...
... this will allow the demand to be met without using the mechanical supply of cooling (typically chilled water or a direct ... Demand controlled kitchen ventilation[edit]. Main article: Demand controlled ventilation. Demand controlled kitchen ventilation ... Water/steam[edit]. In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat to the rooms. Most modern hot ... The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known as hydronics. The heated water can also supply an auxiliary heat ...
Deep water source cooling. *Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). *Displacement ventilation. *District cooling ... Water vapor commonly condenses on surfaces cooler than the moisture-laden air, enabling mold to flourish.[8] This moisture ... After water damage to a building, mold grows in walls and then becomes dormant until subsequent high humidity; suitable ... Mold is detectable by smell and signs of water damage on walls or ceiling and can grow in places invisible to the human eye. It ...
Deep water source cooling. *Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV). *Displacement ventilation. *District cooling ... The shallow-water equations can be used to describe a layer of relatively inviscid fluid with a free surface, in which surface ... Isaac Newton showed that for many familiar fluids such as water and air, the stress due to these viscous forces is linearly ... While many flows (e.g. flow of water through a pipe) occur at low Mach numbers, many flows of practical interest in ...
"Okinawans Demand Ouster of General". The New York Times. New York City. The New York Times Company. 8 March 1963. p. 4. ... A severe drought the same year forced Caraway to begin rationing water when reserves fell before 40 percent of capacity. He ... Associated Press (8 June 1963). "U.S. Army to Ration Water on Okinawa". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Lewiston, Idaho. p. 8. ...
Myra Lu (1 September 2000). "Water demand vs. environmental protection". Taiwan Info. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of ... On August 27, 2000, flooding damaged a bridge across the Gaoping River causing 16 vehicles to fall into the water, injuring 22 ... However, the river is used extensively for irrigation on the Pingtung plain and its tributaries supply water for domestic and ... The Qishan River tributary is diverted to fill Nanhua Reservoir, which provides nearly 90% of the water supply for Kaohsiung ...
"What is Demand Response (DR)?". YouTube. 2015-05-14. Retrieved 2015-06-17. "Los Angeles Department of Water and Power". YouTube ... "What is Demand Response(DR)?". Part of a 6 video series, LA Smart Grid, released by the Los Angeles Department of Water and ... 2014 Y. Wang, O. Sheikh, B. Hu, C. Chu, R. Gadh, "Integration of V2H/V2G Hybrid System for Demand Response in Distribution ... The Smart Grid Living Lab At UCLA, And Its Automated Demand Response Program, 4 May 2016 Lighting The Way: Getting Smart About ...
In order to overcome the water crisis, the Jordanian Water Strategy focuses on demand management and an increase in water ... Improvement of water quality, e.g. water treatment Domestic water supply: Water loss reduction Introduction of water saving ... Water-Strategy09.pdf, p. 2-1 MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan) (2009): Water for Life. Jordan's Water Strategy ... Water demand distinctly exceeds supply. Almost two thirds (64%) of the water is supplied for irrigation, while municipal use ...
It is usually cooked like a porridge with water and milk. Brenntar and Musmehl are closely related to the Tibetan staple food ... Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-8448-4071-1. Musmehl in der Slowfood-Arche Peter Pukownik: L'approche thérapeutique au quotidien ... Originally the Musmehl was cooked in water only, spiced with salt. Today, there are different recipes for Habermus, for example ...
ISBN 978-1-4039-2173-4. ISBN 1-4039-2173-3. Beckford, Martin (March 9, 2009). "Harriet Harman under attack over bid to water ... "Communist Party Draft Programme: 3. Immediate demands". Weekly Worker. Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central ... lists abolition of age of consent laws among its immediate demands, with the added provision that there be alternate legal ...
The Communist Party of Great Britain lists abolition of age of consent laws among its immediate demands, with the added ... "Harriet Harman under attack over bid to water down child pornography law". The Daily Telegraph. London. "Communist Party Draft ... Programme: 3. Immediate demands". Weekly Worker. Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee). Archived ...
Heating demand in the winter and cooling demand (air conditioners) in the summer are what primarily drive the seasonal peaks in ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) "Dubai Electricity & Water Authority - tariff". Retrieved June 18, 2017. "WATER & ELECTRICITY ... "Ministry of Water and electricity". BERC, MoW&E. 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2017. "The Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission" ( ... all affect the amount of water that can flow through a dam at any given time. Forecasting these variables predicts the ...
They demand a high water quality. The ideal temperature is 25-30 °C (77-86 °F), and the pH range is between 6.0 - 7.4 but ... It is a benthic fresh water fish that lives in Rio Xingu in the Amazon system. It reaches a length of 22.4 centimetres (8.8 in ...
"Demand to retain Bhadrachalam in Telangana". The Hindu. 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved ... The boat makes five circular rounds in the water, and nearly 26 people accompany the icons in the procession. On the day of ... She dissolved the anthill using the water from the Godavari River. With the help of the villagers, Dhammakka constructed a ... Sridhar, P. (13 December 2011). "When Bhadrachalam was under a sheet of water". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 9 ...
Several different technological methods are available for the purpose of carbon capture as demanded by the clean coal concept: ... Biochar Carbon capture and storage Carbon sequestration Coal phase out Coal-water slurry fuel Energy development Fluidized bed ... "U.S. Coal Supply and Demand". Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 2009-01-18. "Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and ... "AWWA warns Congress about CO2 injection concerns". American Water Works Association. July 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27. [ ...
"30,000 farmers demand Hirakud dam water". India Environment Portal. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2012. The Pioneer ... It is said that the demand of a separate state is more than three decades old.[who?] The demand was raised by many politicians ... "Strike over Kosal demand-2013". Sudhir Mishra. 11 August 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2015. "Strike over Kosal demand-2013". IBN ... We are demanding a separate State as per the provisions of Article 2 and 3 of the Constitution. The only solution to the ...
"Namibian Minority Groups Demand Their Rights". newsodrome.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2012-04-06 ... Olushandja Dam dams a tributary of the river, the Etaka, and helps provide the Ruacana Power Station with water. The Namibian ... International Waters in Southern Africa. United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-1077-4. Google eBook Nakayama, Mikiyasu ( ... Tourists frequent campsites or lodges in Epupa which offer water sports on the river including rafting and canoeing. There are ...
"MWRA Water System Demand, 1985-2009". Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. Retrieved August 9, 2016. "Designated Rivers: ... but in 1986 the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority instead undertook a campaign of water conservation. Demand was reduced ... Demand for drinking water in eastern Massachusetts passed the sustainable supply from the existing system in 1969. Diverting ... The Water Quality Act of 1965 had a major impact on controlling water pollution in the Connecticut River and its tributaries. ...
Lee, Terence R. (1969). Residential water demand and economic development. University of Toronto Press. p. 66. "CAB's first ... As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. Kalyani is located over the " ...
Tilling may destroy crucial physical characteristics of a soil such as water suction, its ability to send moisture upwards, ... one that demands no human-supplied inputs and mimics nature.[6] ... Fukuoka claimed that his approach prevents water pollution, ...
... industrial water, agricultural drainage, and seawater); water and land management technologies; and remote sensing and modeling ... Wale, Michael (29 July 2015). "UK farming addresses global meat demand". Raconteur. Retrieved 2016-04-04. Banerjee, Thirtho (19 ... The Center conducts research on a variety of food crops which hold promise of being resilient, salt tolerant and water ... It now focusses its work on water-scarce countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) including Gulf Cooperation ...
State and local water users, managers and regulators are increasingly demanding the types and quality of data needed to develop ... the deeper the water table, the more energy it takes to pump water), climate, and how the water is managed. Third, it is ... Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer: Usable water in the High Plains aquifer is in the pore spaces between particles of ... Water volumes and use are measured in various ways. One measure is an acre-foot, or the amount of water necessary to cover an ...
Assessment of waste water treatment efficiency is done for Dashen Brewery and Gondar Edible Oil Factory waste water treatment ... plant whose main objective is reduction of: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) / Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), grease and oil ... The concentration of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was on the average ranged from 50 to 832.08 mg/l. The amount of total ... from 21.98 to 25.51 0C and from 7.20 to 7.66 to the Dashen brewery.The concentration of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) ...
Environmental Protection Agency order new tests of water in D.C. public schools, saying they dont trust local officials ... assurances that some unusually high lead levels detected in school water in recent... ... A group of Washington area parents and environmentalists has formally demanded that the U.S. ... Parents Demand New Tests of School Water. Letter to EPA Airs Distrust Over Earlier Methodology, Official Assurances About ...
Water. Its the commodity that nobody can live without. More than half the world is depleting its groundwater faster than its ... Also tied to the demand for water is the rise in demand for agricultural commodities, as the worlds demand for food grows. ... Some other names in water include Flowserve, Lindsay, Mueller Water Products, Pentair, Watts Water Technologies, and Valmont ... ETFs would include PowerShares Water Resources, PowerShares Global Water Portfolio and Claymore S&P Global Water. ...
Keyphrases: demand, integer programming, leakage, Optimization, water networks, water resource planning. In: Goffredo La Loggia ... This model is being developed for application in UK water utilities for demand side water resource planning to aid results ... Effective water resource planning is an important part of long term strategy for any water company. A good water resource plan ... Optimising Demand Reduction in Water Utilities. 10 pages•Published: September 20, 2018. Isaac Hamling, William Bloomfield, Kar ...
... demanding the authorities provide their village with clean water and electricity. ... demanding the authorities provide their village with clean water and electricity, RFE/RLs Kyrgyz Service reports.. RFE/RLs ...
Projected change in the crop water deficit for grain maize during the growing period ... Trend in crop water deficit for grain maize during the growing period ... The water demand by crops must be met through rainfall during the growing period, soil water storage or irrigation. In drought- ... The crop water deficit is the difference between the crop-specific water requirement (in this case grain maize) and the water ...
He also likens water to soup, in that it contains a variety of different ingredients. ... Films on Demand]. [Infobase,; INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications (Firm);] -- Explorer and environmentalist Jean-Michel ... Cousteau talks about water quality, noting that it is a relative term. ... Water Quality : [eVideo - Films on Demand]. Author:. Infobase,; INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications (Firm). ...
The major causes are awareness regarding the contamination of water and poverty, but less attention has been paid to the former ... We use a household survey from Hyderabad city and estimate the contribution of awareness and income on households water ... heads and their exposure to mass media have statistically significant effects on home purification methods for drinking water, ... The demand for environmental goods is often low in developing countries. ...
The activists warn local communities of the dangerous chemical poisons lurking in their water. ... Greenpeace Water Patrol activists, wearing protective suits, collect samples of sediments from Samrong canal, which is located ... Greenpeace Water Patrol activists, wearing protective suits, collect samples of sediments from Samrong canal, which is located ... The activists warn local communities of the dangerous chemical poisons lurking in their water. ...
Get the latest water biological oxygen demand news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry ... water biological oxygen demand News. Related terms for "water biological oxygen demand ": oxygen demand news , biological ... Online BOD Analysis in Waste Water Treatment Plants The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reflects the demand of oxygen that is ... Online BOD Analysis in Waste Water Treatment Plants The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) reflects the demand of oxygen that is ...
North Koreas Demands Throw Cold Water on Denuclearization Talks State Department maintains U.S. presented creative ideas and ...
It take water for the corn or biomass of choice, then water for the production in heat exchangers, fermenters, etc, and then ... And the state Water Office has proposed to the Legislature spending $5 million to retire water rights along the Arkansas River ... One acre-foot of water is 325,851 gallons, or the amount it would take to cover an acre of land with one foot of water. ... "If you are going to make money, you are going to use water," Bossert said. "If you want to make less money, use less water. ...
Marchers demand ban on fluoride in water. Source: Irish Times , June 15th, 2001 , by Laura Slattery Location: Ireland ... A group concerned with the effects of fluoride in water has demanded the Government stop fluoridation immediately. ... "People are spending a lot of money buying bottled water to avoid this. They have justified fears about tap water but the ... The Fluoride Free Water group marched to the Department of Health this afternoon and called on the Minister Mr Martin, to carry ...
... s water demands far exceed the supply but a plan to pipe in water from another region should be replaced with better planning ... First, UConns management of its water system and calculation of demands have been anything but transparent. UConn created the ... More water was needed.. But would Malloy have approved had UConn officials not effectively concealed the problem? A massive ... It is not too late to stop UConn from chug-a-lugging other communities water and to look at the larger regional picture, with ...
PolySeed and other leading brands for water and wastewater. Compare and contact a supplier near you ... Results for biological oxygen demand (bod) monitoring equipment from MANTECH, VELP, ... MANTECH PC-BOD™ - Biochemical Oxygen Demand Analysis System. MANTECH has a variety of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) systems ... MANTECH - Model Manual BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand Analysis System. MANTECH has a variety of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD ...
Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 01/29/2016 -- Albany, New York, September 08, 2015: The surging demand for process water from water- ... Membrane Chemicals Market Boost by Demand for Process Water. Detailed profiles of the providers are also included in the scope ... rising demand for effective solutions that will control membrane scaling and fouling and increasing demand for process water ... Veolia Water, Nalco, King Lee Technologies, Kemira, H2O Innovation Inc., and BWA Water Additives.. Request a Free Sample Copy ...
... By Cathi Douglas , Orange County Register ... In setting rates, water agencies must consider three areas of specific costs to meet consumer demand, explains Kelly J. Salt, a ... System capacity: What is the agencys ability to supply water to all consumers at the time it is demanded? Districts must ... "People think water is simple because we make it look easy, but a water system is complicated and no two are alike," says Ric ...
The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study, the first of its kind, also includes a wide array of adaptation and ... One acre-foot of water is approximately the amount of water used by a single household in a year. The study projects that the ... that projects water supply and demand imbalances throughout the Colorado River Basin and adjacent areas over the next 50 years ... IMHO there will be a much larger need to work on sources of water without dependence on the Colorado river. I read this last ...
Moderate Water Demand Perennials Groundcovers and Vines will help you to select drought-tolerant species for your landscaping ... Low Water Demand Annuals and Bulbs Low Water Demand Deciduous Shrubs Low Water Demand Deciduous Trees Low Water Demand Grasses ... Moderate Water Demand Deciduous Shrubs Moderate Water Demand Deciduous Trees Moderate Water Demand Grasses Moderate Water ... Moderate Water Demand Perennials Groundcovers and Vines. The City of Arvada Plant List - Moderate Water Demand Perennials ...
The Global Drinking Water Treatment Facility Consumption 2016 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on ... the current state of the Drinking Water Treatment Facility market. The report provides major statistics on the state of the ... Global Drinking Water Treatment Facility Market 2016- Industry Analysis, Demand, Research & Consumption. QYResearch Group added ... 2016 global Drinking Water Treatment Facility Production, Supply, Sales, and Demand {market analysis,marketing research, ...
It heats water only when its needed and features ... 87,500 BTU Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater is designed to ... supply continuous hot water for up to 2 bathrooms at the same time. ... Deluxe on Demand 4.4 GPM 85,000 BTU Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater. Ultra HE on Demand 4.4 GPM 70,000 BTU Natural Gas ... Deluxe on Demand 4.4 GPM 85,000 BTU Propane Gas Tankless Water Heater is rated 4.2 out of 5 by 16. ...
Clean Water Sources, Sanitation Districts, Land and Water Use, Water Quality, Sustainable Water Policy, Marins Watersheds ... Sustainable Water Supply and Demand within Marin County, ... 1. Clean Water Sources. 1.1. Grey Water Reuse. 1.2. Water ... Water Rights and Principals. 5.3.1. Dont import water from distant watersheds. MMWD should share water with NMWD; not ... Water Treatment. 5. Sustainable Water Policy. 5.1. Reinforce Current Practices. 5.1.1. Manage waste water infrastructure to ...
Demand for Water Treatment in Developing Countries Spurring Growth Opportunities in the Global RO Membrane Market. ... The growth of the market is mainly driven by the increasing global demand for cheap and efficient water treatment solutions. In ... The water is pushed under pressure through the membrane, which allows the passage of water molecules but prevents the dissolved ... and depends on the salt concentration of the feed water. The semi-permeable membrane used for the process is primarily made up ...
Download Biochemical Oxygen Demand - Industrial Waste Water Management 0 A lot has been written and said about the subject of ... www.cheresources.com/invision/blog/4/entry-142-biochemical-oxygen-demand-bod-industrial-waste-water-management/ ...
  • Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan ," Development Economics Working Papers 22203, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research. (repec.org)
  • Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan ," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:30, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. (repec.org)
  • At the initiation of Barlow's global water advocacy organization, the Blue Planet Project ,and Detroit groups three UN experts including Catarina de Albuquerque, Special Rapporteur on the Human Right to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation, warned that the mass water shut-offs were a violation of human rights . (commondreams.org)
  • The Supreme Court constituted the commission to probe into failures of authorities to solve water and sanitation issues in Sindh. (com.pk)
  • We need to build behaviour change if we are to build sustainable water access and sanitation projects. (un.org)
  • Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations for South Africa, Mahlatsi Mminele, who collected the award on behalf of DWS/WESSA , also spoke about the importance of recognition for upscaling water and sanitation projects. (un.org)
  • Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are essential to health service delivery and improving quality of care. (un.org)
  • Results show 38% of health care facilities lack an improved water source, 19% lack improved sanitation, and 35% lack soap for hand washing. (un.org)
  • In this context, the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) and UN Women revealed that women and girls in Central and West Africa lack access to clean water, private spaces for managing their menstruation, and clean, functioning toilet facilities. (un.org)
  • iDE, PSI, and Water for People are three such organization who met in Patna, India in June 2015 under the Building Demand for Sanitation Knowledge Management (BDSKM) program to discuss their experiences and to develop a joint understanding of the process. (waterforpeople.org)
  • With your generous support, thousands of people in developing countries will gain access to safe water and improved sanitation - giving them hope for a better future. (waterforpeople.org)
  • The main stakeholders in water management in MRSP are the state government, the state water and sanitation utility Sabesp and 39 municipal governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other Brazilian states at the time, a state water supply and sanitation company was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company, Sabesp, took over the responsibility for water supply and sanitation from most municipalities in the metropolitan area and in the rest of the state. (wikipedia.org)
  • inproceedings{HIC2018:Optimising_Demand_Reduction_in, author = {Isaac Hamling and William Bloomfield and Kar Yee Dearing and Tim Watson}, title = {Optimising Demand Reduction in Water Utilities}, booktitle = {HIC 2018. (easychair.org)
  • A good water resource plan will ensure a long-term balance between supply and demand. (easychair.org)
  • Through a loophole, UConn is exempt from these laws, which require actual transparency, stewardship of watersheds, accurate projections of supply and demand, and public accountability. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar today announced the release of a study - authorized by Congress and jointly funded and prepared by the Bureau of Reclamation and the seven Colorado River Basin states - that projects water supply and demand imbalances throughout the Colorado River Basin and adjacent areas over the next 50 years. (desertusa.com)
  • The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study, the first of its kind, also includes a wide array of adaptation and mitigation strategies proposed by stakeholders and the public to address the projected imbalances. (desertusa.com)
  • The average imbalance in future supply and demand is projected to be greater than 3.2 million acre-feet by 2060, according to the study. (desertusa.com)
  • This project tests how vein density and stomatal densitiy are coordinated to maintain a balance between water supply and demand in plants grown under different conditions. (edu.au)
  • To facilitate strategic planning and investment, the State of Washington requires a long-term water supply and demand forecast (the Forecast) every five years. (witpress.com)
  • An interdisciplinary WSU research team integrated three biophysical models with an agricultural economics model to conduct a system-wide assessment of how future environmental and economic conditions are likely to change water supply and demand by 2030. (witpress.com)
  • They argued that WASA and the EPA knew such flushing would reduce lead levels, saying that during the city's lead crisis, both agencies urged residents to run the tap for 10 minutes before consuming the water. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Print-Friendly Copy of Report Press Release: Fluoride in Water Worsens U.S. Lead Crisis Introduction Over the past few weeks, the nation has watched in horror at the lead poisoning crisis unfolding in Flint, Michigan. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Flint water crisis started when Snyder took local control away from Flint's leaders and put the city under financial management. (foodandwaterwatch.org)
  • The timeline of events leading to the Flint water crisis shows that the Snyder administration knew more about the crisis than it initially disclosed to the public. (foodandwaterwatch.org)
  • China is facing a water resources crisis with growing concerns as to the reliable supply of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • If leaders are to take steps before a crisis hits, they will need better and more sophisticated water data. (wri.org)
  • However, due to unequal distribution (exacerbated by climate change ) resulting in some very wet and some very dry geographic locations, plus a sharp rise in global freshwater demand in recent decades driven by industry, humanity is facing a water crisis . (wikipedia.org)
  • California water officials have always insisted public safety was their only concern as they struggled with the crisis unfolding last February at Oroville Dam. (watereducation.org)
  • Flexibility and intensity of global water use, Nature Sustainability (2019). (phys.org)
  • Thus, the BOD, also called biological oxygen demand, is an important indicator for the assessment of the pollution of water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • One way to clean-up water pollution is to award 'credits' to facilities that reduce their emissions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A high standard of living involves a high demand for water and, at the same time, causes much greater pollution of this essential element for life. (envirotech-online.com)
  • The irony of this is that people who are concerned about environmental toxins in their systems are only helping to perpetuate the pollution and enviromental degradation by buying bottled water, the production of which just makes everything worse off in the long run. (wisebread.com)
  • Climate change , such as altered weather-patterns (including droughts or floods ), deforestation , increased pollution , green house gases, and wasteful use of water can cause insufficient supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escalating its fight with California, the Trump administration accused the state Thursday of failing to stop water pollution from such sources as human waste left on the pavement by the homeless in big cities such as San Francisco and Los Angeles. (washingtontimes.com)
  • It referred to a 2014 study for the American Society of Civil Engineers that listed homeless encampments among numerous points of origin for fecal bacteria water pollution in some locations, along with portable toilets, pets and wildlife. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In drought-prone areas, increasing demands for water by industrial and urban users intensify the competition for irrigation water, and managing this requires an integrated approach. (europa.eu)
  • The issue is made even more difficult because of the current seven-year drought and because some areas of the aquifer are nearly depleted while others have enough water for generations of irrigation. (ljworld.com)
  • This is even truer in light of current events: California's historic drought, recent legislation regulating rate-setting, increasing conservation measures and the need to remain solvent while preparing for future water demands. (ocregister.com)
  • For example, water may be more expensive during a drought or if increased treatment is required. (ocregister.com)
  • Reduced water use during the drought - meaning lower revenues for districts - further complicated the issue. (ocregister.com)
  • The City of Arvada Plant List - Moderate Water Demand Perennials Groundcovers and Vines will help you to select drought-tolerant species for your landscaping projects. (arvada.org)
  • The main findings indicate that, among the economic policy tools, a smooth increase of water tariffs was not effective, while a drought surcharge led to a significant reduction in residential water demand. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Add global warming and increasing drought periods to the mix, and providing clean water to everyone can be quite challenging.Until now, most communities have chosen. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Plants can adapt to extreme shifts in water availability, such as drought and flooding, but their ability to withstand these extreme patterns will be tested by future climate change, according to a study by US Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists and their cooperators. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This suggests that plant water demand fluctuated in accordance with water availability and that there is a cross-community capacity for tolerating low precipitation and responding to high precipitation during periods of warm drought. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In this drought, we must preserve Texas water for drinking, agriculture and future generations - not for an unnecessary coal plant," said Whitney Root with Texans Against Tenaska. (sweetwaterreporter.com)
  • The survey data represents demands in periods prior to, during and after the millennium drought of 2001-2005 by discontinuously spanning 25 years from 1985 to 2010. (iwaponline.com)
  • Forty states told the Government Accountability Office in a 2014 report Exit that they expected to have water shortages over the next ten years that were not related to drought. (epa.gov)
  • Australia, which suffered a severe 15-year "Millennium Drought" starting in the 1990s, for example, rapidly implemented demand-reduction measures that more than halved per-capita residential water use. (wri.org)
  • Many U.S. farmers have been hit hard by drought conditions the past few years, but a new subsurface water retention technology may be able to help farms thrive even in dry years. (treehugger.com)
  • A nearby water district sued in 2010, saying that the state did not study the bank's potential effects on its neighbors, including causing wells to run dry or groundwater levels to drop in drought years. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Their position was that the state had shorted rural areas in allotting water in a previous drought. (washingtontimes.com)
  • A high-output desalination plant was urgently needed to solve an acute potable water shortage on the parched southeast coast of Africa. (environmental-expert.com)
  • As part of the Marines' relocation, the military is looking to provide on average 1.2 million gallons of potable water per day to support the increase in personnel, facilities and operations. (kuam.com)
  • Water retention membranes reduce quantities of supplemental irrigation, protect potable groundwater supplies, and enable more efficient use and control of fertilizers and pesticides. (treehugger.com)
  • At present, potable (drinkable) water is used for practically everything in the house and garden. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • For example, the arid West has some of the highest per capita residential water use because of landscape irrigation. (epa.gov)
  • Many of the states that have projected population growth increases also have higher per capita water use and can expect increased competition for water resources. (epa.gov)
  • Per capita availability of water in Pakistan has been down to almost 1,000 cubic meters from more than 5,000 cubic meters in 1947. (com.pk)
  • Despite this, Australians are the greatest per capita consumers of water, using an average of 100,000L of freshwater per person each year. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • Australia is the driest populated continent on earth, and yet Australians are the greatest per capita consumers of water in the world. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • Also tied to the demand for water is the rise in demand for agricultural commodities, as the world's demand for food grows. (cnbc.com)
  • Nearly one-fifth of the world's population lives in a stressed water basin where the next climate change-driven incident could threaten access to an essential resource for agriculture, industry and life itself, according to a paper by University of California, Irvine researchers and others, published today in Nature Sustainability . (phys.org)
  • While there is no way to predict exactly what the world's water resources will look like in the future, World Resources Institute has mapped future water-risk scenarios based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's projections for climate change and socioeconomic development. (wri.org)
  • By examining the productivity and flexibility of water use in specific basins, the scientists also identified many opportunities to conserve water and build resiliency in the face of predicted risks posed by climate change. (phys.org)
  • The CRB, like many watersheds around the world, is experiencing increased pressure on water resources and ecosystems, due to population growth, threatened and endangered species, economic development, and climate change. (witpress.com)
  • Demand for water is set to outstrip supply in Yorkshire by the mid-2030s unless urgent action is taken, with climate change meaning the North's water can no longer be taken for granted, a think-tank has warned today. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • Droughts happen somewhere in the country every year and climate change has the potential to increase stress on water resources. (epa.gov)
  • Climate change and growing demand will likely magnify those extremes. (wri.org)
  • Mehran University Vice Chancellor Aslam Uqaili said prevailing water shortage and climate change increases responsibility of effective management of water resources and heightens the need of preparation to deal with extreme weather events. (com.pk)
  • New analysis from Frost & Sullivan (http://www.environmental.frost.com), Asia-Pacific Mobile Water Treatment Market, finds that the market earned revenues of $48.2 million in 2011 and is expected to reach $298.3 million by 2017. (waterworld.com)
  • We're not even a month in and 2017 is already looking like an opportunity-filled year for the water industry. (environmentalleader.com)
  • To support their neighbours across the border, the Windsor chapter of the Council of Canadians will send a convoy of 1000 litres of water to Detroit with a message for President Obama. (commondreams.org)
  • On average, we each use between 130 and 150 litres of water each day but this could be cut significantly by adopting simple water saving techniques. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • ETFs would include PowerShares Water Resources, PowerShares Global Water Portfolio and Claymore S&P Global Water. (cnbc.com)
  • Assessing the impact of temperature and precipitation on water resources is important. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This study analyzed spatiotemporal variations and impacts of temperature and precipitation on water resources in Beijing from 1956 to 2013, using statistical and spatial analysis. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Moreover, this water could be reused another five or more cycles, saving power plants money and natural resources. (naturalnews.com)
  • Some nations are gaining land by buying up property and accompanying water resources in other, generally less wealthy countries. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sometimes called "land grabbing," this practice can put strains on land and water resources in impoverished countries where the land, and needed water, has been "grabbed" for commercial-scale agriculture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By losing control of part of their land and water, in many cases local people are giving up to wealthier nations their most precious natural resources resources that could be used now or in the future to enhance their own food security," D'Odorico said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There is also the need for institutions that can make sure that locals are involved in decisions about the reallocation of rights on land and water resources. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Western Waters Digital Library (WWDL) provides free public access to digital collections of significant primary and secondary resources on water in the western United States. (westernwaters.org)
  • It adds: "To date, conversations about the future of the region and its economy have largely taken the North's water resources for granted. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • They may also consume such large quantities of oxygen that water resources become fouled. (envirotech-online.com)
  • This benefits companies by reducing the cost of water and conserving water resources, which all organizations require in their daily operations. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Adjusts to lifestyle and changing water usage to minimize resources while monitoring and recording system performance including days and gallons used since last regeneration, normal water flow rates, peak flow rates and more. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • It can also help to conserve water resources and reduce environmental impacts beyond the home. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • The Department of Water Resources never looked at the ecological effects of running the Kern Water Bank when the state transferred the bank to private hands in 1997, Judge Timothy Frawley ruled. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The Department of Water Resources did not immediately respond to an email seeking comment. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Major water users in agricultural Kern County gained control of the Kern bank in the mid-1990s, after a round of negotiations with the state Department of Water Resources . (washingtontimes.com)
  • The forensic team investigating what happened at Lake Oroville, however, has pinpointed another factor guiding the decisions made by the Department of Water Resources: the state's desire to continue shipping water to faraway farms and cities that rely on deliveries from the reservoir. (watereducation.org)
  • Some local residents have expressed concerns that the quick turnover could result in faults or design flaws, but an official with the Department of Water Resources said if any crew can accomplish the feat, it would be Kiewit Infrastructure West Co. (watereducation.org)
  • The previously secret state Department of Water Resources memorandum explaining the hairline cracks in the Oroville Dam spillway is now public. (watereducation.org)
  • In natural resources management and environmental policy more generally, demand management refers to policies to control consumer demand for environmentally sensitive or harmful goods such as water and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the environmental context demand management is increasingly taken seriously to reduce the economy's throughput of scarce resources for which market pricing does not reflect true costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demand management in economics focuses on the optimal allocation resources to affect social welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has drawn up two master plans for the management of water resources in the basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • One year later, the state parliament passed a State Water Resources Law, the first of its kind in Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also companies that manage waste water treatment and make desalinization plants. (cnbc.com)
  • Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is to design and commission a biological waste water treatment plant at 120m3/d to treat all effluents of a new veterinary manufacturing site in Jiangxi province. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Körting waste water aeration ejectors have been handling the toughest of challenges placed on industrial and municipal waste water treatment for a long time now. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Demands for an efficient and reliable oxygen transfer system during biological treatment stages make the technology from Hanover sought-after worldwide and the number one choice of plant operators. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Using BioMonitor, operators can control their waste water treatment plant in an optimal way. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The publication is compiled to gift Associate in Nursing executive level blueprint of the market, that enumerates the factors impacting the Drinking Water Treatment Facility market dynamics well. (sbwire.com)
  • Report conjointly includes key players in world Drinking Water Treatment Facility market. (sbwire.com)
  • The Drinking Water Treatment Facility market size is calculable in terms of revenue (US$) and production volume during this report. (sbwire.com)
  • research} Report may be a skilled and in-depth research report on Drinking Water Treatment Facility. (sbwire.com)
  • This report covers each aspect of the worldwide marketplace for Drinking Water Treatment Facility, ranging from the fundamental market data and advancing additional to numerous important criteria, supported that, the Drinking Water Treatment Facility market is segmental. (sbwire.com)
  • Key application areas of Drinking Water Treatment Facility are assessed on the idea of their performance. (sbwire.com)
  • The growth of the market is mainly driven by the increasing global demand for cheap and efficient water treatment solutions. (pitchengine.com)
  • This puts a strain on current infrastructure, including water treatment plants. (environmental-expert.com)
  • An emergency manager appointed by Snyder five years ago made the disastrous decision to switch Flint's water supply to a polluted river without proper treatment, leading to bacterial and lead contamination that will leave a lasting legacy to Flint's people, particularly its children. (foodandwaterwatch.org)
  • This, coupled with demand for high quality water from water-intensive industries, makes a robust case for mobile water treatment in the region. (waterworld.com)
  • As the costs of addressing the water needs are high, mobile water treatment systems are fast emerging as the most viable option in countries with budgetary constraints. (waterworld.com)
  • Stringent legislation can compel industries to adopt mobile water treatment systems to comply with regulations, as this would be a better option than heavy investments in treatment facilities. (waterworld.com)
  • The market for mobile water treatment systems is being spearheaded by companies that provide the best form of technology at the most reasonable price," noted Kay. (waterworld.com)
  • Communities across the country are starting to face challenges regarding water supply and a need to update aging water treatment and delivery systems, sometimes referred to as "water infrastructure. (epa.gov)
  • PNR ) to develop new surface materials for water treatment, according to a press release . (xconomy.com)
  • Water treatment specialists are primarily responsible for supervising or performing the installation and operation of water purification equipment, as well as dealing with water storage and distribution operations and activities. (goarmy.com)
  • Job training for a water treatment specialist requires 10 weeks of Basic Combat Training and 14 weeks of Advanced Individual Training with on-the-job instructions. (goarmy.com)
  • Water Treatment System Uses Salt and Electricity to Provide Clean D. (treehugger.com)
  • Our systems are built to meet the most demanding applications in water treatment-- from drinking water for homes, health care facilities, research labs to scale free water for factories. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • A typical strategy is to use rainwater for the garden and some indoor uses such as toilet flushing, clothes washing and even showering, while sourcing drinking water (which requires the highest level of treatment) from a mains water supply. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • The most cost-effective way of decoupling water use from economic growth, according to the scientific panel, is for governments to create holistic water management plans that take into account the entire water cycle: from source to distribution, economic use, treatment , recycling , reuse and return to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michael Carlin, deputy general manager of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, says the city uses a combined sewer system that takes raw sewage and storm water to treatment plants before being discharged into the bay. (washingtontimes.com)
  • These inflated estimates of future water needs can result in unneeded water supply and treatment infrastructure, higher costs to ratepayers, and unnecessary environmental impacts. (cawaterlibrary.net)
  • Can a more appropriate regional site be found, where water is plentiful and infrastructure is in place, and where a technology park might have a strong synergistic effect with less disruption to the environment? (baltimoresun.com)
  • Those costs don't just include the cost of buying or producing water, but also the cost of building the infrastructure to deliver it, as well as the staff to maintain it and plan for the future. (ocregister.com)
  • Ontario has announced that 78 communities will be receiving support for a variety of projects, including replacement and rehabilitation of water systems, through the Community Infrastructure Fund. (watercanada.net)
  • A growing number of public-private are working to improve water infrastructure in the US. (environmentalleader.com)
  • As corporations and water utilities strive to reduce operating costs and fix aging infrastructure, smart water technologies present an effective, and affordable, solution. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Smart water loss and leak detection technology company Gutermann helping Miami-Dade County, Florida, keep its non-revenue water to less than 10 percent as its implements a $13.5 billion capital improvement upgrade to the county's water and sewer infrastructure. (environmentalleader.com)
  • To help make these decisions, water utilities often rely on forecasts that project water use 20 or 30 years into the future, consistent with the amount of time it takes to develop new supply infrastructure, such as desalination plants or reservoirs. (cawaterlibrary.net)
  • A group of Washington area parents and environmentalists has formally demanded that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency order new tests of water in D.C. public schools, saying they don't trust local officials' assurances that some unusually high lead levels detected in school water in recent months were 'isolated' findings. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The demand for environmental goods is often low in developing countries. (repec.org)
  • The article found, further, that nobody at UConn was in charge of environmental matters, and warned that UConn's growth could easily outpace the local water supply. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A massive transfer of water from one region to another far exceeds the narrow parameters of the environmental evaluation. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Beyond the estimated $51 million cost of the pipeline, the environmental costs of a substantial inter-basin transfer of water are of special concern with droughts and other extreme weather becoming commonplace. (baltimoresun.com)
  • UConn could show true environmental leadership by living sustainably within its water budget and reining in its growth. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Under the agreement, the environmental community and the U.S. and Mexican governments are each contributing 5,000 acre feet of water per year to send to the delta. (desertusa.com)
  • Over less than a decade, the rates of land and water grabbing have dramatically increased," said Paolo D'Odorico, Ernest H. Ern Professor of Environmental Sciences in the University of Virginia's College of Arts & Sciences, and a study co-author. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For decades now, the most common detected environmental contaminants in water are pesticides and pharmaceuticals. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • The ISO would clear the market with the help of computer models that reflect the hydrology and return flows, ensuring that supply met demand with real water, and that agreed-on environmental flows were met. (rand.org)
  • San Francisco 's mayor disputed any connection between homeless people and water quality, and she and others accused President Donald Trump of using the Environmental Protection Agency to punish the heavily Democratic state. (washingtontimes.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - A state judge ruled Wednesday that California water managers failed to consider the environmental impacts of running one of the nation's largest water banks. (washingtontimes.com)
  • On the other hand, some of the weakness of the demand for social science input is due to the practices and behavior of social scientists themselves. (asce.org)
  • It also provides a set of best practices that can be used to create more accurate and robust long-range water demand forecasts. (cawaterlibrary.net)
  • Local water captured and stored may cost significantly less than water purchased from a wholesale provider. (ocregister.com)
  • Price of capture fresh water fish positively and significantly affected fish demand in the dry season. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Price of culture fish significantly affected fish demand in the dry and rainy season and entire sample. (oregonstate.edu)
  • UConn officials Richard Miller and Thomas Callahan argue that UConn needs 2 million more gallons of water per day to feed a technology park planned for the Storrs North Campus. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The average American family uses more than 300 gallons of water per day at home. (epa.gov)
  • Results show that the model is capable of identifying 90% of the spatial and temporal variability in water demand, based on daily index summations by month. (iwaponline.com)
  • The effect of draining the source of water that grows a major portion of the nation's crops has seismic repercussions. (ljworld.com)
  • We also use a significant amount of water to meet the nation's energy needs. (epa.gov)
  • The results suggest an income elasticity of 0.42 for the domestic sector, an output elasticity of −0.32 for industrial water use (per unit of output), and an output elasticity of −0.23 for irrigated agriculture (per land area). (iwaponline.com)
  • The EPA recommends that lead levels in school drinking water not exceed 20 parts per billion and urges that schools seek to reduce the amount to as close to zero as possible. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Rick Rogers, an EPA official who has led a federal team trying to reduce lead in the water since dangerous amounts of the metal were found in thousands of D.C. homes in 2004, said he is sure those efforts are working. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Water companies need to deliver on their plans to dramatically reduce leakages and households, businesses and political leaders all need to treat water much more responsibly in future. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • Learn more about what WaterSense is doing to help reduce commercial and institutional water use . (epa.gov)
  • Continuing technological innovation, such as new membrane technology to reduce the cost of treating saline water, is also essential. (wri.org)
  • Using rainwater can reduce your water bills, provide an alternative supply during water restrictions and help maintain a green, healthy garden. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • At the micro-level, a cellular service provider may provide free night and weekend use in order to reduce demand during peak hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volatility is being recognized as significant an issue as the focus on variance of demand to plans and forecasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the world eats more, and the rising middle class demands better food, more water will be required for the increased amount of crops grown. (cnbc.com)
  • Those uses include irrigating perennial crops, cooling thermal power plants, storing water in reservoirs, and quenching the thirst of livestock and humans. (phys.org)
  • A large part of this is indirect use in water-intensive agricultural and industrial production processes of consumer goods , such as fruit, oil seed crops and cotton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water rates in California are historically complex but are even more so now. (ocregister.com)
  • Both a 30 percent increase and a 30 percent decrease in surface-water supply within the next three decades, for example, are in the realm of possibility in areas including Southern California, according to climate models. (wri.org)
  • Water trading in California is currently too slow and cumbersome. (rand.org)
  • WASHINGTON -- The House ethics panel said Thursday that it is investigating Rep. Maxine Waters, a California Democrat who came under scrutiny for allegedly helping a bank with which she had ties secure a meeting with Treasury Department officials about obtaining bailout funds. (wsj.com)
  • Greenpeace Water Patrol activists, wearing protective suits, collect samples of sediments from Samrong canal, which is located in an industrial district in Samutprakan province, 40 kilometres south of Bangkok. (greenpeace.org)
  • Greenpeace demands at the 3-week "Right-to-Know" Water Patrol Expedition along Marikina River. (greenpeace.org)
  • Among other players domestic and global,Water-filtration Unit market share data is available for global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa and South America separately.Publisher analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately. (marketwatch.com)
  • The regions at highest risk for future water stress are clustered around these areas: the Mediterranean, the Middle East, western North America, eastern Australia, western Asia, northern China, and Chile. (wri.org)
  • The reason that's not a good idea is water utilities have a selling price heavily regulated by government because of the social importance of water," he said, adding utilities also have high capital spending plans. (cnbc.com)
  • This model is being developed for application in UK water utilities for demand side water resource planning to aid results presented to Ofwat, the UK Water regulator, as part of multi-billion-pound long term investment plans. (easychair.org)
  • Lead Checks in Tap Water a Tough Task for Suppliers : Health: Utilities face the challenge of getting homeowners to cooperate, especially since the samples have to be collected inside homes, not at the source. (latimes.com)
  • In a 2002 publication the World Bank acknowledges that one of its loans, the "Major Cities Water and Sewerage Rehabilitation Project", included a condition to privatize the La Paz and Cochabamba water utilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Bank did not include a conditionality to privatize water in Santa Cruz where the local utility had been able to improve services, but only in the cities where the utilities had failed to improve services. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other alternatives to achieve target concentrations of N and P in water bodies which also enable nutrient recovery, but utilities are unsure of the costs and benefits associated with those approaches. (erams.com)
  • One way to invest in water is through stocks that make pipes, one of the big items the water industry spends money on every year. (cnbc.com)
  • An estimated 15 million acre-feet of water per year are withdrawn for irrigation. (ljworld.com)
  • A five-year pilot project to purchase water rights and retire them in south-central and western Kansas has been launched on paper, but as of yet, no rights have been purchased as officials put in place details of the program. (ljworld.com)
  • Nearly 1 million acres of irrigated corn in Kansas drink up nearly 1 million acre-feet of water per year, according to state statistics. (ljworld.com)
  • And the total number of customers and the amount of water that they use also varies from season to season and year to year. (ocregister.com)
  • One acre-foot of water is approximately the amount of water used by a single household in a year. (desertusa.com)
  • A shift to a circular economy could help save more than 400 billion m3 of water every year While oceans cover more than two-thirds of our planet, only 2.5% of all water on earth is fresh water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In addition, the researchers discovered a significant increase in water stress for the worst-impacted regions over the 37-year study period. (phys.org)
  • Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) documents reveal that representatives of the City of Stamford have been negotiating behind closed doors since 2009 with the proposed Tenaska coal plant over what is likely thousands of acre feet per year of Stamford water. (sweetwaterreporter.com)
  • It says: "If successful, this will remove the risk of a deficit in supply by 2045 and increase water security for the Yorkshire region within the legal 25-year planning period. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • Scientists in France can watch the webinar entitled " Comprendre ses besoins en eau purifiée : Étude de cas de l'Université de l'État du Michigan " and learn how Brian Jespersen, Laboratory Manager and Academic Specialist at Michigan State University, saved over $30,000 a year in water and energy costs when he replaced an existing RODI system with a more efficient technology. (selectscience.net)
  • However, its involvement with water in Cochabamba ended in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wall Street Journal reported earlier this year that Ms. Waters allegedly helped OneUnited Bank of Boston get a meeting with Treasury officials to negotiate a $12 million bailout. (wsj.com)
  • After introducing the world to his $100 per bottle water a year and a half ago, Svalbardi chief executive Jamal Qureshi is hoping to line up investors for the company via a new reality TV program that its producers call a hybrid of "Shark Tank" and "American Idol. (yahoo.com)
  • In return, water users gave back 45,000 acre-feet from the amount they contracted to receive each year. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The demonstrations were held by the same right-leaning groups that produced massive turnouts earlier this year to demand Rousseff's impeachment when the process hadn't started. (theepochtimes.com)
  • The other factor that comes into play on the demand side is export sales and quite simply the US dollar being as high and as strong as it recently has been is really kind of making it difficult to maintain or even come anywhere close to year ago pork sales to countries like Japan, Korea and even Mexico and so that's going to be factor that needs to be dealt with. (thepigsite.com)
  • besides a huge electric bill, is that with 2 kids showering, and one 3 year-old bathing by the time Mommy wants to shower she has to wait another 2 hours for hot water. (dr1.com)
  • I bought an 'Ecotemp' from the US, along with a small 12 volt water pump for $167.00 plus shipping to the DR. Have been using on the same 40 lb propane tank for the last year and it works wonderfully. (dr1.com)
  • The Colorado River Basin currently provides water to some 40 million people, and the study estimates that this number could nearly double to approximately 76.5 million people by 2060, under a rapid growth scenario. (desertusa.com)
  • This research is useful for reliability estimates of intermittent water supplies, such as rainwater harvesting. (iwaponline.com)
  • The paper analyses and estimates the willingness to pay for improved water supply services in Mabvuku, a high density area in Harare. (journals.co.za)
  • The letter was sent on behalf of 50 parents, joined by organizations such as Clean Water Action, the D.C. chapter of Friends of the Earth and the Center for Health Environment and Justice. (washingtonpost.com)
  • BISHKEK -- Some 500 protesters from a village near the Kyrgyz capital, Bishkek, blocked a major highway today, demanding the authorities provide their village with clean water and electricity, RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service reports. (rferl.org)
  • We all need safe food and clean water. (foodandwaterwatch.org)
  • To ensure future supplies of fresh, clean water we need to use it more carefully. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler outlined a series of alleged deficiencies in California's compliance with federal clean water laws in a letter to Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom and demanded a detailed plan for fixing the problems within 30 days. (washingtontimes.com)
  • He did not say how the agency might discipline the state, although options could include withholding funds or revoking California's authority to administer federal laws such as the Clean Water Act. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Nathan Click, a spokesman for the governor, said: "This is not about clean air, clean water or helping our state with homelessness. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Adamowski J, Fung Chan H, Prasher SO, Ozga-Zielinski B, Sliusarieva A (2012) Comparison of multiple linear and nonlinear regression, autoregressive integrated moving average, artificial neural network, and wavelet artificial neural network methods for urban water demand forecasting in Montreal, Canada. (springer.com)
  • Donkor EA, Mazzuchi TH, Soyer R, Roberson JA (2014) Urban water demand forecasting: review of methods and models. (springer.com)
  • In this paper we present a scalable, repeatable and transparent model for finding efficient demand reduction solutions given a large number of demand reducing options and small planning regions. (easychair.org)
  • The think-tank has warned that unless there is a reduction in water use among households and businesses, demand for water in Yorkshire could start to exceed supply by 2035. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • A planned reduction in water being lost through leakage, behaviour changed through increased use of meters and reduced demand from industry is expected to result in a slight fall in demand over the same period. (wakefieldexpress.co.uk)
  • Bob Hooper, a retired teacher from Bogue who has been involved in state water issues for decades, said the agricultural depletion of the aquifer "is like a drunk running a liquor store, and I don't mean that unkindly. (ljworld.com)
  • Water stress - the measure of demand relative to supply in a given place - will likely increase rapidly across the globe in the next few decades, as more people compete for ever more limited surface-water supplies. (wri.org)
  • Our durable water softeners last for decades, they bring years of soft water enjoyment and convenience to their owners. (freedrinkingwater.com)
  • That article detailed watershed abuses and exposed dangerously distorted projections in which UConn overstated its water supply (based on unrealistic diversion permits for the two rivers that feed its wellfields) and understated its demand (by denying future growth). (baltimoresun.com)
  • Understanding the way rates are set, why agencies need to raise them, and what will happen to rates in the future requires a dramatic shift in the way consumers use and think about water. (ocregister.com)
  • Global " Water-filtration Unit Market " Research Report 2020-2025is a historical overview and in-depth study on the current and future market of the Water-filtration Unit industry. (marketwatch.com)
  • The new index tells us where water issues are greatest and for what reasons, so decisions now don't limit our options and ability to be resilient in the future," said Thomas Torgersen, a program director in the National Science Foundation's Division of Earth Sciences, which funded the research. (phys.org)
  • Collins and colleagues paint a future where freeze-dried, cell-free biomanufacturing platforms can be used to synthesize therapeutics, vaccines, and biochemicals on demand, without the need for a cold [supply] chain," says Michael Jewett, an associate professor of chemical and biological engineering at Northwestern University, who was not involved in the research. (mit.edu)
  • We have to think of people's real needs first and our future generations and make sure they have water, too. (sweetwaterreporter.com)
  • Demand-driven future water stress, in particular, can be managed. (wri.org)
  • In the future new water sources are being developed from the Iguape river in the Ribeira valley 80 km to the south of MRSP. (wikipedia.org)
  • We use a household survey from Hyderabad city and estimate the contribution of awareness and income on households water purification behaviour. (repec.org)
  • The study finds out that measures of awareness such as different level of schooling of decision-makers and household heads and their exposure to mass media have statistically significant effects on home purification methods for drinking water, while other members of households can effect this behaviour only when they get higher levels of schooling. (repec.org)
  • This study therefore investigated determinants of rural household demand for fish in Oyo State, Nigeria. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was concluded that presence of water body, seasonality and various rural household factors affected demand for captured, marine, cultured fish species. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Using household-level panel data from Tucson, Arizona, and a unique set of highly disaggregated control variables, we estimate residential demand for water via a Stone-Geary specification. (arizona.edu)
  • Nationally, outdoor water use accounts for 30 percent of household use yet can be much higher in drier parts of the country and in more water-intensive landscapes. (epa.gov)
  • Once you understand how much you use, the WaterSense calculator can help determine how much water your household could save if you switched to more efficient, WaterSense labeled products . (epa.gov)
  • Fluoride is added to 73 per cent of Irish water supplies and Sister Hoey is angry that the Minister has announced plans for more fluoridation plants to be built. (fluoridealert.org)
  • These incorporate the cost of plants, gas transmission, coal supply and transport, solid waste disposal and water supply. (osu.edu)
  • Potential ways to save water include switching from cooling power plants with fresh water to so-called dry cooling technologies, which could decrease cooling water use in the Lake Balkhash basin by 95 percent. (phys.org)
  • Moreover, the water being used for power plants could one day be utilized in other applications. (naturalnews.com)
  • If you can recycle the water being used at power plants, it frees up a lot more water for domestic and personal use. (naturalnews.com)
  • Designer Erdem Selek did, and came up with the "Dish Drainer Project," a tree-like contraption that collects the water dripping from your recently-cleaned dishes and waters your plants with it. (treehugger.com)
  • We have this funny image of people with dishes all over their homes, dinner plates patiently watering their plants after an evening meal. (treehugger.com)
  • Outdoors, strategies include choosing local indigenous plants that are adapted for local growing conditions, mulching, and using water efficient irrigation systems. (yourhome.gov.au)
  • The school took steps to conserve water, but continued its fantasy projections until September 2005, when the Fenton River was sucked bone dry, killing an estimated 10,000 fish and putting the lie to UConn's unrealistic claims of how much it could safely pump. (baltimoresun.com)
  • MIT researchers conclude that alternative approaches to water planning can alleviate urban water supply issues quickly and inexpensively Urban areas around the world are expanding rapidly as the global population increases and people are moving to cities at a fast pace. (environmental-expert.com)
  • What we've found, though, is that rapidly growing demand for water actually drives the greatest increases in water stress. (wri.org)
  • This figure increases tenfold if the water embodied in the food and products we consume is included. (yourhome.gov.au)