A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A psychotic disorder characterized by the patient's belief that acquaintances or closely related persons have been replaced by doubles or imposters.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)

Validity and usefulness of the Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences. (1/323)

The Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences is an interview-based assessment system for rating psychotic and psychotic-like symptoms on a continuum of deviancy from normal to grossly psychotic. The original manual contained six scales, assessing thought transmission, passivity experiences, thought withdrawal, auditory experiences, personally relevant aberrant beliefs, and visual experiences. A seventh scale assessing deviant olfactory experiences was subsequently added. The rating scales have good interrater reliability when used by trained raters. Cross-sectional studies indicated that the frequency and deviancy of psychotic-like experiences are elevated among college students who were identified, hypothetically, as psychosis prone by other criteria. Psychotic-like experiences of moderate deviancy in college students successfully predicted the development of psychotic illness and poorer overall adjustment 10 years later. The manual is useful for identifying psychosis-prone individuals and is recommended for use in linkage and treatment outcome studies. The present article provides an interview schedule for collecting information required for rating psychotic-like experiences.  (+info)

Acute psychotic symptoms induced by topiramate. (2/323)

The incidence of psychosis during clinical trials of topiramate was 0.8%, not significantly different from the rate for placebo or reported rates of psychosis in patients with refractory epilepsy. We observed psychotic symptoms in five patients soon after initiation of topiramate therapy. We performed a retrospective chart review of the first 80 patients who began on topiramate after approval for clinical use, between January and April 1997. Symptoms suggestive of psychosis, including hallucinations and delusions, were sought for analysis. Cognitive effects such as psychomotor slowing, confusion, and somnolence were not included. Five patients developed definite psychotic symptoms 2 to 46 days after beginning topiramate. Dosages at symptom onset were 50-400 mg/day. Symptoms included paranoid delusions in four patients and auditory hallucinations in three. Symptoms of psychosis and other psychiatric symptoms resolved quickly with discontinuation of topiramate in three patients, dose reduction from 300 to 200 mg/day in one and with inpatient treatment and neuroleptics in another. One patient had a history of auditory hallucinations, one of aggressive and suicidal thoughts, but three had no significant psychiatric history. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of psychotic symptoms, even in patients without a previous psychiatric history, when prescribing topiramate. Symptoms resolve quickly with discontinuation.  (+info)

Measurement of delusional ideation in the normal population: introducing the PDI (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory). (3/323)

The Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) was designed to measure delusional ideation in the normal population, using the Present State Examination as a template. The multidimensionality of delusions was incorporated by assessing measures of distress, preoccupation, and conviction. Individual items were endorsed by one in four adults on average. No sex differences were found, and an inverse relationship with age was obtained. Good internal consistency was found, and its concurrent validity was confirmed by the percentages of common variance with three scales measuring schizotypy, magical ideation, and delusions. PDI scores up to 1 year later remained consistent, establishing its test-retest reliability. Psychotic inpatients had significantly higher scores, establishing its criterion validity. The ranges of scores between the normal and deluded groups overlapped considerably, consistent with the continuity view of psychosis. The two samples were differentiated by their ratings on the distress, preoccupation, and conviction scales, confirming the necessity for a multidimensional analysis of delusional thinking. Possible avenues of research using this scale and its clinical utility are highlighted.  (+info)

Genetic variants of dopamine receptor D4 and psychopathology. (4/323)

There is much evidence to indicate that the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene is involved in psychiatric disorders. We investigated the correlation between DRD4 gene polymorphism and the psychopathology of major psychoses, independently of diagnoses. Some 461 inpatients affected by major psychoses were assessed by the Operational Criteria checklist for psychotic illness and typed for DRD4 variants. The four symptomatologic factors-mania, depression, delusion, and disorganization-were used as phenotype definitions. DRD4 Exon 3 long allele variants were associated with high delusional scores, with the most significant difference between alleles 2 and 7 (p = 0.004). DRD4 variants may, therefore, constitute a liability factor for development of delusional symptomatology in patients with major psychoses.  (+info)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and delusions revisited. (5/323)

BACKGROUND: The concept of fixed, unshakeable (delusional) beliefs within the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one that has received varying amounts of attention in the literature, and has not yet received universal acknowledgement. There are good grounds for including these cases within the diagnostic concepts of OCD, with significant implications for clinical management. AIMS: To present cases with unusual OCD, in order to re-evaluate the issue of delusions and OCD. METHOD: The cases of five subjects with delusions in the course of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented to illustrate 'delusional' OCD. The management and outcome of these cases are discussed. RESULTS: Fixity and bizarreness of beliefs in OCD occur on a continuum from 'none' to 'delusional intensity' and may fluctuate within subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The idea that these cases may represent a form of OCD has implications for management, as, if this is correct, they should be able to respond to appropriate behavioural and/or pharmacological strategies used in OCD.  (+info)

Risk factors for the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. (6/323)

Previous studies have found two risk factors associated with the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia: an increase in summer births, compared to others with schizophrenia; and a higher risk of schizophrenia in relatives. In data from the Camberwell Register Psychosis Series, a population-based sample that approximated a treated-incidence sample, the deficit/nondeficit categorization was made using a previously validated proxy method. Associations were found between the deficit syndrome and both summer birth and a family history of schizophrenia. In contrast, nondeficit schizophrenia was associated with a family history of psychiatric problems other than schizophrenia. The deficit group also had poorer insight. An early age of onset was associated with disorganization, but not with the deficit or nondeficit group. The deficit/nondeficit differences could not be attributed to confounding by demographic features or the severity of hallucinations, delusions, or formal thought disorder.  (+info)

Cerebral correlates of psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. (7/323)

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are produced by distributed neuronal dysfunction. Abnormalities of reality testing and false inference implicate frontal lobe abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: To identify the functional imaging profile of patients with Alzheimer's disease manifesting psychotic symptoms as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS: Twenty patients with Alzheimer's disease who had SPECT and clinical evaluations were divided into two equal groups with similar mini mental status examination (MMSE), age, sex, and the range of behaviours documented by the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), except delusions and hallucinations. SPECT studies, registered to a probabilistic anatomical atlas, were normalised across the combined group mean intensity level, and subjected to a voxel by voxel subtraction of the non-psychotic minus psychotic groups. Subvolume thresholding (SVT) corrected random lobar noise to produce a three dimensional functional significance map. RESULTS: The significance map showed lower regional perfusion in the right and left dorsolateral frontal, left anterior cingulate, and left ventral striatal regions along with the left pulvinar and dorsolateral parietal cortex, in the psychotic versus non-psychotic group. CONCLUSION: Patients with Alzheimer's disease who manifest psychosis may have disproportionate dysfunction of frontal lobes and related subcortical and parietal structures.  (+info)

Hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. (8/323)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions in Alzheimer's disease over a 4 year period and their association with rate of cognitive decline. METHODS: A cohort of 410 persons with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease underwent annual clinical evaluations over a 4 year period. Participation in follow up exceeded 90% in survivors. Evaluations included structured informant interview, from which the presence or absence of hallucinations and delusions was ascertained, and detailed testing of cognitive function. The primary cognitive outcome measure was a composite cognitive score based on 17 individual performance tests. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) and summary measures of memory, visuoconstruction, repetition, and naming were used in secondary analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, hallucinations (present in 41%) and delusions (present in 55%) were common and associated with lower cognitive function. In analyses that controlled for baseline level of cognitive function, demographic variables, parkinsonism, and use of antipsychotic medications, hallucinations, but not delusions, were associated with more rapid cognitive decline on each cognitive measure. In the primary model, there was a 47% increase in the average annual rate of decline on a composite cognitive measure in those with baseline hallucinations compared with those without them. This effect was mainly due to a subgroup with both auditory and visual hallucinations. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the presence of hallucinations is selectively associated with more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

Paranoid Schizophrenia is a subtype of Schizophrenia, which is a chronic and severe mental disorder. It is characterized by the presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations. The delusions in paranoid schizophrenia often involve themes of persecution or grandiosity. Individuals with this subtype usually have a clear sense of self and maintain relatively well-preserved cognitive functions and affect. However, their symptoms can significantly impact their ability to function in daily life, social relationships, and vocational activities. It's important to note that schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and its diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's symptoms, history, and mental status examination.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

Capgras Syndrome is a rare disorder in which a person believes that a close friend or family member has been replaced by an imposter who is identical to the original. This delusion is also known as "impostor syndrome" or " Capgras' delusion." It is named after Joseph Capgras, a French psychiatrist who first described this condition in 1923.

People with Capgras Syndrome are typically able to recognize the physical features of their loved ones, but they claim that the person's inner essence or identity has been replaced by an imposter. They may believe that the impostor is a duplicate, a robot, or an alien, and they often become agitated or suspicious when confronted with their loved one's presence.

The exact cause of Capgras Syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be related to brain damage or dysfunction in certain areas of the brain that are involved in face recognition and emotional processing. It can occur as a result of various neurological conditions, such as dementia, stroke, epilepsy, or head injury, or it can be a symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

Treatment for Capgras Syndrome typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy to address the underlying cause of the disorder. Antipsychotic medications may help reduce delusional thinking, while cognitive-behavioral therapy can help individuals learn to cope with their symptoms and improve their relationships with loved ones.

Paranoid disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by the presence of paranoia, which is defined as a persistent and unfounded distrust or suspicion of others. This can include beliefs that others are trying to harm you, deceive you, or are plotting against you. These beliefs are not based in reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, includes two paranoid disorders: Delusional Disorder and Paranoid Personality Disorder.

Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more delusions for a month or longer, with no significant hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. The individual's functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual may appear cold and aloof or may be explosively angry if they feel threatened.

It's important to note that these disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a paranoid disorder, it's important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Reality testing is a psychological concept that refers to the ability to distinguish between what is real and what is not. It is the process of comparing one's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, or perceptions with external reality, to determine their accuracy and validity. This skill is essential for effective functioning in daily life, as it helps individuals to navigate their environment, make sound decisions, and respond appropriately to different situations.

In psychiatric and psychological assessments, reality testing is often evaluated as a measure of cognitive and emotional stability. Individuals with impaired reality testing may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imagined, which can be indicative of various mental health conditions, such as psychosis, schizophrenia, or severe depression. Reality testing is an essential aspect of maintaining a grasp on consensual reality and is crucial for successful social interactions and interpersonal relationships.

In medical terms, a "fantasy" is generally defined as a mental image or scenario that is not based in reality and is often used for entertainment, relaxation, or sexual gratification. Fantasies can range from relatively harmless daydreams to more complex and detailed scenarios that may involve fictional characters or situations.

While fantasies are a normal part of human cognition and imagination, they can sometimes become problematic if they interfere with a person's ability to function in daily life or cause distress or harm to themselves or others. For example, some people may develop maladaptive sexual fantasies that involve non-consensual or harmful behaviors, which can lead to problems in their relationships or even criminal behavior.

It is important to note that having fantasies does not necessarily mean that a person will act on them, and many people are able to distinguish between their fantasies and reality. However, if you are concerned about your own fantasies or those of someone else, it may be helpful to speak with a mental health professional for guidance and support.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Substance-induced psychosis is a type of psychosis that is caused by the use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder as follows:

A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a combination of substances.

C. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium and is not better explained by a psychotic disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal, or after exposure to a medication.

D. The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder).

It's important to note that the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis requires a thorough medical and psychiatric evaluation to determine if the symptoms are caused by substance use or another underlying mental health condition.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

In psychology, the term "ego" is used to describe a part of the personality that deals with the conscious mind and includes the senses of self and reality. It is one of the three components of Freud's structural model of the psyche, along with the id and the superego. The ego serves as the mediator between the unconscious desires of the id and the demands of the real world, helping to shape behavior that is socially acceptable and adaptive.

It's important to note that this definition of "ego" is specific to the field of psychology and should not be confused with other uses of the term in different contexts, such as its use in popular culture to refer to an inflated sense of self-importance or self-centeredness.

Behavioral symptoms refer to changes or abnormalities in a person's behavior, which may be indicative of an underlying medical or psychological condition. These symptoms can manifest as a wide range of observable behaviors that are unusual, disruptive, or distressing for the individual experiencing them or those around them. Examples of behavioral symptoms include:

1. Agitation: A state of irritability, restlessness, or excitement, often accompanied by aggressive or disruptive behavior.
2. Aggression: Hostile or violent behavior directed towards others, including verbal or physical attacks.
3. Apathy: A lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
4. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns: Significant fluctuations in the amount or frequency of food intake or sleep, which can be indicative of various medical or psychological conditions.
5. Disinhibition: A loss of restraint or impulse control, leading to inappropriate behavior in social situations.
6. Hallucinations: Perception of sensory stimuli (such as sight, sound, touch) without an external source, often associated with certain mental illnesses or neurological disorders.
7. Hyperactivity: Increased activity levels, often accompanied by impulsivity and difficulty focusing attention.
8. Impaired judgment: Poor decision-making abilities, often resulting in risky or harmful behavior.
9. Inattention: Difficulty focusing or sustaining attention on a task or activity.
10. Mood changes: Fluctuations in emotional state, such as depression, anxiety, or euphoria.
11. Psychosis: A severe mental disorder characterized by detachment from reality, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking or behavior.
12. Repetitive behaviors: Engaging in repetitive actions or movements, often associated with certain developmental disorders or neurological conditions.
13. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions or activities, often indicative of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns.
14. Thought disturbances: Disorganized or disrupted thinking patterns, such as racing thoughts, tangential thinking, or loose associations between ideas.

Behavioral symptoms can be caused by various factors, including medical conditions (such as infections, brain injuries, or neurodegenerative diseases), mental health disorders (such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia), substance abuse, and environmental factors (such as stress or trauma). Accurate assessment and diagnosis are crucial for determining appropriate treatment interventions.

I must clarify that "superstitions" are not a medical term, and therefore, there is no medical definition for it. However, I can provide you with the general definition. Superstitions refer to beliefs or practices that are not based on reason or scientific evidence, and are often considered to be irrational. They are frequently linked to luck, prophecy, spirits, or the supernatural. Examples include avoiding walking under ladders, believing in Friday the 13th being an unlucky day, or knocking on wood for good fortune. Superstitions are generally not associated with medical conditions or healthcare.

Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a persistent pattern of distrust and suspicion, such that others' intentions are interpreted as malevolent. This disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions.

To be diagnosed with PPD, an individual must display at least four of the following symptoms:

1. Suspects, without sufficient reason, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.
2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them.
4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
5. Persistently bears grudges, i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights.
6. Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.

These symptoms must be present for a significant period, typically at least one year, and must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms cannot be better explained by another mental disorder, such as Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, or Substance/Medication-Induced Psychotic Disorder.

Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with stressful, threatening, or uncomfortable situations. These mechanisms help protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions. They can also help individuals maintain a positive self-image and a sense of control in difficult circumstances.

There are many different types of defense mechanisms, including:

1. Repression: The unconscious forgetting or pushing aside of painful memories or thoughts.
2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge the existence or reality of a threatening situation or feeling.
3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or emotions to someone else.
4. Displacement: Channeling unacceptable feelings toward a safer or less threatening target.
5. Rationalization: Creating logical explanations or excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings.
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious impulses or desires into their opposite, conscious attitudes or behaviors.
7. Sublimation: Transforming unacceptable impulses or instincts into socially acceptable behaviors or activities.
8. Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety.
9. Suppression: Consciously pushing aside unwanted thoughts or feelings.
10. Identification: Adopting the characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors of another person as a way of coping with anxiety or fear.

Defense mechanisms can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation and how they are used. While they can help individuals cope with stress and maintain their emotional well-being in the short term, relying too heavily on defense mechanisms can lead to problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of their defense mechanisms and work to develop healthier coping strategies over time.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thinking" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a cognitive process, which is a general term used to describe various mental activities related to perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language use, learning, and problem-solving. These processes are studied across many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.

If you're looking for medical definitions of cognitive processes or conditions that affect cognition, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more details.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

I am not a doctor, but I can tell you that religion is not a concept that has a medical definition. Religion generally refers to the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods. It involves specific practices and rituals, codes of conduct, sacred texts, and an organized community of believers.

However, in some contexts, religion may be discussed in a medical setting as it relates to a patient's beliefs, values, and cultural background, which can all impact their health and healthcare decisions. In such cases, healthcare providers might use terms like "spirituality" or "religious coping" to describe how a patient's religious practices or beliefs affect their health and well-being. But there is no specific medical definition for religion itself.

Delusions at IMDb Delusions at Tel Aviv Cinematheque Archived 2014-01-02 at the Wayback Machine Delusions at Rio de Janeiro ... Delusions (Hebrew: דמיונות / Dymionot) is a 2005 Israeli film, comedy-drama, Nouvelle Vague film style, that deals with the ...
"Book Review: Atheist Delusions". Retrieved 24 June 2009. Stefan Beck, The New Criterion. "A review of Atheist Delusions: The ... Atheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable Enemies is a 2009 book by the theologian, philosopher, and ... "Anthony Kenny on 'Atheist Delusions'". The Times Literary Supplement and Truthdig. 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 9 ... Matt C. Paulson (Fall 2009). "Atheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable Enemies". The Montana Professor. ...
... (GD), also known as delusions of grandeur or expansive delusions, are a subtype of delusion that occur in ... and thus grandiose delusions. In diagnosing delusions, the MacArthur-Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule is used to ... Other common grandiose delusions in schizophrenia include religious delusions such as the belief that one is Jesus Christ, or ... Smith, N.; Freeman D.; Kuipers E. (2005). "Grandiose Delusions: An Experimental Investigation of the Delusion as Defense". ...
"Fantasies & Delusions". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-02-15. "Fantasies & Delusions (Music for Solo Piano)". Rollingstone.com. 17 ... Delusion - 3:37 Opus 5. Waltz #2 ("Steinway Hall") - 7:00 Opus 9. Waltz #3 ("For Lola") - 3:28 Opus 4. Fantasy ("Film Noir") - ... Fantasies & Delusions is the thirteenth and final studio album composed by American singer-songwriter Billy Joel. It features ... Fantasies & Delusions was originally recorded at Cove City Sound Studios, Glen Cove, New York, with help from veteran ...
... that Fine criticizes in Delusions of Gender. Fine, Cordelia (2010). Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and ... Delusions of Gender received positive reviews in the United States in The New York Times, The Washington Post, USA Today, ... Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference is a 2010 book by Cordelia Fine, written to ... "Book Review: Delusions of Gender". Kirkus Reviews. Nielsen Business Media. June 15, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Sutton, ...
... is a novel by actress and author Carrie Fisher that was published in 1993. Like most of Fisher's books, ...
... is a collection of short stories by American writer Harlan Ellison. It was originally published in ...
... is the sixth studio album by Rogue Wave, an American indie rock band based in Oakland, California. It ... "Reviews for Delusions of Grand Fur by Rogue Wave". Metacritic. Retrieved May 24, 2016. "Rogue Wave detail reflective new album ... Delusions of Grand Fur". Entertainment Weekly. Ross, Alex Robert (2016-04-29). "Rogue Wave Tackle Our Delusions: "How Can You ... Rogue Wave frontman Zach Rogue on the process behind Delusions of Grand Fur: "It wasn't the plan to take three years. My son ...
... at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... Berlin Nights Grand Delusions (Lebenspornografie) (2003) is a feature film written and directed by Dutch director Edwin Brienen ...
... is the debut studio album by American soul singer Jaguar Wright. Released by MCA on January 29 ... Denials Delusions and Decisions was well received by music critics. In the February 9, 2002, issue of Billboard, critic Rashaun ... For the ten years leading up to the release of Denials Delusions and Decisions, Wright sought to enter the music industry. She ... "Overview: Denials Delusions and Decisions". AllMusic. RhythmOne. Retrieved April 16, 2023. Hall, Rashaun (November 17, 2001). " ...
Delusions is the second album from the British progressive metal band To-Mera. Its musical style is similar to that of their ... "To-Mera Delusions review". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 24 May 2012. Recording blog Tower Studios myspace (Use dmy ...
Delusions review at AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-03-16. "US Charts > First Choice". Billboard. Retrieved 25 January 2018. Delusions ... Delusions is the fourth studio album recorded by American female vocal trio First Choice, released in 1977 on the Gold Mind ...
"Delusions of Grandeur (2006)". www.amazon.com. Retrieved 25 June 2010. Delusions of Grandeur at IMDb Delusions of Grandeur at ... Delusions of Grandeur (French: La Folie des grandeurs) is a 1971 French comedy film directed by Gérard Oury. It is a comedic ...
Delusions of grandeur may refer to: Grandiose delusions Delusions of Grandeur (Fleming and John album) Delusions of Grandeur ( ... novel) Delusions of Grandeur (Circle II Circle album), 2008 Delusions of Grandeur (film), a 1971 French film Delusions of ... Delusions of Grandeur (Gucci Mane album), fourteenth studio album by American rapper Gucci Mane. Grandeur (disambiguation) This ... Look up delusions of grandeur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
5-7 She is aware that her delusions are nothing more than delusions.Ep. 11 She comes from a very rich family and tends to ... Other Delusions anime television series. "Love, Chunibyo & Other Delusions! REN now streaming in Australia". Anime News Network ... She suffers from delusions and calls herself "Sophia Ring SP Saturn VII" (ソフィアリング・SP・サターン7世) and addresses Yūta with the ... A second anime film, titled Love, Chunibyo & Other Delusions! Take on Me (映画 中二病でも恋がしたい! -Take on Me-, Eiga Chūnibyō demo Koi ...
Religious delusion: Belief that the affected person is a god or chosen to act as a god. Somatic delusion: Delusion whose ... Although delusions can have any theme, certain themes are more common. Some of the more common delusion themes are: Delusion of ... Grandiose delusions or delusions of grandeur can also be associated with megalomania. Persecutory delusions are the most common ... Delusions are categorized into four different groups: Bizarre delusion: Delusions are deemed bizarre if they are clearly ...
In psychiatry, delusions of reference form part of the diagnostic criteria for psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia, ... "Such delusions are partially achieved derealization-realizations." Laing also considered how "in typical paranoid ideas of ... A key experience may occur in his life circumstances and quite suddenly these ideas become structured as delusions of reference ... In Sigmund Freud's view, "Delusions of being watched present this power in a regressive form, thus revealing its genesis... ...
You can look upon that as a delusion of grandeur as well. Before it happened, I guess a lot of people were thinking about it as ... Delusions of Grandeur is the fourth studio album by the Norwegian heavy metal band Sahg, released on October 25, 2013, under ... Delusions of Grandeur marks a turning point towards a more experimental sound and a psychedelic stoner rock genre, radically ... It's the first concept album of the band, with the delusions of grandeur theme or megalomania. Kvitrafn, original drummer of ...
Homœopathy and Its Kindred Delusions is a work by Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., based upon two lectures he gave in 1842, Medical ... Homeopathy and Its Kindred Delusions is composed of two parts. In the first, Holmes explains how the placebo effect can produce ... O. W. Holmes's Lectures on Homoeopathy and Its Kindred Delusions: Communicated to a Friend. Boston: Otis Clapp. p. 1. Haller Jr ... O. W. Holmes's Lectures on Homeopathy and Its Kindred Delusions; Communicated to a Friend, Robert Wesselhoeft negatively ...
Stone, T. (2005). "Delusions and Belief Formation" (Powerpoint).[dead link] Gurin, Lindsey; Blum, Sonja (2017). "Delusions and ... These two judgment biases help explain how delusion-prone people could grasp onto extreme delusions and be very resistant to ... Some delusions that fall under this category are: Capgras delusion: the belief that (usually) a close relative or spouse has ... Cotard delusion: the belief that oneself is dead or does not exist; sometimes coupled with the belief that one is putrefying or ...
"Optical Delusion by Orbital Reviews and Tracks". Metacritic. Retrieved 14 February 2023. "Optical Delusion by Orbital reviews ... Optical Delusion is the tenth studio album by English electronic music duo Orbital, released on 17 February 2023. According to ... p. 7. "Ultratop.be - Orbital - Optical Delusion" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 26 February 2023. "Irish Albums Chart: 24 ... Green, Thomas H (15 February 2023). "Album: Orbital - Optical Delusion". The Arts Desk. Retrieved 15 February 2023. Crowe, Josh ...
... (1981) is a fantasy novel by British writer Tanith Lee, the third book in her Tales From The Flat Earth. ... Delusion's Master at GoodReads v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from ...
John Locke also refers to the glass delusion. In modern times, the glass delusion has not completely disappeared. There are ... Glass delusion is an external manifestation of a psychiatric disorder recorded in Europe mainly in the late Middle Ages and ... King Charles VI of France was famously afflicted by the glass delusion. He wore clothing that was reinforced with iron rods and ... Edward Shorter, a historian of psychiatry from the University of Toronto, attributes the rise of the delusion in 17th century ...
Wildgoose, David (24 June 2022). "Dread Delusion Review - An alluring unknown". GamesHub. Dread Delusion at MobyGames (Articles ... Lovely Hellplace (16 June 2022). "Dread Delusion". Steam. "Dread Delusion General Mechanic Guide". SteamAH. 16 June 2022. " ... "Dread Delusion - Presskit". DreadXP. 2022. Price, Renata (30 June 2022). "'Dread Delusion' Embraces a Different Kind of ... Dread Delusion is a role-playing game that is played in first-person perspective across an open world. The game features a ...
... may refer to: Dream sharing Folie à deux Shared delusional disorder This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Shared delusion. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly ...
In contrast to And Yet the Town Moves, Heavenly Delusion employs a darker tone, most specifically the delusions children have. ... Heavenly Delusion is a collapsed world, so social constructs like laws and rights groups no longer function. Since the goal is ... Heavenly Delusion was one of the Jury Recommended Works at the 24th and 25th Japan Media Arts Festival in 2021 and 2022, ... Heavenly Delusion, Volume 6. Denpa. May 30, 2023. ISBN 978-1-63442-848-4. 天国大魔境(7) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Archived from the ...
"Delusion Rain". Retrieved 24 September 2015. "Rock Hard - MYSTERY - Delusion Rain Overview". Rock Hard. Retrieved 28 May 2022 ... "MYSTERY Delusion Rain". Retrieved 24 September 2015. Dome, Malcolm (February 26, 2016). "Mystery: Delusion Rain". Prog. Future ... Delusion Rain is the sixth studio album by the Canadian rock band Mystery, released in November 2015 on Unicorn Digital. The ... and is entitled Delusion Rain. Mystery Jean Pageau - vocals, keyboards, flute Michel St-Père - electric and acoustic guitars, ...
Delusion may also refer to: Delusion (1955 film), a Danish crime film drama directed by Johan Jacobsen Delusion (1980 film), an ... Look up delusion, delusional, or deluded in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A delusion is a belief held with strong conviction ... a Chinese-Hong Kong suspense thriller film directed by Danny Pang Phat Delusions (To-Mera album), 2006 Delusions (First Choice ... Impact All pages with titles beginning with delusion This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Delusion ...
... or delusions of grandeur. Religious delusions have generally been found to be less stressful than other types of delusion. A ... A religious delusion is defined as a delusion, or fixed belief not amenable to change in light of conflicting evidence, ... Raja, M.; Azzoni, A.; Lubich, L. (2000). "Religious delusion: An observational study of religious delusion in a population of ... were found to have religious delusions. A 1999 study identified that religious delusions were often present or expressed in ...
... (self-released, 2010) Delusion Squared II (self-released, 2012) The Final Delusion (self-released, 2014) ... Delusion Squared is a progressive rock band from France. The band was created in 2009 by Steven Francis, Emmanuel de Saint Méen ... These reviews compare Delusion Squared's music to Porcupine Tree but also to Anathema, The Pineapple Thief, Ayreon, Phideaux. ... The third album is titled "The Final Delusion". It is about a young girl having prescience gifts and being abducted by a ...
Delusions at IMDb Delusions at Tel Aviv Cinematheque Archived 2014-01-02 at the Wayback Machine Delusions at Rio de Janeiro ... Delusions (Hebrew: דמיונות / Dymionot) is a 2005 Israeli film, comedy-drama, Nouvelle Vague film style, that deals with the ...
Delusions of parasitosis manifest in the patients firm belief that he or she has pruritus due to an infestation with insects. ... encoded search term (Delusions of Parasitosis) and Delusions of Parasitosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Some reports have linked delusions of parasitosis to hyperthyroidism, which was deemed a secondary type of delusions of ... but the coexistence of delusions of parasitosis and another condition, the author thinks, is independent of pure delusions of ...
Having delusions can be a condition of its own called delusional disorder. They also can occur during the manic or depressive ... Delusions are beliefs that arent based on reality. During a delusion, you might believe that youre close friends with a ... There are several different types of delusions. Grandiose and paranoid delusions are the most common in bipolar disorder. Guilt ... A person with mixed delusions has two or more of the delusions listed above. ...
... December 21, 2011. Marc Abrahams The Retraction Watch blog presents a convoluted tale of scientific ... The bugs were hallucinated, the infestation a delusion and Traver was suffering from a mental illness…. ... insight, illusion, delusion, publication, retraction, and imagined introspection. Philosophers take note. Heres the beginning: ...
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The Delusions. Adjective City • March 15, 1999. January 3, 2023. Column by Ian Koss ... Posts about The Delusions written by ink19 ...
... monosymptomatic or content-specific delusions. Although these delusions are considered rare, some of them can b … ... particularly when the delusions have a specific theme or are confined to one topic-- ... Contemporary research has shown that delusions are often the product of identifiable neurologic disease, ... monosymptomatic or content-specific delusions. Although these delusions are considered rare, some of them can be found at high ...
The Glass Delusion of Early Modern Europe Who were the Glass Men and what caused their fears? Posted July 28, 2020 ... The Glass Delusion. In 1621, the English scholar Robert Burton published The Anatomy of Melancholy, a masterwork dedicated to ... Therefore, the glass delusion was rooted in melancholy, and more specifically, in the single-minded devotion to intellectual ... The "glass delusion" was a regularly recorded condition in early modern Europe, especially between the fifteenth and ...
if you are coming here wondering what extraordinary popular delusions might be and/or why you might consider liking us;... ...
Decoding Delusions A Clinicians Guide to Working With Delusions and Other Extreme Beliefs. Edited by Kate V. Hardy, Clin.Psych ... Delusions of thought possession. * Trauma as a pathway to delusions. Readers also will find a nuanced discussion of working ... Erotomania and sexual delusions.. *Chapter 12. A bizarre and grandiose delusion: persecution of a goddess using social media ... For the first time, Decoding Delusions gathers the literature and treatment guidance materials related to delusions in one ...
if you are coming here wondering what extraordinary popular delusions might be and/or why you might consider liking us;... ...
symptom » Behavioral and psychological symptom of Dementia » delusion » autopsychic delusion. *idolum » delusion » autopsychic ... Behavioral and psychological symptom of Dementia » delusion » autopsychic delusion. * ... Behavioral and psychological symptom of Dementia » delusion. *psychopathology » symptom » Behavioral and psychological symptom ...
Russell Brand: A career in comedy defined by darkness and delusions. Brand landed his first major role in a film in Forgetting ... Russell Brand: A career in comedy defined by darkness and delusions. Katy Perry revealed that Brand put pressure on her to ... Russell Brand: A career in comedy defined by darkness and delusions. Russell Brand has been in the comedy spotlight for over ... Russell Brand: A career in comedy defined by darkness and delusions. Complaints over Sachsgate reached 55,000 and led to the ...
Find tickets for Extraordinary Popular Delusions showing at the Beat Kitchen - Chicago, US Monday Jul 29, 7:00PM Tickets ... if you are coming here wondering what extraordinary popular delusions might be and/or why you might consider liking us;... ... if you are coming here wondering what extraordinary popular delusions might be and/or why you might consider liking us;... ...
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Hysteria and Paranoia feature heavily on this episode as we look at the history of popular delusions medieval conspiracy ...
Drugs often used to treat elderly patients with dementia-related aggression and delusions can raise their risk of death, ... Dementia Drugs May Cause Aggression And Delusions. ... Tagged With: delusions, Drugs. Contact Form. FREE CASE ...
... and how can it help free us from self-delusion? Rabbi Rami Shapiro reflects upon his own experience with food addiction to… ... There is nothing you can do to choose sobriety; all you can do is not choose the delusion of addiction. If you choose not to ... What is "inner sobriety," and how can it help free us from self-delusion? Rabbi Rami Shapiro reflects upon his own experience ... Sobriety, as I understand it, is being free from delusion. When Im caught in the grips of my addiction, compulsive eating is ...
"Dream Delusions" was mixed in my old studio, where I was pretty aware of the translatability of my room. Since Ive had a new ... When describing "Dream Delusions" to us previously, you labeled it as deep and groovy. How important is a groove to you in your ... As part of this months XLR8R+ edition, Jamaica Suk is releasing her new track, "Dream Delusions". We met up with her for a ... Download the Live Set to Jamaica Suk "Dream Delusions" here*. *Requires a Live 11 Suite license or the free trial. ...
... We didnt "lose" in Afghanistan. We "not-won." Or something. ...
Home Blogs Asian Chemical Connections Iron Ore and Petrochemicals Share The Same Delusions ... Iron Ore and Petrochemicals Share The Same Delusions. China, Company Strategy, Polyolefins ...
... The Mississippi Scheme. by Charles Mackay ... The Prince de Carignan made enormous profits while the delusion lasted. Each tent was let at the rate of five hundred livres a ... All those suspected of illegal profits at the time the public delusion was at its height, were sought out and amerced in heavy ... The extraordinary avidity of the people kept up the delusion; and the higher the price of Indian and Mississippi stock, the ...
I did not realize living in one environment, such as an urban one; or living in another, say, rural locale, had anything to do with something as foundational as ideology (foundational may not be the best descriptor, but I could not conjure a better word). People who choose one over the other generally have PREFERENCES, based on utility; economics; comfort zone; and/or other more-or-less practical considerations. Par exemple, (French: for example): I like rurality and so does my wife, but it is impractical from the standpoint of access to professional healthcare. We are older and things tend to breakdown---us included. Speaking for ourselves only, country living vs. city living is not an ideology in any way, shape or form. For those for whom it is so, I say bully and bravo for them! To anyone who feels bankrupted by Amazon: my sympathies. ...
Delusions Again (Duncan Bowsman; 12-Mar-2011; Z-code). *Release 1 / Serial number 110312 / Inform 7 build 6E72 (I6/v6.31 lib 6/ ... Retrieved from "https://www.ifwiki.org/index.php?title=Delusions_Again&oldid=87962" ...
The delusion of the rock is perfectly reflected in the delusion of an aesthetic praxis that renders the grounds of its symbolic ... Delusions of Revolt: notes on the limits of aesthetic praxis. By valueform, 14 May 2012. Politics / Artivism / Connecting ... which I hope now can be fully understood as the basis of the delusion that is occurring here. ...
Seriously, there are a lot of people that just dont *get it*, they call ME a racist because I take issue with ILLEGALS, no RACE mentioned, I take issue will ALL Illegals, and yet, they cant show me where ILLEGAL is a RACE, I had always assumed it was an action of lawlessness, but hey, they want to keep throwing the *race card* and making it mean nothing, actually, less than nothing, thats good too ...
... By Ken Silva pastor-teacher on Aug 12, 2008 in AM Missives, Current Issues, Dallas Willard, ... Ill be coming back to Dallas Willard and his delusions of disciplines another time; however, for now I also point out that ... An Unbiblical Approach And Delusion Of Innate Human Potential. I will close for now with the following from DeWaays article ... mysticism always leads those who indulge in it to the delusion of a distorted love for mankind, i.e. the self (see-2 Timothy 3: ...
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  • Sometimes, delusions happen together with hallucinations. (healthline.com)
  • For example, people with confusion due to a drug interaction sometimes have hallucinations, and people with mood extremes may have delusions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hallucinations and delusions become more complex and elaborate with increasing age. (medscape.com)
  • I listen to and read so many stories about dissatisfaction of a person's time in Thailand, but underneath the story I can see all the delusions of grandeur these people had. (stickmanbangkok.com)
  • A bizarre and grandiose delusion: persecution of a goddess using social media and microbots. (appi.org)
  • Someone with a somatic delusion believes that there's something wrong with their body. (healthline.com)
  • The literature on several classes of content-specific delusions (misidentification, sexual, and somatic) is critically reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • [ 8 ] suggest abandoning 3 the diagnostic terms trichotillomania, delusions of parasitosis, and neurotic excoriation, which they believe have become barriers to treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Grandiose and paranoid delusions are the most common in bipolar disorder. (healthline.com)
  • A few other factors cause people with bipolar disorder to have delusions. (healthline.com)
  • In his mid-30s, beset by grandiose delusions and week-long typing frenzies, he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. (bphope.com)
  • We come to Thailand with an illusion (which generally is a delusion) of what our new life will be and when reality sets in, no one seems to wise up. (stickmanbangkok.com)
  • Having delusions can be a condition of its own, called delusional disorder. (healthline.com)
  • This can inspire research on the affective and motivational processes supporting delusions in clinical conditions such as in psychosis , neurological disorders , and delusional disorder . (bvsalud.org)
  • Delusions of parasitosis occur primarily in white middle-aged or older women, although the condition has been reported in all age groups and in men. (medscape.com)
  • Some beliefs seem more plausible and can be difficult to identify as delusions because they could occur or have occurred in real life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hysteria and Paranoia feature heavily on this episode as we look at the history of popular delusions medieval conspiracy theories and the watchful. (mysteriousuniverse.org)
  • Delusions are fixed false beliefs that people hold despite evidence to the contrary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Contemporary research has shown that delusions are often the product of identifiable neurologic disease, particularly when the delusions have a specific theme or are confined to one topic--monosymptomatic or content-specific delusions. (nih.gov)
  • Lesions of the frontal lobes and the right hemisphere are shown to be critical to the development and persistence of many content-specific delusions. (nih.gov)
  • Delusions of parasitosis (DoP) manifest in the patient's firm belief that he or she has pruritus due to an infestation with insects. (medscape.com)
  • The model proposes that, when the values at stake are high (as often it is the case in the context of delusion ), a belief might be endorsed because rejecting it is evaluated as too costly, even if the belief is less accurate. (bvsalud.org)
  • In such cases, a belief can be identified as a delusion by how strongly people hold the belief despite evidence to the contrary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Unlike any other resource currently available, Decoding Delusions proposes an approach that supports the exploration of extreme beliefs with the aim not only of distress reduction but also meaningful recovery. (appi.org)
  • The review demonstrates that when adequate diagnostic workups are conducted, a high proportion of such delusions are found to have a neurologic basis. (nih.gov)
  • Below are a few examples of what someone might say or believe with each type of delusion. (healthline.com)
  • Examples include delusions in forensic settings and use of remote technologies such as Zoom and digital media for measurement-based care. (appi.org)
  • Delusions are beliefs that aren't based on reality. (healthline.com)
  • Much more arrogance needs to be cracked before Israelis start seeing reality rather than delusions. (opednews.com)
  • Download Delusions Again.zblorb ( dead link 🔍 ) from Textfyre . (ifwiki.org)
  • For the first time, Decoding Delusions gathers the literature and treatment guidance materials related to delusions in one place to offer clinicians an up-to-date, culturally informed, and illustrated guide to managing the spectrum of delusions and other extreme beliefs encountered in daily practice. (appi.org)
  • Someone with paranoid or persecutory delusions thinks that other people are trying to hurt them, despite having no proof that this is happening. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors don't know exactly why some people develop delusions. (healthline.com)
  • This is inner sobriety: the inner clarity that comes from wiping our minds free from the delusion of separation that pits self against other, us against them, people against planet. (spiritualityhealth.com)
  • Other people think that song lyrics or newspaper articles contain messages that refer specifically to them (called a delusion of reference). (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Part I, chapter authors define and assess delusions, examining the current research literature into their linguistic and cultural aspects, as well as the history of their treatment. (appi.org)
  • Erotomania and sexual delusions. (appi.org)
  • In Part III, the chapter authors explore the management of delusions in specific settings. (appi.org)
  • Sometimes grandiose delusions involve religious beliefs. (healthline.com)
  • The "glass delusion" was a regularly recorded condition in early modern Europe, especially between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Indeed, what Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985) and Technopoly (1992) were to early discussions about information technology and culture, Morozov's Net Delusion is to modern debates about the Net and political change. (techliberation.com)
  • According to Burton, the glass delusion was one way in which melancholy-induced fear manifested. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Therefore, the glass delusion was rooted in melancholy, and more specifically, in the single-minded devotion to intellectual pursuits. (psychologytoday.com)
  • By turns a metafictional farce and a coming-of-middle-age story, The Bob Delusion is a novel about the stories we tell ourselves that make us who we are. (fictionaut.com)
  • Fears of broken buttocks, shattered arms, and fragile heads were so common that the delusion almost seemed like an epidemic . (psychologytoday.com)
  • Although these delusions are considered rare, some of them can be found at high rates in certain populations and settings. (nih.gov)
  • [ 4 ] finding the term useful for building a therapeutic alliance with patients with delusions of parasitosis. (medscape.com)
  • European researchers reported a series of 148 delusions of parasitosis patients. (medscape.com)
  • Delusions are present in approximately 60% of patients. (medscape.com)