Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).American Civil War: 1861-1865 conflict between the Union (Northern states) and the 11 Southern states that seceded and were organized as the Confederate States of America.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Myelin P0 Protein: A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Rats, Inbred F344Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.PyrazinesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
... s (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) are part of a superfamily of enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular detoxification. The primary role of GSTs is to catalyse the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with the electrophilic centers of a wide variety of molecules. GSTs are widely distributed in aerobic bacteria and are classified into several classes. GSTs are not detected in anaerobic bacteria or archaea. In bacteria, GSTs are involved in a variety of distinct processes such as biotransformation of toxic compounds, protection against several stresses and antibacterial drug resistance. Glutathione Glutathione S-transferase Fosfomycin Rossjohn J, Polekhina G, Feil SC, Allocati N, Masulli M, Di Ilio C, Parker MW (1998) A mixed disulfide bond in bacterial glutathione transferase: functional and evolutionary implications. Structure 6 721-734. Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR (2005). "Glutathione transferases". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 45: 51-88. ...
A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). They are involved in hundreds of different biochemical pathways throughout biology, and are integral to some of life's most important processes. Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. Transferases are also utilized during translation. In this case, an amino acid chain is the functional group transferred by a peptidyl transferase. The transfer involves the removal of the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the ...
Guanylyl transferases are enzymes that transfer a guanosine mono phosphate group, usually from GTP to another molecule, releasing pyrophosphate. Many eukaryotic guanylyl transferases are capping enzymes that catalyze the formation of the 5' cap in the co-transcriptional modification of messenger RNA. Because the 5' end of the RNA molecule ends in a phosphate group, the bond formed between the RNA and the GTP molecule is an unusual 5'-5' triphosphate linkage, instead of the 3'-5' linkages between the other nucleotides that form an RNA strand. In capping enzymes, a highly conserved lysine residue serves as the catalytic residue that forms a covalent enzyme-GMP complex. The transfer RNA (tRNA) for histidine is unique among eukaryotic tRNAs in requiring the addition of a guanine nucleotide before being aminoacylated by the histidine tRNA synthetase. The yeast guanylyl transferase specific to tRNAHis is unique in being the only known non-tRNA synthetase enzyme that specifically recognizes the tRNA ...
Homa ya manjano husababisha maambukizi 200,000 na vifo 30,000 kila mwaka,[2] takriban asilimia 90 ya hayo yakitokea barani Afrika.[4]. Karibu bilioni moja ya watu wanaishi katika eneo la dunia mahali ugonjwa huo ni wa kawaida.[2] Inapatikana sana katika maeneo ya tropiki Amerika Kusini na Afrika, lakini si Asia.[5][2]. Tangu miaka ya 1980, idadi ya kesi za homa ya manjano zimekuwa zikiongezeka.[6][2] Hii inaaminika ni kwa sababu watu wachache wana kingamwili, watu wengi wakiishi kwa miji, na watu wanaosafiri kila mara, na mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa.[2]. Ugonjwa ulianzia barani Afrika, ambapo ulisambaa Amerika Kusini kupitia biashara ya utumwa katika karne ya 17.[1] Tangu karne ya 17 milipuko ya ugonjwa umetokea Marekani, Afrika na Uropa.[1] Katika karne za 18 na 19, homa ...
Gall Botwliaeth ledu mewn sawl ffordd. Mae'r sborau bacteriol sy'n ei achosi yn gyffredin yn y pridd a'r dŵr. Maent yn cynhyrchu'r tocsin botulinwm pan fyddant yn agored i lefelau ocsigen isel a thymereddau penodol. Mae botwliaeth a gludir gan fwyd yn digwydd pan fydd bwyd sy'n cynnwys y tocsin yn cael ei fwyta. Mae botwliaeth babanod yn digwydd pan fydd y bacteria'n datblygu yn y coluddyn ac yn rhyddhau'r tocsin. Mae hyn fel arfer yn digwydd yn unig mewn plant llai na chwe mis oed, wrth i fecanweithiau diogelu ddatblygu ar ôl y cyfnod hwnnw. Canfyddir botwliaeth clwyf yn fwyaf aml ymhlith y rhai sy'n chwistrellu cyffuriau stryd. Yn y sefyllfa hon, mae sborau'n mynd i mewn i glwyf, ac yn absenoldeb ocsigen, maent ynryddhau'r tocsin. Nid yw'n cael ei basio yn uniongyrchol rhwng pobl. Cadarnheir y diagnosis trwy ddod o hyd i'r tocsin neu'r bacteria yn yr unigolyn dan sylw. ...
Yn yr hen eglwys, a gysegrir i'r santes, gellir gweld creirfa Melangell, sydd wedi ei hail-adeiladu wedi iddi gael ei dinistrio adeg y Diwygiad Protestannaidd ac sy'n un o'r esiamplau gorau o'i fath ym Mhrydain ac yn unigryw yn ei chynllun. Ceir cerfluniau o sgwarnogod ar ysgrîn y Grog. Codwyd yr adeilad bresennol yn y 12g. Ychwanegodd cell haner gron a elwir "Cell y Bedd" ar seiliau o'r 10fed canrif yn yr 20ed canrif. Credir fod Melangell wedi claddu yno. Amgylchynir yr eglwys gan llan fawr sy'n cynnwys coed yw hynafol, rhai ononynt yn fwy na 2000 oedsy'n awgrymu fod y safle yn gyn-Gristnogol.[1] Roedd yr eglwys yn gyrchfan boblogaidd i bererinion yn yr Oesoedd Canol. Gyda twf mewn diddordeb yn yr amgylfyd yn ail haner yr ugeinfed canrif daeth Melangell yn santes poblogaidd unwaith eto yng Nghymru fel nawdd santes bywyd gwyllt a'r amgylchfyd naturiol.[1] Yn ddiweddar mae Cyngor Sir Powys wedi creu llwybr "Pererindod Melangell" yn arwain yno.[3] ...
Y prif brosesau sy'n cymryd rhan yn natblygiad embryonig anifeiliaid yw: rhagnodi rhanbarthol, morffogenesis, gwahaniaethu gan gelloedd, twf, a rheolaeth gyffredinol o amseru. Mae rhagnodi rhanbarthol yn cyfeirio at y prosesau sy'n creu'r patrwm gofodol a geir mewn pelen neu daflen o gelloedd sydd yr un fath cyn datblygu. Dyw camau cyntaf rhagnodi rhanbarthol ddim yn creu celloedd â gwahaniaethau gweithredol, ond yn hytrach creir poblogaethau o gelloedd wedi ymrwymo i ffurfio rhan penodol o'r organeb. Mae'r rhain yn cael eu diffinio gan gyfuniadau o ffactorau trawsgrifio penodol yn cael eu troi ymlaen. Mae morffogenesis yn ymwneud â sut mae siapau tri-dimensiwn yn cael eu ffurfio. Mae'n cynnwys y trefniant a geir mewn symudiadau celloedd yn unigol ac mewn taflenni. Mae'n bwysig ar gyfer creu tri haen germ cynnar yr embryo (yr ectoderm, y mesoderm a'r endoderm) ac ar gyfer adeiladu strwythurau cymhleth yn ystod datblygiad organau. Mae gwahaniaethu gan gelloedd yn cyfeirio'n benodol at sut ...
Rhwydwaith o gelloedd sydd wedi arbenigo mewn trosglwyddo a phrosesu gwybodaeth o fewn anifail a'i amgylchedd yw'r system nerfol. Mae'n prosesu'r wybodaeth gan achosi ymatebion mewn rhannau eraill o'r corff. Fe'i gwnaed allan o niwronau a chelloedd eraill arbenigol, sef glia, sy'n cynorthwyo'r niwronau i weithio. Caiff y system nerfol ei rannu yn fras yn ddau gategori: y system nerfol ymylol a'r system nerfol ganolog. Mae niwronau yn cynhyrchu ac yn dargludo ysgogiadau rhwng y ddwy system. Y niwronau synhwyro a'r niwronau eraill sy'n eu cysylltu gyda llinynnau'r nerf, madruddyn y cefn (asgwrn cefn) a'r ymennydd yw'r system nerfol canolig. Llinynnau'r nerf, madruddyn y cefn a'r ymennydd yw'r system nerfol ganolog. Mae niwronau synhwyro, mewn ymateb i ysgogiadau, yn cynhyrchu a lledaenu negeseuon i'r system nerfol ganolog, sydd yn prosesu a dargludo'r signalau yn ôl i'r cyhyrau a'r chwarennau. Mae'r niwronau yn systemau nerfol anifeiliad yn cysylltu mewn ffurf gymhleth, ac yn defnyddio negeseuon ...
Duw rhyfel ym mytholeg Roeg oedd Ares (Hen Roeg: Ἄρης). Roedd yn un o'r Deuddeg Olympiad ac yn fab i Zeus a Hera.[1] Mewn gwirionedd roedd yn dduw ffyrnigrwydd a chreulondeb rhyfel, tra'r oedd ei hanner chwaer, Athena, yn dduwies strategaeth mewn rhyfel. Mae'n cyfateb i'r duw Mawrth yn y traddodiad Rhufeinig. Ei gymdeithion mewn rhyfel oedd Deimos, "dychryn", a Phobos "ofn", yn ôl un chwedl ei feibion oeddynt, yn deillio o'i garwriaeth ag Aphrodite. Roedd Eris, duwies anghydfod, yn chwaer iddo. Yn ôl un chwedl, roedd ganddo fab, Cycnus (Κύκνος), a geisiodd adeiladu teml a phenglogau ac esgyrn teithwyr yr oedd wedi eu lladd. ...
Cyfansoddyn cemegol halocromig ("halochromic chemical compound") a ychwanegir bob yn dipyn i hydoddiant yw dangosydd pH er mwyn penderfynu beth yw ei pH: asid ynteu alcali. Detector neu ganfodydd cemegol ydyw, felly, sy'n dangos bodolaeth ionau Hydrogen (H+) yn y model Arrhenius. Fel arfer, mae'r dangosydd yn newid lliw'r hydoddiant, yn dibynnu ar y pH. Mae sylwedd gyda gwerth o 7.0 neu ragor yn alcali, a pH o 7.0 neu fwy yn asidig. Mae hydoddiant o 7.0 yn cael ei gyfri yn niwtral. ...
Mae'r nerf optig, sydd hefyd yn cael ei adnabod fel nerf creuanol II, yn nerf cyplysedig sy'n anfon gwybodaeth weledol o'r retina i'r Ymennydd. Mewn bodau dynol, mae'r nerf optig yn tarddu o goesynnau optig yn ystod seithfed wythnos datblygiad y ffoetws, ac wedi'i gyfansoddi o acsonau celloedd ganglion retinaidd a chelloedd glial; mae'n ymestyn o'r disg optig i'r ciasma optig ac yn parhau wrth i'r llwybr optig i'r niwclews gliniog ochrol, niwclei pretectaidd, a'r uwch goliciwlws.[1][2] ...
Math o indrawn sy'n ffrwydro o'r cnewyllyn ac yn chwyddo wrth gael ei wresogi yw popgorn. Americanwyr Brodorol oedd y cyntaf i ddarganfod y gellid popio indrawn, a daeth popgorn yn boblogaidd fel byrbryd yn yr Unol Daleithiau yn ystod y Dirwasgiad Mawr, yn enwedig mewn sinemâu. ...
Cafodd ei geni yn Lerpwl, yn ferch y diplomydd George Browne. Roedd hi'n byw ger Abergele. Priododd Capten Alfred Hemans yn 1812. ...
... ya kalb, ya khanzeer, ya erd, ya 7omar etc, etc. ...
Please note: I reserve the right to delete comments that are offensive or off-topic. ... And Im sure I can say for everyone who reads you, "Weve missed ya!!" ... Jon Kalb. says: May 8, 2010 at 7:52 pm Dude! Must have more notice. I would totally have been there. ...
Didnt know KALB, so the crosses were necessary there. ELSA Martinelli was a real yeah baby or DOD in her day, and maybe ... I signed up to play with some moms in New Jersey, ya know - just for fun once a week - and I was the only one there who thought ... Please delete the apostrophe on Mondays. Im sure that was a typo.. :). ... Fast, easy Monday with a crisp theme and for me, no knowledge gaps except for Marvin KALB, which filled in with crosses.. No ...
24A: "See ya, idiot"? ("So long, ass") - this one killed me. Base phrase is a conditional phrase ... really hard for me to pick ... 1A: Former "Meet the Press" moderator Marvin (Kalb) - total WTF to me (see also the next Across, ULTIMA Thule). ... Wanted DELE. Then wanted it again at 18A: Takes out (dates).. Next trouble spot was the upper SE, specifically where DIABOLO ( ...
Ya ~! vocative particle; used when calling [to] someone by name. Ya MuadDib! MuadDib!/O MuadDib!. Grammar Note. To modify ... kalb (kilab) dog (dogs); kalba (kalbat) bitch (bitches). khara feces, shit. kus (kusat) vagina, the sea-word. lam + imperfect ...
Cialis belongs as a time to progressive © found huge to ya of person % to the Exercise. Cialis is as a PDE5 email and is the ... How to delete UK hundreds and service( UKVI) from temperature and outside the UK. They hope authentic, pregnant minutes that ... INDIANA: Adams, Allen, Benton, Cass, De Kalb, Elkhart, Fulton, Huntington, Jasper, Kosciusko, La Porte, Lagrange, Lake, ... form and mouth ya. Zithromax throat treatment after dieting problems. updates iv using my state. Zithromax conference treatment ...
Ya Carbohydrate Chemistry: process pope news original. Como le eagle filters structures al giveaway! FUNCIONA No se quita la ... Another atmosphere to delete stabilising this same-sex in the art is to enjoy Privacy Pass. (24). ... KALB( 470)Albenga, Savona( Villanova dAlbenga Intl( C. KFLL( 3,087)Fort McMurray, Alberta( Fort McMurray) - CYMM( 324)Fort ... For the engd product to delete, we should ever create central Reuelacion power in prima tubes among financial world traduicts. ...
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; Souza, Ligia Cristina Kalb; Pinho, Rosana Elisa Goncalves Goncalves; Lima, Carla Vanessa de ... Estas alteraciones son probablemente relacionado con el proceso de división celular, ya que las células con 3 o 4 núcleos se ... Embora vários marcadores moleculaes tenham sido descritos nas ultimas décadas nenhum deles tem sido proposto como uma ...
Con ya cincuenta y cuatro guías en inglés, y otros idiomas inclusive, en su mayoría traducidas al español, se facilita su aseso ... Atualmente, cinquenta e quatro guias em inglês, a maioria deles traduzidos para o espanhol, são fornecidos gratuitamente a ... Wainberg, Sheila Kalb. São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 140 p. tab, graf. ...
Go ahead and delete if you want to take the easy way out. I dont know what school of dialogue youre informed by, but in my ... Turnabout (Jim Kalbs blog) Conservative Thought Journals *Claremont Review of Books *City Journal ... Who ya gonna call?. GHOSTBUSTERS!. Posted by J , February 1, 2010 4:26 PM ... I know youll probably delete this too, but at least Ive tried to make a Catholic out of you. I tried to make you listen to ...
Bernard Kalb, former correspondent for the New York Times, CBS News and NBC News, moderator of CNNs Reliable Sources and ... Lisa Dayleys YA historical fiction book, The Frozen Trail, has sold thousands of copies since its publication in July, 2011, ... Oh, and by the way, she wrote, dont respond to this or write me again because I will delete your emails without reading them. ...
Con ya cincuenta y cuatro guías en inglés, y otros idiomas inclusive, en su mayoría traducidas al español, se facilita su aseso ... Atualmente, cinquenta e quatro guias em inglês, a maioria deles traduzidos para o espanhol, são fornecidos gratuitamente a ... Wainberg, Sheila Kalb. São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 140 p. tab, graf. ...
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Vance Sant Kalb III. *Vaughn A. MacPhail Sr. *Verlinden. *Vicente Ocete Moguel ... Johnny Ya Ya. *Jon Billings. *Jon C. Rogers. *Jon Minard. *Jon Ross Art ... Marcus Deleo. *Marcus Grebe. *MarioMaker. *Mark Alvarado - Scale Model Works. *Mark Bradley ...
Just saw this blog post at the VERY establishment Telegraph site and I think someone is stealing ya ideas Mark!. http://blogs. ... James Kalb "Out of the antiworld". *Edward Feser "The metaphysics of conservatism" ...
Please delete a wrought guidelines health plan with a passionate address; contain some truisms to a original or neurologic text ... in the ipv6 East Germany and to some ya in Russia, though there used a other position in Britain. The factors Do a acid of ... Kalb, 2016). ... find the tongue package fast to delete it. We are a call in ... If the productivity is involved in a final fault or chance very this could delete British engineers. During steep format the ...

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  • Freelance writer and editor Deborah Kalb interviews a wide range of authors-fiction, nonfiction, children's-including writers on Jewish themes, on her blog, Deborah Kalb Books . (writekidsbooks.org)
  • All of the books look good but the one that is going on my TBR is A Fatal Finale by Kathleen Marple Kalb. (literaryfeline.com)
  • GOP U.S. Rep. Kinzinger Tells Trump to Delete His Twitter Account - Republican U.S. Rep. Adam Kinzinger had a five word message for President Donald Trump when he retweeted a link to a video from the White House in which th. (blogspot.com)
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