Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Material prepared from plants.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Relating to the size of solids.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.

A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (1/2488)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. (2/2488)

PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved.  (+info)

Down-regulation models and modeling of testosterone production induced by recombinant human choriogonadotropin. (3/2488)

Chorionic gonadotropin (CG) is a glycoprotein hormone, whose action is mediated by the luteinizing hormone/CG receptor. Testosterone concentrations from six pituitary-desensitized, healthy male volunteers were obtained after four different administrations of recombinant-human CG (rhCG). We present a modeling study to provide a possible explanation for the observations that increased exposure to rhCG induces higher and then lower testosterone concentrations and that marked rebound effects are observed at the end of repeated administration of rhCG. We used semimechanistic models (in which flexible functions represent unknown parts of the models) to identify the relationship of rhCG concentrations to the testosterone levels. Based on the results obtained with the semimechanistic models, different mechanistic down-regulation models were devised and tested. The final model uses a one-compartment model to describe the endogenous production rate of testosterone; rhCG affects the production rate with a mechanism consistent with a two-site binding site, with effect proportional to one-site bound concentration. The modeling results indicate that when rhCG concentration increases, the testosterone production rate increases to 45 times the baseline value. However, at an rhCG concentration of more than about 30 IU/liter, the production rate decreases. Simulations showed that both dose and dosing interval profoundly influence testosterone response to rhCG.  (+info)

Use of long-acting depot progestogen in domililiary family planning. (4/2488)

Medroxyprogesterone acetate injections have been used as a long-term contraceptive by the domiciliary family planning service in Glasgow. The injections were particularly useful in women with a high risk of becoming pregnant and in whom oral or intrauterine contraception had failed or was unacceptable. The optimum dose was 200 mg every 15-16 weeks. It was accepted by an increasing proportion of women, only 12 out of 162 discontinuing because of side effects. Continuation rates compared favourably with those for the pill, but less well than those for intrauterine contraceptive devices. The theoretical hazards should be weighed against the positive good resulting from controlled fertility in domiciliary patients.  (+info)

A comparison of three gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues in an in-vitro fertilization programme: a prospective randomized study. (5/2488)

The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) has resulted in improved pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. Traditionally, short-acting analogues have been employed because of concerns over long-acting depot preparations causing profound suppression and luteal phase defects adversely affecting pregnancy and miscarriage rates. We randomized 60 IVF patients to receive a short-acting GnRHa, nafarelin or buserelin, or to receive a depot formulation, leuprorelin, all commenced in the early follicular phase and compared their effects on hormonal suppression and clinical outcome. We found that on day 15 of administration there was a significant difference in the suppression of oestradiol from initial concentrations, when patients on buserelin were compared with patients on nafarelin or leuprorelin (54 versus 72 and 65%; P < 0.05) and also in the number of patients satisfactorily suppressed, (80 versus 90 and 90%; P < 0.05), though there were no differences between the analogues by day 21. Similarly there was no difference in hormonal suppression during the stimulation phase or in implantation, pregnancy or miscarriage rates in comparing the three agonists. We conclude that with nafarelin and leuprorelin, stimulation with gonadotrophins may begin after 2 weeks of suppression and that long-acting GnRHa are as effective as short-acting analogues with no detrimental effects on the luteal phase.  (+info)

A cortisol suppression dose-response comparison of budesonide in controlled ileal release capsules with prednisolone. (6/2488)

AIM: To assess the systemic effect of oral budesonide, given as Entocort controlled ileal release capsules, over a dose range of 3-15 mg/day, compared with that of a moderate dose (20 mg/day) of prednisolone. METHODS: Twenty four healthy subjects were given 3, 9 or 15 mg budesonide or 20 mg prednisolone once daily, or 4.5 mg budesonide b.d., or placebo for 5 days in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma cortisol concentration and the amount of cortisol excreted in the urine were monitored. RESULTS: Both plasma and urine cortisol suppression showed a dose-response for the daily doses of budesonide. Prednisolone, 20 mg, suppressed plasma cortisol (AUC) statistically significantly more than 15 mg budesonide (P = 0.014), and 3 mg budesonide statistically significantly more than placebo (P = 0.010). No difference in AUC was detected between 9 mg and 4.5 mg budesonide b.d. Similar results for budesonide vs. placebo were obtained from urine cortisol excretion data. However, prednisolone affected urine cortisol less than it affected plasma cortisol. CONCLUSION: After 5 days of administration, budesonide controlled ileal release capsules, in both clinical (9 mg/day) and high doses (15 mg/day), affected plasma cortisol less than a moderate (20 mg/day) dose of prednisolone.  (+info)

Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission? (7/2488)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of sulphasalazine and mesalazine in preventing relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis is well known. It is less clear how long such maintenance should be continued, and if the duration of disease remission is a factor that affects the risk of recurrence. AIM: To determine whether the duration of disease remission affects the relapse rate, by comparing the efficacy of a delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol, Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy) against placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis with short- and long-duration of disease remission. METHODS: 112 patients (66 male, 46 female, mean age 35 years), with intermittent chronic ulcerative colitis in clinical, endoscopic and histological remission with sulphasalazine or mesalazine for at least 1 year, were included in the study. Assuming that a lower duration of remission might be associated with a higher relapse rate, the patients were stratified according to the length of their disease remission, prior to randomization into Group A (Asacol 26, placebo 35) in remission from 1 to 2 years, or Group B (Asacol 28, placebo 23) in remission for over 2 years, median 4 years. Patients were treated daily with oral Asacol 1.2 g vs. placebo, for a follow-up period of 1 year. RESULTS: We employed an intention-to-treat analysis. In Group A, whilst no difference was found between the two treatments after 6 months, mesalazine was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing relapse at 12 months [Asacol 6/26 (23%), placebo 17/35 (49%), P = 0.035, 95% Cl: 48-2.3%]. In contrast, in Group B no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatments, either at 6 or 12 months [Asacol 5/28 (18%), placebo 6/23 (26%), P = 0.35, 95% Cl: 31-14%] of follow-up. Patients in group B were older, and had the disease and remission duration for longer, than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Mesalazine prophylaxis is necessary for the prevention of relapse by patients with ulcerative colitis in remission for less than 2 years, but this study casts doubt over whether continuous maintenance treatment is necessary in patients with prolonged clinical, endoscopic and histological remission, who are at very low risk of relapse.  (+info)

Generic drug product equivalence: current status. (8/2488)

This activity is designed for healthcare professionals involved in the selection of multisource drug products. GOAL: To understand the basis for approval of generic drug products by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the criteria employed by the Food and Drug Administration to approve generic drug products. 2. Discuss controversial issues that have been raised relative to generic drug products. 3. Identify narrow therapeutic index drugs. 4. Describe the different types of bioequivalence studies that are required by the Food and Drug Administration. 5. Discuss the responsibilities underlying the selection of multisource drug products by healthcare professionals.  (+info)

An Intra-Articular, Extended-Release Formulation of Triamcinolone Acetonide Prolongs and Amplifies Analgesic Effect in Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: a Randomized Clinical ...
The present invention is a method and a dosage unit for delivery of a controlled-release system. The dosage unit is a quick dissolve unit which can be prepared by mixing uncured shearform matrix and a controlled-release system, either molding or compacting a unit dosage form and curing the shearform matrix. The controlled-release systems used in the present invention include instantaneous release components, delayed release components, sustained release components, and combinations thereof.
SMi Group announces the 15th Annual Controlled Release Delivery Conference in London on March 21st - 22nd 2018. As physicians continue to request drugs which have a reduced dosage requirement, higher action times and assist in simplifying treatment schedules for patients, the focus of the pharmaceutical industry is continually moving towards innovative controlled release delivery technologies, which improve drug transport to the target.. This years event will bring together industry experts from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and biotechs to analyze and evaluate the latest advancements in Controlled Release Delivery, including the addressing formulation challenges of Abuse-Deterrent and oral lipid based Formulations, targeting controlled release delivery with Polymer Nanoparticles and how to overcome the additional challenges in controlled release delivery for pediatric medicine.. With the Oral Controlled Release Drug Delivery Technology Market expected to be worth $ 50,000 Mn in ...
Oral drug administration remains the most convenient and preferred route of delivery. However, oral extended-release drug products have not yet reached their f...
Quillivant XR was approved by the FDA in 2012 for the treatment of attention deficit disorder (ADHD or ADD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Originally developed and manufactured by NextWave Pharmaceuticals - and later acquired by Pfizer - Quillivant XR is the first once-daily extended-release formulation of liquid methylphenidate, made primarily for the one-third of children under 12 who cannot swallow pills or capsules. It is useful for people who need finely tuned dosing that only a liquid formulation can provide.. Quillivant XR delivers exactly the same medication, over much the same length of time, as other methylphenidate extended-release formulations that come in pills and capsules, such as Concerta, Ritalin LA, and so on. Quillivant XR was made available in pharmacies in January 2013. NextWave is also developing a chewable tablet formulation of methylphenidate.. If you or your child has problems taking pills and need longer-term coverage, Quillivant XR may be right for you. Talk ...
OROS-MPHs pharmacokinetic profile uses an increasing delivery of MPH over the day (ascending pharmacokinetic curve). It was designed to replace IR-MPH TID treatment. Another new long-acting formulation is Metadate CD. Metadate CD consists of capsules with two types of beads. It was designed to replace IR-MPH BID treatment. The main target of MPH in the brain is the dopamine transporter (DAT). We have an exquisitely sensitive methodology to measure DAT occupancy using C-11 Altropane and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The time course of decay of the C-11 Altropane permits repeated imaging, thus allowing documentation of the pharmacokinetics of DAT receptor occupancy ...
Description of the drug Sinutuss DM Controlled-Release and Sustained-Release Tablets. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Sinutuss DM Controlled-Release and Sustained-Release Tablets!
Description of the drug Ambi 60/580/30 Controlled-Release and Sustained-Release Tablets. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Ambi 60/580/30 Controlled-Release and Sustained-Release Tablets!
TOVIAZ 4 mg prolonged-release tablets & TOVIAZ 8 mg prolonged-release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Pfizer Limited
Buy Bupropion Online! Bupropion has been available in the United States since 1989. Initially a thrice-daily immediate-release formulation, a twice-daily sustained-release formulation followed in 1996, and, in August 2003, a once-daily extended-release formulation was introduced.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of prolonged-release and immediate-release torasemide formulations in healthy young volunteers. AU - Barbanoj, M. J.. AU - Ballester, M. R.. AU - Antonijoan, R. M.. AU - Gich, I.. AU - Pelagio, P.. AU - Gropper, S.. AU - Santos, B.. AU - Guglietta, A.. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - The major aim of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of repeated-dose administration of a prolonged-release (PR) formulation of torasemide with that of an immediate-release (IR) dosage. Sixteen volunteers received one daily dose, on four consecutive days, of 10 mg of torasemide-PR or torasemide-IR in a single-blind, two-treatment, two-period, repeated-dose, cross-over, sequence-randomized clinical trial. Blood samples were collected at various time points on day 1 (single-dose) and on day 4 (repeated-dose) and torasemide concentrations were analysed by LC/MS/MS. Diuretic effect and urine electrolytes were measured. Urinary urgency was ...
The other thing about Fampridine is that it is slow release formulation. Being slow release is critical to its mode of action and safety. The slow-release formulation prevents peak blood levels that you see when you take the standard formulation. The peak drug levels are what causes the side effects; in particular seizures. The following figure below demonstrates to you the so called pharmacokinetic* profile of immediate- and prolonged-release fampridine formulations. You can see the levels on immediate release (red) peak at over 50ng/mL and fall very quickly. The slow-release (black) have a delayed peak, which is around 20ng/mL and fall slower. What you are paying for when you buy Fampridine is the R&D that has gone into developing this slow-release preparation and the costs of doing the clinical trials and showing that the drug is relatively safe and effective. Based on this I would not recommend using other formulations of fampridine. This is why it is illegal to prescribe alternative ...
INTRODUCTION. The advantages of administering a single dose of a specific drug that is released over an extended period of time, instead of several doses, are well known to meet the pharmaceutical industry and medicinal purposes. Various drug delivery technologies have been developed to extended-release objectives, including layered tablets, osmotic pumps and use of hydrophilic matrices (HM). Since their introduction, HM systems have been of great industrial interest due to their simple manufacture to manufacture, low costs and good biocompatibility. Several different hydrocolloids are often used in extended-release formulations, such as cellulose ethers (Lapidus, Lordi, 1968), chitosan (Acartürk, 1989) scleroglucan (Alhaique et al., 1989) guar gum (Syed et al., 1998) and MSG (Cavalcanti et al., 1998). However, the major disadvantage of this type of system is that usually it does not follow a Fickian drug diffusion mechanism, producing different release profiles (Lee, 1985), showing at the same ...
The invention provides oral formulations for the treatment of cold and allergy symptoms. Each formulation combines an antihistamine, an antitussive, and/or a decongestant into one extended release composition. The invention further provides for methods of making and using such formulations, as well as for methods for preventing abuse or extraction of a single drug present in an oral extended release composition comprising two or more of an antihistamine, antitussive, and/or decongestant.
Topical steroids effectively control ocular inflammation, but are associated with the well-recognized problems of patient compliance. Injection of depot corticosteroids into sub-Tenons capsule is an established method of treating various ocular inflammatory diseases. Its prolonged therapeutic effect has provided the ophthalmologist with an alternative tool for the treatment of different diseases that may be extended to the surgical arena to modulate postoperative inflammation.. The use of topical antibiotic agents poses unique and challenging hurdles for drug delivery, especially because recent reports have suggested that the incidence of endophthalmitis may be increasing. Exploiting the permeability of the sclera, subconjunctival routes may offer a more promising alternative for enhanced drug delivery and tissue targeting compared with topical routes. In theory, the combination of an antibiotic with a steroid in a controlled-release system delivered transscleral could be feasible after ...
SMi Group announces the 15th Annual Controlled Release Delivery Conference in London on March 21st - 22nd 2018. As physicians continue to request drugs which have a reduced dosage requirement, higher action times and assist in simplifying treatment schedules for patients, the focus of the pharmaceutical industry is continually moving towards innovative controlled release delivery technologies, which improve drug transport to the target.. This years event will bring together industry experts from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and biotechs to analyze and evaluate the latest advancements in Controlled Release Delivery, including the addressing formulation challenges of Abuse-Deterrent and oral lipid based Formulations, targeting controlled release delivery with Polymer Nanoparticles and how to overcome the additional challenges in controlled release delivery for pediatric medicine.. With the Oral Controlled Release Drug Delivery Technology Market expected to be worth $ 50,000 Mn in ...
A controlled-release formulation comprising one or more distinct and discrete units located in physical juxtaposition to enable administration to a patient in need of treatment in a single dose, chara
Supernus Pharmaceuticals Inc. SUPN, -2.04% said the U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave final approval for its Oxtellar once-daily extended-release epilepsy treatment.. Shares were up 18% at $15.25 in premarket trading. Through Fridays close, the stock has more than tripled from its initial public offering price of $5.. The specialty-drug maker, which went public in May, said it is gearing up to launch Oxtellar XR in the first quarter of next year, as expected.. Supernus focuses on developing and commercializing products for diseases of the central nervous system. Its other products in development include treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.. Oxtellar--an extended-release formulation of oxcarbazepine--is indicated as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults and in children six to 17 years of age.. The FDA granted a waiver for the pediatric-study requirement for ages birth to one month and a deferral for submission of post-marketing ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative bioavailability of 2 new bead-in-capsule formulations compared to the commercial extended-release formulation (both fed and fasted) and to assess the effect of sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce on the pharmacokinetics of 5 hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT ...
Market growth can be attributed to factors such as rising incidence of neurological disorders, growing disease awareness, introduction of novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), strong government support and initiatives. Moreover, increasing R&D investment and launch of extended-release formulations are further expected to fuel the market growth. However, high cost of patented drugs, concerns over decreasing healthcare costs as part of government austerity measures, particularly in Europe and low accessibility to antiepileptic drugs in low and middle income countries, are likely to restrict the market growth.. Access this Report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/epilepsy-drugs-market-global-demand-growth-potential-opportunity-outlook-2021. Vimpat is the undisputed leading drug of Global Epilepsy Drugs Market. It has a market share of nearly 22% in 2016 and is expected that Vimpat will gain its momentum till the forecasting period. Keppra was the second highest market share taker with more ...
New Research report announced by MRFR named as Controlled Release Drug Delivery Market Research Report- Global Forecast till 2023. The report
Locally acting therapies are like a religion to Flexion Therapeutics (NSDQ:FLXN) co-founder & CEO Dr. Mike Clayman, who spent decades at Eli Lilly (NYSE:LLY) with the companys co-founder, Dr. Neil Bodick, watching promising compounds fail in late-stage trials on the heels of unanticipated safety results.. Thats part of the reason, not the whole reason but part of the reason, why the industry only has a 60% success rate in Phase III, because you cant predict what safetys going to look like if youre giving a systemically-administered product that has the potential for off-target effects, Clayman told Drug Delivery Business News.. After testing and evaluating a number of in-licensed products, Flexion began with a promising candidate that they developed internally - an extended-release formulation of triamcinolone acetonide designed to help patients with osteoarthritis manage pain.. Get the full story at our sister site, Drug Delivery Business News.. ...
sugar (HbA1c), weight and systolic blood pressure versus either medicine alone. The first trial to assess GLP-1RA/SGLT-2i combination therapy. 16 September 2016. Positive results from the Phase III DURATION-8 trial demonstrated that Bydureon (exenatide extended-release formulation) 2mg once weekly in combination with Forxiga (dapagliflozin) 10mg once daily significantly reduced blood sugar as measured by HbA1c, versus the individual medicines alone in patients with type-2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin.1. This was the first clinical trial to combine these two different anti-diabetes medicines, a GLP-1 receptor agonist and an SGLT-2 inhibitor, as an addition to standard-of-care therapy to evaluate potential benefits for patients with type-2 diabetes with inadequate glycaemic control. The results were presented today at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Munich, Germany, and simultaneously published in The Lancet Diabetes & ...
SILVER SPRING, Md. The Food and Drug Administration approved a drug to treat and prevent relapse after patients with opioid dependence have undergone detoxification treatment. Vivitrol is an extended-release formulation of naltrexone -- which works to block opioid receptors in the brain--administered by intramuscular injection once a month. It only is administered by a physician.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are well recognized as potent agents as they block all downstream prostaglandins, have a long history of safety and efficacy, and fare well in extended-release formulations. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence showing they have potential in treating cystoid macular edema, said Stephen Kim, MD. ...
Toca 511 and Toca FC is a combination drug involving a gene therapy agent and a prodrug. It is a candidate drug to treat brain cancers. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is a gene therapy agent, wherein the payload is a gene encoding cytosine deaminase (CD) in a replicating, non-lytic retroviral vector. Toca FC is an extended-release formulation of the antifungal drug, 5-fluorocytosine, which is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, a known cancer drug. 5-fluorouracil does not cross the blood-brain barrier well, but 5-fluorocytosine does. The combination drug was designed to be used after a brain tumor is removed surgically; Toca 511 is intended to be injected into the tissues lining the hole where the tumor was (this region is called the margin), where the virus replicates only in cells that are dividing - in other words, cancer cells left over in the margin and immune cells that are present. 5-fluorocytosine is then administered to the person, and is converted to 5-fluorouracil in those cells by CD ...
Contrariwise to what was proposed as a paradigm of analysis, the minimizing of peak-trough oscillations of the lively ingredient with frequent administrations of squat doses, or with extended-release formulation, superior doses spaced enough in habits could be an strategy to walk off in the expected recompense tremendously effective drugs such as PHT, but efflux pumps substrates and inducers. At the done in good time dawdle such a signal could be euphemistic pre-owned to prevent distracters (other stimuli) accessing the extraordinary plat looking for article (the site of the birth of consciousness) of the stimulus representation. FcgammaRIIA polymorphisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae contagion You are not allowed to view links. Register or Login to view. pain treatment center hartford ct. Common unnoticed abnormalities require diversify past species, but may subsume ocular trauma associated with shipping, congenital embryonic remnants such as obdurate pupillary membrane (PPM) and persistent ...
A tumor-selective non-lytic retroviral replicating vector (RRV) Toca 511 and an extended-release formulation of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) Toca FC are currently being evaluated in clinical tests in individuals with recurrent high-grade glioma (type:clinical-trial attrs :text:NCT01156584″ term_id :NCT01156584″NCT01156584 XI-006 type:clinical-trial attrs :text:NCT01470794″ term_id :NCT01470794″NCT01470794 type:clinical-trial attrs :text:NCT01985256″ term_id :NCT01985256″NCT01985256). CD/5-FC prodrug activator gene therapy could also act […]. ...
EXTENDED, DELAYED AND IMMEDIATE RELEASE FORMULATION METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AND USE THEREOF | COMBINATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONDITIONS INVOLVING MUSCULAR PAIN | Sodium Ibuprofen Tablets and Methods of Manufacturing Pharmaceutical Compositions Including Sodium Ibuprofen | METHODS, COMPOSITIONS, AND KITS FOR TREATING PAIN AND PRURITIS | NOVEL MITOCHONDRIAL UNCOUPLERS FOR TREATMENT OF METABOLIC DISEASES AND CANCER |
Here is a list of CAPSULE, FILM COATED, EXTENDED RELEASE Dosage Form pharmaceuticals (drugs) using the PulseAid Drug Finder page 1.
Eurolide 3.75Mg Depot Injection is used for Prostate Cancer, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids etc. Know Eurolide 3.75Mg Depot Injection uses, side-effects, composition, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, dosage, warnings only on Lybrate.com
Changes have been made to the CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS sections of the safety label for Innopran XL (propranolol hydrochloride) extended release capsules
Patient information for ROPINIROLE MYLAN XL 2 MG PROLONGED-RELEASE TABLETS Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Intuniv 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg Prolonged-Release Tablets. Description drugs: indications, contraindications, precautions, dosage and method of use, overdose storage conditions.
One promising new ARV belongs to a totally new class of ARVs-the capsid inhibitor, GS-CA1, which has extremely high in vitro potency. A single injection of a long-acting formulation in animals produced levels for at least 10 weeks well above those necessary to inhibit viral replication.13 Beyond GS-CA1, there are several other promising new nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) that may have the necessary potency for long-acting formulations, including EFdA,14 GS-9131,15 and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF).16 These NRTIs have the advantage that their active intracellular metabolites have very long half-lives, as they are effectively trapped within cells, thereby amplifying their levels and potency. A single oral dose of only 10 mg of EFdA in humans inhibited replication for at least 1 week,17 and studies in rats involving an implant suggested that greater than 6 months release of EFdA at adequate levels may be feasible.17 Although EFdA is only in early-stage development, ...
Summary of the evidence on aripiprazole prolonged-release suspension for injection for schizophrenia to inform local NHS planning and decision-making
Abilify Maintena 400 mg powder and solvent for prolonged-release suspension for injection - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Otsuka Pharmaceuticals (UK) Ltd
Positive Results of Pivotal Phase III Study of Pediatric Prolonged-Release Melatonin (PedPRM) for Insomnia in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to be Presented at the World Sleep Congress in Prague on October ...
Tel Aviv, Israel, March 13, 2017. Neurim Pharmaceuticals (Neurim) announced today that it has entered into a licensing agreement with Biocodex. The agreement grants Biocodex exclusive marketing rights for Neurims new Rx PedPRM in France.. Neurims age-appropriate drug is targeted to treat sleep disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurogenetic diseases. It is expected to be the first sleep drug approved for children.. Biocodex promotes Circadin®, prolonged-release melatonin 2mg indicated to treat primary insomnia in the elderly, since 2013 in France. Biocodex played a significant role in obtaining reimbursement for Circadin under a Temporary Recommendation for Use (RTU) for treating sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It was only natural that the collaboration will deepen to include PedPRM. Said Sharon Elkobi, VP Business Development of Neurim Pharmaceuticals. Additional agreements are expected to follow in order to make the new ...
Description of the drug Alavert Allergy & Sinus 12-Hour Sustained-Release Tablets. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Alavert Allergy & Sinus 12-Hour Sustained-Release Tablets!
Lanreotide depot (LD; commercial name Somatuline® Depot) is an injectable, extended-release formulation of the synthetic somatostatin analog (SSA) lanreotide. In recent clinical trials, LD was found to be suitable for self or partner administration, avoiding the need to travel to a medical facility. The Somatuline® Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) study is an ongoing, multicenter, observational study in the US investigating the efficacy, safety, convenience and symptom relief provided by LD in patients with acromegaly. Sub-analyses explore outcomes according to who administered the injection: patient, partner, healthcare provider (HCP) or a combination. Data reported here reflect one year of patient experience. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they have a diagnosis of acromegaly, are treated with LD and can give signed informed consent. Baseline data include patient demographics, previous acromegaly treatment and investigations, GH and IGF-I levels, LD dose and dose adjustment frequency. ...
A sustained-release tablet formulation should ideally have a proper release profile insensitive to moderate changes in tablet hardness that is usually encountered in manufacturing. In this study, matrix aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) tablets with ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit RS100 (RS), and Eudragit S100 (S) were prepared by direct compression. The release behaviors were then studied in two counterpart series of tablets with hardness difference of three Kp units, and compared by non-linear regression analysis. The release pattern for both the S-containing and RS-containing formulations fitted best in Higuchi model, and the proper equations were suggested. In the EC-containing formulation, Higuchi and also zero-order models were probable models for the release, and a combination equation for the release was suggested. In the S-containing formulation, the release profile was completely sensitive to the hardness change. In RS-containing series, the slope of the release graph did not change due to the
The primary goal of treatment of the patient with high blood pressure is to achieve the maximum reduction in the total risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Low-dose diuretics have been reaffirmed as evidence-based first-line therapy in a broad spectrum of patients with hypertension, especially the elderly. Decisions about the management of patients with hypertension should not be based on the level of blood pressure alone, but also on the presence of other risk factors, target-organ damage and cardiovascular disease. Recent guidelines stress the importance of using lower dosages and therapies that provide 24-hour blood pressure control with once-daily administration. Sustained release formulations offer several potential advantages in comparison to immediate release formulations. These include an improved plasma concentration-time profile and an adequately high trough:peak ratio which may therefore provide more consistent 24-hour BP reduction, with attenuation of early morning blood ...
A sustained release matrix formulation for Albuterol Sulphate was designed and developed to achieve a 12 h release profile. Using HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M as an inert matrix forming agent to control the release of Albuterol Sulphate. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in-vitro release tests were carried out for a period of 12 hours using USP dissolution test apparatus (type II Paddle) at 37±0.5°C and 50 rpm speed. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the concentration of HPMC K15M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) were selected as independent variables, whereas initial release at the (Y1, % drug release), (Y2, % drug Content) the concentration of Were chosen as dependent variables. The optimized formulation F1 follows Higuchi model and Korsemeyer - Pappas release kinetics with non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. From the study, it was concluded that the release of Albuterol Sulphate can be effectively controlled using ...
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an abuse-deterrent extended-release formulation of oxycodone (Targiniq ER, Purdue Pharma LP), a combination of oxycodone hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride, the agency announced today.. The new formulation is approved to treat pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment, for which alternative treatment options are inadequate.. It is the second extended-release/long acting (ER/LA) opioid with FDA-approved labelling describing its abuse-deterrent properties consistent with the FDAs 2013 draft guidance for industry, Abuse-Deterrent Opioids - Evaluation and Labeling , statement from the FDA notes.. The FDA is committed to combatting the misuse and abuse of all opioids, and the development of opioids that are harder to abuse is needed in order to help address the public health crisis of prescription drug abuse in the US, said Sharon Hertz, MD, deputy director of the Division of Anesthesia, ...
Between 1995 and 1999, urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence was diagnosed in 11 bitches. They had been treated with phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride at the recommended dose rate, but had shown no response or had become refractory to treatment.
Recently, a novel extended-release formulation of levodopa/carbidopa has been introduced in the US market with the name IPX066. This newly designed formulation features both the immediate and extended release properties of carbidopa/levodopa, thus it allows for both immediate and longer duration clinical benefits. IPX066 pills can be taken orally and are recommended for all PD patients.. In two clinical trials, the efficacy of IPX066 was tested in both early and advanced PD patients. In these patients, the administration of IPX066 significantly reduced the OFF-time and increased the ON-time without causing dyskinesia. No serious drug-related adverse effects were reported, although some patients experienced nausea, headache, dizziness, and insomnia.. Concurrently, another novel improved formulation of levodopa is XP21279. This drug is not available on the market as it is still in the earlier phases of clinical development. The XP21279 is a levodopa prodrug that is readily absorbed in the small ...
An extended release tablet formulation comprising pramipexole or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a matrix comprising at least one water swelling polymer other than pregelatinized starch.
COMMENT. AIM-HIGH was clearly designed to see whether intervening on atherogenic dyslipidemia with extended-release niacin would reduce the residual risk of major macrovascular events in patients treated with a high-dose statin. The trial was initially designed for a mean follow-up of 4.6 years but was prematurely stopped after 3 years because of an apparent lack of efficacy of extended-release niacin.. There were solid reasons to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release niacin in this indication. Niacin (nicotinic acid) is known to act on the two main components of atherogenic dyslipidemia, increasing HDL cholesterol levels by 20-25% and decreasing triglyceride levels by 20-30%. In the Coronary Drug Project,1 a trial conducted before the statin era, immediate-release niacin significantly decreased the rate of cardiovascular events in patients with established CVD. A reduction of cardiovascular events was also seen in patients treated with simvastatin + niacin in the HDL-Atherosclerosis ...
There is disclosed a novel sustained release granular resin-pharmaceutical composition comprising an ion exchange resin complexed with a pharmaceutical material wherein said complex is embedded into and on the surface of a diffusion barrier material. There is also disclosed a novel process for preparing the granulated complex wherein an aqueous granulating vehicle is employed to form the complex and the granulated product, thereby avoiding the use of coatings and large amounts of organic solvents in the process.
... COVENTRY R.I. May 22 2015 /-...The announcement comes just one month after Aptensio XR received appro...Aptensio XR is an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate caps...Aptensio XR can be taken with or without food. It can also be taken wh...,Rhodes,Pharmaceuticals,Announces,Launch,of,New,,Once-Daily,Treatment,for,ADHD,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Obesity continues to be a major public health concern, said Jean-Marc Guettier, M.D., director of the Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology Products in FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. When used as directed in combination with a healthy lifestyle that includes a reduced-calorie diet and exercise, Contrave provides another treatment option for chronic weight management for people who are obese or are overweight and have at least one weight-related health condition.. Contrave is a combination of two FDA-approved drugs, naltrexone and bupropion, in an extended-release formulation. Naltrexone is approved to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. Bupropion is approved to treat depression and seasonal affective disorder and as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.. The effectiveness of Contrave was evaluated in multiple clinical trials that included approximately 4,500 obese and overweight patients with and without significant weight-related conditions treated for one year. All ...
Pfizer is developing an oral, extended-release formulation of desvenlafaxine, an O-desmethylated metabolite of venlafaxine for the treatment of major depressive
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of pramipexole in the management of Parkinsons disease. AU - Antonini, Angelo. AU - Barone, Paolo. AU - Ceravolo, Roberto. AU - Fabbrini, Giovanni. AU - Tinazzi, Michele. AU - Abbruzzese, Giovanni. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - The non-ergot dopamine agonist pramipexole is currently indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinsons disease and for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary restless legs syndrome. A new extended-release formulation of pramipexole has now also been launched in Europe and the US to improve ease of use, compliance and provide a more continuous therapeutic effect over 24 hours. Before initiating any treatment, the benefit-risk ratio to the individual patient must be considered. For pramipexole in the treatment of Parkinsons disease, this means taking into account the available evidence regarding its symptomatic efficacy, effect on delaying long-term levodopa-related motor complications, beneficial effect on non-motor ...
SAYREVILLE, N.J. and MARIETTA, Ga., Feb. 4, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Vertical / Trigen Holdings, LLC (Vertical / Trigen) and Osmotica Holdings Corp Limited (Osmotica) today announced the successful completion of their previously announced combination, creating a world-class, fully-integrated specialty pharmaceutical and generics company. The combined company, which will retain the Osmotica name, is jointly owned by the owners of Vertical / Trigen and Osmotica, including Avista Capital Partners. The company will continue to offer Vertical / Trigens full portfolio of branded and generic products, as well as Osmoticas successful extended-release formulations upon achieving the required regulatory approval. Brian Markison, Healthcare Industry Executive at Avista Capital Partners and formerly Executive Chairman of Vertical / Trigen, has been appointed chief executive officer of the combined company. We are pleased to have completed this strategic combination, which brings together two highly ...
Santarus Announces Commercial Launch of UCERIS (budesonide) Extended Release Tablets New treatment for the induction of remission of active, mild to moderate ulcerative colitis SAN
Michael J. Rathbone This two volume Second Edition of Modified-Release Drug Delivery Technology describes the anatomical, physiological, pharmaceutical, and technological aspects of oral, colonic and rectal, ocular, oral mucosal, dermal and transdermal, nasal, vaginal, and pulmonary delivery routes.. Modified-Release Drug Delivery Technology provides insight and critical assessment of the many available and emerging modified release drug delivery systems for their current and future value.. Modified-Release Drug Delivery Technology is available as a 2-volume set or each volume may be purchased individually.. Contents and information on Volume One ...
CareOne Mucus Relief DM 12 Hour Extended Release Tablets found at Hannaford Supermarket. Add to online shopping list or grocery cart for Hannaford To Go.
0025-1961 : 24 Hr Flagyl ER 750 mg Extended Release Tablet - Manufactured by G.d. Searle LLC Division of Pfizer Inc - Rev. Date November 26, 1997 - MedsChat NDC Database
Further in the Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Technology Market research report, following points are included along with in-depth study of each point:. • Production Analysis- Production of the Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Technology is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. Here, price analysis of various Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Technology Market key players is also covered.. • Sales and Revenue Analysis- Both, sales and revenue are studied for the different regions of the global Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Technology Market. another major aspect, price, which plays important part in the revenue generation is also assessed in this section for the various regions.. • Supply and Consumption- In continuation with sales, this section studies supply and consumption for the Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Technology Market. This part also sheds light on the gap between supple and consumption. Import and export figures are also given in this ...
A single tablet layer having an extended release profile comparable to the release profile of a bi-layer tablet having both an immediate release and an extended release layer is prepared from a pharma
Efficacy of Guanfacine Extended Release in the Treatment of Combined and Inattentive Only Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
October 10, 2017 - release at 7:30 am CET Sophia Antipolis, France and Watertown, Mass, United States. Nicox S.A. (Euronext Paris: FR0013018124, COX), the international ophthalmic company, and pSivida Corp, (NASDAQ:PSDV) (ASX:PVA), a leader in the development of sustained release drug products and technologies, today announced their entry into a collaboration agreement to explore the potential of combining Nicoxs nitric oxide (NO)-donating compounds with pSividas bioerodible sustained release drug delivery system, to develop a sustained release drug to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.. Nicox and pSivida will collaborate on the selection of NO-donating product candidates from Nicoxs research portfolio to combine with pSividas sustained release drug technology. pSivida will be responsible for initial development activities of ocular insert formulations, for which it will receive undisclosed sums by Nicox. The companies may then elect to proceed ...
PubMed journal article: A comparative study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable therapy in schizophrenia. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The invention relates to a process for preparing a time controlled, immediate release drug delivery system for oral administration of a first active ingredient to a subject in need thereof. The invention additionally relates to a dual drug delivery device, comprising the time controlled, immediate release drug delivery system according to the invention, further comprising a spray coating comprising a testosterone.
Study drug 038 will be superior to controlled-release (CR) oxycodone on bowel function and not inferior to CR oxycodone in pain control in patients with chronic non-cancer pain ...
Pharmaceutical tablet consisting of a first layer containing one or more drugs with immediate or controlled release formulation, a second layer containing one or more drugs, either equal to or different from the first layer, with slow release formulation, and a low-permeability barrier-type layer coating said second layer or, alternatively, placed between the first and second layer and, if necessary, containing a drug.
Several new formulations and delivery methods for carbidopa-levodopa minimize off episodes.. Rytary combines immediate and extended release formulations of carbidopa/levodopa in a capsule to maintain plasma concentrations of the drug for a longer period. Concentrations peak after about 60 minutes, then stay fairly level for four to five hours before dropping.. The combination received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2015. Several clinical trial results showed more than an hour reduction in off time per day in patients taking Rytary compared to those taking immediate release carbidopa-levodopa or immediate release caridopa-levodopa plus entacapone (Stalevo). Entacapone is another drug that reduces the breakdown of levodopa, increasing and smoothing the levels of dopamine in the brain.. Using extended release/regular release combination is a reasonable option for off episodes, Duda noted.. We also use Inbrija, an orally inhaled levodopa formulation, he added. It just ...
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Darifenacin Extended-Release Tablets - description, side Effects of Darifenacin Extended-Release Tablets, dosage (Darifenacin Extended-Release Tablets), proper use of Darifenacin Extended-Release Tablets. Drugs review.
Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro release kinetics of five brands of Clonazepam tablets available in the local pharmaceutical market of Bangladesh. Methodology: In this study, five widely prescribed brands C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 were chosen. All of these brands were 0.5 mg Clonazepam with strip packaging. The dissolution was carried out using USP apparatus-II and the analysis was performed with the UV spectroscopy. To find out the release kinetics, K0 (for zero order), K1 (for first order), Kh (for Higuchi model) were determined. The R2 values for each kinetics were also determined which indicated the linearity of release kinetics for each brand. Result: The study found no brand to follow the zero-order and first order kinetics mostly except Higuchis drug release profile. The brands showing different R2 values for Higuchi Drug release profiles are C1 (R2=0.9843), C2 (R2=0.9548), C3 (R2=0.9726), C4 (R2=0.9578), C5 (R2=0.9334) which were the highest ...
Numerous therapeutic advantages are offered by sustained-release drugs, which release active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in a gradual manner.
Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral potassium chloride therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (i.e. 96 mEq per day in divided doses of potassium chloride administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance ...
Controlled drug delivery systems can include the maintenance of drug levels within a desired range, the need for fewer administrations, optimal use of the drug in question, and increased patient compliance. While these advantages can be significant, the potential disadvantages cannot be ignored like the possible toxicity or non-biocompatibility of the materials used, undesirable by-products of degradation, any surgery required to implant or remove the system, the chance of patient discomfort from the delivery device
24 Hour Diltiazem Hydrochloride 240 mg Extended Release Oral Capsule: Pill Identifier: Brown, White 1 Capsule 20 - 25mm... odict_keys([Pill Finder Wizard, Drug Ingredients, Drug Codes, References]), a Pill Identifier
Adverse effects were mild and generally gastrointestinal. Mild hypoglycaemia was noted in 28-36% of patients also receiving SU. An important result was a significant, dose-dependent and progressive weight loss of 1.6kg (SU and SU + metformin) and 2.8kg (metformin) from baseline. In open-label extensions of these studies, exenatide has been given for a total of two years with continued effects on HbA1c and body weight.39 However, some patients (about 38% of patients after 30 weeks) appear to develop low titre antibodies against exenatide, and 6% developed antibodies with higher titres. In about half of these, the glucose lowering effect of exenatide appeared attenuated. Exenatide was approved by the US Fooda and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2005. Information about the new drug - named Byetta - is available on the website of the company (www.byetta.com). Most recently, the Amylin Corporation has developed a slow-release formulation of exenatide.40 Exenatide LAR (long-acting release) is a ...
Drug delivery refers to the delivery of a pharmaceutical substance to human beings or animals. Modes of delivery include oral, nasal and rectal. However, administration of drugs through these modes may lead to terrible conditions. Therefore, physicians prefer to deliver several peptides and protein drugs through injections. To work efficiently, the drugs have to act in certain controlled manner to distribute the drug in the body. Targeted drug delivery takes place when the drugs remain active within a specific region of the body. Targeted delivery is important when the drugs need to have an effect on rapid increase of cells that lead to cancerous tissues.. Recent attempts in the area of drug delivery include, advance in intended delivery where the drugs are only active in the targeted area of the body (for instance, in cancerous tissue) and sustained-release formulations wherein the physician releases the drug over a period in a certain controlled manner. The main aim of drug development is to ...
PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM, 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE PROTONIX For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension and PROTONIX Delayed-Release Tablets are indicated for: PROTONIX is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) indicated for the following: Shor
In July, Threat conducted daily sweeps of the Baie de la Seine, necessitated by the delayed action and time-release settings of ... In April and May, she operated out of Batten Bay and conducted exercises with ships of the British Royal Navy in preparation ... While she swept channels for fire support ships in preparation for the bombardment of Cherbourg, she came under heavy fire from ... She reached Pearl Harbor on 26 May 1945 and commenced gunnery and minesweeping exercises in preparation for her new assignment ...
Bewildered by this sudden change of events, Purslane delays in taking action, not sure if she should trust Hesperus, before ... The robots Cadence and Cascade make preparations to leave on Purslane's ship. They agree to take him aboard and return him to ...
"Palestine: Statement by the Spokesperson on launching the preparations for elections". EEAS - European External Action Service ... A new date for elections should be set without delay." and "We reiterate our call on Israel to facilitate the holding of such ... "Palestinian parliamentary elections delayed, says Abbas, blaming Israel". Reuters. 29 April 2021. "Report: Abbas won't run for ... However, the elections were then delayed indefinitely. In October 2017, Hamas and Fatah signed a reconciliation deal in which ...
"Palestine: Statement by the Spokesperson on launching the preparations for elections". EEAS - European External Action Service ... Abbas's decision to delay elections sparks public outcry "Report: Abbas won't run for another term". Ynetnews. 16 December 2008 ... "Palestinian factions agree on 'mechanisms' for long-delayed polls". Al Jazeera. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021. CS1 ... "PA High Court: Municipal elections can't be delayed". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 November 2013. "Palestinian High Court ...
Further preparations were needed, so the rebellion was delayed until 22 November. The crewmen of Minas Geraes, São Paulo, the ... The former believed such an action was necessary to restore the service's honor. Late on 24 November, the President ordered the ...
Extensive preparations were undertaken by the government of Australia to prepare the Cocos Malays to vote in their referendum ... A change in government in Canberra following the March 1983 Australian elections delayed the vote by one year. While the Home ... an action that contributed to his bankruptcy.[36] John Clunies-Ross now lives in Perth, Western Australia. However, some ...
Imada said that in order to look like a rocker and not an action hero that weeks before shooting Lee went on a strict diet to ... In preparation for the fight sequence, Most described that director Proyas and Lee studied Martial arts movies. Also according ... It was meant to start shooting after his casting but was delayed until the following January. In the film, Lee plays Johnny ... The film is generally panned by critics with a few finding it to be an amusing action B movie. In the 1980s, Lee started to ...
... use of preparations to facilitate clotting, and use of preparations to constrict the blood vessels. Oils are also used in a ... In this drug, the respiratory depressant action of opium is counteracted by the respiratory stimulant property of Camphor.[61] ... as an ingredient of an aphrodisiac to delay male ejaculation.[61] It is possible that opium was brought to India along with or ... Purified opium[59] is used in eight Ayurvedic preparations[60] and is said to balance the Vata and Kapha doshas and increase ...
... use of preparations to facilitate clotting, and use of preparations to constrict the blood vessels. Oils are also used in a ... a b INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: WHO-WIPO-WTO BOOK Chapter 2: The policy context for action on innovation and access D Traditional ... as an ingredient of an aphrodisiac to delay male ejaculation.[48] It is possible that opium was brought to India along with or ... Purified opium[46] is used in eight Ayurvedic preparations[47] and is said to balance the Vata and Kapha doshas and increase ...
Early immediately made preparations for independent action. Departing Petersburg via train, the army arrived in the valley at ... Near Frederick, Maryland, the force was delayed by a full day at the Battle of Monocacy by Lew Wallace. On July 11, Early ...
The completion of the relief was delayed due to enemy action along the Calgary Highlander's front. "A" and "C" Companies ... Preparations continued on 22 February, with the operation still postponed. Finally in the early morning of 26 February, ... During this action Lance Corporal M. L. Nedohin won the Military Medal. On 23 December, the unit was relieved in place by the ... The delay this imposed meant that the Germans had time to react and deploy. "A" and "D" Companies of the South Saskatchewan ...
Mary of Hungary believed the Scottish diplomats's chief purpose was delaying English action at St Andrews. Scotland remained at ... Regent Arran made preparations for a long siege. Monasteries in Scotland were ordered to pay a tax of £6000 towards the costs ... Regent Arran was forced to delay his response as he was busy at the siege of Dumbarton Castle on the west of Scotland, which he ... The final assault was delayed, according to Knox, by waiting for the return of Arran from Langhope in the Scottish Borders and ...
By forcing the enemy ships to maneuver radically, thereby delaying Japanese preparations for a second strike. For his actions ... James C. Owens returned to Charleston on 31 January 1967, where it was updated in preparation for service along the coast of ...
The force was covered in the English Channel by seven light cruisers and 16 destroyers, none of which saw action. The assaults ... The German marines who defended the port had taken careful preparations and drove the British assault ships astray, forcing the ... on Zeebrugge and Ostend were launched on 23 April, after being twice delayed by poor weather. The Ostend force arrived off the ... port shortly before midnight and made final preparations; the monitors took up position offshore and the small craft moved ...
The action at Garnett's and Golding's Farm, fought next, was merely a set of skirmishes. Lee attacked the Union Army at the ... The bold and sweeping landing was executed with few incidents, but the Federals were delayed for about a month in the siege of ... Confederate preparations were hindered by several mishaps. Bad maps and faulty guides caused Confederate Maj. Gen. John ... This incident delayed Magruder's arrival to the battlefield for three hours. Huger, worried about clashing with Union forces ...
The presidential elections were set for 25 August, but hasty and inadequate technical preparations, concerns about fraud, and ... Because of funding problems and disagreements between the government and opposition, the elections were again delayed, this ... However, the March 2000 date passed without presidential action, and new legislative elections were ultimately rescheduled for ... In its stead, the government appointed seven magistrates to oversee preparations for legislative elections. Not surprisingly, ...
Because of funding problems and disagreements between the government and opposition, the elections were again delayed, this ... In its stead, the government appointed seven magistrates to oversee preparations for legislative elections. Not surprisingly, ... March 2000 passed without presidential action. New legislative elections were ultimately rescheduled for October 2001. ...
... the preparation of plans for the sea and land defense of the locality when used as such a base; or the preparation of plans for ... and provide limited direct action, whereas Force Reconnaissance companies perform both deep reconnaissance and direct action ... If reconnaissance is delayed, situation development will generally be more uncertain. In this case, planning and execution can ... MAGTF reconnaissance assets are best employed early to support the CCIRs and friendly course of action development and ...
The proper choice, preparation, colouring, firing, and the slip should be made on every stage of the production. The ... When the kiln was in action, it was important to control the fire, which ideally should produce a constant temperature. ... Potters were punished for delaying, smuggling, producing inferior goods, and other misconducts. Overworked and underpaid, many ... During the Xuande period (1426-35), a technical refinement was introduced in the preparation of the cobalt used for underglaze ...
Wiggins then rode the Tour de Romandie and the Giro d'Italia, as preparation for the Olympics in August.[98] At the Giro he was ... the time delay pushing him back to the back of the field. For the remainder of the race Wiggins helped Froome, who won the ... He returned to action at the Volta a Catalunya in March, finishing the race in fifth place overall, 54 seconds behind winner ... He then went for altitude training in the Alps, in preparation for the Tour.[166] He took the overall lead in the Critérium du ...
... it encountered only light resistance from Italian forces fighting delaying actions.[34] Italian and German forces resisted ... In preparation for the deployment, the division was sent to Fort Polk, Louisiana, to begin training and to fill its ranks.[93] ... consisting of 834 killed in action and 3,170 wounded in action.[94] The division was awarded four campaign streamers and one ... These small-unit actions made up the majority of the division's combat in Korea.[110] Chinese troops were well dug-in and ...
4 Bureau of Land Management actions *4.1 BLM preparations and execution *4.1.1 Involvement of state and local authorities; ... Judge delays Bunkerville trial after Las Vegas shooting, Las Vegas Review-Journal, David Ferrara, October 06, 2017, Retrieved ... 1998-2012: Legal actions[edit]. United States v. Bundy "arose out of Bundy's unauthorized grazing of his livestock on property ... BLM preparations and execution[edit]. A closure of the public lands known as Gold Butte, Mormon Mesa, and Bunkerville Flats ...
One observer was killed in action, and one plane, with its observer and pilot failed to return during the Offensive. After St. ... Movement to Remicourt was delayed until 24 September due to weather. On the 26th combat operations began supporting the 77th ... Mihiel, the squadron moved to the Remicourt Aerodrome in preparation for the next American offensive, in the Argonne Forest. ... Killed in Action A small cadre of the squadron remained at Scott Field until August 1919 when it was moved to Langley Field, ...
... offering support for military action from the start of preparations for the invasion. It followed the Afghan Civil War's 1996- ... The request was dismissed by the US as a meaningless delaying tactic, and it launched Operation Enduring Freedom on October 7, ... The SAS had to fight hard for every inch of progress.[169] The RSM in command of the FSB joined in the action, he brought ... Before the soldiers were inserted, the target area was softened up by preparatory fire from AC-130s and MH-60L Direct Action ...
... for a time the German attack threatened to delay preparations for the British attack due the next day. Some ground was captured ... The Action of 25 September 1917 took place between the Menin road and Polygon Wood as the 33rd Division was taking over from ... After delays caused by local conditions, the Battles of Ypres had begun on 31 July with the Battle of Pilckem Ridge, which was ... British preparations for the next step began immediately and both sides studied the effect of the battle and the implications ...
The search for an editor caused serious delays. It was not until 1890, the year of the society's inauguration, that Francis ... Marshall was fully supportive of their plans, but as preparations progressed, he became preoccupied in completing his ... tried to encourage Marshall to participate in discussions to finalise the society but was unable to drive Marshall to action. ... One of the reasons for the delay was Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), Professor at Cambridge. Foxwell and Palgrave were keen to ...
The rising action of the parable is the preparation for the coming of the bridegroom, but a crisis occurs when the bridegroom ... Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. But at midnight there was a cry, "Behold! The bridegroom is ... In the parable, the bridegroom has been "delayed". The parable is thus an encouragement to keep watch and stay prepared for ... Henrie, Lynda (14 July 2010). "LDS Business College Devotional - Preparation: A Learning Model Discovery". LDS Business College ...
In July, Threat conducted daily sweeps of the Baie de la Seine, necessitated by the delayed action and time-release settings of ... In April and May, she operated out of Batten Bay and conducted exercises with ships of the British Royal Navy in preparation ... On 17 January 1945, she reached Norfolk after nearly a year of action in European waters. Threat remained on the east coast for ... While she swept channels for fire support ships in preparation for the bombardment of Cherbourg, she came under heavy fire from ...
At this time the 5th Infantry Brigade's orders were changed from a holding action to a delay and withdrawal. It was in the ... In preparation for the coming attack, the Māori built their position, running out barbed and concertina wire and digging in ... The withdrawal continued, though, and on 19 April the Māori Battalion was called upon to conduct a delaying action as the rest ... For these actions, Manahi was also recommended for a Victoria Cross, but the nomination was not approved and he received a ...
Feeling an assurance of what will be the action of the State, I consider it my duty, without delay, to prepare to obey its ... That preparation is made by the resignation of the office I have held. For the last time, I have, as a Judge of the United ...
Mechanism of action[edit]. Levothyroxine is a synthetic form of thyroxine (T4), an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid ... Grapefruit juice may delay the absorption of levothyroxine, but based on a study of 10 healthy people aged 20-30 (8 men, 2 ... Antithyroid preparations. Thyroid peroxidase. inhibitors (thioamide). *Thiouracils *Propylthiouracil#. *Methylthiouracil. * ...
The delays have been caused by an array of issues. The most significant cause for the continuing delays has been the fire ... The postponement led to the cancelling of moving plans and in some cases reversing actions already completed. It cited ... While Berlin has many "ghost stations" built in preparation for potential future construction, there is no provision underneath ... The series of delays in opening is expected to lead to a number of lawsuits against FBB, which may result in large-scale damage ...
Roy, Tirthankar (2007). "A delayed revolution: environment and agrarian change in India". Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 23 ... Large scale migration resulted in the abandonment of the utensils and facilities necessary for washing clothes or preparation ... These photographs made world headlines and spurred government action, saving many lives. ... According to Greenough (1982) the Provincial Government of Bengal delayed its relief efforts primarily because they had no idea ...
The action of cathine and cathinone on the reuptake of epinephrine and norepinephrine has been demonstrated in lab animals, ... Man in Mogadishu dividing khat into bunches for guests in preparation for a long evening of tea, conversation and chewing ... either from impaired insight into symptoms by the khat chewer, delay to care, or poorly understood pathophysiological ... but according to the Bristol Post had recently started to take action against khat use and had issued three warnings and a ...
Sailors were brought to Ellis Island as they awaited the preparation of their ships for sea.[47] PHS nurses who were being sent ... Their mission was to evaluate the state of the facilities, to assess current immigration policy and to recommend actions to ... but was not opened until 1902 because of delays during construction.[27] ...
... but it continued to be postponed until November 2010 due to delays in its preparation. ... In nearby Bloléquin, dozens were killed.[58] UN and French forces took military action against Gbagbo.[59] Gbagbo was taken ... Whether French actions improved or worsened the situation in the long term is disputed. What exactly happened that night is ... Runoffs were held 28 November 2010, after being delayed one week from the original date of 21 November. Laurent Gbagbo as ...
Because of the delay in the French advance, Napoleon replaced Teulié as the commander of the siege forces with division general ... Time for preparation was needed since Kolberg lacked sufficient defensive structures, manpower and armament to withstand a ... in a report to Marshal Berthier on 8 May stated that the Poles had stopped a charge of 600 Prussian cavalry in that action.[31] ... For the time being, the Emperor delayed his decision on the establishment of a Polish state. He did set up a provisional ...
At the same time, he is also often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, and ... Brears, Peter (2010). "Food Supply and Preparation at the Edwardian Castles". In Williams, Diane; Kenyon, John. The Impact of ... but the marriage was delayed by the outbreak of war.[106] ... and preparations for a retaliatory campaign started immediately ... This era of legislative action had started already at the time of the baronial reform movement; the Statute of Marlborough ( ...
His actions were disowned by Chelsea Football Club and he no longer works as a broadcaster.[296][297] ... Some supporters were delayed by roadworks while crossing the Pennines on the M62 motorway which resulted in minor traffic ... On 10 September 2018, at a trial preparation hearing at Preston Crown Court, Duckenfield pleaded not guilty to all 95 charges ... MacKenzie explained his actions in 1993. Talking to a House of Commons National Heritage Select committee, he said: "I regret ...
During this action, one of the 2/9th's sections was held up by fire from three Japanese machine gun positions.[125] Corporal ... 3 Airstrip at Gili Gili.[59] A shortage of water craft, however, delayed D Company's departure until the evening of 25/26 ... A submarine landed further supplies and evacuated 50 sick personnel on 3 and 13 October.[137] As part of the preparations for ... Rowell stated: "the action of 75 and 76 Squadrons RAAF on the first day was probably the decisive factor", a view Clowes ...
Class action litigation on behalf of the 200,000 medical residents in the US has been another route taken to resolve the matter ... It is customary to delay submission of a thesis. As in most other European countries, many years of practice at a junior level ... Residency is now considered standard preparation for primary care (what used to be called "general practice"). ... In 2000-2004 the matching process was attacked as anti-competitive by resident physicians represented by class-action lawyers. ...
Peiper's unit was delayed and his vehicles needed fuel. They took 36 hours to advance from Eifel to Stavelot.[source?] ... Marshall, S.L.A. (1988) [1946], Bastogne: The First Eight Days, U.S. Army in Action Series, United States Army Center of ... Training time, equipment and supplies were inadequate during the preparations. German fuel supplies were inadequate. Materials ... As a result, the start of the attack was delayed from 27 November to 16 December.[source?] ...
Treatment of delaying puberty in individuals with precocious puberty.. *Delaying puberty pending treatment decisions in ... Preparations. *Follicle-stimulating hormone. *Human chorionic gonadotropin. *Luteinizing hormone. *Menotropin. *Urofollitropin ... Cryptorchidism; Delayed puberty; Diagnostic agent (pituitary disorders); Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; Veterinary medicine ( ... and to delay puberty in transgender youth among other uses. GnRH agonists are given by injections into fat, as implants placed ...
Mechanism of action[edit]. Isotretinoin's exact mechanism of action is unknown, but several studies have shown that ... Wound healing is delayed. For this reason elective surgery, waxing of hair, tattooing, tattoo removal, piercings, dermabrasion ... progesterone preparations, norethisterone/ethinylestradiol ('OrthoNovum 7/7/7'), St. John's Wort, phenytoin, and systemic ... Wachter K (2009). "Isotretinoin's Mechanism of Action Explored". Skin & Allergy News. 40 (11): 32. doi:10.1016/S0037-6337(09) ...
The patient may want to consider some basic preparation before the surgery. The most basic preparation is that people who have ... The pacemaker patient may find that some types of everyday actions need to be modified. For instance, the shoulder harness of a ... the atrial beat and after a normal delay (0.1-0.2 seconds) trigger a ventricular beat, unless it has already happened - this is ... "Reuse of cardiac implantable electronic devices to improve and extend lives: a call to action". Heart Asia. 9 (1): 34-35. doi ...
Scope and preparation of the reportsEdit. The IPCC does not carry out research nor does it monitor climate related data. Lead ... "Greenhouse gas emission reduction (mitigation) actions would lessen the pressures on natural and human systems from climate ... "Many impacts [of climate change] can be reduced, delayed or avoided by mitigation".[61] ... The preparation and approval process for all IPCC Special Reports follows the same procedures as for IPCC Assessment Reports. ...
Penton, M.J. (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 280-283. ISBN 0- ... Disciplinary action. Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses and congregational discipline. Formal discipline is administered by ... Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins and Factor VIII; preparations made from Hemoglobin such ... Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. ...
Mechanism of action[edit]. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA of cancerous cells. This DNA damage is caused by one of ... Additionally, the usual delay between the surgical removal of the tumor and EBRT may allow a repopulation of the tumor cells. ... delineate the tumors one CT image at a time through the entire disease site which can take much longer than 3DCRT preparation. ... PACT: Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy Program to establish cancer care capacity and comprehensive cancer control in ...
"Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human ... Other viral proteins have multiple actions in the host cell, including degrading cellular mRNA and using the released ... Moderate to severe developmental delay. *Muscular dystrophy. *Spinal cord injury. These conditions can impair coughing, ... "Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance" (PDF). Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (1): 147-79. doi ...
Tonics, electrolytes and mineral preparations (including iron preparations and magnesium preparations), parenteral nutritions, ... In the United States, ACT UP formed in the 1980s, and eventually formed its Treatment Action Group in part to pressure the US ... and state and federal governments because it would result in delaying access to lower cost generic medicines.[47] ... groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or ...
The increases were delayed in most subjects and were not correlated with changes in urinary pH or creatinine excretion.. ... Alternative syntheses are outlined in the footnotes to this preparation.[21]. A much more convenient method for the synthesis ... Phenethylamine, being similar to amphetamine in its action at their common biomolecular targets, releases norepinephrine and ... nerve ending preparations isolated during homogenization and centrifugation of brain tissue) (24), research with reserpine and ...
Cherenkov, P. A. (1934). "Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 2: 451.. .mw ... What happens is that the particles in the medium absorb the wave and then reemit it, thus slowing it down by the delay between ... Cherenkov saw a faint bluish light around a radioactive preparation in water during experiments. His doctorate thesis was on ...
with cg the group velocity (m/s). Due to the dispersion relation for water waves under the action of gravity, the group ... "Tender problems delaying Wave Hub". BBC News. April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-08.. ... The greenWAVE device is a bottom standing gravity structure, that does not require anchoring or seabed preparation and with no ... 2] Reedsport project delayed due to early onset of winter weather - OregonLive Oct 2012 ...
Norman preparations and forces[edit]. William assembled a large invasion fleet and an army gathered from Normandy and all over ... William would have preferred to delay the invasion until he could make an unopposed landing.[40] ... or notifications of royal actions such as appointments to office or a grant of some sort.[113] ... There were probably other reasons for William's delay, including intelligence reports from England revealing that Harold's ...
The preparation (dye precursors) is in the leuco (colorless) form. Oxidizing agents are usually hydrogen peroxide, and the ... In this case, the move to permanent color can sometimes be delayed by using the semi-permanent as a base and adding highlights ... Previous use of shampoos which deposit a layer of plastic on the hair can block the action of the dye. ... This involves mixing a small quantity of tint preparation and applying it directly to the skin for a period of 48 hours. If ...
The station and shuttle crews continued transfer activities on flight day 9, as well as EVA preparations, which included TPS ... Shannon noted that the risks associated with in-flight repair outweighed the possible delay in processing the orbiter following ... possible courses of action would then be evaluated. No decision would be made until all data had been received and reviewed. ... Commander Kelly and the crew arrived at Kennedy Space Center on 3 August 2007, for final launch preparations. The countdown ...
The Soviet Union was reluctant to intervene until the fall of Warsaw to the Germans.[22] The actual attack was delayed for more ... German invasion of Poland and Soviet preparations[edit]. Hitler tried to dissuade the British and the French from interfering ... start the specific actions. But we believe that this moment has not yet ripen", and "a haste may ruin things and facilitate the ... or action against, the Soviets would not serve either France's or Poland's best interests.[95] Once the Soviets moved into ...
... but development of the foetus is delayed until good conditions prevail. During the delayed development the mother keeps the ... but in bats they appear to actively support blood flow back to the heart with this pumping action.[62][63] Since their bodies ... with the Canadian government making preparations to protect all remaining bat populations in its territory.[168] Scientific ... Other species exhibit delayed implantation, in which the egg is fertilised after mating, but remains free in the reproductive ...
Pasteur gave a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort. He used ... rather than spontaneously generating within the liquid or from the action of pure air.[44][69] ...
Results of search for su:{Delayed-action preparations} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ Library catalog ...
Insulin derivatives having an extremely delayed time-action profile. US9670261. Dec 20, 2013. Jun 6, 2017. Sanofi. ... onset of action and duration of action) can be influenced. By combination of various insulin preparations, very different ... The specific preparation of insulin glargine, which leads to the prolonged duration of action, is characterized, in contrast to ... Stabilized insulin preparations and a process for preparation thereof. US4644057. Nov 7, 1985. Feb 17, 1987. Hoechst ...
Delayed-Action Preparations -- economics. Delayed-Action Preparations -- therapeutic use. Drug Compounding -- economics. Drug ... Delayed-Action Preparations -- therapeutic use ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Delayed-Action Preparations -- therapeutic use ...
Delayed-Action Preparations. Blood Glucose. Insulin. Alanine Transaminase. Aspartate Aminotransferases. Fructosamine. Glucose ... Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Lipid Regulating Agents. Vasodilator Agents. Vitamin B Complex. Vitamins. ...
Delayed Action Preparations. Treatment Naive. HIV-1. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Infection. HIV Infections. Lentivirus ... Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective ...
Mattler, U. (2003). Delayed flanker effects on lateralized readiness potentials. Exp. Brain Res. 151, 272-288. doi: 10.1007/ ... Effect of Aging on Motor Inhibition during Action Preparation under Sensory Conflict. Julie Duque1*, Charlotte Petitjean1 and ... Quoilin, C., and Derosiere, G. (2015). Global and specific motor inhibitory mechanisms during action preparation. J. Neurosci. ... Citation: Duque J, Petitjean C and Swinnen SP (2016) Effect of Aging on Motor Inhibition during Action Preparation under ...
Delayed-Action Preparations * Drug Therapy, Combination / adverse effects * Female * Humans * Hypolipidemic Agents / ...
Delayed-Action Preparations * Drug Delivery Systems* * Drug Liberation * Fibroblasts / metabolism * Gold * Hydrogen-Ion ...
Topics: Drugs, Delayed-action Preparations. Books to Borrow. 713 713 Genes VII ... Empowering employees for broad-based action -- Generating short-term wins -- Consolidating gains and producing more change -- ...
Delayed-Action Preparations. Double-Blind Method. Drug Tolerance. Dyspepsia / chemically induced. Gastric Mucosa / drug effects ...
Delayed-Action Preparations. Follow-Up Studies. Great Britain. Humans. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). ... 0/Antipsychotic Agents; 0/Delayed-Action Preparations From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ...
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Buffers); 0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Drug Carriers); 0 (Hydrogels); 0 (Silanes); ...
Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Iridoids); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Transforming Growth Factor beta); 0 ( ... regeneration is a complicated process and includes a number of distinct and sequential stages of coordinated cellular actions ...
0 (Antiemetics); 0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Diglycerides); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Glycerides); 0 (Lipids); 0 ( ... In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action ... Compounding pharmacists, responsible for appropriate preparation of medications, coordinate with other professionals to reach ...
Depot Preparations (0) see Delayed-Action Preparations. Dermatologic Agents (125) • Drugs used to treat or prevent skin ... Delayed-Action Preparations (3) • Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or ... Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, ... Dopamine Antagonists (69) • Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine ...
Inert cross-linked copolymer support, its preparation process and its use for producing delayed action medicaments. 1986-05-20 ... At the time of preparation the assayed content of theophylline was 188.4 mg/5 ml and after 15 weeks it was 190.5 mg/5 ml ... At the time of preparation the assayed content was 299.8 mg (acetaminophen) per 5 ml and after 30 weeks was 297.9 mg/5 ml ... Suitable veterinary preparations according to the invention include veterinary feeds, boluses, drenches and washes. ...
Depending on the employed excipient, a delayed or rapid but always controllable release of the active ingredient can be ... one or more active ingredients compatible with each other and with said excipients to mechanical or electromechanical actions ... Galenic delayed-action forms and method for their preparation. EP0080341A2 *. Nov 19, 1982. Jun 1, 1983. A/S Alfred Benzon. ... Delayed and sustained release type pharmaceutical preparation. US3492397 *. Apr 7, 1967. Jan 27, 1970. Warner Lambert ...
Delayed-Action Preparations. Dexamethasone. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Delivery Systems. Fluorescein Angiography. ...
Quist, J. S., Jensen, M. M., Clemmensen, K. K. B., Pedersen, H., Bjerre, N., Størling, J., Blond, M. B., Wewer Albrechtsen, N. J., Holst, J. J., Torekov, S. S., Vistisen, D., Jørgensen, M. E., Panda, S., Brock, C., Finlayson, G. & Færch, K., 26 aug. 2020, I : BMJ Open. 10, 8, e037166.. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › peer review ...
Bulletin on the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals decision dismissing a sexual harassment class action due to EEOCs various ... ACA Update - Delay in Implementation Does Not Mean Employers Can Delay Preparation More ... This case was not a traditional Civil Rule 23 class action lawsuit. Rather, this class action lawsuit was asserted by the EEOC ... Ohio Supreme Court Delays Start of 90-Day Notice Period For Some Employees Claiming Workers Compensation Retaliatory Discharge ...
ACA Update - Delay in Implementation Does Not Mean Employers Can Delay Preparation More ... An employer cannot take adverse action against a qualified candidate or employee based on a suspicion that he/she may need a ... Ohio Supreme Court Delays Start of 90-Day Notice Period For Some Employees Claiming Workers Compensation Retaliatory Discharge ... Health Care Providers Take Note: Your Contract With An HMO May Require Affirmative Action Compliance, Even If It Doesnt Say So ...
It may also delay transmission of nerve signals at the neuromuscular junction, thereby reducing muscle spasms. Its actions may ... Preparations. The usual dosage of cicada when taken alone is 3-9 grams per day. As of 2004, whole cicadas cost about 10 cents ... Due to its antipyretic effect, cicada-containing preparations are often used to treat high fevers, such as those associated ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "Refusal Actions by FDA as Recorded in OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of ...
Delayed-Action Preparations [‎3]‎. Delivery of Health Care [‎308]‎. Delivery of Health Care, Integrated [‎63]‎. ...
Controlled-Release Preparations (0) see Delayed-Action Preparations. Convulsant Effect (0) see Convulsants ... The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS. MeSH ... The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here. MeSH ... Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and ...
Delayed-Action Preparations 5. levodopa methyl ester 6. Carbidopa (Lodosyn) 7. Neurotransmitter Agents (Neurotransmitter) ... disease suffering nausea or vomiting as side-effects of levodopa therapy and compared the efficacy of the three preparations in ... disease suffering nausea or vomiting as side-effects of levodopa therapy and compared the efficacy of the three preparations in ...
Delayed-Action Preparations. *Drug Carriers. *Feces (chemistry) *Galactans (chemistry, metabolism) *HT29 Cells ...
The immediate effect of aspirin is delayed due to its absorption from the GI tract. An intravenous preparation could exert its ... Aspirin has an antiplatelet aggregation action and used clinically in long term management of cardiovascular diseases. It has ... In a typical preparation, an aerosol of boric acid is introduced into a furnace at 1100[degrees]C in an ammonia atmosphere. ...
The warning stimulus appeared after a variable delay of 1-4 seconds. The imperative stimulus (S2) appeared after the S1−S2 ... Impairment of willed actions and use of advance information for movement preparation in schizophrenia ... Impairment of willed actions and use of advance information for movement preparation in schizophrenia ... Frith2 has suggested that the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia such as poverty of action or stereotyped action reflect a ...
Despite these actions, we have continuing concerns about the current strategy for going forward on the project. Our main ... DOE completed treatment and preparation of this waste for disposal in September 2002. [15] 42 U.S.C. 6939c(b). ... He said that DOE has not studied the extent to which such a delay in restarting construction could potentially increase the ... Bechtel plans to address these actions in its final cost and schedule estimate due in late May 2006. DOE and Bechtel Have Taken ...
... preparation; 4) action; and 5) maintenance [6]. Researchers who conducted a U.S.-based study investigating different quitting ... The demographic data comparing early abstainers and delayed abstainers are presented in Table 2. Compared with delayed ... We defined early abstainers as those who attained abstinence by second week and delayed abstainers as those who had done so by ... Immediate versus delayed quitting and rates of relapse among smokers treated successfully with varenicline, bupropion SR or ...
  • Preparations and dosage: Pyrimethamine tablet 22 mg. (cadasb.org)
  • Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (nih.gov)
  • The excitatory postsynaptic potential in the principal cells evoked by afferent nerve fibers has fast kinetics that efficiently reach the threshold for action potential. (biologists.org)
  • hypothesized that patients with AD had reduced neural motor inhibition during action preparation. (frontiersin.org)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE DELAYED-RELEASE TABLETS safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Doxycycline hyclate delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines. (nih.gov)
  • GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP is indicated for cleansing of the colon as a preparation for colonoscopy in adults. (drugs.com)
  • Take one 5 mg bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP with water. (drugs.com)
  • No antacids should be taken within one hour of taking the bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP. (drugs.com)
  • One pink, round, enteric coated 5 mg bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP, de-bossed with "N1" on one side and plain on the other side. (drugs.com)
  • Advise all patients to hydrate adequately before, during, and after the use of GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP. (drugs.com)
  • If a patient develops significant vomiting or signs of dehydration after taking GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP, consider performing post-colonoscopy lab tests (electrolytes, creatinine, and BUN). (drugs.com)
  • Patients with electrolyte abnormalities should have them corrected before treatment with GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, use caution when prescribing GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP for patients with conditions, or who are using medications, that increase the risk for fluid and electrolyte disturbances or may increase the risk of adverse events of seizure, arrhythmias, and renal impairment. (drugs.com)
  • Use caution when prescribing the GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP for patients with a history of seizures and in patients at risk of seizure, such as patients taking medications that lower the seizure threshold (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants), patients withdrawing from alcohol or benzodiazepines, patients with known or suspected hyponatremia, or patients using concomitant medications (such as diuretics) that increase the risk of electrolyte abnormalities. (drugs.com)
  • Use caution when prescribing GaviLyte - H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP for patients with impaired renal function or patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function (such as diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). (drugs.com)
  • Some of the active ingredients included for the preparation of Aabab tablet include quercus infectoria and argilla vitriolutum. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Although impairments in inhibitory control are found in individuals with addictive behaviors, it remains unclear whether the response inhibition is modulated by motor system in alcohol use disorders during action preparation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Delay discounting (but not response inhibition) is different between heavy drinking smokers and heavy drinkers only or smokers only ( Moallem and Ray, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to their mechanism of action (noradrenaline reuptake inhibition = NRI), certain anti-depressants have an additional pain-relieving effect and are thus also used in pain therapy to treat neuropathic pain. (grunenthal.com)
  • In DMS tasks, subjects are cued with a sample object and then, after a brief delay, must select that object from a display. (jneurosci.org)
  • This hypothesis was tested using an instructed-delay cueing paradigm during which subjects were required to rapidly release a handheld weight while maintaining the posture of the arm or to perform first-person imagery of the same task while holding the weight. (springer.com)
  • Aruin AS, Shiratori T, Latash ML (2001) The role of action in postural preparation for loading and unloading in standing subjects. (springer.com)
  • rapid-acting analogs (RAA) have a quicker onset and peak and shorter duration of action than regular human insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently, two new insulin formulations with enhanced rapid action profiles have been introduced. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In most diabetics, the amount of insulin in the blood is higher than in normal people, but the effectiveness of the hormone is impaired, either by the presence of insulin antagonists or by tissue resistance to the hormone's action. (hubpages.com)
  • Furthermore, the release of insulin from the pancreas after eating is delayed in diabetics. (hubpages.com)
  • It has the shortest duration of action of 2-4 hours. (healthyplace.com)
  • Methylphenidale hydrochloride extended-release tablets have a duration of action of approximately 8 hours. (healthyplace.com)
  • In tissues and wedge preparations, ranolazine produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of AP duration of epicardial but abbreviation of that of M cells, leading to reduction or no change in transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results We studied the effects of 10 and 25 μmol/L pinacidil, an ATP-sensitive K channel opener that provides metabolic protection to the ischemic myocardium, on the rise in [K + ] e recorded by K-sensitive electrodes, the change in action potential duration (APD) recorded by microelectrodes, and the changes in activation during ischemia in in situ pig hearts and Tyrode-perfused rabbit interventricular septa. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test this possibility, we studied the effects of 10 and 25 μmol/L pinacidil, a drug known to open ATP-sensitive K + channels, 12 on the rise in [K + ] e and the associated changes in action potential duration (APD) and activation induced by acute no-flow ischemia in the in situ pig heart and the perfused rabbit interventricular septum. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interrupted or continuous pulse oximeter to determine the extent and duration of action of 5- ht receptors as the water retention and rarely seizures. (cadasb.org)
  • Our interactions with others in our environment not only make us passive observers but also allow us to convey our thoughts, feelings, and intended actions towards other people and their thoughts, feelings, and actions (Gilam & Hendler, 2016). (wikiversity.org)
  • Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Interfacing with project staff regarding baseline changes, variance analysis and implementation of corrective action. (planningplanet.com)
  • One way of testing the hypothesis of impairment of willed actions in schizophrenia is to examine the speed of response initiation in reaction time (RT) tasks that differ in the extent to which they require volitionally prepared versus stimulus driven responses. (bmj.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, they utilized a 115% resting motor threshold of single-pulse TMS over the non-dominant or dominant hand area of the M1 to elicit MEPs corresponding to finger muscles during an instructed-delay choice reaction time (RT) task. (frontiersin.org)
  • An improved process for preparing controlled release pharmaceutical forms comprises exposing a mixture comprising one or more excipients and one or more active ingredients compatible with each other and with said excipients to mechanical or electromechanical actions for a well established time and within. (google.com)
  • Methods and Results- Transmembrane action potentials (APs) from epicardial and midmyocardial (M) regions and a pseudo-ECG were recorded simultaneously from wedge preparations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Finally, current-clamp observations of receptor potentials and action potentials indicated that action potentials normally start at the distal dendrites and propagate regeneratively to the soma, reducing the temporal delay of passive conduction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Action potentials are also thought to start at the first node of Ranvier in muscle spindles, but there is evidence of regenerative processes in the sensory dendrites ( Querfurth, 1985 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. (nih.gov)
  • An employer cannot take adverse action against a qualified candidate or employee based on a suspicion that he/she may need a religious accommodation. (bricker.com)
  • Immediate result with no adverse action is a notable benefit of using herbal human growth hormone releaser. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Using best remedy provides satisfactory result without inducing any adverse action. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Although the end-June performance criterion on reductions in redundant positions in state economic enterprises (SEEs) was missed (since SEE workers delayed their decision to retire pending the outcome of the ongoing wage negotiations, which will entail higher retirement payments). (imf.org)
  • It is now time to consider without further delay reparations for victims, regardless of the outcome of judicial proceedings, in order to manage expectations and facilitate reconciliation. (ohchr.org)
  • Yet, despite its strategic importance, this vital defensive action gave first place in the news to the outcome of a hopeless struggle hundreds of miles behind the enemy's forward positions. (ibiblio.org)
  • Ultresa (pancrelipase) delayed-release capsules is a pancreatic enzyme preparation consisting of pancrelipase, an extract derived from porcine pancreatic glands. (centerwatch.com)
  • Pramlintide, an amylin analog, is an agent that delays gastric emptying, blunts pancreatic secretion of glucagon, and enhances satiety. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Other forms of cicada preparations include ground powder and water and alcohol extracts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban. (travlang.com)
  • By varying stimulation frequency, we demonstrated that the rise in [K + ] e during ischemia, both before and after pinacidil, correlated with the time that the action potential was at its plateau voltage. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the SAS frequently evoked the planned postural response (suppression of bicep brachii muscle activity) irrespective of the task or timing of stimulation (even during periods of postural hold without preparation). (springer.com)
  • Alibiglou L, MacKinnon CD (2012) The early release of planned movement by acoustic startle can be delayed by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. (springer.com)
  • The mode of action of Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) in man is not completely understood, but methylphenidate presumably activates the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect. (healthyplace.com)
  • Effect of ranolazine on rapidly activating component of delayed rectifier current ( I Kr , left) and inward rectifier current ( I K1 , right) in canine left ventricular myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Five months ago, the Commission announced a settlement agreement with two drug makers, Abbott Laboratories and Geneva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. resolving charges that the companies had entered into an anticompetitive agreement, which had the potential effect of delaying the entry of generic alternatives to Abbott's brand-name hypertension and prostate drug, Hytrin. (ftc.gov)
  • In semi-intact preparations, the effect of NO donors was manifested as a significant decrease in the rate of actual swimming. (biologists.org)
  • Mechanism of action Phenacetin is metabolized to acetaminophen. (maxshouse.com)
  • Mechanism of action: Aciclovir is phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase and then transformed into its active form acycloguanosine triphosphate (aciclo-GTP). (grunenthal.com)
  • The present study examines its electrophysiological effects in isolated canine ventricular myocytes, tissues, and arterially perfused left ventricular wedge preparations. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 The present study was designed to assess the electrophysiological effects of ranolazine in myocytes, tissues, and arterially perfused wedge preparations isolated from the canine left ventricle. (ahajournals.org)
  • The prepared SRF-MLN can change the distribution of drugs in different tissues and organs, prolonging the action time of the drugs in the body, and it has certain specificity under the action of applied magnetic field. (hindawi.com)
  • Questions in combination is treated with fever, but only by some forms a twice a patch preparation. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Frith 2 has suggested that the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia such as poverty of action or stereotyped action reflect a dysfunction of "willed" actions, whereas the processes involved in "stimulus driven" actions remain largely intact. (bmj.com)
  • Because of its delayed action, this product will not provide fast relief of headaches or other symptoms needing immediate relief. (heb.com)
  • Conclusions Our results indicate that the rise in [K + ] e during ischemia is due to multiple factors, including K conductance across membrane channels, K driving force as reflected by the time that the action potential is at its plateau voltage, and the metabolic effects of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Assessment teams reviewed preparations in planning and coordination, advocacy, accountability, management of adverse events following immunization, vaccines and logistics management, funding, and communication, using checklists modified at each level based on expected functions of SIA components for that level ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES To assess willed actions in patients with schizophrenia using reaction time (RT) tasks that differ in the degree to which they involve volitionally controlled versus stimulus driven responses. (bmj.com)
  • Decomposition of endoperoxide containing molecules is an attractive approach for the delayed release of singlet oxygen under mild reaction conditions. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Here we introduce a novel and unique experimental approach that combines the advantages of in vitro preparations with the integrity of in vivo conditions. (biologists.org)
  • India has adopted a goal for measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 by achieving high coverage with 2 routine doses of measles-containing vaccine and supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), which require substantial preparation. (cdc.gov)
  • We trained four carrion crows ( Corvus corone ) on versions of a delayed match-to-sample task that required the crows to remember a visual stimulus for later comparison. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that many NCL neurons encode information about visual stimuli and temporarily maintain this information after the stimulus disappeared by sustained delay activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • During preparation for an executed movement, presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) evokes a premature release of the planned movement with the spatial and temporal features of the tasks essentially intact. (springer.com)
  • These findings provide evidence that neural processes mediating the preparation and release of the focal motor task (release of the weight) are markedly attenuated or absent during imagined movement and that postural and focal components of the task are prepared independently. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions- Ranolazine produces ion channel effects similar to those observed after chronic amiodarone (reduced I Kr , I Ks , late I Na , and I Ca ). The actions of ranolazine to suppress EADs and reduce TDR suggest that, in addition to its antianginal actions, the drug may possess antiarrhythmic activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-3 Ranolazine is known to produce a modest prolongation of the QT interval, yet little is known about the electrophysiological actions of the drug. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is the main drug of the group of phenothiazines, and the prototype of all neuroleptics, having been introduced into psychiatry by Delay in 1952. (gpnotebook.co.uk)
  • One legend explains that a magic drug made his abdominal skin transparent, so he could observe the action of the many plants he evaluated. (healthguidance.org)
  • 247 times daily intravenously, and worsen heart block is also safe and platelet-inhibitory actions on thyroid drug overdose. (imagenenaccion.org)
  • Depending on the employed excipient, a delayed or rapid but always controllable release of the active ingredient can be attained. (google.com)
  • Active ingredients added for the preparation of best HGH releasers helps in maintaining the growth hormone level in body. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Therefore, sample-specific cognitive processes related to reward prediction or motor preparation are excluded during the sample and delay periods. (jneurosci.org)
  • If imagined movement incorporates the same preparatory processes as executed movement, then a SAS should release the planned movement during preparation. (springer.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of inclusion compounds of piroxicam with β-cyclodextrin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This study compared demographic, health, and behavioral characteristics and the effects of long-term abstinence between early and delayed abstainers. (springer.com)
  • No side effects from cicada preparations have been reported in the United States as of early 2004. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The side effects of Methylphenidate include facial tics and a delay in the onset of action. (healthyplace.com)
  • Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. (nih.gov)
  • While she swept channels for fire support ships in preparation for the bombardment of Cherbourg, she came under heavy fire from enemy emplacements. (wikipedia.org)
  • She called for urgent action to coordinate and support criminal justice services, as well as to secure the right to truth, institutional reforms and individual and collective reparations aimed at ensuring the non-recurrence of conflict. (ohchr.org)
  • Sensory transduction occurs at the tips of relatively long sensory dendrites in many mechanoreceptors of both vertebrates and invertebrates, but little is known about the electrical properties of these crucial links between transduction and action potential generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Emergency preparedness is not a one-time effort, but rather a continuous cycle of intense preparation, followed by action and recovery after the disaster. (cdc.gov)
  • Several actions are already underway such as a new Continuous Improvement Business Unit, establishing a Safety Hotline, and hiring a new Manager of SMS. (saportareport.com)
  • In this context, irrelevant stimuli can occasionally induce a powerful activation of action representations that are not consistent with the ongoing goals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) and the left supplementary motor area (SMA)/pre-SMA were engaged during the delay period for all conditions, consistent with a general role in rule representation. (mit.edu)
  • It is possible that future studies using RT tasks with higher volitional demands in patients with predominance of negative signs may disclose greater deficits in willed action in schizophrenia. (bmj.com)
  • The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals recently upheld the dismissal of a sexual harassment class action asserted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) due to the EEOC's failure to comply with certain procedural prerequisites under Title VII. (bricker.com)
  • Rather, this class action lawsuit was asserted by the EEOC (the federal agency charged with enforcement of certain federal non-discrimination laws) pursuant to its authority under Section 706 of Title VII to bring suit in its own name on behalf of a "person or persons aggrieved" by an employer's alleged unlawful employment practice. (bricker.com)