Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Water Loss, Insensible
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Molecular Sequence Data
Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/1047)Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation. (+info)
Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat. (2/1047)We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P < 0.05). Similarly, with different rates of heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter at the high than at the lower rate of heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P < 0.05). Increases in heart rate and reductions in stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in hot environments is inversely related to the initial temperature and directly related to the rate of heat storage. (+info)
Desiccation resistance in interspecific Drosophila crosses. Genetic interactions and trait correlations. (3/1047)We used crosses between two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila serrata and D. birchii, to examine the genetic basis of desiccation resistance and correlations between resistance, physiological traits, and life-history traits. D. serrata is more resistant to desiccation than D. birchii, and this may help to explain the broader geographical range of the former species. A comparison of F2's from reciprocal crosses indicated higher resistance levels when F2's originated from D. birchii mothers compared to D. serrata mothers. However, backcrosses had a resistance level similar to that of the parental species, suggesting an interaction between X-linked effects in D. serrata that reduce resistance and autosomal effects that increase resistance. Reciprocal differences persisted in hybrid lines set up from the different reciprocal crosses and tested at later generations. Increased desiccation resistance was associated with an increased body size in two sets of hybrid lines and in half-sib groups set up from the F4's after crossing the two species, but size associations were inconsistent in the F2's. None of the crosses provided evidence for a positive association between desiccation resistance and glycogen levels, or evidence for a tradeoff between desiccation resistance and early fecundity. However, fecundity was positively correlated with body size at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. This study illustrates how interspecific crosses may provide information on genetic interactions between traits following adaptive divergence, as well as on the genetic basis of the traits. (+info)
Pilsicainide intoxication in a patient with dehydration. (4/1047)An 81-year-old woman developed pilsicainide intoxication associated with dehydration. The patient had been taking pilsicainide (100 mg/day) for 1 year because of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Her renal function was within normal limits. One week before admission, she was suffering from pneumonia, and had appetite loss, fever, and severe fatigue. Physical examination revealed dehydration. The electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission showed atrioventricular dissociation, idioventricular rhythm with marked QRS widening and QTc prolongation. The plasma concentration of pilsicainide on admission was markedly elevated at 6.2 microg/ml, approximately 6 times the therapeutic range (0.25-1.0 microg/ml). Continuous saline infusion was initiated for the treatment of dehydration,which progressively improved. As a result, sinus rhythm was recovered 2 h after admission, and the QRS and JT intervals gradually normalized. This is an interesting case because the proarrhythmia of pilsicainide was induced by dehydration. (+info)
Regulation of aquaporin mRNA expression in rat kidney by water intake. (5/1047)Three aquaporins (AQP) are present in the membrane of the principal collecting duct cells. On the apical side, the levels of AQP2 protein are increased in response to both arginine vasopressin and water deprivation. However, whether this change parallels changes in the abundance of AQP3 and AQP4 in the basolateral membrane is less well known. This study evaluates the effect of either dehydration or water loading on the rat kidney mRNA expression of AQP2, AQP3, and AQP4. Poly(A+)RNA was prepared from renal cortex and medulla of control, water-deprived, well hydrated, and water-deprived rats treated with OPC31260, a V2 receptor antagonist. Northern blots were done and mRNA levels were quantified using a PhosphorImager system. Relative to control, water deprivation increased the expression of cortical AQP2, -3, and -4, whereas water loading decreased the cortical and medullar expression of AQP2, -3, and -4. Therefore, in addition to AQP2 and -3, AQP4 expression is also regulated by water intake. Treatment with OPC31260 (40 mg/kg of weight per d) inhibited up to 20 to 30% the upregulation of AQP-mRNA induced by water deprivation. Blood values of arginine vasopressin and aldosterone were significantly increased by water deprivation, whereas they were unchanged by water overloading. Taken together, these results indicate that renal AQP2, -3, and -4 expression is regulated in a coordinated manner. Simultaneous up- or downregulation of the three transcripts occurred upon either water deprivation or water loading of animals, respectively. However, the signaling mechanism for the two long-term adaptive processes may be different, and, in addition to arginine vasopressin, other factors may be involved in the transcriptional regulatory processes. (+info)
Thermal dehydration-induced thirst in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (6/1047)Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to either 25 or 37.5 degrees C for 3.5 h, and their thermal and water balance responses were compared. After exposure, either a blood sample was obtained or the rats were allowed to rehydrate for 4 h. SH rats had both higher core temperatures and evaporative water losses during heat exposure. Measurements of hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, plasma protein and sodium concentrations, and plasma osmolality indirectly showed that the SH rats were dehydrated relative to the WKY rats after exposure to either 25 or 37.5 degrees C. SH rats drank significantly more water but also had significantly higher urine volumes than the WKY rats and thus rehydrated only slightly better than the WKY rats. SH and WKY rats had similar levels of water intake and urine output after 24 h of water deprivation. The elevated thermal response of SH rats to heat exposure does not appear to lead to uncompensatable changes in body water status. (+info)
Cardiovascular changes associated with dehydration and drinking in unrestrained, lactating goats. (7/1047)The aim of this study was to investigate if the alertness connected with seeing water increased arterial blood pressure and heart rate to the same extent as the act of drinking, and if ingestion of warm water caused a different effect compared with ingestion of cool water on these cardiovascular variables. Seven goats of the Swedish domestic breed (Capra hircus) were used in a cross-over design. The animals were dehydrated for 24 h. They were allowed to watch water being prepared for 11-16 min, after which they were given access to warm (35 degrees C) or cool (15 degrees C) water. The goats drank 6.86 +/- 0.36 l of the warm water and 4.54 +/- 0.35 l of the cool water (P < 0.05) within the first hour. The arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activity of the animals were registered by an implanted telemetric device. Dehydration did not affect the cardiovascular variables, except before feeding in the morning, when the heart rate accelerated faster in dehydrated goats. Heart rate increased abruptly when dehydrated goats saw water being prepared, remained at the increased level during drinking and then slowly declined. It increased again during the afternoon feeding, to a level similar to that on control days, but between 18.00 and 06.00 h the heart rate was higher than during control nights. Blood pressure did not change when the goats saw water, but increased when they drank. On the morning following rehydration, the rise in heart rate in response to feeding was delayed compared with that during control and dehydration periods. It is concluded that seeing water caused arousal in the goats, resulting in an accelerated heart rate. The additional rise in blood pressure during the act of drinking appears to be a combination of excitement and sensory inputs from the pharyngeal region, causing a temporary activation of the sympathetic nervous system. (+info)
The mouse as a model to study adhesion formation following endoscopic surgery: a preliminary report. (8/1047)Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of a mouse model to study adhesion formation following endoscopic surgery. Following preliminary studies to establish anaesthesia and pneumoperitoneum pressure, a prospective randomized study was carried out to investigate the effect of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on postoperative adhesions. In group I (control group), the duration of pneumoperitoneum was shorter than 5 min. In groups II, III and IV, pneumoperitoneum was maintained for 60 min without flow, with a continuous low flow (1 ml/min) and a continuous high flow (10 ml/min) through the abdominal cavities of the mice using non-humidified CO2, respectively. Adhesions were scored after 7 days by laparotomy. The total adhesion scores were 0.9 +/- 0.8 (n = 15) in control group, 2.4 +/- 0.8 (n = 15) (P < 0.001 versus control group) in group II with no flow, 2.6 +/- 1.3 (n = 15) (P < 0.001 versus control group) in group III with a continuous low flow and 4.3 +/- 0.9 (n = 15) (P < 0.001 versus control group and P < 0.001 versus group II and III) in group IV with a continuous high flow. In conclusion, the mouse can be used as a model to study adhesion formation following endoscopic surgery. Duration of CO2 pneumoperitoneum is a co-factor in adhesion formation. (+info)
Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Hypernatremia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of sodium (Na+) in the blood (serum). The normal range of serum sodium concentration is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). When the level of sodium in the blood is above 145 mEq/L, it is considered hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can occur due to various reasons, including dehydration, excessive loss of sodium through the kidneys, certain medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus, and the use of certain medications. It can also occur as a complication of other medical conditions such as kidney failure, liver disease, and cancer. Symptoms of hypernatremia may include thirst, dry mouth, confusion, headache, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for hypernatremia depends on the underlying cause and may involve the administration of fluids to replace lost fluids and sodium, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Diarrhea, infantile, is a common condition in young children characterized by frequent, loose stools. It is typically defined as having at least three loose or watery stools in a 24-hour period in infants less than 12 months of age. Infantile diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food allergies or intolerances, and malnutrition. It can also be a symptom of more serious underlying conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis. Diarrhea in infants can lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy, which involves giving the child fluids to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In some cases, antibiotics may be necessary to treat bacterial infections. It is important to seek medical attention if an infant has diarrhea that lasts more than a few days or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or blood in the stool.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.
Hydrolyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various substrates, including esters, amides, and phosphates, by breaking the bonds between the hydroxyl group and the carbon atom. In the medical field, hydrolyases are important in the metabolism of various compounds, including drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters. For example, the enzyme chymotrypsin is a hydrolyase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which are essential for various bodily functions. Similarly, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolyase that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for muscle movement and memory. In some cases, hydrolyases can also be involved in the formation of certain compounds, such as the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA.
Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to an abnormality in the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge and are essential for many bodily functions, including nerve and muscle function, blood pressure regulation, and acid-base balance. Water is also essential for maintaining proper electrolyte balance. When there is an imbalance of water and electrolytes, it can lead to a variety of health problems. For example, if there is too much water in the body (hyponatremia), it can cause symptoms such as nausea, headache, confusion, and seizures. On the other hand, if there is not enough water in the body (dehydration), it can cause symptoms such as thirst, dry mouth, fatigue, and dizziness. Electrolyte imbalances can also occur when there is an imbalance of specific electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, or chloride. For example, if there is too much sodium in the body (hypernatremia), it can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, and seizures. If there is too little sodium in the body (hyponatremia), it can cause symptoms such as nausea, headache, confusion, and seizures. Water-electrolyte imbalances can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, overhydration, certain medications, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances. Treatment for water-electrolyte imbalances typically involves correcting the underlying cause and restoring the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.
Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules joined by an alpha-1,1-glycosidic bond. It is found in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and serves as a protective agent against various stressors, such as dehydration, heat, cold, and oxidative stress. In the medical field, trehalose is used as a cryoprotectant to prevent ice crystal formation during cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs. It is also used as a stabilizer in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and as a food additive to improve texture and shelf life of food products. Trehalose has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been studied for its potential use in wound healing, cancer therapy, and as a treatment for radiation-induced damage.
Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as "stomach flu" or "gastritis." The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food poisoning, or certain medications. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramping, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, dehydration can occur, which can be life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for gastroenteritis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. This may include drinking plenty of fluids, getting plenty of rest, and avoiding solid foods until symptoms improve. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause of the inflammation is bacterial. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, or if there are signs of dehydration.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Vasopressins are a group of hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. They play a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. There are two main types of vasopressins: arginine vasopressin (AVP) and desmopressin (DDAVP). AVP is primarily responsible for regulating water balance in the body, while DDAVP is used to treat certain types of bleeding disorders. Vasopressins work by constricting blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. They also stimulate the kidneys to retain water, which helps to maintain blood volume and blood pressure. In addition, vasopressins can affect the heart rate and contractility, as well as the permeability of blood vessels. Abnormal levels of vasopressins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP. Vasopressin levels can also be affected by certain medications, such as diuretics, and by certain medical conditions, such as heart failure and kidney disease.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication that is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It is available in various forms, including creams, ointments, tablets, and suppositories. Clotrimazole works by inhibiting the growth of fungi and is effective against a wide range of fungal species, including Candida, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton. It is often used to treat conditions such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, vaginal yeast infections, and thrush. Clotrimazole is generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. These may include itching, burning, redness, and swelling at the site of application.
Anemia, sickle cell is a type of anemia caused by a genetic disorder that affects the shape of red blood cells. People with sickle cell anemia have red blood cells that are crescent-shaped or sickle-shaped, which can cause them to become stuck in small blood vessels and block the flow of oxygen to the body's tissues. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pain. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition that is more common in people of African descent, but it can also affect people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent. There is currently no cure for sickle cell anemia, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Electrolytes are minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. They are ions that carry an electrical charge and are necessary for maintaining the balance of fluids in the body, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. In the medical field, electrolytes are often measured in blood and urine tests to assess the body's electrolyte balance. The most common electrolytes measured in these tests are sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Electrolyte imbalances can occur due to various factors, including dehydration, kidney disease, heart failure, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Electrolyte imbalances can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest or seizures. Therefore, it is important to maintain proper electrolyte balance through a balanced diet and appropriate medical treatment when necessary.
Hypovolemia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the volume of blood circulating in the body. This can occur due to various reasons, including blood loss, dehydration, or certain medical conditions that affect the body's ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of hypovolemia may include dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and cold, clammy skin. In severe cases, hypovolemia can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Treatment for hypovolemia depends on the underlying cause. In cases of blood loss, such as from trauma or surgery, blood transfusions may be necessary to restore blood volume. In cases of dehydration, fluids and electrolytes may be administered intravenously to replace lost fluids and minerals. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help the body retain fluids or increase blood volume.
Diabetes Insipidus is a rare disorder that affects the body's ability to regulate water balance. It is characterized by the excessive production of urine, which leads to dehydration and a constant feeling of thirst. There are two types of diabetes insipidus: 1. Central Diabetes Insipidus: This type of diabetes insipidus occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough of a hormone called vasopressin, which helps the kidneys reabsorb water. 2. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: This type of diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys are unable to respond to vasopressin properly, leading to the loss of water in the urine. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by a variety of factors, including head injuries, certain medications, and genetic disorders. Treatment typically involves the use of desmopressin, a synthetic form of vasopressin, to help regulate the body's water balance.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus in the brain and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance in the body by constricting blood vessels and increasing blood pressure, which helps to conserve water and maintain blood volume. AVP also regulates the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys, which helps to maintain the body's fluid balance. In addition to its role in water balance, AVP has other functions in the body, including regulating blood pressure, controlling the contraction of smooth muscles in the uterus and intestines, and stimulating the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland. Abnormal levels of AVP can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP in the brain. AVP is also used in medical treatment, such as the treatment of heart failure and shock.
Lactation disorders refer to a range of conditions that can affect the production, quality, or flow of breast milk. These disorders can occur during pregnancy, during lactation, or after lactation has stopped. Some common lactation disorders include: 1. Insufficient milk production (lactation insufficiency): This occurs when a mother is not producing enough milk to meet the needs of her baby. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, or poor nutrition. 2. Milk supply problems: This refers to a range of issues that can affect the flow of milk, including plugged ducts, engorgement, and mastitis. 3. Breastfeeding difficulties: This can include problems with latching, positioning, or baby's sucking, which can make it difficult for the baby to get enough milk. 4. Breastfeeding pain: This can occur due to a variety of factors, including sore nipples, engorgement, or blocked milk ducts. 5. Breastfeeding cessation: This can occur due to a variety of factors, including the mother's decision to stop breastfeeding, difficulty breastfeeding, or medical reasons. Lactation disorders can have a significant impact on both the mother and the baby, and it is important to seek medical advice if you are experiencing any problems with breastfeeding.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of water balance in the body. It is primarily expressed in the kidney, where it is responsible for the reabsorption of water from the filtrate in the collecting ducts. This process is essential for maintaining proper hydration levels in the body and preventing dehydration. AQP2 is regulated by the hormone vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus in response to dehydration or low blood pressure. Vasopressin binds to receptors on the surface of the collecting duct cells, activating a signaling cascade that leads to the insertion of AQP2 into the cell membrane. This allows water to pass through the cell membrane and into the bloodstream, where it can be transported to the rest of the body. Abnormal regulation of AQP2 can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive urine production and dehydration, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency in AQP2.
Polyuria is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of urine production. It is defined as the production of more than 2.5 liters (about 8.5 cups) of urine per day in adults, or more than 1.5 liters (about 5 cups) of urine per day in children. Polyuria can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, kidney disease, certain medications, and hormonal imbalances. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism or multiple sclerosis. Excessive urine production can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications. Treatment for polyuria depends on the underlying cause and may include changes in diet and fluid intake, medications, or other medical interventions.
Sodium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, sodium is often measured in the blood and urine to assess its levels and monitor its balance in the body. Sodium is primarily responsible for regulating the body's fluid balance, which is essential for maintaining blood pressure and proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, and other organs. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the production of stomach acid. Abnormal levels of sodium in the body can lead to various medical conditions, including hyponatremia (low sodium levels), hypernatremia (high sodium levels), and dehydration. Sodium levels can be affected by various factors, including diet, medications, and underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, sodium levels are typically measured using a blood test called a serum sodium test or a urine test called a urine sodium test. These tests can help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions related to sodium levels, such as kidney disease, heart failure, and electrolyte imbalances.
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- Clinical and laboratory assessment of dehydration severity in children with acute gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- Learn more about the related grant, Assessment of Dehydration in Children with Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings , supported by Fogarty's International Research Scientist Development Award (IRSDA) . (nih.gov)
- What are the symptoms of dehydration? (medlineplus.gov)
- Although there have been no confirmed cholera deaths in medical centers in Mozambique yet, at least two people died outside hospitals with symptoms including dehydration and diarrhea, the country's environment minister Celso Correia said. (jimbakkershow.com)
- Dehydration Symptoms: Dehydration means that there is a shortage of water in the body. (trendingmantra.com)
- Drinking less amount of water or no water at all increases the risk of dehydration.dehydration symptoms This is one of the main dehydration symptoms. (trendingmantra.com)
- Dehydration can be mild, or it can be severe enough to be life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
- For severe dehydration, hospitalization is sometimes necessary so that your child can be rehydrated with intravenous (IV) fluids. (healthychildren.org)
- My dad is experiencing severe dehydration (stage 3b non small cell lung cancer). (cancer.org)
- Losing 9 - 15% results in severe, life-threatening dehydration. (migraine.com)
- Severe dehydration: should be treated immediately as a medical emergency. (migraine.com)
- Physical examination revealed a lethargic and irritable infant with severe dehydration. (who.int)
- Patients with severe dehydration, stupor, coma, uncontrollable vomiting, or extreme fatigue that prevents drinking should be rehydrated intravenously. (cdc.gov)
Treatments for dehydration1
- What are the treatments for dehydration? (medlineplus.gov)
- With milder cases of dehydration, all that may be needed is to give your child an electrolyte replacement solution according to your pediatrician's directions. (healthychildren.org)
- Therapeutic efforts should be directed to correct dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. (who.int)
- Chronic Dehydration left untreated leads to electrolyte imbalance, kidney and liver diseases, contributes to other diseases and can ultimately lead to death. (everythingreptile.net)
- It was noticed that he continued to have dehydration despite being on intravenous fluid therapy. (who.int)
- For some Migraineurs - and I'm one of them - even mild dehydration can trigger a terrible Migraine. (migraine.com)
- Try to get rid of the cause of dehydration, such as vomiting , diarrhea , or fever . (cancer.org)
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- Moderate dehydration: rehydration may or may not be adequate. (migraine.com)
- Dehydration is a condition caused by the loss of too much fluid from the body . (medlineplus.gov)
- Geriatric nurses and caregivers play a crucial role in the prevention of dehydration, as it has been shown that verbal prompting to drink between meals was effective in improving fluid intake in more cognitively impaired residents of LTCs. (medscape.com)
- Other dehydration prevention measures include having water easily reachable throughout the day, encouraging drinking water by repeating self-care actions like brushing teeth, allowing adequate time and supervision during meals, encouraging family members to participate in feeding, and registering fluid intake. (medscape.com)
- When you don't have enough fluid in your body or do not have enough where it's needed in the body it is called dehydration . (cancer.org)
- This study investigated the effect of drinking rate on fluid retention of milk and water following exercise-induced dehydration. (humankinetics.com)
- Losing as little as 1 or 2% of body weight in fluid can result in dehydration. (migraine.com)
- In particular, ethanol dehydration is one of the most important applications. (databasefootball.com)
- This work evaluates new membrane materials obtained from a renewable source, for ethanol and gas dehydration. (databasefootball.com)
- These membranes were applied in ethanol dehydration with a higher transport performance (similar to PERVAP® 4101 commercial membrane), but an irreversible swelling in the presence of water was noticed, compromising long-term operation. (databasefootball.com)
- In older adults, the same level of dehydration that normally triggers a thirst response may not. (aarp.org)
- Solvent dehydration processes have a high economic and environmental relevance in the pharmaceutical, fine-chemistry, and chemical industries. (databasefootball.com)
- On the contrary, these hybrid membranes exhibited high selectivity to water vapor and showed a good stability during H 2 O/N 2 separation, constituting potential candidates for other industrial gas dehydration processes, such as biogas and flue gas. (databasefootball.com)
- Look for increased activity, better appetite, more frequent urination, and the disappearance of any of the signs of dehydration. (healthychildren.org)
- The worst clinical signs and fatalities occur if water is given to pigs after a period of restricted water intake or dehydration. (zinpro.com)
- Also, look for signs of dehydration during the winter months when heat in your home can create a lot of dry air. (nih.gov)
- Until your child feels better, remember to keep her hydrated, and call your pediatrician right away if she shows signs of dehydration. (healthychildren.org)
- Urine specific gravity and other urinary indices: inaccurate tests for dehydration. (medscape.com)
- Another potential application is biogas dehydration which, after purification, can be used as an alternative to natural gas and be distributed as a power supply in rural and urban areas. (databasefootball.com)
- The three-stage filtration system (primary filter, fine filter I & fine filter II) ensures the final cleanliness of transformer oil after purification and dehydration. (cqpuretech.com)
- There was no history of fever, vomiting or diarrhoea, although he had been previously admitted for dehydration without apparent cause. (who.int)
- In very extreme cases, this dehydration can lead to coma or death. (popsugar.com)
- Epidemiologic studies link high salt intake and conditions predisposing to dehydration such as diabetes and old age to increased risk of CVD. (nih.gov)
- When there is continued vomiting, you need to make certain that dehydration doesn't occur. (healthychildren.org)
- Direct dehydration of the transformer ( papers ) consists of heating the reels by circulating the oil.Subsequently, the transformer is rapidly emptied and put under vacuum.Then the transformer is partially filled maintaining the suction of the vacuum. (seamarconi.com)
- Two sets of DVOP-50 Vacuum Transformer Oil Dehydration Machine provided by PureTech has been accepted by the client in Southeast Asia after check and inspection. (cqpuretech.com)
- Dehydration is a term used when the body loses so much water that it can no longer function efficiently. (healthychildren.org)
- Dehydration can occur in cold weather as well as during the summer, but too many people consider proper hydration only during the warmer months of the year. (migraine.com)
- Pediatric dehydration assessment at triage: prospective study on refilling time. (medscape.com)
- In particular, dehydration of flue gas originated in the production of electricity by coal-fired power plants, has a great interest due to the energy saving in power plants and reduction of diffusion of pollutants through water. (databasefootball.com)
- Particularly, polysaccharides, such as alginate and chitosan, have been tried for solvent dehydration due to their high affinity for water, solvent resistance, and high separation performance. (databasefootball.com)
- Dehydration can be caused by poor management practices, such as not ensuring an adequate volume of water is flowing to water troughs and water nipples, or that water lines are plugged and not flowing properly, especially during warmer weather. (zinpro.com)
- Dehydration can also be caused by poor water quality, or animals not being trained on a new water source. (zinpro.com)
- Dehydration is having too little water in your body. (msdmanuals.com)
- Dehydration usually leads to a decrease in feed intake, thus reducing growth rates in cattle, swine and poultry. (zinpro.com)
- Who is at risk for dehydration? (medlineplus.gov)
- Patients consuming less than 50% of their meals are at high risk for dehydration. (medscape.com)
- [ 36 ] For community-dwelling older adults dehydration may be prevented by educating them and their families or caregivers on the importance of hydration and the risk factors for dehydration. (medscape.com)
- But doctors say dehydration is a very real risk for all adults over age 65. (aarp.org)
- Recognizing and preventing dehydration are essential for good health and for preventing Migraines triggered by dehydration. (migraine.com)
- The management of children with gastroenteritis and dehydration in the emergency department. (medscape.com)
- Validation of the clinical dehydration scale for children with acute gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- As many as 700,000 children die worldwide each year of dehydration, making the quick and accurate diagnostic tool particularly useful in low-resource settings. (nih.gov)
- Once there, she was referred by nurse Hayam al-Shamaa for an ultrasound scan which showed her baby had died of dehydration - one of 15 to perish in the womb due to cholera in September and October, according to doctors at the city's Thawra hospital. (jimbakkershow.com)
- How do doctors treat dehydration? (msdmanuals.com)
- Dehydration is not a disease but a symptom of an underlying factor. (everythingreptile.net)
- Cite this: Dehydration in Geriatrics - Medscape - Oct 01, 2007. (medscape.com)
- they are phosphorolytic cleavage of fructose 6-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate to produce aldose phosphate, acetyl phosphate, and H(2)O. The phosphoketolase reaction is different from other well studied ThDP-dependent enzymes because it involves a dehydration step. (nih.gov)
- Together, they can quickly lead to dehydration or heat stroke. (nih.gov)
- Your article and findings are very helpful, referring to dehydration. (waterbenefitshealth.com)