Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Optic Chiasm: The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Night Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Mesopic Vision: The function of the eye that is used in the intermediate level of illumination (mesopic intensities) where both the RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS are active in processing light input simultaneously.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Infantile esotropia is defined as the onset of constant esodeviation in children less than 6 months of age.There are several other clinical findings that often accompany infantile esotropia including: large amplitude of the angle (greater than 30 prism diopters), dissociated vertical deviation, dissociated horizontal deviation, inferior oblique overaction, latent nystagmus, cross fixation with pseudo abduction deficit, low degree of hyperopia (less than 3 diopters), and amblyopia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Infantile esotropia is mainly treated surgically using either bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions or unilateral medial rectus muscle recession and lateral rectus muscle resection with the main goal being to align the eyes so that single binocular vision may develop. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There are multiple surgical techniques used to treat infantile esotropia with the main goal being to align the eyes so that binocular vision may develop.The most common initial treatment is either bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions or unilateral medial rectus muscle recession and lateral rectus muscle resection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The inability of an eye to turn outward and results in a convergent strabismus or esotropia of which the primary symptom is diplopia (commonly known as double vision) in which the two images appear side-by-side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we compare the plasticity induced in mouse visual cortex by monocular and binocular deprivation during the critical period with plasticity during adulthood. (jneurosci.org)
  • For monocular and binocular deprivation, one or both eyelids of C57BL/6 mice (Simonsen Laboratories) were sutured shut under anesthesia induced by 2-3% isofluorane in oxygen, otherwise according to the procedures described previously ( Gordon and Stryker, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • These goals include the need for high resolution surround vision without geometric distortion, less sensitivity to head-rotation induced errors, the ability to mix virtual objects and real ones in the same environment, the need for collaborative virtual experiences, and the ability to apply successive refinement to a virtual environment . (uic.edu)
  • Furthermore, the group found that around 90% of ME/CFS patients reported a degree of eye pain and sensitivity to bright lights at least some of the time. (prohealth.com)
  • He brings to the college over 30 years of experience in academia as an educator of aspiring optometrists and 19 years of clinical experience that includes treatment of patients with binocular vision disorders and electro diagnosis testing. (neco.edu)
  • You want to help people of all ages with vision disorders. (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • As a specialist, you focus on certain functional eye diseases: Like how can you help people when for example they suddenly suffer from vision disorders after accidents, strokes or tumors in the brain? (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • Since the anatomical arrangement of the orbit in chameleons is very different from that in primates, and binocular fused vision is virtually absent, we suggest that in the chameleon, LL mainly optimizes oculomotor control. (eyespypro.com)
  • Rather, members of the order Primates share, to varying degrees, several suites of features that reflect a generally arboreal lifestyle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Evaluating Changes in Quality of Life after Vision Therapy Using the COVD Quality of Life Outcomes Assessment. (ico.edu)
  • Applicants who have had monovision secondary to refractive surgery may be certificated, providing they have corrective vision available that would provide binocular vision in accordance with the vision standards, while exercising the privileges of the certificate. (faa.gov)
  • binocular display - each eye receives a unique view which the brain fuses to create a sense of depth. (uic.edu)
  • Multifocal IOLs were reported to provide higher patient satisfaction due to better results for near and intermediate vision and a greater depth of focus, due to which they appear to have higher spectacle independence and patient satisfaction than monofocal IOLs [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After the legal framework was created in 2006 to introduce the MTD academies and the midwife academy into the higher education sector, FH Campus Wien launched the first bachelor's degree programs in 2007. (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • Orthoptists must complete a 2-year training fellowship after earning a bachelor's degree, usually with a science or health care major. (mynextmove.org)
  • Later in the year, Pacific also will begin a bachelor's degree program in partnership with Chinese universities for optometry students based there. (pacificu.edu)
  • Patients sometimes adopt a face turned towards the side of the affected eye, moving the eye away from the field of action of the affected lateral rectus muscle, with the aim of controlling diplopia and maintaining binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimentally or clinically, the field is measured on a perimeter, a device for ascertaining the point on a given meridian where a white spot just appears or disappears from vision when moved along this meridian. (britannica.com)
  • It will be clear from the field of the single eye shown in Figure 2 that the binocular field is determined in the horizontal meridian by the nasal field of each eye, and so will amount to about 60° to either side of the vertical meridian. (britannica.com)
  • An area in the field of vision where objects cannot be seen. (avesis.com)
  • 9) 'Field of vision' means the entire horizontal and vertical planes a person has for each eye without shifting the gaze. (ky.gov)
  • The U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC) has tackled the field of view problem with an NVG boasting a 95-degree-horizontal-by-38-degree-vertical viewing range, about double the standard 40-degree-circular view available today. (aviationtoday.com)
  • The field of binocular single vision was enlarged in 11 of 17 patients after irradiation compared with 2 of 15 after sham-irradiation. (lww.com)
  • EyeView software provides the ability to demonstrate patients' functional vision with real-world images. (stereooptical.com)
  • Since the spherical IOLs do not address spherical aberration as do aspheric IOLs, the latter has been shown to produce comparatively better functional vision outcomes [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The white phosphor BNVD is a follow-on to the legacy, battle-proven AN/PVS-15 and AN/PVS-31 standard green phosphor night vision goggles. (adsinc.com)
  • With night vision goggles (NVGs) pilots can see terrain and objects close to the ground that can't be perceived by the naked eye. (aviationtoday.com)
  • Insight Technology, of Londonderry, N.H., will supply 400 of these panoramic night vision goggles (PNVGs) under an early production contract, and basic units will be ready early next year. (aviationtoday.com)
  • Night-vision goggles are a huge safety multiplier, said Ken Lawson-Williams, a Canadian who works as a flight nurse on fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters with a company that flies across the U.S. Southwest. (nightvisionreviews.net)
  • In 2012, Ridge Meadows RCMP received a $6,100 grant for the purchase of night vision goggles, tablet computers and a digital camera, while Cythera House and Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Community Services received $5,000 and $25,000, respectively, for programs aimed at preventing violence against women and children. (nightvisionreviews.net)
  • Depending on who you believe, there are anywhere from 8-10 species of hammerheads, whose cephalofoils all have different degrees of exaggeration. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Taking these movements into account, she found that the binocular overlaps of the scalloped hammerhead and bonnethead increase to a substantial 69 and 52 degrees respectively, still outclassing the 44 and 48 degree arcs of the pointy-headed species. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Age 73, no family history and normal peripheral vision. (justanswer.com)
  • I get very distracted by things in my peripheral vision too, which often makes me feel disoriented and lose my balance so I often stumble or walk like I'm a bit drunk. (prohealth.com)
  • And the pilot can pick up altitude or velocity cues from outside objects via peripheral vision while going into a landing or a hover. (aviationtoday.com)