Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Coxa Vara: Hip deformity in which the femoral neck leans forward resulting in a decrease in the angle between femoral neck and its shaft. It may be congenital often syndromic, acquired, or developmental.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Hallux Varus: Displacement of the great toe (HALLUX) towards the midline or away from the other TOES. It can be congenital or acquired.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Patellar Dislocation: Displacement of the PATELLA from the femoral groove.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Tibial FracturesFractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Bone Anteversion: Malalignment of a bone in which its head and neck is rotated excessively forward or inward.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.ShoesBone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.DislocationsFibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
  • Orthopedists use an index called the TT-TG (tibial tuberosity trochlear groove) to measure the degree of malalignment present and guide treatment recommendations. (hss.edu)
  • The non-navigation group was significantly more likely to have outliers (greater than 3 degrees) in femoral varus/valgus coronal alignment [odds ratio (OR) 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-20.7, p = 0.and for posterior tibial slope (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.1-65.0, p = 0.03). (springer.com)
  • This hindfoot malalignment is often due to posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, as this tendon is crucial in maintaining the longitudinal arch of the foot. (radsource.us)
  • Common over-use injury of adolescents Epiphysis(growth plate) on the tibial tuberosity of growing bone. (studystack.com)
  • The associated bone abnormalities and leg malalignment had been addressed by bilateral closing wedge tibial osteotomies when the patient was approximately 40 years of age. (materialise.com)
  • The large quadriceps muscle ends in a tendon that inserts into the tibial tubercle, a bony bump at the top of the tibia (shin bone) just below the patella. (eorthopod.com)
  • Both tracking arrays are fixed to the femoral and tibial bones using two 4-mm Schanz pins. (jcorth.com)
  • Thus, screw purchase in the tibial metaphysis is provided by the threads engaging cancellous rather than cortical bone. (musculoskeletalkey.com)
  • From 5 to 10 cm distal to the tibial tubercle, the medullary canal becomes distinctly tubular, with thick walls, especially anteriorly, where the prominent crest of the tibia occupies nearly a third of the diameter of the entire bone. (musculoskeletalkey.com)
  • This review presents critical insights into the up-dated clinical knowledge on osteotomies for complex posttraumatic or congenital lower limb deformities with a focus on high tibial osteotomies, including a comprehensive overview of basic principles of osteotomy planning, biomechanical considerations of different implants for osteotomies and insights in specific bone deformity correction techniques. (springeropen.com)
  • Reflecting the different presentations, this paper offers an overview of the key issues associated with complex osteotomies of the lower limb with a focus on high tibial osteotomies, ranging from basic scientific principles of the osteochondral unit and osteotomies to modern surgical indications, surgical planning, fixation devices, bone deformity correction techniques, paediatric osteotomies and complex surgeries, such as simultaneous osteotomy and ligament reconstruction. (springeropen.com)
  • Exclusion: Patients with previous surgery or known trauma to the bone of the proximal tibial , metabolic bone disease including Pagets, patients known to have been on oral or intravenous steroid medication, avascular necrosis, sickle cell disease, neoplasia, benign cysts, bone sclerosing or lytic conditions. (tudor.lu)
  • Malalignment after surgical treatment of posterior Monteggia fractures often is associated with unstable fixation. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that the degree of preoperative malalignment determines the complexity of the total knee replacement (TKR), the duration of the procedure , and the choice of implant .Any system that can provide an accurate, reliable measurement of the long leg alignment using the standard antero posterior radiographs of the knee would therefore be a welcome addition at the planning stage. (tudor.lu)
  • Despite numerous investigations of the effect of sagittal alignment on the clinical outcome of spinal fusion surgery, we lack data concerning the role of sagittal malalignment in the failure of hardware after posterior fixation of the thoracolumbar spine. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesized an association between sagittal malalignment, metal fatigue, and subsequent failure of implants after posterior thoracolumbar spine fusion. (springer.com)
  • Fractures can be traumatic - as from a fall, a motor vehicle accident or a contact injury - or they can be due to pathology in the bone that creates a predisposition. (cbslocal.com)
  • Many factors affect the seriousness of an extensor tendon injury such as associated fractures, infection, the degree of tendon separation, and if the tendon was cut or torn. (txortho.com)
  • The cartilaginous components of the carpal bones or fractures of the carpal bones can be visualized by ultrasonography, CT, scintigraphy, and MRI. (juniperpublishers.com)
  • Occipital bone and subaxial spinal elements were not included in the fixation construct. (thejns.org)
  • This procedure involves removing all or a portion of the lamina, removing bone spurs and/or enlarging the foramen to relieve pressure on the nerve roots or spinal cord. (tuscaloosaorthopedics.com)
  • Depending on the locasion of disk bulges, fragments of herniated disks, thickened joint capsules, bone spurs (osteophytes) or ligament different areas of the spinal cord or different nerve rootsmay get compressed and stop to function properly. (zneurosurgery.com)
  • The spinal nerve roots and travels to cm of medialization of the pharynx is divided into three chapters, each describing a different angle - ofinsertion of degrees. (pmpediatrics.org)
  • Pelvic obliquity causes scoliosis (sideways curvature of the spinal column) in various degrees of severity. (kybun.us)
  • Pelvic obliquity causes scoliosis (sideways curvature of the spinal column) in varying degrees of severity. (kybun.us)
  • Cystic changes were also seen in the carpal bones bilaterally, most pronounced in the os triquetrum and lunatum. (springermedizin.at)
  • Carpal bones are largely cartilaginous at birth and remain largely cartilaginous until late childhood. (juniperpublishers.com)
  • An MRI after a kneecap dislocation reveals both damage to the ligament, bruises on the bone inside of the patella and on the outside of the femur that occur when the kneecap "re-locates" back in place. (hss.edu)
  • A displaced patella occurs when the kneecap (patella) slips out of its groove on the thigh bone (femur). (olsenorthopedics.com)
  • A groove on the front of the thigh bone (femur) allows the kneecap to slide up and down while the joint is in motion. (olsenorthopedics.com)
  • Sclerosis of subchondral bone is a well recognised radiographic and surgical feature of osteoarthritic knees. (tudor.lu)
  • therefore, the alignment should be maintained for a long time until bone healing is achieved. (scirp.org)
  • and (3) if a plate, screw, nail, or prosthesis is to be fixed to bone, the alignment of the cuts and/or holes with respect to the plate, screw, nail or prosthesis. (justia.com)
  • The Achilles tendon is a strong cord made of fibrous connective tissue that attaches the calf muscle to the calcaneus, or heel bone. (nwfootankle.com)
  • This health problem can affect any part of the tendon, though it most commonly occurs at the point where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone or less than 1 inch above this point. (nwfootankle.com)
  • Shoes that continuously rub on the back of the heel may irritate the Achilles tendon and heel bone, causing a condition known as Haglunds Deformity or Pump Bump. (nwfootankle.com)
  • Angles more than 15 degrees create more of a pull on the tendon, creating painful inflammation. (eorthopod.com)
  • occur when force of stress on ligament is sufficient to displace normal position of opposing bone ends or bone ends to socketpain increases with active or passive movement of affected extremity. (studystack.com)
  • The bones are connected with strong ligament tissues. (txortho.com)
  • The most unrecognised fact of dancing en pointe is that the weight of the body should not be forced onto the toes but instead dispersed from the metatarsal heads (ball of the foot) through the shoe and into the floor. (danz.org.nz)
  • Some serious foot issues may need surgery, such as hammer toes, metatarsal malalignment, bunions or the most complicated problem: rear-foot surgery of the tarsal bone or joint. (medicalmasters.org)
  • A greater force causes more joint damage and the X-ray reveals a visible step where the two pieces of bone are no longer aligned as the suspensory support of the arm is lost. (ride.co.za)
  • These are injuries that are caused as the patella is dislocated, such as bone fragmenting, slivers of which may become lodged in the joint. (olsenorthopedics.com)
  • MRI scan is a sensitive, reliable and quite important technique for detecting carpal bone injuries in children, in whom osseous development is progressing and the cartilaginous structure is predominant, particularly when there is a clinical suspicion. (juniperpublishers.com)