Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.

A novel Vpr peptide interactor fused to integrase (IN) restores integration activity to IN-defective HIV-1 virions. (1/1328)

A novel approach to complement human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) integrase (IN)-defective virions has been identified. The approach involves fusion of a 23-amino-acid stretch to the N-terminus of wild-type IN and coexpression of this chimera with the IN-defective proviral template in virus producing cells. The 23-amino-acid peptide represents a Vpr "interactor," referred to as the the WxxF or WF domain, which apparently leads to docking of the domain along with the fusion partner onto HIV-1 Vpr, thus permitting virion incorporation of the chimeric protein when expressed, in trans, with other viral products. Transfection of the WF-IN expression plasmid along with HIV-1 viral clones that produce Vpr, but bear an IN mutation, results in the release of a proportion of viral particles that are competent for integration. The extent of complementation was assessed using the MAGI cell assay, where integration of viral DNA results in the eventual appearance of easily visible multinucleated blue syncytia. The efficiency of dWF-IN (double copy of WF domain) complementation is not improved markedly by incorporation of a HIV-1 protease cleavage site (PR) between the dWF domain and IN (dWF-PR-IN), unlike that observed with Vpr fusions to IN. Furthermore, the ability of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN to complement IN-defective proviral clones, both of which bear an intervening protease cleavage site, appear comparable. Western blotting analyses using virions isolated through sucrose cushions demonstrate clearly the incorporation of the dWF-IN fusion protein into Vpr containing HIV-1 particles but not in Vpr-deficient virions. Additional Western blotting analyses indicate that all Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras, with or without a PR site, are packaged into virions. The efficiency of virion incorporation of Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras appears approximately comparable by Western blotting analysis. The ability of dWF-IN to complement IN-defective proviruses with efficiency similar to that of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN indicates that dWF-IN retains the full complement of functions necessary for integration of proviral DNA and is likely due to the benign nature of this small domain at the amino-terminus of IN.  (+info)

Enhancer-like properties of an RNA element that modulates Tombusvirus RNA accumulation. (2/1328)

Prototypical defective interfering (DI) RNAs of the plus-strand RNA virus tomato bushy stunt virus contain four noncontiguous segments (regions I-IV) derived from the viral genome. Region I corresponds to 5'-noncoding sequence, regions II and III are derived from internal positions, and region IV represents a 3'-terminal segment. We analyzed the internally located region III in a prototypical DI RNA to understand better its role in DI RNA accumulation. Our results indicate that (1) region III is not essential for DI RNA accumulation, but molecules that lack it accumulate at significantly reduced levels ( approximately 10-fold lower), (2) region III is able to function at different positions and in opposite orientations, (3) a single copy of region III is favored over multiple copies, (4) the stimulatory effect observed on DI RNA accumulation is not due to region III-mediated RNA stabilization, (5) DI RNAs lacking region III permit the efficient accumulation of head-to-tail dimers and are less effective at suppressing helper RNA accumulation, and (6) negative-strand accumulation is also significantly depressed for DI RNAs lacking region III. Collectively, these results support a role for region III as an enhancer-like element that facilitates DI RNA replication. A scanning-type mutagenesis strategy was used to define portions of region III important for its stimulatory effect on DI RNA accumulation. Interestingly, the results revealed several differences in the requirements for activity when region III was in the forward versus the reverse orientation. In the context of the viral genome, region III was found to be essential for biological activity. This latter finding defines a critical role for this element in the reproductive cycle of the virus.  (+info)

New defective RNAs from citrus tristeza virus: evidence for a replicase-driven template switching mechanism in their generation. (3/1328)

Defective RNAs (D-RNAs) ranging in size from 1968 to 2759 nt were detected in four citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates by hybridization of electroblotted dsRNAs with two probes specific for the 5'- and 3'-terminal genomic regions. The RNAs that hybridized with both probes were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Comparison with the sequences of the corresponding genomic regions of the helper virus showed, in all cases, over 99% nucleotide identity and direct repeats of 4-5 nt flanking or in the vicinity of the junction sites. The presence of the repeats from two separate genome locations suggests a replicase-driven template switching mechanism for the generation of these CTV D-RNAs. Two of the CTV isolates that differed greatly in their pathogenicity contained an identical D-RNA, suggesting that it is unlikely that this D-RNA is involved in symptom modulation, which may be caused by another factor.  (+info)

The quaternary structure of the sheaths of defective phages similar to PBS X. (4/1328)

The contractile sheaths of five defective, PBS X-like bacteriophages from Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were investigated by electron microscopy, dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis and immunodiffusion. Electron microscope images of the extended and contracted sheaths were of similar appearance, although their lengths were different. The surface lattices of both the extended and the contracted sheaths were determined by optical diffraction. This showed that the quaternary structure of the sheaths of all five defective phages originated from identical surface lattices, which could be approximately expressed by the selection rules L = -2n' + 3m and L = 9N' + 17M for the extended and contracted sheaths respectively, in which 6n' = n with n = 0 or an integer multiple of 6. These results indicated that the packing of the protein subunits in these sheaths differed from those of other bacteriophages, for example T4 and millimicron [Amos and Klug, J. Mol. Biol. 99, 51--73 (1975); Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976)]. The molecular weight of the main sheath protein of the defective phages, as determined by dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis, was approximately 50000. This value differed from that for T4, but was similar to that of millimicron [Admiraal and Mellema, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 56, 48--64 (1976); King and Laemmli, J. Mol. Biol, 75, 315--337 (1973)]. The results of immunodiffusion experiments, however, pointed to a chemical difference between the sheath proteins of the defective phages and millimicron, in addition to T4.  (+info)

Experimental gene therapy against subcutaneously implanted glioma with a herpes simplex virus-defective vector expressing interferon-gamma. (5/1328)

We investigated the feasibility of local treatment or tumor vaccination with a herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-defective vector. The vector was engineered to express murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for experimental gene therapy against mouse glioma Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The murine IFN-gamma gene was driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The helper virus (tsk) was thermosensitive; consequently, this vector could only proliferate at 31 degrees C. A high level of murine IFN-gamma expression was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by immunohistochemistry using anti-mouse IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody. This engineered vector (dvHSV/MulFN-gamma) inhibited the proliferation of mouse glioma RSV cells in vitro, and an intratumoral (i.t.) local injection of the vector caused i.t. necrosis in vivo. The immunological effect of dvHSV/MulFN-gamma was also examined in a mouse glioma RSV cell implantation model. A subcutaneous (s.c.) implant of 1 x 10(6) mouse glioma RSV cells after treatment with dvHSV/MulFN-gamma was rejected. However, the implant after treatment with an engineered HSV-defective vector containing an antisense nucleotide sequence of the murine IFN-gamma gene was not rejected. In addition, in another group of mice in which RSV cells treated with dvHSV/MulFN-gamma were implanted into a femoral (s.c.) region and nontreated RSV cells were implanted into a contralateral femoral (s.c.) region, the implanted RSV cells were rejected. The rejection of the implanted mouse glioma RSV was blocked by anti-asialo GM1, which was known to inhibit natural killer cell activity. These results revealed that the HSV-defective vector could realize a high efficiency of transfection to glioma cells through short-time treatment, and that the IFN-gamma gene transferred to the cells had the effect of tumor vaccination, which was suggested be related to natural killer cells. In conclusion, dvHSV/MulFN-gamma may be useful for the gene therapy of malignant glioma through either i.t. local injection or a practical tumor vaccination with ex vivo gene transfer.  (+info)

Virus promoters determine interference by defective RNAs: selective amplification of mini-RNA vectors and rescue from cDNA by a 3' copy-back ambisense rabies virus. (6/1328)

Typical defective interfering (DI) RNAs are more successful in the competition for viral polymerase than the parental (helper) virus, which is mostly due to an altered DI promoter composition. Rabies virus (RV) internal deletion RNAs which possess the authentic RV terminal promoters, and which therefore are transcriptionally active and can be used as vectors for foreign gene expression, are poorly propagated in RV-infected cells and do not interfere with RV replication. To allow DI-like amplification and high-level gene expression from such mini-RNA vectors, we have used an engineered 3' copy-back (ambisense) helper RV in which the strong replication promoter of the antigenome was replaced with the 50-fold-weaker genome promoter. In cells coinfected with ambisense helper virus and mini-RNAs encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and luciferase, mini-RNAs were amplified to high levels. This was correlated with interference with helper virus replication, finally resulting in a clear predominance of mini-RNAs over helper virus. However, efficient successive passaging of mini-RNAs and high-level reporter gene activity could be achieved without adding exogenous helper virus, revealing a rather moderate degree of interference not precluding substantial HV propagation. Compared to infections with recombinant RV vectors expressing CAT, the availability of abundant mini-RNA templates led to increased levels of CAT mRNA such that CAT activities were augmented up to 250-fold, while virus gene transcription was kept to a minimum. We have also exploited the finding that internal deletion model RNAs behave like DI RNAs and are selectively amplified in the presence of ambisense helper virus to demonstrate for the first time RV-supported rescue of cDNA after transfection of mini-RNA cDNAs in ambisense RV-infected cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase.  (+info)

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (7/1328)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

Different doses of adenoviral vector expressing IL-12 enhance or depress the immune response to a coadministered antigen: the role of nitric oxide. (8/1328)

Joint immunization with two recombinant adenoviruses, one expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) core and E1 proteins and another expressing IL-12 (RAdIL-12), strongly potentiates cellular immune response against HCV Ags in BALB/c mice when RAdIL-12 was used at doses of 1 x 105-1 x 107 plaque-forming units. However, cellular immunity against HCV Ags was abolished when higher doses (1 x 108 plaque-forming units) of RAdIL-12 were used. This immunosuppressive effect was associated with marked elevation of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide in the serum and increased cell apoptosis in the spleen. Administration of N-nitro-L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, to mice that received high doses of RAdIL-12 was lethal, whereas no apparent systemic toxicity by L -NAME was observed in those immunized with lower doses of the adenovirus. Interestingly, in mice immunized with recombinant adenovirus expressing core and E1 proteins of HCV in combination with RAdIL-12 at low doses (1 x 107 plaque-forming units), L -NAME inhibited T cell proliferation and CTL activity in response to HCV Ags and also production of Abs against adenoviral proteins. In conclusion, gene transfer of IL-12 can increase or abolish cell immunity against an Ag depending of the dose of the vector expressing the cytokine. IL-12 stimulates the synthesis of NO which is needed for the immunostimulating effects of IL-12, but apoptosis of T cells and immunosuppression ensues when IFN-gamma and NO are generated at very high concentrations.  (+info)

Il virus di Ebola, insieme al virus di Marburgo, appartiene alla famiglia Filoviridae. La comunità scientifica medica in primo luogo ha incontrato questa famiglia virale quando il virus di Marburgo è
Richard Jefferys, TAG. A major challenge in measuring the reservoir of HIV that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) is that many of the virus genomes that can be found integrated into the DNA of CD4 T cells are incomplete or mutated in ways that preclude further rounds of replication.. For researchers aiming to develop a cure, it is important to try and distinguish between defective virus copies and intact viruses capable of rekindling the infection when ART is interrupted.. A new study from the laboratory of Robert Siliciano, published in the latest issue of Nature Medicine, attempts to assess the proportions of defective and replication competent HIV in people on ART, comparing individuals who began treatment very early after infection to those who started later. [1]. Siliciano and colleagues used genetic sequencing techniques to measure the number of intact HIV DNA sequences in ten individuals who started ART more than 180 days after infection, and compared the results to a cohort ...
A recombinant nucleic acid used for the production of a defective adenovirus containing an inserted sequence coding for a cytokine under the control of a promoter in the genomic sequence of the recombinant adenovirus. This recombinant adenovirus is useful in the preparation of anti-tumoral drugs which can be directly injected into the tumor of the host.
The chondrocyte cell line, CHON-001, was derived from the long bones of an 18-week old female fetus. The primary cells were infected by the defective retrovirus containing hTERT gene under G418 selection. The defective retrovirus was collected from the supernatant of the packaging cell line, PT67 transfected with the pLXSN vector containing hTERT gene.
2 and subjected to real-time PCR to determine the amounts of 244 DI RNA, genomic segment 1 RNA, and segment 7 RNA (Fig. 3). The levels of segments 1 and 7 RNA on day 2 after infection were similar in the lungs of mice given either inactivated DI virus + A/WSN or active DI virus + A/WSN. On day 4 there was 5-fold less segment 7 and 12-fold less segment 1 in the active DI virus + A/WSN than this website in the control group but by day 6 both groups had similar amounts of segments 1 and 7. At this point the levels of segments 1 and 7 in the lungs of the inactivated DI virus + A/WSN group reached a plateau, while those in the active DI virus + A/WSN group reached a plateau. from day 8. On day 8 mice in the inactivated DI + A/WSN group were very sick indeed, and the amount of RNA in replicate lungs varied by over 100-fold making the mean unreliable. The majority of mice in this group died shortly thereafter. In both groups, levels of segment 7 RNA were consistently. 5 to 10-fold greater than those of ...
Defective viruses now appear able to play an important role in the spread of disease, new research by UCLA life scientists indicates.
Micronico, guida nelle soluzioni innovarici di stoccaggio e di automazione del campione, offerte il nuovo TPE micronico Capcluster-96 e Capmat-96 per esternamente i tubi filettati
Installazione e manutenzione di impianti idrici, termici di condizionamento e tecnologici in ambito civile, industriale e pubblico
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La clorexidina è utile nella cura di problemi alle gengive e nella prevenzione di infezioni relative a interventi odontoiatrici (estrazione denti).
FIQH HADIS; SOLAT SUNAT ISYRAQ - *SOLAT SUNAT ISYRAQ* Sabda Nabi SAW; مَنْ صَلَّى الغَدَاةَ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ ثُمَّ قَعَدَ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ، ثُمَّ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْن... ...
ಈ ವಿಧಾನದ ಪರೀಕ್ಷೆಯು ಶರೀರದ ತೂಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಬದಲಾವಣೆ, ಮೂತ್ರದ ವಿಸರ್ಜನೆ, ಹಾಗು ದ್ರವ ಪದಾರ್ಥಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರೋಧಿಸಿದಾಗ ಉಂಟಾಗುವ ಮೂತ್ರದ ಲಕ್ಷಣ ಹಾಗು ನಿರ್ಜಲೀಕರಣದ ಸಂಭವಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಪನ ಮಾಡುತ್ತದೆ. ನಿರ್ಜಲೀಕರಣಕ್ಕೆ ಶರೀರದ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಪ್ರತಿಕ್ರಿಯೆಯೆಂದರೆ ಮೂತ್ರದ ಸಾರೀಕರಣ ಹಾಗು ನೀರಿನ ಸಂರಕ್ಷಣೆ, ಈ ರೀತಿಯಾಗಿ ಮೂತ್ರವು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಸಾರೀಕರಣಗೊಂಡು ಮೂತ್ರ ವಿಸರ್ಜನೆಯ ಪುನರಾವರ್ತನೆಯು ಕಡಿಮೆಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ. DIನ ಲಕ್ಷಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವವರು ಯಾವುದೇ ...
KEBERSIHAN tandas sentiasa menjadi keutamaan kepada setiap individu. Namun, membersihkan tandas saja tidak akan dapat membunuh kuman terutama sekali di bawah ri
Scarselli, M.; Spiga, Ottavia ; Ciutti, A.; Bernini, Andrea ; Bracci, Luisa; Lelli, B.; Lozzi, Luisa; Calamandrei, D.; DI MARO, D.; Klein, S.; Niccolai, Neri ...
Summary Multiply cloned variants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were found to generate/amplify defective interfering (DI) particles at a rate greatly exceeding the rates normally observed for wild-type VSV (or for other mutants of VSV). A single undiluted passage of the first clonal pool of this variant virus produced concentrated visible bands of DI particles on sucrose gradients whereas wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV required from three to six or more serial undiluted passages. Since DI particle amplication by wild-type VSV at each undiluted passage can exceed 10000-fold enrichment, these variant virus clones were generating/amplifying DI particles many millions of times more rapidly than were wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV. This rate of generation/amplification is so high that it was not feasible to obtain accurate estimates of the rates of generation (or amplification) of these DI particles.
Defective viruses, thought for decades to be essentially garbage unrelated to the transmission of normal viruses, now appear able to play an important role
We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. In this report, we demonstrated that (i) despite the deletion of the psi packaging sequence, the packaging-defective transcomplementing retroviral transcripts were packaged into virions at a level that could reach 2.3% of a wild-type virus packaging level and (ii) despite deletion of the 3 LTR, these genomes were transferred along with the vector to target cells. As these genomes were also bearing a selectable gene, titers of the resulting contaminant particles could be estimated, depending on the cell line to be between 0 and 6 infectious particles/ml of supernatant.
The vast majority of proviruses that persist on ART are defective. Of the minority that are intact (~2%), the fractions that are latent or transcriptionally active are not known. To address this question, we determined the fraction of proviruses that express HIV RNA in vivo in cell populations carrying either intact or defective proviruses.. PBMC were obtained from Patient #1 in Maldarelli, et al. (Science, 2014). This donor had multiple clones of cells that contain intact or defective proviruses. Proviral expression was determined by single-genome pro-pol sequencing (SGS) of HIV DNA and RNA from multiple aliquots of PBMC diluted to an endpoint such that each aliquot contained one to a few HIV RNA expressing cells. Intact proviruses were identified using viral outgrowth assays (VOA). The levels and fractions of cells expressing HIV RNA were determined for probable clones (identified by identical sequence matches) carrying intact and defective proviruses.. A total of 77 million PBMC were ...
Many viral vector systems have been developed for gene delivery. These include retroviruses, adenoviruses, adenoassociated viruses and herpes simplex virus. Retrovirus vector system: Replication defective retrovirus vectors that are harmless are being used. A plasmid in association with a retrovirus, a therapeutic gene and a promoter is referred to as plasmovirus. The plasmovirus is capable of carrying a DNA (therapeutic gene) of size less than 3.4 kb. Replication defective virus particles can be produced from the plasmovirus. As such, for the delivery of genes by retroviral vectors, the target cells must be in a dividing stage. But majority of the body cells are quiescent. In recent years, viral vectors have been engineered to infect non-dividing cells. Further, attempts are on to include a DNA in the retroviral vectors (by engineering env gene) that encodes for cell receptor protein. If this is successfully achieved, the retroviral vector will specifically infect the target tissues. Adenoviral ...
Overview Small viruses that can carry relatively small payload, but they do not exhibit pathogenicity nor cytotoxicity in the host organism. They can mediate gene transfer to both mitotic and non-mitotic cells, they lack the risk of oncogene activation, since they can exist stably in an episomal state with a low rate of chromosomal integration. AA virions are small (20-25 nm diameter) and have no enveloped, they carry ssDNA and they are defective virus dependent on the presence of a helper virus for replication.
Stock illustration: group showing a horrid virus lurking in the dark. 7.9 MB. 5600 x 4200. From $5. Royalty free vector, graphic, illustration. Download now |||
Photo about Concept image of a HAZMAT (Hazardous Materials) team closely inspecting a hard drive for viruses, spyware and trojans. Taken with a Canon 5D. - 2474124
Viral insulin-like peptides encoded in fish genomes, and insect antiviral immunity by production of viral DNA from defective genomes of RNA viruses.
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Summary The capacity of an egg-grown Sendai virus preparation to induce interferon in the human lymphoblastoid cell Namalwa is dependent on its passage history. Virus which has been serially passaged at high dilution is a poor inducer, whereas virus serially passaged undiluted is a good inducer. Such a good inducer preparation has a low infectivity to haemagglutination ratio as the result of a high content of defective-interfering (DI) particles. Using DI particles purified on glycerol gradients, it is shown that for the induction of maximum interferon titres both infectious and DI particles are required. DI particles alone induce little or no interferon. Addition of DI particles to fully infectious Sendai virus preparations increased the interferon yield obtained from Namalwa cells some 60- to 100-fold.
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Thank you for sharing this Journal of Virology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Functional titer is defined as the number of functional vector particles required to infect a cell, present in a volume. There are several methods for measuring titer. Some are more reliable than others. Other methods include: measuring the p24 concentration/ml, measuring RNA equivalents, Transducing units/ml, or measuring mRNA equivalents. The first two are unreliable because they tend to overestimate the vector titer. The amount of p24 measured comes from functional particles, free p24, and nonfunctional vector particles. The RNA assays measure defective particles as well.. Reliable methods are determined by transduction of cells following limiting dilution of vector and subsequent evaluation of reporter protein activity (eGFP) or by the number of colonies following antibiotic selection.. The most straightforward method is to quantify functional vector titer by employing fluorescence and FACs. This is the method employed by the ViraCore. The method does have some limitations including being ...
Interior and exterior views of the three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis Virus. This virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes fever and rash in humans. If was first discovered in Egypt. - Stock Image C006/2445
IVD developers and manufacturers agree that the most effective reference materials for infectious disease assays are full-process, non-infectious, and available in large quantities within a short time frame.. This white paper details how AccuPlex recombinant virus technology enables replication-defective virus particles that are commutable in any sample matrix and closely mimic pathogenic virus found in clinical samples.. Download this whitepaper to learn:. ...
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Subramani, S. Rescue of chromosomal T-antigen sequences onto extrachromosomally replicating, defective simian virus 40 DNA by homologous recombination.. Molecular and Cellular Biology 6.4 (1986): 1320-1325. Web. 06 Aug. 2020. ...
Memang, HIV/AIDS ada obatnya tapi tidak bisa disembuhkan. Obat yang ada yaitu obat antiretroviral (ARV) hanya menekan laju duplikasi atau pertambahan virus di dalam darah. Jika HIV masuk ke tubuh seseorang, al. melalui hubungan seksual tanpa kondom, di dalamd an di luar nikah, dengan pengidap HIV/AIDS, maka HIV akan menggandakan diri di dalam darah yang jumlahnya bisa sampai triliunan setiap hari ...
3.3. E ects induced by the administration of 6918VP60- virus-infected does showed any symptomatology as- To evaluate the e ects of recombinant virus infec- 3.4. Analysis of the biological stability of 6918VP60-T2 tion on reproduction, pregnant does were inoculated at di erent times of gestation (days 7, 14, 21 and 28) by s.c. route. The daily observation of the animals The biological stability of the recombinant virus, showed a total absence of general clinical symptoms in and therefore its potential to evolve to a virulent state all inoculated animals. Reproductive parameters such were evaluated by comparing the e ects of rabbit as number of animals born alive per litter, number of infection with ``Passage 0 virus (the same virus stock animals born dead per litter, number of living animals used in all the experiments reported in this paper), per litter 8 dpp, and average weight of each litter at 8 with the e ects of rabbit infection with the virus dpp, for both ®rst and second parturition, ...
Cerca di indovinare il risultato della partita di calcio. Se indovini correttamente il risultato della partita di calcio ottieni 10 punti, se indovini correttamente il punteggio di differenza ottieni 5 punti, invece, se indovini il vincitore della partita ottieni 2 punti. I punti vengono sommati ...
(Source: Comune di Jesi ) Dicembre 2016 Le percentuali sono suddivise per settore e riguardano tutti i dipendenti dellEnte Tassi di assenza e di presenza di tutto il personale assegnato a ciascun servizio e non solo al dirigente dello stesso. Dati dal 01/12/2016 al 31/12/2016 AREA/SERVIZI DIRIGENTI Giorni lavorativi Unità lavorative Tasso assenza Tasso
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Paolo Ferrazzi, cardiochirurgo che lavora da Luglio 2013 presso il Policlinico di Monza, direttore del Centro per la Cardiomiopatia Ipertrofica e le Cardiopatie Valvolari
E. Sanna1, M. Manganini1, F. R. Grati2, S. Chinetti2, E. Bernardi2, S. Bianchi2, E. Iantosca2, E. Menzaghi2, L. Diolosà2, S. Bernasconi3, F. Maggi4, G. Simoni4 Il liquido amniotico contiene differenti tipi di cellule fetali classificati […]. ...
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Despite the inability to isolate them, von Magnus discovered defective interfering particles (DIPs) using the "influenza virus ... Huang, Alice S.; Baltimore, David (1977). "2. Defective Interfering Animal Viruses". In Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz; Wagner, Robert ... He warned however, that such viruses were stable and easily cultured and therefore the emergence of a new virus with a more ... "Incomplete Forms of Influenza Virus", in Kenneth M. Smith and Max A. Lauffer's Advances in Virus Research, Volume 2, Academic ...
They called it "Hepatitis Delta Virus" (HDV). This new virus was found to be defective. HDV needed HBV to act as a helper ... Agents of this virus resemble that of plant viroids. It is still hard to tell how many stereotypes exist because HDV is under ... Flu viruses can be directly transmitted (via droplets from sneezing or coughing) from pigs to people, and vice versa. These ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause AIDS which is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a ...
"Generation of Replication-Defective Virus-Based Vaccines That Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent Bluetongue Virus ... His research in the early 1970s was in the field of plant viruses, including tobacco rattle virus and tobacco necrosis virus, ... Minson's group called the resulting virus a "disabled infectious single cycle" (DISC) virus; similarly disabled viruses are ... Such replication-impaired viruses unite many of the advantages of both live and killed virus vaccines, and are much less likely ...
"Characterization of temperature sensitive influenza virus mutants defective in neuraminidase". Virology. 61 (2): 397-410. doi: ... Dyason JC, Itzstein Mv (2001). "Anti-Influenza Virus Drug Design: Sialidase Inhibitors". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 54 ( ... Influenza neuraminidase is a mushroom-shaped projection on the surface of the influenza virus. It has a head consisting of four ... The enzymatic mechanism of influenza virus sialidase has been studied by Taylor et al., shown in Figure 1. The enzyme catalysis ...
Gonçalves, M (2005). "Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector". Virology Journal. 2 (1): 43-60. doi: ... They are only limited by the virus they must infect with, also known as the helper virus. These helper viruses are necessary ... Dependoparvovirus (formerly Dependovirus or Adeno-associated virus group) is a genus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the virus ... 2009). "Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus to an infectious respiratory virus". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
After developing a test for the new virus by Jan. 10 "COVID-19 virus testing in NHS laboratories" (PDF). NHS England and NHS ... "Chinese firm to replace exported coronavirus test kits deemed defective by Spain". 27 March 2020 - via www.reuters.com. ... "China virus crisis deepens as whistleblower doctor dies". AFP.com. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2020. 日检测量达万份的"火眼"实验室 ... extract the virus's genetic material-in this case, RNA-using a set of chemicals that usually come in pre-assembled kits. 'The ...
... termini of RNA from vesicular stomatitis virus and its defective interfering particles". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and rabies virus (RABV), members of the Rhabdoviridae family of viruses, and for Ebola virus and Marburg virus from the broader ... "The origins of defective interfering particles of the negative-strand RNA viruses". Cell. 26 (2): 145-154. doi:10.1016/0092- ... He identified the origins of defective interfering particles of negative-strand RNA viruses. Through combinatorial studies of ...
Aaskov J, Buzacott K, Thu HM, Lowry K, Holmes EC (January 2006). "Long-term transmission of defective RNA viruses in humans and ... Additional examples of complementation among RNA viruses have been reported. Complementation is a means to maintain defective ... A founder virus can introduce a different phenotype for the ensuing evolution. Evolution of viruses in nature and as disease ... Attenuated RNA virus vaccines can revert to virulent forms. RNA viruses released in nature for pest control purposes can mutate ...
Viruses that have been implicated include Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. Non-specific upper ... Cervical joint hypermobility and defective internal jugular venous drainage have also been suggested as causes. In 1987, Vanast ... Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Vanast, Walterj.; Tyrrell, Davidl.J. (1987). "Increased Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus Excretion in ... testing were unremarkable except for an unusually high number of patients who tested positive for a past Epstein-Barr virus ...
Cattaneo (21 October 1988). "Biased hypermutation and other genetic changes in defective measles viruses in human brain ... influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, polyomavirus, hepatitis delta virus, and hepatitis C virus. Although ADAR1 ... ADAR1's A to I editing has been found in many viruses including measles virus, ... ADAR1 is an interferon ( IFN )-inducible protein (one released by a cell in response to a pathogen or virus), so it would make ...
The von Magnus phenomenon describes the generation of defective interfering particles (DIPs) by viruses. It was first observed ... Kristen Ann Stauffer Thompson (2008). Quantitative Effects of Defective Interfering Virus-like Particles on the Growth and ... Gard, S. (1952). "Studies on the sedimentation of influenza virus". Archiv für die Gesamte Virusforschung. 4 (5): 591-611. doi: ... by Preben von Magnus in influenza viruses, after the serial passage of undiluted allantoic fluid in eggs. ...
"Characterization of three nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains associated with long-term nonprogression. ... In a small number of people infected with HIV, the virus is naturally suppressed without medical treatment. These people may ... This process involves the virus transcribing its singe-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA that is incorporated into ... All individuals with HIV make antibodies against the virus. In most patients, broadly neutralizing antibodies do not emerge ...
January 2020). "Defective glycosylation and multisystem abnormalities characterize the primary immunodeficiency XMEN disease". ... XMEN stands for "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and neoplasia." The ... XMEN patients have splenomegaly, chronic Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection, and are developmentally normal. They have an ... Some patients also showed defective T cell proliferation in response to mitogen stimulation, variable immunoglobulin ...
Alice Huang's research focused on defective interfering particles (DIPs) which can be utilized to combat viruses. DIPs are ... The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), known to infect horses, cattle and swine, was the virus she first chose to study. It did ... Pseudotyping is combining a virus or a part of a virus (vector) with a foreign viral envelope protein. Doing this alters their ... Alice S. Huang's passion for viruses drove her to her success in the discovery of viruses features and learning how to ...
Natural selection and dynamical coexistence of defective and complementing virus segments. Journal of theoretical biology 157, ...
... two defective PERV genomes could give rise to an infectious virus.[40] There are three subgroups of infectious PERVs (PERV-A, ... Although it is likely that most of these are defective, some may be able to produce infectious viruses so every proviral genome ... expressed in transgenic pigs have been shown to serve as virus receptors, and may also help to protect viruses from attack by ... Unknown viruses, as well as those not harmful in the animal, may also pose risks.[34] Of particular concern are PERVS (porcine ...
A feature is wanted, while a bug is unintended or unwanted (but may not be necessarily something defective). An example of ... technical work could be to run a virus check on all developers' workstations. An example of knowledge acquisition could be to ...
"Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". Virology. ... It belongs to a family of Src family kinases and is similar to the v-Src (viral Src) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. It includes an ... It is believed that at one point an ancestral virus mistakenly incorporated the c-Src gene of its cellular host. Eventually ... "Uninfected vertebrate cells contain a protein that is closely related to the product of the avian sarcoma virus transforming ...
Much of his research focused on the molecular biology of the vesicular stomatitis virus. With student Alice S. Huang, Wagner ... characterized what are now known as defective interfering particles. Emerson, Suzanne U. (1 April 2002). "Obituary". Archives ... His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. Wagner died of cancer in 2001. Wagner attended Columbia University as ...
ISBN 978-0-07-174271-9. Carter, M. J.; Willcocks, M. M.; Ter Meulen, V. (1983). "Defective translation of measles virus matrix ... SSPE is caused by the wild-type virus, not by vaccine strains. SSPE is characterized by a history of primary measles infection ... As a result, infectious particles like the M protein are not produced, and the virus is able to survive persistently without ... SSPE should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, which can also be caused by the measles virus, but has a ...
"Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". Virology. ... The causative agent in the liquid was a virus, this is now called the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). Further research done later on ... v-Src is a gene found in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) that encodes a tyrosine kinase that causes a type of cancer in chickens. The ... Francis Peyton Rous first proposed that viruses can cause cancer. He proved it in 1911 and was later awarded the Nobel prize in ...
The HIV virus causes an acquired T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by specifically killing CD4+ T cells. Whereas the ... These syndromes are caused by defective hematopoietic progenitor cells which are the precursors of both B- and T cells. This ... major effect of the virus is on mature peripheral T cells, HIV can also infect developing thymocytes in the thymus, most of ...
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) ... ERVs however lack most transposon function, are typically not infectious and are often defective genomic remnants of the ... Viruses portal Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous viral element ERV3 HERV-FRD Horizontal gene transfer Jaagsiekte ... Yolken R (June 2004). "Viruses and schizophrenia: a focus on herpes simplex virus". Herpes. 11 (Suppl 2): 83A-88A. PMID ...
"Downregulation of Gadd45beta expression by hepatitis C virus leads to defective cell cycle arrest". Institut National de la ... "Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol". Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Larry Siu, Julie Foont, dan Jack R. Wands. ... "Evidence that methylation of hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA in liver tissues of patients with chronic ... patogen yang disebabkan oleh infeksi akut sejenis virus DNA yang memiliki fokus infeksi berupa templat transkripsi yang disebut ...
CRISPR can be used to target the virus or the host to disrupt genes encoding the virus cell-surface receptor proteins. In ... By inserting a functional gene into an organism and targeting it to replace the defective one it could be possible to cure ... Antiviral applications for therapies targeting human viruses such as HIV, herpes, and hepatitis B virus are under research. ... The ideal gene therapy practice is that which replaces the defective gene with a normal allele at its natural location. This is ...
"Parallel ClickSeq and Nanopore sequencing elucidates the rapid evolution of defective-interfering RNAs in Flock House virus". ... ClickSeq has predominantly been used to sequence viral RNA genomes such as Flock House virus, Cricket Paralysis virus, and Zika ... This allowed the authors to detect rare RNA recombination events that arise during the replication of Flock House virus. Poly(A ... "A Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Zika Virus Infection". Cell Host & Microbe. 20 (2): 259-70. doi:10.1016/j.chom ...
These are known as defective interfering (di) DNAs due to their capacity to interfere with virus infection. They reduce virus ... virus Rose leaf curl virus Sauropus leaf curl virus Senecio yellow mosaic virus Senna leaf curl virus Sida angular mosaic virus ... virus Jatropha mosaic Nigeria virus Jatropha mosaic virus Jatropha yellow mosaic virus Kudzu mosaic virus Leonurus mosaic virus ... Abutilon golden mosaic virus Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic virus African cassava ...
T7 phage T12 phage Viruses portal Virophage, viruses that infect other viruses Bacterivore CrAssphage DNA viruses Phage ecology ... Released virions are described as free, and, unless defective, are capable of infecting a new bacterium. Budding is associated ... Virus found in a boreal lake links ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(31), July ... a virus parasitic on bacteria." D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage, a bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein meaning " ...
They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2- ... Duvet S, Op De Beeck A, Cocquerel L, Wychowski C, Cacan R, Dubuisson J (February 2002). "Glycosylation of the hepatitis C virus ... They are labelled "Type II" if the defective step occurs after the action of OST in the N-linked glycosylation pathway or ...
... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy.[64] ... cases where the patient has an inborn defect such as severe combined immunodeficiency or congenital neutropenia with defective ...
... including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus.[35] ... This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruding or defective, an action known to beekeepers as 'balling the ...
In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, three domains":[83] that viruses were ... they uncovered evidence that a simple DNA virus had acquired a gene from a completely unrelated RNA-based virus. Virologist ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... It often occurs to defective mitochondria following damage or stress. Mitophagy promotes turnover of mitochondria and prevents ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ... Tsukada, M; Ohsumi, Y (25 October 1993). "Isolation and characterization of autophagy-defective mutants of Saccharomyces ...
A common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus. Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus ... The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting ... "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved ...
Herpes simplex virus, HSV • Immunodeficient virus, HIV • Respiratory Syncytial virus, RSV • Echovirus 11 • Influenza virus ... "A Novel Host Defense System of Airways Is Defective in Cystic Fibrosis". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 175 (2): 174-83. doi: ... Mikola H, Waris M, Tenovuo J. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by ... "Effects of orally administered bovine lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase on influenza virus infection in mice". J. Med. Microbiol ...
The inability to carry out protein synthesis means that no virus can evolve to target mammalian red blood cells.[43] However, ... thus removing old and defective cells and continually purging the blood. This process is termed eryptosis, red blood cell ... "Scientists Explore Ways to Lure Viruses to Their Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-26 ...
In ALL, both the normal development of some lymphocytes and the control over the number of lymphoid cells become defective.[4][ ... T cells purified from each person are modified by a virus that inserts genes that encode a chimaeric antigen receptor into ...
... but are defective in G1 checkpoint control". Cell. 82 (4): 675-684. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90039-x.. ... significantly limiting production of new viruses.[36] ...
The first BIOS virus was CIH, whose name matches the initials of its creator, Chen Ing Hau. CIH was also called the "Chernobyl ... bug became an expensive fiasco for Intel as it required a product recall because the original Pentium processor's defective ... Other BIOS viruses remain possible, however;[32] since most Windows home users without Windows Vista/7's UAC run all ... The second BIOS virus was a technique presented by John Heasman, principal security consultant for UK-based Next-Generation ...
In this case, the host-cell receptor is envisioned as an internal image of the virus, and the anti-idiotype antibodies can ... Dendritic cells that are defective in apoptosis can lead to inappropriate systemic lymphocyte activation and consequent decline ... can arise as a result of a cross-reaction between the idiotype on an antiviral antibody and a host cell receptor for the virus ...
Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by peroxidase-generated ... A Novel Host Defense System of Airways Is Defective in Cystic Fibrosis. . In: Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. . 175, Nr. 2, ...
December 1998). "Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: Mutations in Tlr4 gene". Science. 282 (5396): 2085-8 ... viruses, or parasites.[39] Criteria with regard to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful because they ... viremia for viruses, and fungemia for a fungus.[107] ...
"This Speck of DNA Contains a Movie, a Computer Virus, and an Amazon Gift Card". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 3 ... When one of the replicated devices is detected to be defective, the other copy is still operational, and is being utilized to ... A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits (not always the specific defective bit is known; group definition depends on ...
DNA damage (or RNA damage in the case of some virus genomes) appears to be a fundamental problem for life. As noted by Haynes,[ ... Experimentally, mutation rates increase substantially in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair[16][17] or in Homologous ...
Oncoviruses (viruses that can cause cancer) include human papillomavirus (cervical cancer), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell ... Mutation rates increase substantially in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair[85][86] or in homologous recombinational repair ... Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[2] These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias). Bacterial ...
The "tetracycline teeth" have brown or grey colour as a result of a defective development of both the dentine and the enamel of ... A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses or, in rare cases, parasites transmitted ... The herpes simplex virus can cause microcephaly, microphthalmus (abnormally small eyeballs),[54] retinal dysplasia, ... If exposed to the rubella virus during the first four weeks, the risk of malformations is 47 percent. Exposure during weeks ...
Also, some computer viruses can evade elimination and, according to scientists in attendance, could therefore be said to have ... Kurzweil argues that the technological advances in medicine would allow us to continuously repair and replace defective ... Kurzweil analyzed Somatic Gene Therapy (SGT), which is where scientists attempt to infect patients with modified viruses with ... has already fulfilled the task of creating synthetic viruses with specific genetic information. The next step would be to apply ...
Defective suppressor function in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. „Diabetes". 54 (1), s. 92-99, ... Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice. „J Clin Invest". 119 (11), s. 3266- ...
"Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ... Defective pathways[edit]. The many different types of apoptotic pathways contain a multitude of different biochemical ... Many viruses encode proteins that can inhibit apoptosis.[103] Several viruses encode viral homologs of Bcl-2. These homologs ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ...
... s also occur in genes that code for virus structural proteins. To create a viable phage T4 virus (see image ... However, if a second amber mutation is defective in a base plate component and causes one tenth the number of base plates to be ... an amber mutant defective in a gene encoding a needed structural component of phage T4 is weakly suppressed (in an E. coli host ...
Hypoxia and defective apoptosis drive genomic instability and tumorigenesis»։ Genes & Development 18 (17): 2095-107։ September ... Epstein-Barr virus), մարդու իմունային անբավարարության վիրուսը (ՄԻԱՎ, HIV)[2]։ Այս գործոններն իրենց ազդեցությունը թողնում են՝ ...
Extremely low concentrations of tributyltin moiety (TBT) causes defective shell growth in the oyster Crassostrea gigas (at a ... Radiation in the UVC range prevents biofilm formation by deactivating the DNA in bacteria, viruses, and other microbes. ...
The herpes simplex virus-derived AD, VP16 and yeast Gal4 AD have been used with success in yeast[1] whilst a portion of the α- ... If this is anticipated, the use of an E. coli strain that is defective for a particular methyltransferase may be an obvious ... "A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 10 (12): M111.012187. doi ...
A federal lawsuit was filed by a scientist claiming infection by a genetically modified virus while working for Pfizer which ... Approximately 500 people died when defective valves failed and, in 1994, the United States ruled against Pfizer for ~$200 ... "Ex-Pfizer Worker Cites Genetically Engineered Virus In Lawsuit Over Firing". Courant.com. March 14, 2010. Archived from the ... a virus similar to the one that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, also known as AIDS."[156] The court found that ...
... virus, ex Human Papilloma virus) ஏற்படும் நோய் ஆகும்.உயிரணு பிரிதலை கட்டுப்படுத்தும் (Ex. Retinoblastoma protein) அல்லது புற்று ... "Hypoxia and defective apoptosis drive genomic instability and tumorigenesis". Genes & Development 18 (17): 2095-107. doi ... zur Hausen H (1991). "Viruses in human cancers". Science 254 (5035): 1167-73. doi:10.1126/science.1659743. பப்மெட் 1659743. ... transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus". ...
Many bacteria and viruses secrete virulence factors, such as the enzyme collagenase, which destroys collagen or interferes with ... Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy, a serious and painful disease in which defective collagen prevents the formation of strong ...
It takes two (viruses) to tango. The functional virus and defective virus travel in unison. The two transmit together in an ... Defective viruses: disease transmitters beyond dengue?. Might defective viruses play a role in the transmission of the flu, ... One is that the presence of the defective virus with the functional virus in the same cell makes the functional virus replicate ... "Weve shown that the defective virus not only goes with the normal virus, but increases the transmission of that virus," says ...
The complementing segments of coviruses (multiparticle, segmented viruses) coexist under similar conditions. In all cases, ... particles are known to coexist with wildtype viruses under high multiplicity of infection. ... virus-DI particle, virus-DI particle-resistant virus, covirus pair, virus-covirus. ... Natural selection and dynamical coexistence of defective and complementing virus segments J Theor Biol. 1992 Aug 7;157(3):383- ...
... thought for decades to be essentially garbage unrelated to the transmission of normal viruses, now appear able to play an ... One is that the presence of the defective virus with the functional virus in the same cell makes the functional virus replicate ... "We have shown that the defective virus not only transmits with the virus but increases the transmission of the functional virus ... the combination of the defective virus with the normal virus was "more fit" than the normal dengue virus alone. ...
Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are ... To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig ...
Defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in Ebola virus-infected ... Ebola virus is very pathogenic in humans. It induces an acute hemorrhagic fever that leads to death in about 70% of patients. ... We compared the immune responses of patients who died from Ebola virus disease with those who survived during two large ... Thus, events very early in Ebola virus infection determine the control of viral replication and recovery or catastrophic ...
Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 is an important cis-regulatory region identified in the 3 UTR of ... Page for Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 at Rfam v t e. ... Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA Red clover necrotic mosaic virus translation enhancer elements Ray D, White KA (2003). "An ... Defective interfering RNAs are small sub-viral replicons which are non-coding deletion mutants of the virus that maintain cis- ...
Defective Control of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Insoo Kang, Timothy Quan, Helena ... Epstein-Barr virus induces normal B cell responses but defective suppressor T cell responses in patients with systemic lupus ... Defective Control of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... Defective Control of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
In the present work, a biosafety level 1 pseudotype virus assay based on a propagation-incompetent vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... In summary, we report a robust virus-neutralization assay, which can be used at low biosafety level 1 to rapidly quantify SARS- ... To detect SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, classically, a virus-neutralization test has to be performed at biosafety level 3 ... The sera of convalescent COVID-19 patients also neutralized pseudotype virus displaying the SARS-CoV-1 spike protein on their ...
Expression of defective virus and cytokine genes in murine AIDS.. S C Cheung, S K Chattopadhyay, H C Morse 3rd, P M Pitha ... Expression of defective virus and cytokine genes in murine AIDS. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
The generation of defective interfering (DI) RNA molecules of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) was studied by serially ... Another factor promoting the TSWV DI RNA generation was the use of high virus concentrations in the inocula. The solanaceous ... whereas the virus recovered from the inoculated composite species, Emilia sonchifolia, remained free of any DI RNA under all ...
Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40.. D S Neufeld, S Ripley, A Henderson, H L ... Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40.. D S Neufeld, S Ripley, A Henderson, H L ... Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40.. D S Neufeld, S Ripley, A Henderson, H L ... Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
Influenza A virus (IAV) defective RNAs are generated as byproducts of error-prone viral RNA replication. They are commonly ... Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein.. [ ... but also some defective RNA-encoded proteins can act immunostimulatory. In this particular case, the KAN-1-induced defective ... thereby reducing viral replication of IFN-sensitive viruses such as IAV or vesicular stomatitis virus. This induction of IFN is ...
We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms ... cvDNAs bear homology to defective viral genomes (DVGs), and DVGs serve as templates for vDNA and cvDNA synthesis. Accordingly, ... is sufficient to produce siRNAs that confer partially protective immunity when challenged with a cognate virus. ... Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). The nature, ...
Replication-defective vectors based on an infectious molecular clone of human foamy virus (HFV) were constructed by deletion ... Replication-defective vectors based on an infectious molecular clone of human foamy virus (HFV) were constructed by deletion ... Gene transfer using replication-defective human foamy virus vectors. Virology, 235(1):65-72. ... Cell lines which produced in excess of 10(5) helper virus-free transducing units/ml were generated by trans-complementation of ...
... to define a class of virus particles which possess the following properties: (a) They are defective, unable to... ... virus particles was used by Huang and Baltimore [31] ... The term defective interfering (DI) virus particles was used by ... Influenza Virus Polymerase Gene Semliki Forest Virus Internal Deletion Human Influenza Virus These keywords were added by ... Cmmpton, W. M., Dimmock, N. J., Minor, P. D., Avery, R. J.: The RNAs of defective-interfering influenza virus. Virology 90, 370 ...
We have analyzed atypical tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering (DI) RNA species which accumulated during a passage ... We have analyzed atypical tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering (DI) RNA species which accumulated during a passage ... Enhanced Competitiveness of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Defective Interfering RNAs by Segment Duplication or Nucleotide Insertion ...
Expression of the First Two Triple Gene Block Proteins of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Complements Virus Defective in the ... A P15-containing replicon did not complement a P15-defective RNA 2 but complementation was observed with a dicistronic replicon ... peanut clump virus. The results are consistent with a model in which viral cell-to-cell movement requires production of ... the replicons expressing P42 and P13 complemented RNA 2 mutants defective in the corresponding gene. ...
Researchers at IRB Barcelona discover a possible escape route from destruction of defective proteins and the Epstein Barr virus ... Researchers at IRB Barcelona discover a possible escape route from destruction of defective proteins and the Epstein Barr virus ... viruses assure their survival in the host. The researchers are now considering whether viruses, upon making the kinases, are ... and a sequence of the protein of the LMP2A membrane of the Epstein Barr virus, a herpes virus which causes mononucleosis and ...
Modeling Ebola Virus Genome Replication and Transcription with Minigenome Systems. * Authors: Cressey T, Brauburger K, ... Evidence of Ebola Virus Replication and High Concentration in Semen of a Patient During Recovery. ... Quantification of RNA Content in Reconstituted Ebola Virus Nucleocapsids by Immunoprecipitation. * Authors: Banadyga L, Ebihara ... Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola. ... Ebola Virus Replication Stands Out. * Authors: Wang W, Wu C, ...
In vitro and in vivo replication capacity of the precore region defective hepatitis B virus variants ... Fulminant hepatitis B: induction by hepatitis B virus mutants defective in the precore region and incapable of encoding e ... Mutations in the transcriptional regulatory region of the precore and core/pregenome of a hepatitis B virus with defective ... Low transmission in precore region defective hepatitis B virus variant in a family. Hepatology 16(4 Part 2): 196A, 1992 ...
The EBV latent-to-lytic switch is required for virus spread and virus-induced carinogenesis. Immunosuppression or DNA damage ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with several types of malignancies. EBV is normally present in the latent ... The virus is present in two stages: an active lytic state and latent state, and the virus can only be spread during the active ... miR-18a reactivates the Epstein-Barr virus through defective DNA damage response and promotes genomic instability in EBV- ...
Influenza defective interfering (DI) particles are replication-incompetent viruses carrying large internal deletion in the ... Influenza DI-RNA is known as a defective viral RNA with single large internal deletion. Beneficial to the long-read property of ... In addition, we examined the expression of DI-RNAs in mice infected with sublethal dose of H7N9 virus at different time points ... Influenza Virus Infection Induces ZBP1 Expression and Necroptosis in Mouse Lungs 11 hours ago ...
Defective viruses now appear able to play an important role in the spread of disease, new research by UCLA life scientists ... One is that the presence of the defective virus with the functional virus in the same cell makes the functional virus replicate ... "We have shown that the defective virus not only transmits with the virus but increases the transmission of the functional virus ... the combination of the defective virus with the normal virus was "more fit" than the normal dengue virus alone. ...
However, this virus is transmission competent and therefore unlikely to be suitable for use in clinical trials. A ... The development of an F-defective nontransmissible SeV, which can still efficiently mediate gene transfer to the airway ... Recombinant Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelial cells has shown to be very efficient ... A defective nontransmissible recombinant Sendai virus mediates efficient gene transfer to airway epithelium in vivo.. Ferrari S ...
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutants defective for thymidine kinase expression (TK-) have been reported to establish latent ... N2 - Herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutants defective for thymidine kinase expression (TK-) have been reported to establish latent ... AB - Herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutants defective for thymidine kinase expression (TK-) have been reported to establish latent ... Tenser, R. B., Gaydos, A., & Hay, K. A. (1996). Reactivation of thymidine kinase-defective herpes simplex virus is enhanced by ...
In vitro, virus-free T particles at extremely high multiplicities depress cellular RNA and protein synthesis and kill BHK21 ... Intracerebral injection of virus-free T particles alone is apparently innocuous to mice and stimulates immunity to massive ... This profound prophylactic effect of defective T particles is due to homologous autointerference since it is serotype-specific ... When pure T particles are injected intracerebrally along with large doses of infectious virus, they convert an otherwise ...
... it is important to try and distinguish between defective virus copies and intact viruses capable of rekindling the infection ... HIV persistence: defective virus copies accumulate rapidly after infection. 1 October 2016. Related: Cure research. ... While the DNA mostly represents defective virus copies, they are not necessarily benign. ... of virus genomes were complete, and 98% of the HIV DNA in this group was defective. ...
Generation of replication-defective virus-based vaccines that confer full protection in sheep against virulent bluetongue virus ... Generation of replication-defective virus-based vaccines that confer full protection in sheep against virulent bluetongue virus ... we used a reverse genetics system to rescue defective virus strains with large deletions in an essential BTV gene that encodes ... Further, a defective BTV-8 strain was made by reassorting the two RNA segments that encode the two outer capsid proteins (VP2 ...
Our previous work had shown that the 2.7-kilobase-pair WZhet piece of rearranged Epstein-Barr virus DNA from a defective virus ... Our previous work had shown that the 2.7-kilobase-pair WZhet piece of rearranged Epstein-Barr virus DNA from a defective virus ... Polymorphic proteins encoded within BZLF1 of defective and standard Epstein-Barr viruses disrupt latency ... Polymorphic proteins encoded within BZLF1 of defective and standard Epstein-Barr viruses disrupt latency. Journal of virology ...
... the endogenous viruses (ev) lack detectable enhancer activity. By creating ev-RSV hybrid LTRs, we previously demonstrated that ... and the avian leukosis viruses, contain a strong enhancer in the U3 portion of the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). The ... Functional and defective components of avian endogenous virus long terminal repeat enhancer sequences.. @article{ ... Lymphoid leukosis viruses, their recognition as persistent viruses and comparisons with certain other retroviruses of ...
  • Defective interfering RNAs are small sub-viral replicons which are non-coding deletion mutants of the virus that maintain cis-acting RNA elements necessary for replication of the host virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solanaceous species Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana benthamiana , and N. rustica supported the generation of DI RNAs, whereas the virus recovered from the inoculated composite species, Emilia sonchifolia , remained free of any DI RNA under all conditions tested. (apsnet.org)
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) defective RNAs are generated as byproducts of error-prone viral RNA replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This induction of IFN is completely independent of the defective RNA itself that usually serves as pathogen-associated pattern and thus does not require the cytoplasmic sensor RIG-I. These data suggest that not only defective RNAs, but also some defective RNA-encoded proteins can act immunostimulatory. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro transcription of defective interfering particles of influenza virus produces poly(A)-containing complementary RNAs. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we examined the expression of DI-RNAs in mice infected with sublethal dose of H7N9 virus at different time points. (flu.org.cn)
  • A single amino acid mutation in the PA subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase promotes the generation of defective interfering RNAs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An R638A mutation of the polymerase acidic protein (PA) subunit of the RNA polymerase of influenza A/WSN/33 virus results in severe attenuation of viral growth in cell culture by promoting the synthesis of defective interfering RNAs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Replication in vivo of mutant brome mosaic virus RNAs defective in aminoacylation. (scienceexchange.com)
  • In order to understand the relationship between replication and aminoacylation of the genomic RNAs of brome mosaic virus, the replication of four mutants, whose RNAs were expected (on the basis of their properties in vitro) to be inefficiently tyrosylated in vivo, was studied in barley protoplasts and plants. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Although many subviral RNAs reduce or intensify disease symptoms caused by the helper virus, only recently have clues concerning the mechanism of disease modulation been revealed. (elsevier.com)
  • These novel findings are leading to re-evaluation of the relationships between subviral RNAs, helper viruses, and hosts. (elsevier.com)
  • Simon, AE , Roossinck, MJ & Havelda, Z 2004, ' Plant virus satellite and defective interfering RNAs: New paradigms for a new century ', Annual Review of Phytopathology , vol. 42, pp. 415-437. (elsevier.com)
  • Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) populations are among the more complex of plant RNA viruses with unusual mixtures of strains and defective RNAs (dRNAs). (meta.org)
  • The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a sequencing approach, we characterize several subgenomic viral RNAs from human nasopharyngeal specimens infected with the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (nyu.edu)
  • The distribution of these in vivo-derived DI-like RNAs was similar to that of in vitro DIs, with the majority of the defective RNAs generated from the PB2 (segment 1) of the polymerase complex, followed by PB1 and PA. (nyu.edu)
  • Studies were initiated to monitor generation and accumulation of defective interfering (DI) RNAs associated with tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the absence of serial, high multiplicity of infection passage. (nebraska.edu)
  • Law, MD & Morris, TJ 1994, ' De Novo Generation and Accumulation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Defective Interfering RNAs without Serial Host Passage ', Virology , vol. 198, no. 1, 71045, pp. 377-380. (nebraska.edu)
  • We have examined the RNAs involved in he heterologous protection of adult mice from otherwise lethal intranasal infection with mouse-adapted human A/WSN (H1N1) by defective interfering (DI) equine A/equine/Newmarket/7339/79 (H3N8: EQV) influenza virus, as well as the RNAs involved in the protection of WSN- or EQV-infected mice by their homologous DI viruses. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to describe the types of defective RNAs present in protected mice in order to guide the design of potentially protective DI RNAs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The DI EQV inoculum contained defective segment 1-8 RNAs while DI WSN inoculum contained only defective segment 1-6 RNAs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • However lungs of mice given EQV + DI EQV contained only defective segments 1-4 or 1-6 RNAs (mouse-to-mouse variation), while control mice given EQV or EQV + iDI EQV contained few very defective RNAs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Thus prevention of death was the result of quantitative and/or qualitative differences in defective RNAs administered to the mice. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Only defective segments 1-3 RNAs were isolated from the lungs of mice given WSN + DI WSN, confirming the earlier report of Noble and Dimmock (1995). (warwick.ac.uk)
  • A detailed analysis showed that most defective RNAs isolated from the lungs of mice protected from a lethal WSN infection by DI EQV were EQV in origin. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Thus, as no infectious EQV was present, these defective RNAs from the DI EQV inoculum must have been heterologously replicated in mouse lung by WSN. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • All defective segment 3-6 RNAs isolated were of EQV origin, indicating that they were replicated by WSN in preference to its own. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Defective segments 1 and 2 were a mixture of EQV and WSN RNAs. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Of 17 defective EQV segment 1-3 sequences from mouse lung, all but three differed in their primary central deletion from 20 defective RNAs isolated from the inoculum. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • A number of minor deletions of 2 or more nts were also present in defective EQV and WSN RNAs in segments 1 and 2, but none in segment 3. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Their 5', but not 3', breakpoints were heterogeneous, suggesting that defective RNAs were generated during positive strand synthesis. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Two cloned EQV-defective segment 3 RNAs were chimeras containing a 30 nt insert from segment 1. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Most defective RNAs possessed at least 178 nts from the 5' end of vRNA. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to helper viral RNA, short DI RNAs were not accessible to helper virus-induced RNA degradation guided by the 21- to 25-nucleotide RNAs. (elsevier.com)
  • Defective interfering (DI) particles are known to coexist with wildtype viruses under high multiplicity of infection. (nih.gov)
  • Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 is an important cis-regulatory region identified in the 3' UTR of Tombusvirus defective interfering particles (DI). (wikipedia.org)
  • DI particles were first observed by von Magnus [64,65] when he passaged influenza virus serially undiluted in embryonated chicken eggs. (springer.com)
  • He called these particles "incomplete" particles which were both defective and interfering. (springer.com)
  • Influenza defective interfering (DI) particles are replication-incompetent viruses carrying large internal deletion in the genome. (flu.org.cn)
  • Despite reports of DI particles present in seasonal influenza A H1N1 infections, their existence in human infections by the avian influenza A viruses, such as H7N9, has not been studied. (flu.org.cn)
  • Prophylaxis and immunization in mice by use of virus-free defective T particles to protect against intracerebral infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Defective interfering T particles of vesicular stomatitis virus provide remarkable protection against viral disease and death when introduced intracerebrally in large numbers along with an otherwise rapidly fatal low dose of standard infectious virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This profound prophylactic effect of defective T particles is due to homologous autointerference since it is serotype-specific and interferon is not induced. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Accumulation of defective interfering viral particles in only a few passages in Vero cells attenuates mumps virus neurovirulence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most viruses we know of are far too small to be seen using a light microscope, so the fact that these particles are even visible is extraordinary. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Surprisingly, defective particles produced from NL4-3/ΔRT triggered stronger cellular responses than wild-type HIV-1 viruses inactivated with Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2) and in a larger proportion of individuals (55% versus 23% seropositive individuals tested). (isciii.es)
  • Interestingly, wild-type viruses treated with Amprenavir (APV) to induce defective core maturation also induced stronger responses than the same viral particles generated in the absence of protease inhibitors. (isciii.es)
  • These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Influenza virus defective interfering (DI) particles are naturally occurring noninfectious virions typically generated during in vitro serial passages in cell culture of the virus at a high multiplicity of infection. (nyu.edu)
  • To date, influenza virus DI particles have been reported primarily as a phenomenon of cell culture and in experimentally infected embryonated chicken eggs. (nyu.edu)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, some incomplete virions are produced, defective interfering particles (Dis). (google.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Defective influenza virus particles generated during viral replication carry incomplete viral genomes and can interfere with the replication of competent viruses. (nyu.edu)
  • Homologous Interference by Defective Virus Particles 10. (routledge.com)
  • RNQ Synthesis by Defective Interfering Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Particles 11. (routledge.com)
  • Rhabdovirus Defective Particles: Origin and Genome Assignments 12. (routledge.com)
  • He found that when viruses were expanded at high doses, "incomplete viruses" or "particles" were produced and that these interfered with viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is possible some DI genome may contain an altered nucleic acid sequence(s) rather than a deletion(s) and become defective as well as interfering. (springer.com)
  • A major challenge in measuring the reservoir of HIV that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) is that many of the virus genomes that can be found integrated into the DNA of CD4 T cells are incomplete or mutated in ways that preclude further rounds of replication. (i-base.info)
  • In the cohort that initiated ART during chronic infection, the proportion of intact viruses was expected to be lower and that proved to be the case: only 2% of virus genomes were complete, and 98% of the HIV DNA in this group was defective. (i-base.info)
  • Similar proteins with variable electrophoretic mobility (37 to 39 kilodaltons) were encoded by BamHI Z fragments from standard, nondefective Epstein-Barr virus genomes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Defective viral genomes (DVGs) are truncated genomes that have been observed during multiple RNA virus infections, including in vitro EBOV infection, and have previously been associated with viral persistence and immunostimulatory activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of respiratory syncytial virus defective genomes in nasal secretions is associated with distinct clinical outcomes. (edu.au)
  • Defective viral genomes (DVGs) can suppress virus replication by competing for viral proteins and by stimulating antiviral immunity. (edu.au)
  • We observed substantial variability in viral transcription between cells, including the accumulation of defective viral genomes (DVGs) that impact viral replication. (nyu.edu)
  • These defective genomes are thought to modulate the disease severity and pathogenicity of an influenza virus infection. (nyu.edu)
  • Different defective viral genomes also introduce another source of variation across a heterogeneous cell population. (nyu.edu)
  • Evaluating the impact of defective virus genomes on host cell responses cannot be fully resolved at the population level, requiring single-cell transcriptional profiling. (nyu.edu)
  • This study demonstrates the intricate effects of defective viral genomes on host transcriptional responses and highlights the importance of capturing host-virus interactions at the single-cell level. (nyu.edu)
  • To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. (nih.gov)
  • Gene transfer using replication-defective human foamy virus vectors. (uzh.ch)
  • Replication-defective vectors based on an infectious molecular clone of human foamy virus (HFV) were constructed by deletion and replacement of the accessory genes with expression cassettes for puromycin-resistance and beta-glucouronidase. (uzh.ch)
  • Generation of replication-defective virus-based vaccines that. (mysciencework.com)
  • Generation of replication-defective virus-based vaccines that confer full protection in sheep against virulent bluetongue virus challenge. (mysciencework.com)
  • Cotransfection of 293T cells with these three plasmid components produced VSV-G pseudotyped, disabled, replication defective, bicistronic JDV vectors encoding the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the Neo resistance selection maker simultaneously with a titre range of (0.4-1.2) × 10 6 CFU/ml. (edu.au)
  • What caused the widespread infection in Myanmar in 2001, a disease that resulted from one type of dengue virus, DENV-1? (nsf.gov)
  • It assumes that biochemical ("ecological") interactions occur among segments within a coinfection group, established through random infection of the cells, and there is complete mixing of the various types emerging from all the coinfection groups (cells) in the virus pool between two infections. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, events very early in Ebola virus infection determine the control of viral replication and recovery or catastrophic illness and death. (nih.gov)
  • Surviving Ebola virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • EBV infection is more common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) than in control subjects, suggesting that this virus plays an etiologic role in disease and/or that patients with lupus have impaired EBV-specific immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results demonstrate that patients with SLE have defective control of latent EBV infection that probably stems from altered T cell responses against EBV. (jimmunol.org)
  • We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Infection of leaves was also inhibited by an RNA3-derived replicon containing the third TGB gene from another furovirus, peanut clump virus. (apsnet.org)
  • The loss of essential genetic information causes abortive viral replication, which can be rescued by co-infection with a helper virus that possesses an intact genome. (flu.org.cn)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutants defective for thymidine kinase expression (TK - ) have been reported to establish latent infection of sensory ganglia of mice, in that HSV latency-associated transcript is expressed, but to be defective for reactivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Latent infection established by each of three reactivation-defective HSV type 1 mutants was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • For researchers aiming to develop a cure, it is important to try and distinguish between defective virus copies and intact viruses capable of rekindling the infection when ART is interrupted. (i-base.info)
  • A new study from the laboratory of Robert Siliciano, published in the latest issue of Nature Medicine, attempts to assess the proportions of defective and replication competent HIV in people on ART, comparing individuals who began treatment very early after infection to those who started later. (i-base.info)
  • Invasive aspergillosis recently has been encountered in adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even without known risk factors, such as neutropenia or corticosteroid therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • [4] [5] It is, however, a very well-established model system for the study of plant viruses, usually through experimental infection of Nicotiana benthamiana or Nicotiana clevelandii , relatives of tobacco plants in which TBSV can cause systemic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inoculation with vaccina virus produces a localized skin infection. (medscape.com)
  • However, at mois between 0.01 and 1, mutant virus replicated slowly on normal fibroblasts, a pattern that suggested initiation of productive infection required multiple hits. (pnas.org)
  • We further show that IAV infection enhances a model cellular ARF translation, which potentially has important implications for virus-induced autoimmunity. (edu.au)
  • Researchers believe that if they can exploit the "hypermutated" form of these proviruses, it could help them eliminate more of the defective HIV proviruses and develop a cure for HIV infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, the rMERS-CoV-ΔE mutant virus is potentially a safe and promising vaccine candidate to prevent MERS-CoV infection. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, one of the mutants with the E gene deleted was a replication-competent, propagation-defective virus that could only be grown in the laboratory by providing E protein in trans, whereas it would only survive a single virus infection cycle in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • This virus constitutes a vaccine candidate that may represent a balance between safety and efficacy for the induction of mucosal immunity, which is needed to prevent MERS-CoV infection. (nih.gov)
  • Emond RT , Evans B , Bowen ET , Lloyd G . A case of Ebola virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Formenty P , Hatz C , Le Guenno B , Stoll A , Rogenmoser P , Widmer A . Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Côte d'Ivoire: clinical and biologic presentation. (cdc.gov)
  • Tseng, C-T , Leibowitz, J & Sell, S 1994, ' Defective Infection of Rabbit Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cultures with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ', AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 285-293. (utmb.edu)
  • Virus and host factors contribute to cell-to-cell variation in viral infections and determine the outcome of the overall infection. (nyu.edu)
  • These observations at the single-cell level improve our understanding of the complex virus-host interplay during influenza virus infection. (nyu.edu)
  • Here, we characterized virus and host transcriptomes in individual influenza virus-infected cells, including those of defective viruses that arise during influenza A virus infection. (nyu.edu)
  • CD8+ cellular immunity mediates rAd5 vaccine protection against Ebola virus infection of nonhuman primates. (qxmd.com)
  • The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the largest bilateral funder of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control programs worldwide, currently supports implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce HIV incidence among persons at substantial risk for infection, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender women (hereafter referred to as key populations). (cdc.gov)
  • Amesse, L. S., Pridgen, C.L., Kingsbury, D. W.: Sendai virus DI RNA species with conserved virus genome termini and extensive internal deletions. (springer.com)
  • Bean, W.J., Simpson, R.W.: Transcription activity and genome conposition of defective influenza vims. (springer.com)
  • Modeling Ebola Virus Genome Replication and Transcription with Minigenome Systems. (msf.org)
  • Our previous work had shown that the 2.7-kilobase-pair WZhet piece of rearranged Epstein-Barr virus DNA from a defective virus activated replication when introduced into cells with a latent genome, but it was not clear whether a protein product was required for the phenomenon. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • TBSV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a linear genome of ~4800 nucleotides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The subject of the present invention is defective recombinant adenoviruses, characterized in that they contain a defective, non-replicable adenovirus genome into which one or more nucleic acid sequences coding for one more cytokines, in particular lymphokines, are inserted under the control of one or more promoters capable of being recognised by the polymerases of human cells, more especially of human tumor cells or of cells infiltrating these tumors. (google.com)
  • It is not known whether the entire virus genome of MuLV is necessary for these interactions, as has been previously observed in the avian sarcoma-leukaemia system (Levinson & Rubin, 1966). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We designed and constructed a defective recombinant virus based on the HIV-1 genome generating infective but non-replicative virions able to elicit broad and strong cellular immune responses in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. (isciii.es)
  • It contains an insertion of simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences 3.2 × 103 bases long in place of the 3.5 × 103 base segment of adenovirus 2 DNA which maps between 0.64 and 0.74 fractional genome lengths from the left end of the viral DNA. (cshl.edu)
  • The construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the MERS-CoV genome in a bacterial artificial chromosome is reported here, providing a reverse genetics system to study the molecular biology of the virus and to develop attenuated viruses as vaccine candidates. (nih.gov)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (tabers.com)
  • We established an association between defective virus transcription and host responses and validated interfering and immunostimulatory functions of identified dominant defective viral genome species in vitro. (nyu.edu)
  • The interfering and mouse-protecting activity of DI virus was destroyed by prolonged UV irradiation (iDI virus) demonstrating that protection correlated with an active DI genome, and not viral antigen. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The resultant minimal plasmid-based system may be used to synthesize any RNA virus, preferably viruses with a negative single stranded RNA genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it's the same lineage, and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith. (nsf.gov)
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it is the same lineage and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith, who holds UCLA's De Logi Chair in Biological Sciences. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In mixed infections, the replicons expressing P42 and P13 complemented RNA 2 mutants defective in the corresponding gene. (apsnet.org)
  • A P15-containing replicon did not complement a P15-defective RNA 2 but complementation was observed with a dicistronic replicon containing the P15 gene placed behind the P13 gene. (apsnet.org)
  • A defective nontransmissible recombinant Sendai virus mediates efficient gene transfer to airway epithelium in vivo. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Recombinant Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelial cells has shown to be very efficient, because of its ability to overcome the intra- and extracellular barriers known to limit gene delivery. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • The development of an F-defective nontransmissible SeV, which can still efficiently mediate gene transfer to the airway epithelium, represents the first important step towards the use of a cytoplasmic RNA viral vector in clinical trials of gene therapy. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • To generate a potential disabled infectious single cycle (DISC) vaccine strain, we used a reverse genetics system to rescue defective virus strains with large deletions in an essential BTV gene that encodes the VP6 protein (segment S9) of the internal core. (mysciencework.com)
  • These experiments identify an Epstein-Barr virus-encoded gene product, called ZEBRA (BamHI fragment Z Epstein-Barr replication activator) protein, which activates a switch between the latent and replicative life cycle of the virus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The rearrangement in defective DNA does not contribute to the structural gene for the protein. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Plasmids expressing the ZEBRA proteins from B95-8 and HR-1 viruses were less efficient at activating replication in D98/HR-1 cells than those which contained the ZEBRA gene from the defective virus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • New models for DI RNA-mediated reduction in helper virus levels and symptom attenuation include DI RNA enhancement of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which is an antiviral defense mechanism in plants. (elsevier.com)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (tabers.com)
  • The Herpes Simplex type 2 Defective Infectious Single Cycle virus (DISC virus ) is an attenuated virus originally produced as a viral vaccine , but it also serves as an efficient gene transfer vehicle. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main goals of this study were to examine determinants of gene transfer using DISC vectors for squamous cell carcinoma and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with the DISC virus carrying a combination of immunomodulatory genes ( IL-2 , GM-CSF ) as cancer therapy in a model of squamous cell cancer in the C3H/HeJ mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • SCCVII cells transduced by the DISC virus vector (MOI=10) carrying the IL-2 , or the GM-CSF gene , produced nanogram quantities of IL-2 or GM-CSF per 10(6) cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • These data demonstrate that 1) The DISC virus vector is capable of efficient gene transfer to SCCVII cells , 2) The GM-CSF secreting, genetically modified tumor vaccine (SCCVII/GMCSF) efficiently protected against tumor cell challenge and suppressed tumor growth in our tumor model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The DISC virus -mediated, cytokine gene transfer may prove to be useful in clinical therapy for head and neck cancers . (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. The expression plasmid of claim 1, further comprising a negative strand RNA virus viral gene segment inserted between the pol I promoter and the termination signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It belongs to a family of Src family kinases and is similar to the v-Src (viral Src) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that at one point an ancestral virus mistakenly incorporated the c-Src gene of its cellular host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recombinant nucleic acid used for the production of a defective adenovirus containing an inserted sequence coding for a cytokine under the control of a promoter in the genomic sequence of the recombinant adenovirus. (google.com)
  • The subject of the invention is hence defective recombinant adenoviruses expressing one or more cytokines, as well as the use of these recombinant adenoviruses for making up pharmaceutical compositions, in particular antitumor compositions, more especially compositions which can be injected directly into solid tumors of the host. (google.com)
  • FIG. 1 shows diagrammatically a construct of a defective recombinant adenoviral vector employing an insertion sequence coding for an interleukin (IL-2, IL-4 and the like).In this figure, "leaders" corresponds to a tripartite leader, "Del" corresponds to a "deletion" and Ad dl 324 corresponds to an adenovirus provided with the above-mention "deletions. (google.com)
  • The invention relates more especially to recombinant nucleic acids capable of being used for the production of such defective recombinant adenoviruses. (google.com)
  • We now report the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vaccine encoding the envelope glycoprotein (GP) from the Zaire and Sudan Ebola virus species, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, dose escalation, Phase I human study. (qxmd.com)
  • This recombinant Ebola virus vaccine was safe and subjects developed antigen specific humoral and cellular immune responses. (qxmd.com)
  • Proteins become candidates for degradation when they are defective, when they have completed their function and are no longer necessary, or when they belong to pathogenic organisms. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Various degenerative illnesses and tumours may be related to errors in this system, which causes defective proteins to accumulate instead of being immediately destroyed. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • We know," she continues, "that the viruses take control of the cellular machinery that produces proteins, including kinases, which are enzymes responsible for adding phosphate groups to other molecules. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • A recent study from the laboratory of Anthony Fauci at NIAID found that at least some defective proviruses can still produce HIV proteins and therefore potentially contribute to persistent inflammation and immune activation in HIV-positive people. (i-base.info)
  • Further, a defective BTV-8 strain was made by reassorting the two RNA segments that encode the two outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) of a highly pathogenic BTV-8 with the remaining eight RNA segments of one of the BTV-1 DISC viruses. (mysciencework.com)
  • The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the brain sections. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins and George Washington universities report new evidence that proteins created by defective forms of HIV long previously believed to be harmless actually interact with our immune systems and are actively monitored by a specific type of immune cell, called cytotoxic T cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a report on the study , conducted on laboratory-grown human cells and published April 12 in the journal Cell Host and Microbe , the investigators say their experiments show that while defective HIV proviruses -- the viral genetic material -- cannot create functional infectious HIVs, a specific subset called "hypermutated" HIV proviruses creates proteins that cytotoxic T cells recognize as HIV. (eurekalert.org)
  • After verifying that defective HIV proviruses created HIV proteins, the researchers then tested whether human immune system cells could biologically recognize and interact with those proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cytotoxic T lymphocytes' ability to identify and target the real threat appears to be greatly impaired, because they may attack proteins from defective proviruses instead of the real thing," says Ho. (eurekalert.org)
  • These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The life scientists studied DENV-1, one of four known types of the dengue virus that infect humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The scientists describe when and how the defective "lineage," or series of very closely related defective DENV-1 viruses, emerged and was transmitted between humans and mosquitoes in Myanmar, as well as what the public health implications are. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Ebola virus is very pathogenic in humans. (nih.gov)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects nearly all humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The variola virus causes smallpox and may have begun infecting humans approximately 10,000 years ago. (medscape.com)
  • Viruses harbored by bats and rodents, considered high-risk reservoirs, are no more likely to infect humans than viruses carried by other hosts, a study suggests. (pnas.org)
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (tabers.com)
  • Proposals for the use of live attenuated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) as a vaccine candidate in humans have been based on the protection afforded by attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus in the macaque model. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A few weeks ago, biologist Olivia Judson wrote a post on a potential "coffin for rabies" on her New York Times blog , describing more about the reality of the disease and what we could do to practically wipe out this virus in humans. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the case of humans and animals, that's usually because our immune system is pretty efficient at controlling viruses. (pbs.org)
  • It was not until 1970, more than ten years after von Magnus identified the virus, that monkeypox was first identified in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutant 5'PsK, which is defective in minus-strand promoter activity and a poor substrate in vitro for both tyrosylation and 3' adenylation, replicated in protoplasts to 20% of wild-type even though only about 6% of the progeny molecules had correct 3' termini that would permit tyrosylation. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Mutant psi GG, which is defective in vitro for 3' adenylation and minus-strand promoter activities but accepts tyrosine at near-normal rates, replicated to 40% of wild-type in protoplasts although only 15% of the progeny molecules had correct 3' termini. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) exhibits two kinds of interaction with mouse cells transformed by murine sarcoma virus (MSV) in vitro (Bassin, Tuttle & Fischinger, 1970): an apparent cytocidal interaction accompanied by virus replication and the rescue of infectious MSV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Eosinophils were activated by virus in vitro and in vivo. (interasma.org)
  • Expression of defective virus and cytokine genes in murine AIDS. (asm.org)
  • PB2∆ induces the expression of IFNβ and IFN-stimulated genes by direct interaction with the cellular adapter protein MAVS, thereby reducing viral replication of IFN-sensitive viruses such as IAV or vesicular stomatitis virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ter Meulen, V. / Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis . (elsevier.com)
  • The mutant viruses presented growth kinetics similar to those of the wild-type virus, indicating that accessory genes were not essential for MERS-CoV replication in cell cultures. (nih.gov)
  • We show (i) a correlation between DVGs and virus-induced variation of the host transcriptional program and (ii) an association between differential inductions of innate immune response genes and attenuated viral transcription in subpopulations of cells. (nyu.edu)
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • You can have viruses with DNA genes or viruses with RNA genes. (pbs.org)
  • Examples of viruses with DNA genes are smallpox or herpes viruses. (pbs.org)
  • There are also many viruses that carry their genes in the form of RNA. (pbs.org)
  • The viruses that cause human diseases such as measles and mumps, rabies, and influenza have RNA genes. (pbs.org)
  • Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Influenza Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Expression by a Defective RNA-Encoded Protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Characterization of the growth properties of mutant viruses showed that each mutant has the necessary characteristics for a potential vaccine strain: (i) viral protein expression in noncomplementing mammalian cells, (ii) no infectious virus generated in noncomplementing cells, and (iii) efficient replication in the complementing VP6 cell line. (mysciencework.com)
  • 6. The expression plasmid of claim 5, wherein the negative strand RNA virus is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The expression plasmid of claim 6, wherein the virus is an influenza A virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in Ebola virus-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • We compared the immune responses of patients who died from Ebola virus disease with those who survived during two large outbreaks in 1996 in Gabon. (nih.gov)
  • In the current report we assessed immune responsiveness to EBV in patients with SLE and healthy controls, determining virus-specific T cell responses and EBV viral loads using whole blood recall assays, HLA-A2 tetramers, and real-time quantitative PCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Replication-incompetent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors do not elicit vector-neutralizing antibody responses, and homologous prime-boost regimens with rLCMV vectors induce boostable and protective T cell responses to model antigens in mice. (jpt.com)
  • However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • To characterize the dynamics of viral transcription and host responses, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to quantify at multiple time points the host and viral transcriptomes of human A549 cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells infected with influenza A virus. (nyu.edu)
  • Development of a cAdVax-based bivalent ebola virus vaccine that induces immune responses against both the Sudan and Zaire species of Ebola virus. (qxmd.com)
  • The use of mice lacking type I or both type I and type II interferon responses in research on hemorrhagic fever viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza DI-RNA is known as a defective viral RNA with single large internal deletion. (flu.org.cn)
  • A series of dRNA-like molecules, each with a single large internal deletion, were created from an infectious cDNA clone of the CTV T36 isolate and examined for amplification in N. benthamiana protoplasts using a CTV deletion mutant as the helper virus. (meta.org)
  • The protective capabilities of BTV-1 and BTV-8 DISC viruses were assessed in sheep by challenge with specific virulent strains using several assay systems. (mysciencework.com)
  • By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant strains, and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, pandemic vaccines against highly virulent strains such as the H5N1 virus can only be generated by reverse genetics techniques. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes in the HA of circulating viruses (antigenic drift) require periodic replacement of the vaccine strains during interpandemic periods. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, because the cumbersome classical reassortment technique used for preparing the appropriate seed strains makes the yearly process of manufacturing influenza virus vaccines unnecessarily lengthy, new variants first appearing early in the season are rarely considered for the vaccine formulation of the following winter. (cdc.gov)
  • The oral polio vaccine carries three strains of the virus, one of which has been eradicated in the wild but is also most likely to cause this problem. (popsci.com)
  • In 1997, he and colleagues documented two infectious strains of the PERV virus that could infect human cells in the lab, leading to the FDA's temporary halt of all clinical xeno trials. (pbs.org)
  • Characterization of endogenous avian leukosis viruses in chicken embryonic fibroblast substrates used in production of measles and mumps vaccines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two new defective adenovirus 2/simian virus 40 hybrids (Ad2+ D1 and Ad2 + D2) have been isolated from the population known as Ad2++ HEY (Lewis & Rowe, 1970). (cshl.edu)
  • Immune protection of nonhuman primates against Ebola virus with single low-dose adenovirus vectors encoding modified GPs. (qxmd.com)
  • Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine protects against Zaire Ebola virus. (qxmd.com)
  • In 2019, the ICTV published a proposal to adopt a more formalized system of binomial nomenclature for virus species names, to be voted on in 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, Dryvax became the first approved vaccinia virus vaccine in 1931. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccinia virus is the species now characterized as the constituent of smallpox vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The effectiveness of vaccinia virus as a vaccine paramount was in this effort. (medscape.com)
  • Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of preparing vaccine seed viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Specifically, the 2005-2006 vaccine formulation is made up of the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/California/7/2004 (H3N2), and B/Shanghai/361/2002 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of this bureaucratic roadblock, the H3N2 component of the 2003-2004 influenza virus vaccine was antigenically "off" and showed suboptimal efficacy. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies of Ebola virus vaccine platforms in non-human primates have established that the induction of protective immunity is possible and safety and human immunogenicity has been demonstrated in a previous Phase I clinical trial of a 1st generation Ebola DNA vaccine. (qxmd.com)
  • A DNA vaccine for Ebola virus is safe and immunogenic in a phase I clinical trial. (qxmd.com)
  • But there's another form of the vaccine that is taken by mouth and uses a weakened-but live-version of the virus. (popsci.com)
  • Due to the limited supply of inactivated virus, the Danish institute administered the vaccine subcutaneously, requiring smaller doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae, is an RNA virus that can cause hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Borio L , Inglesby T , Peters CJ , Schmaljohn AL , Hughes JM , Jahrling PB , Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management. (cdc.gov)
  • Ebola virus causes irregular outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever in equatorial Africa. (qxmd.com)
  • In this particular case, the KAN-1-induced defective RNA-encoded protein PB2∆ enhances the overwhelming immune response characteristic for highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, leading to a more severe phenotype in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The researchers used a functional unit present in the ubiquitin ligase Itch, and a sequence of the protein of the LMP2A membrane of the Epstein Barr virus, a herpes virus which causes mononucleosis and which has been associated with tumours such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal cancer. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • As a consequence, ubiquitin fails to link up with the virus protein and escapes degradation. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • By phosphorylating this position," Macías explains, "we were able to inhibit the binding of the ubiquitin to the virus protein. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • The capsid of the tomato bushy stunt virus, with the three symmetrically distinct coat protein (p41) monomers colored in orange, green, and blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, symptom enhancement by satC of Turnip crinkle virus is due to satC interference with virion formation, leading to increased levels of free coat protein, which is the viral suppressor of PTGS. (elsevier.com)
  • The fact that defective proviruses can contribute to viral RNA and protein production is concerning, because it means that the measurements of HIV load in infected patients may not be as accurate as we thought. (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast, an engineered mutant virus lacking the structural E protein (rMERS-CoV-ΔE) was not successfully rescued, since viral infectivity was lost at early passages. (nih.gov)
  • The infectious virus was rescued and propagated in cells expressing the E protein in trans, indicating that this virus was replication competent and propagation defective. (nih.gov)
  • As a prelude to immunization studies in nonhuman primates, we compared in mice the immunogenicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based integrase (IN)-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) encoding the model antigen-enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) in the presence or absence of the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) expressed from an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Barcelona have shown that defective versions of human brain cells called astrocytes are linked to the buildup of a toxic protein that is the hallmark of Parkinson's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The formal taxonomic classification of viruses is the responsibility of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system, although the Baltimore classification system can be used to place viruses into one of seven groups based on their manner of mRNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subgenomic RNA synthesis directed by a synthetic defective interfering RNA of mouse hepatitis virus: a study of coronavirus transcription initiation. (core.ac.uk)
  • We have used a full-length cDNA clone of a mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 defective interfering (DI) RNA, pMIDI-C, and cassette mutagenesis to study the mechanism of coronavirus subgenomic mRNA synthesis. (core.ac.uk)
  • Promoter sequences closely resembling those of subgenomic mRNAs 3 and 7 were inserted into MIDI-C. Both subgenomic RNA promoters gave rise to the synthesis of a subgenomic DI RNA in virus-infected and DI RNA-transfected cells. (core.ac.uk)
  • Defective viruses result from genetic mutations or deletions that eliminate essential functions. (nsf.gov)
  • Aaskov and Holmes collected genetic sequences from the defective viruses from 15 people sampled over an 18-month period in Myanmar. (nsf.gov)
  • The scientists analyzed the genetic sequences of the defective and normal viruses to estimate how long the defective virus had been transmitting in the human population. (nsf.gov)
  • Aaskov and Holmes collected genetic sequences from from 15 people in Myanmar sampled over an 18-month period, all of whom were infected with the DENV-1 virus and nine of whom were also infected with the defective version. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In order to measure the relative target sizes of the genetic information responsible, we studied the kinetics of u.v. inactivation of both the replicating ability of MuLV and the ability of this virus to rescue MSV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our findings indicate that high levels of coinfection exceed an optimum where sex may be beneficial to populations of φ6, and suggest that genetic conflicts can evolve in RNA viruses. (genetics.org)
  • At the between-host level, this spatial structure is evident for endemic pathogens from observed patterns of genetic differences across space, such as those observed for measles virus at large geographic scales [ 1 ] and dengue virus even at intracity scales [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the case of epidemic pathogens, both surveillance data and viral genetic data often point to the occurrence of spatial spread, for example, in seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses in the U.S. [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell lines which produced in excess of 10(5) helper virus-free transducing units/ml were generated by trans-complementation of the replication defect using a BHK-21-derived cell line expressing the Bel-1 transactivator. (uzh.ch)
  • Mutualism between satRNA and helper virus can be seen for the satRNA of Groundnut rosette virus, which contributes to the virus by allowing virion assembly. (elsevier.com)
  • Dengue viruses are transmitted by several species of mosquitoes and cause dengue fever, which is characterized by fever, joint pain and a skin rash similar to measles. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Bunyaviridae , host plant species, virus concentration in inoculum. (apsnet.org)
  • We have analyzed atypical tomato bushy stunt virus defective interfering (DI) RNA species which accumulated during a passage series in protoplasts. (unl.edu)
  • Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a virus that is the type species of the tombusvirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before 1982, it was thought that viruses could not be made to fit Ernst Mayr 's reproductive concept of species, and so were not amenable to such treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991, the more specific principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche was adopted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the system of binomial nomenclature adopted in cellular species, there is currently no standardized form for virus species names. (wikipedia.org)
  • At present, the ICTV mandates that a species name must contain as few words as possible while remaining distinct, and must not only contain the word virus and the host name. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus , particularly for higher plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • But we can look in the living organisms, in the hosts that they infect, and say, well, how many different species harbor similar viruses? (pbs.org)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The immune-mediated lethal influenza in C 3 H/He-mg (H-2 k ) mice infected with A/WSN influenza virus (H1N1) was investigated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The virus has a lot of ways, even in its defective forms, to distract our immune systems, and understanding how they do this is essential in finding a cure," says Ya Chi Ho, M.D., Ph.D. , instructor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the lead study investigator. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the study, the scientists collected nine different defective HIV proviruses from six people infected with HIV, then transfected cultures of human immune cells with them in the laboratory. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, defective HIV proviruses can distract the immune cells from attacking fully infectious normal HIV. (eurekalert.org)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • All those (large majority apparently) covid asymptomatic who might not spread the virus due to their immune systems dealing with covid in a less dramatic way - suddenly might be spreading it like a super spreader due to something as innocuous as a simple cold. (consumeractiongroup.co.uk)
  • Vaccines signal the immune system to recognize and attack a disease-causing agent, whether they contain a virus that is alive, dead, or is only a piece of the original. (popsci.com)
  • And if you're seriously immune-deficient, like advanced in AIDS, then something as innocent as this cold sore virus can spread throughout the body and kill you. (pbs.org)
  • In vivo this correlated with virus‐induced loss of asthma control. (interasma.org)
  • Functional and defective components of avian endogenous virus long terminal repeat enhancer sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of EFIV, a stable factor present in many avian cell types that transactivates sequences in the 5' portion of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat enhancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evidence of Ebola Virus Replication and High Concentration in Semen of a Patient During Recovery. (msf.org)
  • Ebola Virus Replication Stands Out. (msf.org)
  • Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola. (msf.org)
  • Quantification of RNA Content in Reconstituted Ebola Virus Nucleocapsids by Immunoprecipitation. (msf.org)
  • Ebola/Lassa, potential exposure to these viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Haematological, biochemical and coagulation changes in mice, guinea-pigs and monkeys infected with a mouse-adapted variant of Ebola Zaire virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of Ebola virus and Marburg virus glycoprotein DNA vaccines assessed separately and concomitantly in healthy Ugandan adults: a phase 1b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (qxmd.com)
  • Reichler MR, Bruden D, Thomas H. Ebola Patient Virus Cycle Threshold and Risk of Household Transmission of Ebola Virus external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • About a third of Ebola outbreaks can be traced to people handling the carcasses of great apes killed by the virus, Michael Jarvis, a virologist at Plymouth University in the United Kingdom, said in an email. (popsci.com)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To follow eosinophil‐virus interaction, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus were labeled with a fluorescent lipophilic dye (DiD). (interasma.org)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory illness in children, immunosuppressed individuals and the elderly. (edu.au)
  • Although the precore region defective hepatitis B virus variants have been implicated in chronic liver disease and fulminant hepatitis, our knowledge on the molecular biology of these variants is still limited. (eurekamag.com)
  • 7. Viral HepatitisViral Hepatitis  The viruses causing Hepatitis are variedThe viruses causing Hepatitis are varied and belong to different families.and belong to different families. (slideshare.net)
  • 9. Hepatitis AHepatitis A  HAV : PicornavirusHAV : Picornavirus  Small round RNA virus of HeparnavirusSmall round RNA virus of Heparnavirus family.family. (slideshare.net)
  • The Giant viruses that we know of tend to infect micro-organism known as Acanthamoeba . (fieldofscience.com)
  • The purified virus samples were then used to infect Acanthamoebae , and found to kill them off. (fieldofscience.com)
  • When the Acanthamoebae exposed to their samples died off, theoretically releasing multitudes of viruses into their medium, the researchers further purified the samples to use to re-infect new cultures of Acanthamoeba . (fieldofscience.com)
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses can infect many different animals including birds and pigs, which can serve as vectors and reservoirs, respectively. (google.com)
  • Well, viruses are the smallest kinds of parasites or microbes that can infect other living things. (pbs.org)
  • There are even viruses that infect bacteria. (pbs.org)
  • I don't think all viruses necessarily cause disease in the hosts that they naturally infect. (pbs.org)
  • Are there any viruses that have, in a sense, become evolved to permanently establish themselves as part of the host animals they seem to infect? (pbs.org)
  • I think there are some viruses that are so well adapted to the hosts that they infect that they live with them, and co-evolve with them, over evolutionary time. (pbs.org)
  • TBSV has been used as a model system in virology research on the life cycle of plant viruses , particularly in experimental infections of the model host plant Nicotiana benthamiana . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] [6] The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • The generation of defective interfering (DI) RNA molecules of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) was studied by serially passaging in-ocula from plant to plant under different controlled conditions. (apsnet.org)
  • Additional keyword: plant viruses. (apsnet.org)
  • The double stranded RNA intermediates of replicating plant viruses often induce PTGS, leading to symptom attenuation. (elsevier.com)
  • The EBV latent-to-lytic switch is required for virus spread and virus-induced carinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Many vaccines use live but weakened versions of the virus, including those for measles and chickenpox . (popsci.com)
  • However, this virus is transmission competent and therefore unlikely to be suitable for use in clinical trials. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Hay, Kathleen A. / Reactivation of thymidine kinase-defective herpes simplex virus is enhanced by nucleoside . (elsevier.com)
  • Let's take herpes simplex virus as an example, which almost all of us pick up, probably as infants. (pbs.org)
  • The current gold standard is the quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA), but this requires the sampling and activation of very large numbers of cells and is expensive and time consuming. (i-base.info)
  • it is proposed that there is classical, but cell type-specific DI virus interference in lymphocytes but not in the cells of the lung in which virus multiplies productively. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The group again transfected cells in the lab with 6 different types of defective HIV provirus taken from patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following transfection with the cDNA clone, infectious virus was rescued in both Vero A66 and Huh-7 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Use of MDCK cells for virus isolation is not allowed by FDA's rules, which do not yet encompass advanced technologies or scientifically sound purification procedures based on limiting dilutions or cloning with DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) produces abortive infections of primary cultures of rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs). (utmb.edu)
  • The sporadic appearance of nondefective (nd) Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) from cells in tissue culture infected with a molecular clone of transformation-defective RSV was examined. (cshl.edu)
  • Other treatments are aimed at people who are already infected and will prey on the virus dwelling in their cells. (popsci.com)
  • Compared to bacteria, viruses present a very small target. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is activated early in response to invasion by bacteria and viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We've found the opposite--that the defective virus is actually helping the normal, functional virus. (nsf.gov)
  • We have shown that the defective virus not only transmits with the virus but increases the transmission of the functional virus," says Ruian Ke, a UCLA postdoctoral scholar in the department of ecology and evolutionary biology and the lead author of the study. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • everybody sampled who was getting dengue fever was getting the defective version along with the functional virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • What we have shown is that this defective virus, which everyone had thought was useless or even detrimental to the fitness of the functional virus, actually appears to have made it better able to spread," he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This interaction takes place through the recognition between a sequence (PPxY) in the virus and a functional unit (WW domain) in the ligase. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Dengue is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes and caused by four types of the dengue virus. (nsf.gov)
  • It is concluded that primary rabbit PBMCs may be infectable by HIV-1 but are not permissive for production of infectious virus. (utmb.edu)
  • Therefore, we interrogated sequence data from serum and tissues using a bioinformatics tool in order to identify the presence of DVGs in nonhuman primates (NHPs) infected with EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV) or Marburg virus (MARV). (cdc.gov)
  • Biologists had thought that defective viruses interfered with normal versions of the virus, "clogging up the gears of viral replication," he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40. (asm.org)
  • Simian virus 40 (SV40)-mediated transformation of human diploid fibroblasts has provided an effective experimental system for studies of both "senescence" in cell culture and carcinogenesis. (asm.org)
  • The third is a plasmid encoding the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) to supply the vector an envelope for pseudotyping. (edu.au)
  • Ribosome Recognition and Translation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Messenger RNA 4. (routledge.com)
  • [5] However, the closely related tombusvirus Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) has been observed to be transmitted by Olpidium bornovanus zoospores , so transmission of TBSV by as-yet unknown vector remains a possibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The design and construction of the JDV vector system should facilitate the study of the lentivirology and pathogenesis of the diseases associated with JDV or other bovine virus infections. (edu.au)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first such vector system developed from a cattle virus. (edu.au)