Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Essential Tremor: A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Subthalamus: A transition zone in the anterior part of the diencephalon interposed between the thalamus, hypothalamus, and tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Components of the subthalamus include the SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, zona incerta, nucleus of field H, and the nucleus of ansa lenticularis. The latter contains the ENTOPEDUNCULAR NUCLEUS.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Psychosurgery: Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Vagus Nerve Stimulation: An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei: Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Entopeduncular Nucleus: A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Pallidotomy: Producing a lesion in the posteroventral portion of the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and other extrapyramidal disorders. The placement of the lesion is aided by STEREOTACTIC TECHNIQUES and imaging procedures.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Tics: Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10)Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Therapeutic Misconception: Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Medial Forebrain Bundle: A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation: an intracellular study in rat thalamus. (1/725)

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the thalamus alleviates most kinds of tremor, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies in subthalamic nucleus and other brain sites have emphasized non-synaptic factors. To explore the mechanism underlying thalamic DBS, we simulated DBS in vitro by applying high-frequency (125 Hz) electrical stimulation directly into the sensorimotor thalamus of adult rat brain slices. Intracellular recordings revealed two distinct types of membrane responses, both of which were initiated with a depolarization and rapid spike firing. However, type 1 responses repolarized quickly and returned to quiescent baseline during simulated DBS whereas type 2 responses maintained the level of membrane depolarization, with or without spike firing. Individual thalamic neurones exhibited either type 1 or type 2 response but not both. In all neurones tested, simulated DBS-evoked membrane depolarization was reversibly eliminated by tetrodotoxin, glutamate receptor antagonists, and the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Cd(2+). Simulated DBS also increased the excitability of thalamic cells in the presence of glutamate receptor blockade, although this non-synaptic effect induced no spontaneous firing such as that found in subthalamic nucleus neurones. Our data suggest that high-frequency stimulation when applied in the ventral thalamus can rapidly disrupt local synaptic function and neuronal firing thereby leading to a 'functional deafferentation' and/or 'functional inactivation'. These mechanisms, driven primarily by synaptic activation, help to explain the paradox that lesions, muscimol and DBS in thalamus all effectively stop tremor.  (+info)

Electron microscopy of tissue adherent to explanted electrodes in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. (2/725)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat a variety of severe medically intractable movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, tremor and dystonia. There have been few studies examining the effect of chronic DBS on the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. Most of these post mortem studies concluded that chronic DBS caused mild gliosis around the lead track and did not damage brain tissue. There have been no similar histopathological studies on brains from dystonic patients who have undergone DBS. In this study, our objective was to discover whether tissue would be attached to DBS electrodes removed from patients for routine clinical reasons. We hoped that by examining explanted DBS electrodes using scanning (SEM) and/or transmission (TEM) electron microscopy we might visualize any attached tissue and thus understand the electrode-human brain tissue interaction more accurately. Initially, SEM was performed on one control DBS electrode that had not been implanted. Then 21 (one subthalamic nucleus and 20 globus pallidus internus) explanted DBS electrodes were prepared, after fixation in 3% glutaraldehyde, for SEM (n = 9) or TEM (n = 10), or both (n = 2), according to departmental protocol. The electrodes were sourced from two patients with Parkinson's disease, one with myoclonic dystonia, two with cervical dystonia and five with primary generalized dystonia, and had been in situ for 11 and 31 months (Parkinson's disease), 16 months (myoclonic dystonia), 14 and 24 months (cervical dystonia) and 3-24 months (primary generalized dystonia). Our results showed that a foreign body multinucleate giant cell-type reaction was present in all TEM samples and in SEM samples, prewashed to remove surface blood and fibrin, regardless of the diagnosis. Some of the giant cells were >100 microm in diameter and might have originated from either fusion of parenchymal microglia, resident perivascular macrophage precursors and/or monocytes/macrophages invading from the blood stream. The presence of mononuclear macrophages containing lysosomes and sometimes having conspicuous filopodia was detected by TEM. Both types of cell contained highly electron-dense inclusions, which probably represent phagocytosed material. Similar material, the exact nature of which is unknown, was also seen in the vicinity of these cells. This reaction was present irrespective of the duration of implantation and may be a response to the polyurethane component of the electrodes' surface coat. These findings may be relevant to our understanding of the time course of the clinical response to DBS in Parkinson's disease and various forms of dystonia, as well as contributing to the design characteristics of future DBS electrodes.  (+info)

Dorsal posterior parietal rTMS affects voluntary orienting of visuospatial attention. (3/725)

Patients with lesions in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are relatively unimpaired in voluntarily directing visual attention to different spatial locations, while many neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects suggest dorsal PPC involvement in this function. We used an offline repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to study this issue further. Ten healthy participants performed a cue-target paradigm. Cues prompted covert orienting of spatial attention under voluntary control to either a left or right visual field position. Targets were flashed subsequently at the cued or uncued location, or bilaterally. Following rTMS over right dorsal PPC, (i) the benefit for target detection at cued versus uncued positions was preserved irrespective of cueing direction (left- or rightward), but (ii) leftward cueing was associated with a global impairment in target detection, at all target locations. This reveals that leftward orienting was still possible after right dorsal PPC stimulation, albeit at an increased overall cost for target detection. In addition, rTMS (iii) impaired left, but (iv) enhanced right target detection after rightward cueing. The finding of a global drop in target detection during leftward orienting with a spared, relative detection benefit at the cued (left) location (i-ii) suggests that right dorsal PPC plays a subsidiary rather than pivotal role in voluntary spatial orienting. This finding reconciles seemingly conflicting results from patients and neuroimaging studies. The finding of attentional inhibition and enhancement occurring contra- and ipsilaterally to the stimulation site (iii-iv) supports the view that spatial attention bias can be selectively modulated through rTMS, which has proven useful to transiently reduce visual hemispatial neglect.  (+info)

Microstimulation of the superior colliculus focuses attention without moving the eyes. (4/725)

The superior colliculus (SC) is part of a network of brain areas that directs saccadic eye movements, overtly shifting both gaze and attention from position to position, in space. Here, we seek direct evidence that the SC also contributes to the control of covert spatial attention, a process that focuses attention on a region of space different from the point of gaze. While requiring monkeys to keep their gaze fixed, we tested whether microstimulation of a specific location in the SC spatial map would enhance visual performance at the corresponding region of space, a diagnostic measure of covert attention. We find that microstimulation improves performance in a spatially selective manner: thresholds decrease at the location in visual space represented by the stimulated SC site, but not at a control location in the opposite hemifield. Our data provide direct evidence that the SC contributes to the control of covert spatial attention.  (+info)

Different patterns of medication change after subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease: target related effect or selection bias? (5/725)

BACKGROUND: Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is favoured over bilateral globus pallidus internus (Gpi) DBS for symptomatic treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the possibility of reducing medication, despite lack of definitive comparative evidence. OBJECTIVE: To analyse outcomes after one year of bilateral Gpi or STN DBS, with consideration of influence of selection bias on the pattern of postsurgical medication change. METHODS: The first patients to undergo bilateral Gpi (n = 10) or STN (n = 10) DBS at our centre were studied. They were assessed presurgically and one year after surgery (CAPIT protocol). RESULTS: Before surgery the Gpi DBS group had more dyskinesias and received lower doses of medication. At one year, mean reduction in UPDRS off medication score was 35% and 39% in the Gpi and STN groups, respectively (non-significant difference). Dyskinesias reduced in proportion to presurgical severity. The levodopa equivalent dose was significantly reduced only in the STN group (24%). This study high-lights the absence of significant differences between the groups in clinical scales and medication dose at one year. In the multivariate analysis of predictive factors for off-state motor improvement, the presurgical levodopa equivalent dose showed a direct relation in the STN and an inverse relation in the Gpi group. CONCLUSION: Differences in the patterns of medication change after Gpi and STN DBS may be partly due to a patient selection bias. Both procedures may be equally useful for different subgroups of patients with advanced PD, Gpi DBS especially for patients with lower threshold for dyskinesia.  (+info)

Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients with previous thalamic surgery. (6/725)

Before the introduction of high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), many disabled tremor dominant parkinsonian patients underwent lesioning or chronic electrical stimulation of the thalamus. We studied the effects of STN stimulation in patients with previous ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) surgery whose motor state worsened. Fifteen parkinsonian patients were included in this study: nine with unilateral and two with bilateral VIM stimulation, three with unilateral thalamotomy, and one with both unilateral thalamotomy and contralateral VIM stimulation. The clinical evaluation consisted of a formal motor assessment using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and neuropsychological tests encompassing a 50 point frontal scale, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The first surgical procedure was performed a mean (SD) of 8 (5) years after the onset of disease. STN implantation was carried out 10 (4) years later, and duration of follow up after beginning STN stimulation was 24 (20) months. The UPDRS motor score, tremor score, difficulties in performance of activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose significantly decreased after STN stimulation. Neither axial symptoms nor neuropsychological status significantly worsened after the implantation of the STN electrodes. The parkinsonian motor state is greatly improved by bilateral STN stimulation even in patients with previous thalamic surgery, and STN stimulation is more effective than VIM stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients.  (+info)

Comparisons between pharmacologically and Edinger-Westphal-stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. (7/725)

PURPOSE: Accommodation results in increased lens thickness and lens surface curvatures. Previous studies suggest that lens biometric accommodative changes are different with pharmacological and voluntary accommodation. In this study, refractive and biometric changes during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys were compared. METHODS: Accommodation was stimulated by an indwelling permanent electrode in the EW nucleus of the midbrain in one eye each of four rhesus monkeys. Dynamic refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and lens biometric changes were measured with high-resolution, continuous A-scan ultrasonography for increasing stimulus current amplitudes, including supramaximal current amplitudes. Accommodation was then stimulated pharmacologically and biometry was measured continuously for 30 minutes. RESULTS: During EW-stimulated accommodation, lens surfaces move linearly with refraction, with an increase in lens thickness of 0.06 mm/D, an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface of 0.04 mm/D, and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface of 0.02 mm/D. Peak velocity of accommodation (diopters per second) and lens thickness (in millimeters per second) increased with supramaximal stimulus currents, but without further increase in amplitude or total lens thickness. After carbachol stimulation, there was initially an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface; but by 30 minutes, there was an overall anterior shift of the lens. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular biometric changes differ with EW and pharmacological stimulation of accommodation. Pharmacological stimulation results in a greater increase in lens thickness, an overall forward movement of the lens and a greater change in dioptric power.  (+info)

Hypothalamic stimulation in chronic cluster headache: a pilot study of efficacy and mode of action. (8/725)

We enrolled six patients suffering from refractory chronic cluster headache in a pilot trial of neurostimulation of the ipsilateral ventroposterior hypothalamus using the stereotactic coordinates published previously. After the varying durations needed to determine optimal stimulation parameters and a mean follow-up of 14.5 months, the clinical outcome is excellent in three patients (two are pain-free; one has fewer than three attacks per month), but unsatisfactory in one patient, who only has had transient remissions. Mean voltage is 3.28 V, diplopia being the major factor limiting its increase. When the stimulator was switched off in one pain-free patient, attacks resumed after 3 months until it was turned on again. In one patient the implantation procedure had to be interrupted because of a panic attack with autonomic disturbances. Another patient died from an intracerebral haemorrhage that developed along the lead tract several hours after surgery; there were no other vascular changes on post-mortem examination. After 1 month, the hypothalamic stimulation induced resistance against the attack-triggering agent nitroglycerin and tended to increase pain thresholds at extracephalic, but not at cephalic, sites. It had no detectable effect on neurohypophyseal hormones or melatonin excretion. We conclude that hypothalamic stimulation has remarkable efficacy in most, but not all, patients with treatment-resistant chronic cluster headache. Its efficacy is not due to a simple analgesic effect or to hormonal changes. Intracerebral haemorrhage cannot be neglected in the risk evaluation of the procedure. Whether it might be more prevalent than in deep-brain stimulation for movement disorders remains to be determined.  (+info)

  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lead is a coiled wire insulated in polyurethane with four platinum-iridium electrodes and is placed in one or two different nuclei of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IPG is a battery-powered neurostimulator encased in a titanium housing, which sends electrical pulses to the brain that interferes with neural activity at the target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its direct effect on the physiology of brain cells and neurotransmitters is currently debated, but by sending high frequency electrical impulses into specific areas of the brain it can mitigate symptoms and directly diminish the side-effects induced by Parkinson's medications, allowing a decrease in medications, or making medication regimen more tolerable. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] There are few sites in the brain that can be targeted to achieve differing results, so each patient must be assessed individually, and a site will be chosen based on their needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the asleep procedure, intraoperative MRI guidance is used for direct visualization of brain tissue and device. (wikipedia.org)
  • de Koning PP, Figee M, van den Munckhof P, Schuurman PR, Denys D (2011) Current status of deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical review of different targets. (springer.com)
  • Clinical trials may be available to candidates for deep brain stimulation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We anticipate that this study will generate a knowledge-base of clinical outcomes to be correlated with stimulation-induced activation of particular brain regions. (utah.edu)
  • We compared the stimulation protocol chosen from the software versus the stimulation protocol that was chosen via clinical practice (independently of the study). (utah.edu)
  • During the second phase we will use the computational models and clinical outcomes from the first phase to build a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA) of effective and ineffective stimulation locations 2 . (utah.edu)
  • The object of this study was to identify a preoperative physiological index by using surface electromyography (EMG) signals that would correlate with clinical outcome in dystonic patients following bilateral pallidal stimulation. (thejns.org)
  • Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the EMG ratio and clinical improvement during the 12-month period following pallidal stimulation. (thejns.org)
  • Deep brain stimulation has been in clinical practice for over a decade and for certain patients can be life changing. (abc.net.au)
  • In a report of the phase II ADvance clinical trial, Johns Hopkins researchers report that people diagnosed under age 65-those with early-onset Alzheimer's disease-didn't benefit from deep brain stimulation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Scientists say procedure showed improvements but larger clinical experiment needed to confirm benefitsPatients with severeobsessive-compulsivedisorder have shown remarkable improvements after undergoing an experimental procedure in which electrodes are placed inside the brain.The first UK trial of deep brain stimulation for OCD involved six people who were extremely severely affected by the condition. (medworm.com)
  • We will use our model system to decipher the underlying neurophysiological changes responsible therapeutic benefit and define novel stimulation strategies that could improve clinical outcomes. (utah.edu)
  • Incidence and management of air embolisms during awake deep brain stimulation in a large clinical series. (springer.com)
  • Because of the clinical urgency, deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatments for depression have been developed over the past 15 years. (psychcentral.com)
  • For information about clinical trials for deep brain stimulation, including studies that are enrolling patients, please visit the deep brain stimulation results from ClinicalTrials.gov , a service of the National Institutes of Health. (dana.org)
  • Newswise - Vanderbilt University Medical Center is one of approximately 20 centers in a nationwide clinical study investigating the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as an intervention for patients with major depression. (newswise.com)
  • BROADEN™ (BROdmann Area 25 DEep brain Neuromodulation) is the first randomized clinical research study to investigate DBS as an intervention for patients diagnosed with unipolar major depressive disorder (excluding bipolar disorder) who have not improved after multiple treatments. (newswise.com)
  • This grant was awarded to Alexander Rotenberg, M.D., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Neurology, Children's Hospital Boston, and will support a clinical study to evaluate the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) H-Coil as a promising non-invasive method of inhibiting the abnormal electrical activity believed to underlie seizures in focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). (disabled-world.com)
  • Who Should Consider Deep Brain Stimulation? (webmd.com)
  • Researchers and doctors have begun using deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat anorexia nervosa. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Other researchers have demonstrated that this population often experiences painful and severe stimulation-induced dyskinesia ( PloS One . (medscape.com)
  • The algorithm performed well, the researchers noted, with transitions above and below the stimulation threshold appropriately triggered by alterations in the gamma power. (medscape.com)
  • At the University of Amsterdam, researchers bored small holes in his skull and guided two long, thin probes deep into his head. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers realized that in other experiments, stimulation to the same brain region, the nucleus accumbens, had also led to unintended, spontaneous reductions in drinking and smoking. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Canadian researchers have tested the effect of a surgical technique called deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the mood, weight, and overall well-being of 16 patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers used PET scans to evaluate the brain activity of the patients after undergoing 1 year of DBS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The woman is a patient of Dr. Andres Lozano , a neurosurgeon who is among a growing number of researchers studying the potential of deep brain stimulation to treat Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia. (npr.org)
  • Researchers from the University of California San Francisco and Veterans Affairs Health Care System, San Francisco investigated the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of refractory severe tinnitus in a small group of patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers determined that DBS therapy, targeted to an area of the brain known as Brodmann Area 25, provided noticeable improvement in depression symptoms and increased overall quality of life in patients who typically don't respond to treatment. (psychcentral.com)
  • According to a latest study by researchers, brain stimulation may help depressive patients, when other forms of treatment do not show any result on them. (medindia.net)
  • University of Freiburg) Patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant depression can benefit not only acutely but also the long-term from deep brain stimulation, as researchers from the Medical Center -- University of Freiburg and their colleagues from the University Hospital Bonn demonstrate in a current study. (medworm.com)
  • Researchers found that in extreme cases of the eating disorder, the technique - known as deep brain stimulation (DBS) - swiftly helped many of those studied reduce symptoms of either anxiety or depression, and improved their quality of life. (foxnews.com)
  • Comparing brain scans from before and after the treatment, the researchers found there were changes in regions linked to anorexia, suggesting the DBS was able to directly affect the related brain circuits. (foxnews.com)
  • A new study by researchers in Canada, who used deep brain stimulation to trigger neuron growth in mice, suggests it can. (time.com)
  • Researchers found that when the brain stimulators were turned on for one hour, the growth of new brain cells in a key region of the hippocampus nearly doubled. (time.com)
  • To be sure that it was the cell growth that was causing improvements in memory, and not some other effect of DBS, the researchers then used a drug to stop the growth of new cells following stimulation. (time.com)
  • In a paper published today by Neuroreport, researchers at Oxford University and Imperial College London report that they have found the exact area of the brain that controls blood pressure and how to make use of it. (innovations-report.com)
  • With the advent of improved brain imaging, researchers are linking certain parts of brain anatomy to conditions ranging from addiction to Alzheimer disease. (alzforum.org)
  • The researchers recorded brain waves of the subjects while they performed the task, once with DBS switched on and once with it off. (medgadget.com)
  • Brain researchers will intermingle with surgeons and academicians in order to form an interdisciplinary expert body, to jump start the Deep Brain Stimulation scene in Bangladesh. (thedailystar.net)
  • Researchers are sliding electrodes into the brains of people with Alzheimer disease, hoping to awaken memories and stave off disease-induced forgetfulness. (alzforum.org)
  • The technique is also approved for obsessive-compulsive disorder and is being looked at for a number of other brain disorders, including depression, chronic pain and, as in Lozano's work, dementia. (npr.org)
  • Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering) A new paper published in Nature Reviews Neurology suggests that recent advances in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease could lead to treatments for conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and depression. (medworm.com)
  • The debilitating behaviours and all-consuming thoughts, which affect people with severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), could be significantly improved with targeted deep brain stimulation, according to the findings of an MRC-funded study. (medworm.com)
  • In early 2006, an electrical technique, deep brain stimulation, is being proposed for patients with severe depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (harvard.edu)
  • Philadelphia, March 7, 2019 -- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) reduces symptoms of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during stimulation of either the ventral capsule (VC) or anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (amSTN), according to a study in Biological Psychiatry . (eurekalert.org)
  • As deep brain stimulation technology improves and as our experience broadens, new disease states are being treated with this technology including psychiatric disorders such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. (unc.edu)
  • Though some 55,000 people have received deep-brain stimulation for conditions ranging from Parkinson disease to obsessive-compulsive disorder, there is still plenty of room to improve the process. (alzforum.org)
  • The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is reviewed, including a brief discussion of historical groundwork in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders, and the rationale for the current practice. (nih.gov)
  • The authors report the neurological, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological effects of using long-term bilateral pallidal high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a case of disabling camptocormia. (thejns.org)
  • While still experimental, deep brain stimulation with implanted electrodes is being tested as a way to ease dementia in patients with Alzheimer's and other neurological conditions. (npr.org)
  • Movement-related symptoms of PD and other neurological conditions are caused by faulty electrical signals in the parts of the brain that control movement. (rochester.edu)
  • Dr. Andre Machado, chairman of the Cleveland Clinic Neurological Institute, is hoping to change that through deep brain stimulation (DBS): By implanting electrodes into the brain that provide small electric pulses, people can regain control over movements lost to stroke. (time.com)
  • Research funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National institutes of Health (NIH), on brain circuitry was critical to the development of DBS. (nih.gov)
  • They soon discovered that stimulation of certain brain nuclei suppresses the symptoms of some neurological disorders. (rutgers.edu)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is already being used to treat all kinds of mental disorders, including depression and addiction, and some neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's. (medgadget.com)
  • Neurological disorders, or problems in the brain are therefore of paramount importance, as they target the most vital human organ. (thedailystar.net)
  • There are different kinds of neurological disorders like strokes, migraines, brain tumours etc. (thedailystar.net)
  • Led by Chima Oluigbo, M.D. , one of the few pediatric deep brain stimulation experts in North America cross-trained in pediatric and functional neurosurgery, our program has superior expertise in treating patients with all types of movement disorders. (childrensnational.org)
  • Using minimally invasive neurosurgery techniques, we access the brain through a tiny incision in your child's skull. (childrensnational.org)
  • Detailed findings are found in the article, "Phase I trial of caudate deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant tinnitus," by Steven W. Cheung, M.D., and colleagues, published today in the Journal of Neurosurgery . (eurekalert.org)
  • A successful deep brain stimulation program requires the cooperation of numerous different medical specialties including neurosurgery, neurology, neuropsychology, radiology and anesthesiology. (unc.edu)
  • Our study shows that deep brain stimulation is a safe, effective treatment for young adults with severe Tourette syndrome that cannot be managed with current therapies," said Alon Mogilner, M.D., Ph.D., an associate professor in NYU Langone's departments of neurosurgery and anesthesiology and director of its Center for Neuromodulation, in the statement. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • A DBS treatment might affect other brain functions. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation has also been studied and used successfully in the treatment of major depression and chronic pain. (news-medical.net)
  • Deep brain stimulation is also being studied as an experimental treatment for major depression, stroke recovery, addiction and dementia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Like any other neuropsychiatric intervention, deep brain stimulation can cause several notable side effects and healthcare providers aim to increase the efficacy of treatment while decreasing the risk of these side effects. (news-medical.net)
  • Brain scans also confirmed the benefits of the treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for uncontrolled, difficult, and sometimes painful movements associated with movement disorders, such as seizures. (childrensnational.org)
  • A recently published multi-center pilot study supports use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for major depressive disorder for people who have not responded to more traditional modes of treatment. (psychcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that as we look at deep brain stimulation as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, we should probably focus on those over 65, which is the bulk of people with Alzheimer's," says Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Ph.D., associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The mainstays of treatment throughout the disease are drugs such as levodopa that compensate for lost dopamine in the brain. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • At this stage of the disease, deep brain stimulation (DBS) may provide an important treatment option to reduce off time and dyskinesias, and potentially improve quality of life. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • The treatment, called deep brain stimulation, or DBS, has been used to treat a number of other conditions but had never before been tried with anorexia. (thestar.com)
  • Another depression treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also uses electrical stimulation - perhaps new brain cell growth could help explain why ECT works. (time.com)
  • The treatment involves the weak electrical stimulation, via implanted electrodes, of a brain region called the subthalamic nucleus. (rdmag.com)
  • We think that deep brain stimulation can be a useful non-drug intervention for treatment of addiction," added Carrie L. Wade, a postdoctoral research associate in the George Laboratory during the study, now at the University of Minnesota. (rdmag.com)
  • However, other research groups are working on less invasive methods of stimulating exact locations in the brain, for example using nanotechnology, and if this becomes available then the treatment would be attractive to a much larger number of people. (innovations-report.com)
  • This finding provides clues as to the roles that those specific brain regions play in OCD, and has potentially important implications for treatment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Deep brain stimulation is an emerging treatment for a small number of individuals with extremely severe OCD whose condition has not responded to multiple courses of currently available treatments such as medication or cognitive behavioral therapy," said Dr. Joyce. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an intervention option for cases of treatment-resistant depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • In the current issue of the journal Biological Psychiatry , Dr. Darin Dougherty and his colleagues report the results of the first large-scale, randomized, sham-controlled trial of deep brain stimulation treatment for treatment-resistant symptoms of depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • But, he cautioned, deep brain stimulation is still in the "investigational" stages as a potential treatment for early Alzheimer's. (drugs.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation: a breakthrough in the treatment of movement disorders," Lege Artis Medicinae , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 119-126, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation, or DBS, is one of the many advanced treatment options offered at Loyola Medicine. (loyolamedicine.org)
  • When looking at the tests of people with stimulators when they were turned on or off and off with levodopa, the driving was more accurate with stimulation on than with levodopa, with a total of 13 errors during the test on levodopa, compared to 11 with stimulation and 14 with neither treatment. (redorbit.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) will be the treatment option in this study along with behavioral interventions for participants with severe disability due to Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 24 months post their injury, the participants will have severe disabilities in behavioral and emotional self-regulation, cognitive impairments and somatic symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The treatment, called Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), has been proven to be a highly effective therapy that allows for a greater enjoyment of life. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • Recent efforts on patient-specific therapeutic approaches revealed the importance of computational methods in guiding deep brain stimulation (DBS), a neuromodulation treatment initially applied to motor diseases that is fast expanding to include affective disorders, among others. (rutgers.edu)
  • They selected 21 patients who had good responses to treatment, compiled their demographic and treatment information, and used magnetic resonance imaging scans to create 3-D anatomical models with a fine grid to show exact location of relevant brain structures. (scienceblog.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging interventional therapy for well-screened patients with specific treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric diseases. (jci.org)
  • If this study shows the expected effect in seizure control, the H-Coil could rapidly move to commercialization for TLE treatment because a different version of the H-Coil that targets other deep brain areas is already marketed for treatment of major depression and other neuropsychiatric syndromes. (disabled-world.com)
  • This study shows us a specific mechanism of how DBS improves patients' brain function, which should let us better identify who can benefit and how to optimize their individual treatment. (medgadget.com)
  • Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices market report emphasizes on detailed analysis of companies and manufacturers like St Jude Medical, Beijing Pins, SceneRay, Medtronic, Boston Scientific and Others. (openpr.com)
  • The Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices market report provides detailed segmentation of Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market based on product type, application, end user and regional segmentation. (openpr.com)
  • The Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market analysis report provides detailed value chain for analysis of Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market. (openpr.com)
  • The Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market report explores manufacturer's competitive scenario and provides market share for all major players of this market based on production capacity, sales, revenue, geographical presence and other major factors. (openpr.com)
  • Global Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market Research Industry Report is prepared with the help of extensive primary and secondary sources, directories, journals, newsletters and with the help of third-party application like Hoovers, Factiva, Bloomberg, Businessweek, etc. (openpr.com)
  • In 2013 neurosurgeon Donald Whiting of the West Penn Allegheny Health System and his colleagues reported that by stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (the "feeding center" of the brain) of three people with intractable obesity, they could reduce their patients' urge to eat. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Emory's Deep Brain Stimulation Program was established in the early 1990's by the newly arrived chair of Neurology, Dr. Mahlon DeLong , together with neurologist Dr. Jerry Vitek and Dr. Roy Bakay, an Emory neurosurgeon. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • The neurosurgeon performs an operation during which electrodes are placed in specific structures in the brain and then fixed to your skull. (bidmc.org)
  • The Deep Brain Stimulation Program at UC Davis Health is a multidisciplinary program with a diverse team of experts that includes movement disorder neurologists, a neurosurgeon, nurse practitioners, a neurophysiologist, a neuropsychologist, and a psychiatrist. (ucdavis.edu)
  • With DBS, a neurosurgeon will use MRI or CT scanning to pinpoint the exact location in the brain where nerve signals are creating the symptoms. (johnmuirhealth.com)
  • Neurosurgeon Dr. Andres Lozano of the Toronto's University Health Network is conducting a study into the use of deep brain stimulation for those suffering from anorexia nervosa. (thestar.com)
  • There are circuits in the brain that malfunction, that misfire, and it's possible to adjust their activity, to turn them up or down, very much like you would adjust the volume on your television set," says Dr. Andres Lozano, the neurosurgeon who is heading up the study. (thestar.com)
  • As a part of the workshop, world renowned neurosurgeon Prof Tipu Aziz from Oxford University, who is amongst the top neurosurgeon for Lesion and Deep Brain Stimulation, with more than 25 years of experience will interact with neurologists and neurosurgeons of Bangladesh to explain Lesion and DBS. (thedailystar.net)
  • This is the first study to compare directly the effects of DBS at two brain sites and has discovered important information about the brain changes in OCD responsible for obsessions and compulsions, depressed mood and cognitive inflexibility and how they might be alleviated," said senior author Eileen Joyce, PhD, The Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results are very encouraging for people with Parkinson's and their families that they can take advantage of the benefits of deep brain stimulation without worrying about it increasing the likelihood of developing dementia," said study author Elena Moro, MD, of Grenoble Alpes University in Grenoble, France, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology. (eurekalert.org)
  • At the beginning of the small trial, 42 people with mild Alzheimer's had deep brain stimulation devices implanted in the brain in a spot between the hippocampus, which is responsible for learning and memory, and the hypothalamus, which regulates body temperature, hunger and thirst. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Could Deep Brain Stimulation Fend Off Alzheimer's? (time.com)
  • Could generating new cells in brain regions associated with memory stave off the symptoms of Alzheimer's? (time.com)
  • Last year, a small safety study of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in humans found that it slowed rates of cognitive decline and even led to some actual memory improvement in six patients with early stage Alzheimer's. (time.com)
  • THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 -- Deep brain stimulation appears safe for people with early Alzheimer's disease -- and might even slow down memory loss in some, a preliminary study suggests. (drugs.com)
  • While it's far too early to know whether deep brain stimulation helps those with early Alzheimer's, the initial findings suggest the technique is worth further study, said lead researcher Dr. Andres Lozano. (drugs.com)
  • In theory, deep brain stimulation could be helpful because Alzheimer's is marked by a degeneration in brain cells -- with the "circuits" involved in memory, thinking and other mental abilities gradually shutting down, Lozano explained. (drugs.com)
  • More studies are needed to show whether certain Alzheimer's patients stand to benefit from deep brain stimulation, Weintraub said. (drugs.com)
  • Is Deep Brain Stimulation Considered Experimental? (webmd.com)
  • 2019. Deep Brain Stimulation Side Effects . (news-medical.net)
  • Transparency Market Research published a new report 'Deep Brain Stimulation Devices Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2013 - 2019' to its report store. (prweb.com)
  • Candidates undergo an extensive 2 to 4 hour cognitive evaluation with the neuropsychologist, and also have an MRI brain scan. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Awake the whole time, Adrianna Boot underwent deep brain stimulation to treat her anorexia nervosa more than three years ago. (thestar.com)
  • Bhatia R, Dalton A, Richards M, Hopkins C, Aziz T, Nandi D. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature. (springer.com)
  • There is a small chance of infection, hemorrhage (bleeding) or stroke due to deep brain stimulation. (loyolamedicine.org)
  • The first brain area targeted for depression was chosen after years of painstaking neuroimaging research, but recent advancement in DBS has come as much from luck as from planning. (scientificamerican.com)
  • People suffering from sustained depression for over 10 years had reacted positively to stimulation of their brains, when other medication were not working. (medindia.net)
  • This study, conducted at five medical centers across the U.S., found that DBS failed to reduce depression symptoms better than sham stimulation. (psychcentral.com)
  • Deanna took her place on the operating table only a year into the first attempts to stop unrelenting depression by stimulating a precise network of brain cells. (dana.org)
  • But using the technology to treat depression developed from the pioneering work of Helen Mayberg, a neurologist who began her career when brain scanning technology promised to reveal the secrets of the sick brain. (dana.org)
  • Mayberg found that these circuits, particularly a hyperactive network of brain cells in the subgenual cingulate region, also called Brodmann area 25, are abnormally overactive in depression. (dana.org)
  • It made sense that so many brain areas are involved in depression, which encompasses more than just negative mood. (dana.org)
  • In this study, stimulation is being delivered to an area of the brain known as Brodmann Area 25, which is believed to function differently in people with major depression and appears to be overactive when people are profoundly sad and depressed. (newswise.com)
  • Furthermore, an independent unique MICC technology (Multiple Independent Current Control) has been incorporated in Vercise DBS system to control the side-effects of stimulation by controlling the current level at each individual contact on the lead. (prweb.com)