Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.
A transition zone in the anterior part of the diencephalon interposed between the thalamus, hypothalamus, and tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Components of the subthalamus include the SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, zona incerta, nucleus of field H, and the nucleus of ansa lenticularis. The latter contains the ENTOPEDUNCULAR NUCLEUS.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
Producing a lesion in the posteroventral portion of the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and other extrapyramidal disorders. The placement of the lesion is aided by STEREOTACTIC TECHNIQUES and imaging procedures.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10)
A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation: an intracellular study in rat thalamus. (1/725)

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the thalamus alleviates most kinds of tremor, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies in subthalamic nucleus and other brain sites have emphasized non-synaptic factors. To explore the mechanism underlying thalamic DBS, we simulated DBS in vitro by applying high-frequency (125 Hz) electrical stimulation directly into the sensorimotor thalamus of adult rat brain slices. Intracellular recordings revealed two distinct types of membrane responses, both of which were initiated with a depolarization and rapid spike firing. However, type 1 responses repolarized quickly and returned to quiescent baseline during simulated DBS whereas type 2 responses maintained the level of membrane depolarization, with or without spike firing. Individual thalamic neurones exhibited either type 1 or type 2 response but not both. In all neurones tested, simulated DBS-evoked membrane depolarization was reversibly eliminated by tetrodotoxin, glutamate receptor antagonists, and the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Cd(2+). Simulated DBS also increased the excitability of thalamic cells in the presence of glutamate receptor blockade, although this non-synaptic effect induced no spontaneous firing such as that found in subthalamic nucleus neurones. Our data suggest that high-frequency stimulation when applied in the ventral thalamus can rapidly disrupt local synaptic function and neuronal firing thereby leading to a 'functional deafferentation' and/or 'functional inactivation'. These mechanisms, driven primarily by synaptic activation, help to explain the paradox that lesions, muscimol and DBS in thalamus all effectively stop tremor.  (+info)

Electron microscopy of tissue adherent to explanted electrodes in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. (2/725)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat a variety of severe medically intractable movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, tremor and dystonia. There have been few studies examining the effect of chronic DBS on the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. Most of these post mortem studies concluded that chronic DBS caused mild gliosis around the lead track and did not damage brain tissue. There have been no similar histopathological studies on brains from dystonic patients who have undergone DBS. In this study, our objective was to discover whether tissue would be attached to DBS electrodes removed from patients for routine clinical reasons. We hoped that by examining explanted DBS electrodes using scanning (SEM) and/or transmission (TEM) electron microscopy we might visualize any attached tissue and thus understand the electrode-human brain tissue interaction more accurately. Initially, SEM was performed on one control DBS electrode that had not been implanted. Then 21 (one subthalamic nucleus and 20 globus pallidus internus) explanted DBS electrodes were prepared, after fixation in 3% glutaraldehyde, for SEM (n = 9) or TEM (n = 10), or both (n = 2), according to departmental protocol. The electrodes were sourced from two patients with Parkinson's disease, one with myoclonic dystonia, two with cervical dystonia and five with primary generalized dystonia, and had been in situ for 11 and 31 months (Parkinson's disease), 16 months (myoclonic dystonia), 14 and 24 months (cervical dystonia) and 3-24 months (primary generalized dystonia). Our results showed that a foreign body multinucleate giant cell-type reaction was present in all TEM samples and in SEM samples, prewashed to remove surface blood and fibrin, regardless of the diagnosis. Some of the giant cells were >100 microm in diameter and might have originated from either fusion of parenchymal microglia, resident perivascular macrophage precursors and/or monocytes/macrophages invading from the blood stream. The presence of mononuclear macrophages containing lysosomes and sometimes having conspicuous filopodia was detected by TEM. Both types of cell contained highly electron-dense inclusions, which probably represent phagocytosed material. Similar material, the exact nature of which is unknown, was also seen in the vicinity of these cells. This reaction was present irrespective of the duration of implantation and may be a response to the polyurethane component of the electrodes' surface coat. These findings may be relevant to our understanding of the time course of the clinical response to DBS in Parkinson's disease and various forms of dystonia, as well as contributing to the design characteristics of future DBS electrodes.  (+info)

Dorsal posterior parietal rTMS affects voluntary orienting of visuospatial attention. (3/725)

Patients with lesions in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are relatively unimpaired in voluntarily directing visual attention to different spatial locations, while many neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects suggest dorsal PPC involvement in this function. We used an offline repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to study this issue further. Ten healthy participants performed a cue-target paradigm. Cues prompted covert orienting of spatial attention under voluntary control to either a left or right visual field position. Targets were flashed subsequently at the cued or uncued location, or bilaterally. Following rTMS over right dorsal PPC, (i) the benefit for target detection at cued versus uncued positions was preserved irrespective of cueing direction (left- or rightward), but (ii) leftward cueing was associated with a global impairment in target detection, at all target locations. This reveals that leftward orienting was still possible after right dorsal PPC stimulation, albeit at an increased overall cost for target detection. In addition, rTMS (iii) impaired left, but (iv) enhanced right target detection after rightward cueing. The finding of a global drop in target detection during leftward orienting with a spared, relative detection benefit at the cued (left) location (i-ii) suggests that right dorsal PPC plays a subsidiary rather than pivotal role in voluntary spatial orienting. This finding reconciles seemingly conflicting results from patients and neuroimaging studies. The finding of attentional inhibition and enhancement occurring contra- and ipsilaterally to the stimulation site (iii-iv) supports the view that spatial attention bias can be selectively modulated through rTMS, which has proven useful to transiently reduce visual hemispatial neglect.  (+info)

Microstimulation of the superior colliculus focuses attention without moving the eyes. (4/725)

The superior colliculus (SC) is part of a network of brain areas that directs saccadic eye movements, overtly shifting both gaze and attention from position to position, in space. Here, we seek direct evidence that the SC also contributes to the control of covert spatial attention, a process that focuses attention on a region of space different from the point of gaze. While requiring monkeys to keep their gaze fixed, we tested whether microstimulation of a specific location in the SC spatial map would enhance visual performance at the corresponding region of space, a diagnostic measure of covert attention. We find that microstimulation improves performance in a spatially selective manner: thresholds decrease at the location in visual space represented by the stimulated SC site, but not at a control location in the opposite hemifield. Our data provide direct evidence that the SC contributes to the control of covert spatial attention.  (+info)

Different patterns of medication change after subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease: target related effect or selection bias? (5/725)

BACKGROUND: Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is favoured over bilateral globus pallidus internus (Gpi) DBS for symptomatic treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the possibility of reducing medication, despite lack of definitive comparative evidence. OBJECTIVE: To analyse outcomes after one year of bilateral Gpi or STN DBS, with consideration of influence of selection bias on the pattern of postsurgical medication change. METHODS: The first patients to undergo bilateral Gpi (n = 10) or STN (n = 10) DBS at our centre were studied. They were assessed presurgically and one year after surgery (CAPIT protocol). RESULTS: Before surgery the Gpi DBS group had more dyskinesias and received lower doses of medication. At one year, mean reduction in UPDRS off medication score was 35% and 39% in the Gpi and STN groups, respectively (non-significant difference). Dyskinesias reduced in proportion to presurgical severity. The levodopa equivalent dose was significantly reduced only in the STN group (24%). This study high-lights the absence of significant differences between the groups in clinical scales and medication dose at one year. In the multivariate analysis of predictive factors for off-state motor improvement, the presurgical levodopa equivalent dose showed a direct relation in the STN and an inverse relation in the Gpi group. CONCLUSION: Differences in the patterns of medication change after Gpi and STN DBS may be partly due to a patient selection bias. Both procedures may be equally useful for different subgroups of patients with advanced PD, Gpi DBS especially for patients with lower threshold for dyskinesia.  (+info)

Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients with previous thalamic surgery. (6/725)

Before the introduction of high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), many disabled tremor dominant parkinsonian patients underwent lesioning or chronic electrical stimulation of the thalamus. We studied the effects of STN stimulation in patients with previous ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) surgery whose motor state worsened. Fifteen parkinsonian patients were included in this study: nine with unilateral and two with bilateral VIM stimulation, three with unilateral thalamotomy, and one with both unilateral thalamotomy and contralateral VIM stimulation. The clinical evaluation consisted of a formal motor assessment using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and neuropsychological tests encompassing a 50 point frontal scale, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The first surgical procedure was performed a mean (SD) of 8 (5) years after the onset of disease. STN implantation was carried out 10 (4) years later, and duration of follow up after beginning STN stimulation was 24 (20) months. The UPDRS motor score, tremor score, difficulties in performance of activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose significantly decreased after STN stimulation. Neither axial symptoms nor neuropsychological status significantly worsened after the implantation of the STN electrodes. The parkinsonian motor state is greatly improved by bilateral STN stimulation even in patients with previous thalamic surgery, and STN stimulation is more effective than VIM stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients.  (+info)

Comparisons between pharmacologically and Edinger-Westphal-stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. (7/725)

PURPOSE: Accommodation results in increased lens thickness and lens surface curvatures. Previous studies suggest that lens biometric accommodative changes are different with pharmacological and voluntary accommodation. In this study, refractive and biometric changes during Edinger-Westphal (EW) and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys were compared. METHODS: Accommodation was stimulated by an indwelling permanent electrode in the EW nucleus of the midbrain in one eye each of four rhesus monkeys. Dynamic refractive changes were measured with infrared photorefraction, and lens biometric changes were measured with high-resolution, continuous A-scan ultrasonography for increasing stimulus current amplitudes, including supramaximal current amplitudes. Accommodation was then stimulated pharmacologically and biometry was measured continuously for 30 minutes. RESULTS: During EW-stimulated accommodation, lens surfaces move linearly with refraction, with an increase in lens thickness of 0.06 mm/D, an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface of 0.04 mm/D, and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface of 0.02 mm/D. Peak velocity of accommodation (diopters per second) and lens thickness (in millimeters per second) increased with supramaximal stimulus currents, but without further increase in amplitude or total lens thickness. After carbachol stimulation, there was initially an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface and a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface; but by 30 minutes, there was an overall anterior shift of the lens. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular biometric changes differ with EW and pharmacological stimulation of accommodation. Pharmacological stimulation results in a greater increase in lens thickness, an overall forward movement of the lens and a greater change in dioptric power.  (+info)

Hypothalamic stimulation in chronic cluster headache: a pilot study of efficacy and mode of action. (8/725)

We enrolled six patients suffering from refractory chronic cluster headache in a pilot trial of neurostimulation of the ipsilateral ventroposterior hypothalamus using the stereotactic coordinates published previously. After the varying durations needed to determine optimal stimulation parameters and a mean follow-up of 14.5 months, the clinical outcome is excellent in three patients (two are pain-free; one has fewer than three attacks per month), but unsatisfactory in one patient, who only has had transient remissions. Mean voltage is 3.28 V, diplopia being the major factor limiting its increase. When the stimulator was switched off in one pain-free patient, attacks resumed after 3 months until it was turned on again. In one patient the implantation procedure had to be interrupted because of a panic attack with autonomic disturbances. Another patient died from an intracerebral haemorrhage that developed along the lead tract several hours after surgery; there were no other vascular changes on post-mortem examination. After 1 month, the hypothalamic stimulation induced resistance against the attack-triggering agent nitroglycerin and tended to increase pain thresholds at extracephalic, but not at cephalic, sites. It had no detectable effect on neurohypophyseal hormones or melatonin excretion. We conclude that hypothalamic stimulation has remarkable efficacy in most, but not all, patients with treatment-resistant chronic cluster headache. Its efficacy is not due to a simple analgesic effect or to hormonal changes. Intracerebral haemorrhage cannot be neglected in the risk evaluation of the procedure. Whether it might be more prevalent than in deep-brain stimulation for movement disorders remains to be determined.  (+info)

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. It is more common in men than women and has a higher incidence in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups.

The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease are:

* Tremors or trembling, typically starting on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness, causing difficulty with movement
* Bradykinesia or slowness of movement, including a decrease in spontaneous movements such as blinking or smiling
* Postural instability, leading to falls or difficulty with balance

As the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

* Difficulty with walking, gait changes, and freezing episodes
* Dry mouth, constipation, and other non-motor symptoms
* Cognitive changes, such as dementia, memory loss, and confusion
* Sleep disturbances, including REM sleep behavior disorder
* Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms

The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is associated with the degradation of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. This deficiency disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in movement control, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms. These include:

* Medications such as dopaminergic agents (e.g., levodopa) and dopamine agonists to replace lost dopamine and improve motor function
* Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting an electrode in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
* Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties
* Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning

It is important for individuals with Parkinson's disease to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and improves their quality of life. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with Parkinson's disease are able to manage their symptoms and maintain a good level of independence for several years after diagnosis.

Hypokinesis can be a symptom of several diseases and disorders, such as:

1. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination. Hypokinesis is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
2. Dystonia: A movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and spasms, leading to slow and abnormal movements.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, cognition, and psychiatric functions, causing hypokinesis and other motor disturbances.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): A rare brain disorder that affects movement, balance, and eye movements, leading to hypokinesis and other symptoms.
5. Corticobasal degeneration: A rare neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, cognition, and behavior, causing hypokinesis and other symptoms.
6. Basal ganglia disease: A group of disorders that affect the basal ganglia, a part of the brain responsible for movement control, leading to hypokinesis and other symptoms.
7. Brain injury or stroke: Traumatic brain injury or stroke can cause hypokinesis due to damage to the brain regions responsible for movement control.
8. Spinal cord injury: Injury to the spinal cord can disrupt the transmission of signals from the brain to the muscles, leading to hypokinesis and other motor disturbances.
9. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting, leading to hypokinesis and other symptoms.
10. Chronic fatigue syndrome: A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, brain fog, and a range of other symptoms, including hypokinesis.

It's important to note that hypokinesis can be a symptom of many different conditions, and it's not a diagnosis in itself. To determine the underlying cause of hypokinesis, a comprehensive medical evaluation is necessary. A healthcare professional will typically take a detailed medical history, perform a physical examination, and order diagnostic tests such as imaging studies or electromyography (EMG) to help identify the underlying cause of the condition.

The exact cause of essential tremor is not known, but it is believed to be related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum and thalamus. The condition can be inherited, and certain genetic mutations have been identified as risk factors. ET can also be caused by other medical conditions, such as brain injury or certain medications.

The symptoms of essential tremor can vary in severity and may worsen over time. They can include:

* Tremors that are most noticeable when the affected limb is at rest or performing a specific task, such as holding a cup or utensil
* Shaking or trembling of the hands, arms, or legs
* Head tremors or shaking
* Voice tremors or shaking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or drawing
* Difficulty with walking or balance
* Fatigue or weakness in the affected limbs

There is no cure for essential tremor, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications, such as beta blockers or anticonvulsants, to reduce shaking and tremors
* Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting an electrode in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas
* Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can worsen tremors
* Physical therapy to improve fine motor skills and coordination
* Counseling or psychotherapy to help cope with the emotional impact of the condition.

In summary, essential tremor is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tremors or shaking movements of various parts of the body. It can be inherited or caused by other medical conditions, and there is no cure, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms.

Some common forms of dystonia include:

1. Generalized dystonia: This is the most common form of dystonia, affecting the entire body.
2. Focal dystonia: This type affects only one part of the body, such as the hand or foot.
3. Task-specific dystonia: This type is caused by a specific activity or task, such as writing or playing a musical instrument.
4. Torticollis: This is a type of dystonia that affects the neck and causes it to twist or tilts to one side.
5. Blepharospasm: This is a type of dystonia that affects the eyelids, causing them to spasm or twitch.
6. Oromandibular dystonia: This type affects the muscles of the face and jaw, causing unusual movements of the mouth and tongue.
7. Meige syndrome: This is a rare form of dystonia that affects both the eyes and the eyelids, causing them to twitch or spasm.

The symptoms of dystonia can vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder. They may include:

* Involuntary muscle contractions or spasms
* Twisting or repetitive movements of the affected body part
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Difficulty with movement or coordination
* Fatigue or weakness
* Cramps or spasms

Dystonia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Genetic mutations: Many forms of dystonia are inherited, and they can be caused by mutations in specific genes.
* Brain injury: Dystonia can be caused by a head injury or other trauma to the brain.
* Infections: Certain infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause dystonia.
* Stroke or other vascular conditions: A stroke or other conditions that affect blood flow to the brain can cause dystonia.
* Neurodegenerative diseases: Dystonia can be a symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, or progressive supranuclear palsy.

There is no cure for dystonia, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications: Injectable drugs such as botulinum toxin (Botox) or oral medications such as anticholinergic agents can help relax the muscles and reduce spasms.
* Physical therapy: Physical therapy exercises can help improve movement and coordination, and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Speech therapy: For people with dystonia affecting the face or tongue, speech therapy may be helpful in improving communication and addressing swallowing difficulties.
* Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms. This can involve cutting or destroying certain muscles or nerves that are causing the dystonia.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which an electrode is implanted in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain, this can help reduce symptoms in some people with dystonia.

It's important to note that each person with dystonia is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A healthcare professional will work with the individual to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific needs and symptoms.

There are several different types of dyskinesias, including:

1. Tremors: involuntary shaking movements that can affect any part of the body.
2. Choreas: jerky, irregular movements that can affect the limbs, face, or trunk.
3. Athetosis: slow, writhing movements that can affect the hands, feet, or face.
4. Dystonia: sustained, twisting movements that can affect any part of the body.
5. Ballism: large, sweeping movements that can affect the arms or legs.

Dyskinesias can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they can be caused by a wide range of factors and can vary in severity and type. Treatment options may include medications, physical therapy, and surgery, and the specific approach will depend on the underlying cause of the dyskinesias.

In addition to the medical definition of dyskinesias, the term is also sometimes used more broadly to describe any kind of involuntary movement or twitching, such as those that can occur in response to stress or anxiety. However, in a medical context, the term is typically used to refer specifically to the involuntary movements associated with neurological disorders or other underlying conditions.

1. Essential tremor: This is the most common type of tremor, and it is characterized by a rhythmic shaking of the hands, arms, legs, or head. It can be inherited and can worsen over time.
2. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, including tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Dystonia: A movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and spasms, which can result in tremors.
4. Huntington's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to involuntary movements, including tremors.
5. Medication-induced tremors: Certain medications, such as those used to treat psychosis, can cause tremors as a side effect.
6. Alcohol or drug withdrawal: Stopping the use of certain substances can cause tremors as part of the withdrawal process.
7. Metabolic disorders: Conditions such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) can cause tremors.
8. Trauma: A head injury or other trauma can sometimes cause tremors.

Tremors can be diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history, as well as through imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for tremors depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. In some cases, tremors can be managed with techniques such as physical therapy, relaxation exercises, or deep brain stimulation.

Some common types of movement disorders include:

1. Parkinson's disease: A degenerative disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability.
2. Dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause abnormal postures or movements.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms.
4. Tourette syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations (tics).
5. Restless leg syndrome: A condition characterized by an uncomfortable sensation in the legs, often described as a creeping or crawling feeling, which is relieved by movement.
6. Chorea: A movement disorder characterized by rapid, jerky movements that can be triggered by emotional stress or other factors.
7. Ballism: Excessive, large, and often circular movements of the limbs, often seen in conditions such as Huntington's disease or drug-induced movements.
8. Athetosis: A slow, writhing movement that can be seen in conditions such as cerebral palsy or tardive dyskinesia.
9. Myoclonus: Sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, infections, and certain medications.
10. Hyperkinesis: An excessive amount of movement, often seen in conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or hyperthyroidism.

Movement disorders can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, and treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and its underlying cause. Some movement disorders may be managed with medication, while others may require surgery or other interventions.

There are several different types of dystonia, including:

1. Generalized dystonia: This type of dystonia affects the entire body and is often present at birth. It can cause a variety of symptoms, including muscle spasms, tremors, and abnormal postures.
2. Focal dystonia: This type of dystonia affects a specific part of the body, such as the hand or foot. It can cause abnormal postures or movements in that area.
3. Task-specific dystonia: This type of dystonia is caused by specific activities or tasks, such as writing or playing a musical instrument.
4. Torticollis: This is a type of dystonia that affects the neck muscles and causes twisting or tilting of the head.
5. Blepharospasm: This is a type of dystonia that affects the eyelid muscles and can cause spasms or twitching of the eyes.

Dystonic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, and injuries. There is no cure for dystonia, but there are several treatment options available, including medications, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Physical therapy and occupational therapy can also be helpful in managing the symptoms of dystonia.

Overall, dystonic disorders are a group of movement disorders that can cause abnormal postures and movements. They can affect anyone at any age and can be caused by a variety of factors. While there is no cure for dystonia, there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms.

There are several possible causes of muscle rigidity, including:

1. Injury: Muscle rigidity can be a result of direct trauma to the muscle, such as a strain or sprain.
2. Infection: Certain infections, such as Lyme disease or endocarditis, can cause muscle rigidity as a symptom.
3. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke can all cause muscle rigidity due to damage to the nervous system.
4. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as steroids and certain antidepressants, can cause muscle rigidity as a side effect.
5. Metabolic disorders: Conditions such as hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) and hyperthyroidism can cause muscle rigidity.
6. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis can cause muscle rigidity due to inflammation of the muscles.

Symptoms of muscle rigidity may include:

* Stiffness or inflexibility in the affected muscles
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Limited range of motion in the affected joints
* Muscle spasms or cramps
* Fatigue or weakness

Treatment for muscle rigidity will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to relax the muscles and improve mobility. Physical therapy and exercise may also be helpful in improving range of motion and strength. In other cases, treatment may involve addressing the underlying condition or disorder that is causing the muscle rigidity.

The exact cause of OCD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Symptoms of OCD can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Recurrent and intrusive thoughts or fears (obsessions)
* Repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) such as checking, counting, or cleaning
* Feeling the need to perform compulsions in order to reduce anxiety or prevent something bad from happening
* Feeling a sense of relief after performing compulsions
* Time-consuming nature of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with daily activities and social interactions

OCD can be treated with a combination of medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT helps individuals identify and challenge their obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors, while SSRIs help reduce the anxiety associated with OCD.

It's important to note that while individuals with OCD may recognize that their thoughts or behaviors are irrational, they are often unable to stop them without professional treatment. With appropriate treatment, however, many individuals with OCD are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease, which affects approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. Other Parkinsonian disorders include:

1. Dystonia: A movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and spasms.
2. Huntington's disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to movement, cognitive, and psychiatric problems.
3. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): A rare degenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and eye movements.
4. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): A rare degenerative disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system, leading to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement and coordination.
5. Corticobasal degeneration: A rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, cognition, and behavior.

Parkinsonian disorders can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other conditions such as essential tremor or dystonia. However, certain features can help distinguish one condition from another. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a characteristic resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, while dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that can cause abnormal postures or movements.

There is no cure for Parkinsonian disorders, but various medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms. These may include dopaminergic drugs to replace lost dopamine, muscle relaxants to reduce rigidity, and physical therapy to improve movement and coordination. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to regulate abnormal brain activity or to implant a deep brain stimulator to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain.

Overall, Parkinsonian disorders can have a significant impact on quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and maintain their independence.

1. Articulation Disorders: Difficulty articulating sounds or words due to poor pronunciation, misplaced sounds, or distortion of sounds.
2. Stuttering: A disorder characterized by the repetition or prolongation of sounds, syllables, or words, as well as the interruption or blocking of speech.
3. Voice Disorders: Abnormalities in voice quality, pitch, or volume due to overuse, misuse, or structural changes in the vocal cords.
4. Language Disorders: Difficulty with understanding, using, or interpreting spoken language, including grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure.
5. Apraxia of Speech: A neurological disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute voluntary movements of the articulatory organs for speech production.
6. Dysarthria: A condition characterized by slurred or distorted speech due to weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the articulatory muscles.
7. Cerebral Palsy: A group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often including speech and language difficulties.
8. Aphasia: A condition that results from brain damage and affects an individual's ability to understand, speak, read, and write language.
9. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words correctly.
10. Hearing Loss: Loss of hearing in one or both ears can impact speech development and language acquisition.

Speech disorders can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) through a comprehensive evaluation, including speech and language samples, medical history, and behavioral observations. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and may include therapy exercises, technology assistance, and counseling. With appropriate support and intervention, individuals with speech disorders can improve their communication skills and lead fulfilling lives.

The exact cause of Tourette syndrome is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Research suggests that there may be a problem with the brain's motor and neurotransmitter systems, which can affect the normal functioning of the nervous system.

The diagnosis of Tourette syndrome typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and behavioral observations. There are no specific tests to diagnose TS, but imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) may be used to rule out other conditions.

Treatment for Tourette syndrome usually involves a combination of medication and behavioral therapy. Medications such as dopamine blockers and antipsychotics can help reduce the severity of tics, while behavioral therapies such as habit reversal training and exposure and response prevention can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, deep brain stimulation may be recommended to reduce the severity of symptoms that are resistant to other treatments.

There is no cure for Tourette syndrome, but early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. With appropriate support and understanding from family, friends, and healthcare providers, individuals with TS can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Thalamic diseases can result from various causes, including genetic mutations, infections, trauma, and stroke. Some common thalamic diseases include:

1. Thalamic stroke or infarction: This occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the thalamus, leading to cell death and loss of thalamic function.
2. Thalamic tumors: These are abnormal growths that can develop in the thalamus, either benign or malignant.
3. Thalamic lesions: These are areas of damage or degeneration in the thalamus, which can result from trauma, stroke, or other conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
4. Thalamic migraine: This is a type of migraine that is associated with activation of the thalamus and can cause severe headaches, visual disturbances, and other symptoms.
5. Thalamic pain disorders: These are conditions characterized by chronic pain that is thought to be related to dysfunction in the thalamus.
6. Thalamic sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, such as narcolepsy or insomnia.
7. Thalamic cognitive disorders: These are conditions that affect cognitive function, such as memory loss, attention deficits, and language difficulties.

Thalamic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as the thalamus is a complex structure that is involved in many brain functions. However, advances in neuroimaging and other diagnostic tools have improved our ability to identify and understand these conditions. Treatment options for thalamic diseases vary depending on the specific condition and can range from medications and lifestyle changes to surgery and other interventions.

There are several types of sensation disorders, including:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is a condition where the nerves in the hands and feet are damaged, leading to numbness, tingling, and pain.
2. Central sensory loss: This is a condition where there is damage to the brain or spinal cord, leading to loss of sensation in certain parts of the body.
3. Dysesthesia: This is a condition where an individual experiences abnormal sensations, such as burning, stabbing, or crawling sensations, in their body.
4. Hypoalgesia: This is a condition where an individual experiences decreased sensitivity to pain.
5. Hyperalgesia: This is a condition where an individual experiences increased sensitivity to pain.

Sensation disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as nerve conduction studies or electromyography. Treatment options for sensation disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery.

Some common causes of sensation disorders include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage nerves, leading to numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
2. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, leading to loss of sensation, vision, and muscle weakness.
3. Spinal cord injury: Trauma to the spine can damage the nerves, leading to loss of sensation and function below the level of injury.
4. Stroke: A stroke can damage the nerves, leading to loss of sensation and function on one side of the body.
5. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as B12 or vitamin D can cause numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
6. Chronic inflammation: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus can cause chronic inflammation, leading to nerve damage and sensation disorders.
7. Tumors: Tumors can compress or damage nerves, leading to sensation disorders.
8. Infections: Certain infections such as Lyme disease or shingles can cause sensation disorders.
9. Trauma: Physical trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, can cause nerve damage and lead to sensation disorders.

Some common symptoms of sensation disorders include:

1. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
2. Pain or burning sensations
3. Difficulty perceiving temperature or touch
4. Weakness or paralysis of certain muscle groups
5. Loss of reflexes
6. Difficulty coordinating movements
7. Dizziness or loss of balance
8. Tremors or spasms
9. Muscle atrophy or wasting away of certain muscles

Treatment for sensation disorders depends on the underlying cause and can include:

1. Medications to control pain, inflammation, or infection
2. Physical therapy to improve strength and coordination
3. Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning
4. Lifestyle changes such as exercise, diet, and stress management
5. Surgery to repair nerve damage or relieve compression
6. Injections of medication or other substances to stimulate nerve regeneration
7. Electrical stimulation therapy to improve nerve function
8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to reduce pain and inflammation
9. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage to promote healing and relaxation.

Cluster headaches are thought to be caused by abnormalities in the brain's hypothalamus and trigeminal nerve, which are responsible for regulating pain and other functions. The exact cause of cluster headaches is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to changes in the body's circadian rhythms, hormonal fluctuations, and other factors.

There are several types of cluster headaches, including:

1. Episodic cluster headache: This is the most common type of cluster headache, characterized by cycles of headaches that last for several weeks or months, followed by a period of remission.
2. Chronic cluster headache: This type of headache occurs more frequently and has longer cycles than episodic cluster headache.
3. Hemiplegic migraine: This is a rare type of cluster headache that is characterized by weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, in addition to the headache.
4. SUNCT (Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache with Conjunctival injection and Teeth grinding): This is a rare and severe type of cluster headache that is characterized by short-lasting, extremely painful headaches, along with tearing and redness of the eye, and other symptoms.

There are several treatments for cluster headaches, including:

1. Triptans: These medications are commonly used to treat migraines, but they can also be effective for cluster headaches.
2. Ergotamines: These medications are also commonly used to treat migraines, and can be effective for cluster headaches as well.
3. Oxygen therapy: Inhaling oxygen through a mask can help to quickly relieve the pain of a cluster headache.
4. Corticosteroids: These medications can help to reduce inflammation and swelling in the brain, which can help to relieve the pain of a cluster headache.
5. Nerve blocks: These procedures involve injecting a local anesthetic or steroid into the nerves that are thought to be involved in the headache.
6. Sphenopalatine ganglion block: This is a nerve block procedure that involves blocking the sphenopalatine ganglion, a collection of nerve cells located in the face.
7. Radiofrequency ablation: This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves using heat to destroy the nerves that are thought to be involved in the headache.
8. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat a cluster headache. This can involve removing a tumor or other abnormality that is thought to be causing the headaches.

It's important to note that these treatments may not work for everyone and may have side effects. It's also important to work with a healthcare professional to find the best treatment plan for your specific condition.

Dysarthria can affect both children and adults, and the symptoms can vary in severity depending on the underlying cause of the condition. Some common symptoms of dysarthria include:

* Slurred or slow speech
* Difficulty articulating words
* Poor enunciation
* Stuttering or hesitation while speaking
* Difficulty with word-finding and language processing
* Limited range of speech sounds
* Difficulty with loudness and volume control

Dysarthria can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), who will typically conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's speech and language abilities. This may include a series of tests to assess the individual's articulation, fluency, voice quality, and other aspects of their speech.

There are several types of dysarthria, including:

* Hypokinetic dysarthria: characterized by reduced muscle tone and slow movement of the articulatory organs, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
* Hyperkinetic dysarthria: characterized by increased muscle tone and rapid movement of the articulatory organs, resulting in fast but imprecise speech.
* Mixed dysarthria: a combination of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic features.
* Dystonic dysarthria: characterized by involuntary movements and postures of the tongue and lips, resulting in distorted speech.

Treatment for dysarthria typically involves speech therapy with an SLP, who will work with the individual to improve their speech clarity, fluency, and overall communication skills. Treatment may include exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech production, as well as strategies to improve articulation, pronunciation, and language processing. In some cases, technology such as speech-generating devices may be used to support communication.

In addition to speech therapy, treatment for dysarthria may also involve other healthcare professionals, such as neurologists, physical therapists, or occupational therapists, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Overall, dysarthria is a speech disorder that can significantly impact an individual's ability to communicate effectively. However, with the right treatment and support from healthcare professionals and SLPs, many people with dysarthria are able to improve their communication skills and lead fulfilling lives.

Types of tics:

1. Motor tics: These are physical movements that can affect any part of the body, such as the face, arms, or legs. Examples include blinking, facial grimacing, head jerking, arm flapping, and foot tapping.
2. Vocal tics: These are sounds that are made with the voice, such as grunting, sniffing, throat clearing, or repeating words or phrases.
3. Simple motor tics: These are brief, limited movements that only involve one part of the body, such as blinking or facial twitching.
4. Complex motor tics: These are more elaborate movements that involve multiple parts of the body and can be coordinated, such as arm flapping or leg flexion.
5. Tics with copropraxia: These are tics that are accompanied by a sensory experience, such as touching or rubbing the face.
6. Echolalia: Repeating words or phrases that are heard, often in response to a question or statement.
7. Palilalia: Repeating one's own words or sounds.
8. Self-soothing behaviors: These are actions used to calm oneself down, such as rocking, pacing, or thumb sucking.
9. Stereotypies: Repetitive movements or postures that serve no purpose and can be seen in people with developmental disorders.

It is important to note that tics can wax and wane over time and may change in frequency, intensity, and type. They can also be triggered by stress, anxiety, or certain environmental factors.

Myoclonus can be classified into several types based on its duration, frequency, and distribution. Some common types of myoclonus include:

1. Generalized myoclonus: This type affects the entire body and is often seen in conditions such as epilepsy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis.
2. Localized myoclonus: This type affects a specific area of the body, such as the arm or leg.
3. Progressive myoclonus: This type worsens over time and is often seen in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
4. Periodic myoclonus: This type is characterized by recurring episodes of muscle contractions and releases, often triggered by specific stimuli such as noise or stress.
5. Task-specific myoclonus: This type is seen in individuals who perform repetitive tasks, such as typing or using a computer mouse.

Myoclonus can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In some cases, myoclonus can also lead to falls or injuries. Treatment for myoclonus depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as anticonvulsants, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications.

Myoclonus is a relatively rare condition, but it can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It can affect their ability to perform daily activities, participate in social events, and maintain their independence. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with myoclonus, it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and manage the condition effectively.

Early diagnosis and treatment of torticollis are crucial to prevent long-term complications and improve quality of life. In children, torticollis can be treated with positioning and exercises, while adults may require more intensive physical therapy and pain management.

Some common causes of secondary Parkinson disease include:

1. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as dopamine antagonists, can cause parkinsonian symptoms as a side effect.
2. Head trauma: A head injury can cause damage to the brain that leads to parkinsonian symptoms.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause inflammation of the brain that leads to parkinsonian symptoms.
4. Other neurological conditions: Conditions such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) can cause parkinsonian symptoms similar to those of primary Parkinson disease.
5. Stroke: A stroke can damage the brain and lead to parkinsonian symptoms.
6. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain, such as a glioblastoma, can cause parkinsonian symptoms.
7. Neurodegenerative diseases: Conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia can cause parkinsonian symptoms.

Secondary Parkinson disease is often treated with medications that are similar to those used for primary Parkinson disease, such as dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to treat symptoms such as tremors or rigidity. It is important to note that secondary Parkinson disease can have a different progression and response to treatment compared to primary Parkinson disease.

The symptoms of gait disorders, neurologic can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Difficulty walking or standing
* Ataxia (loss of coordination)
* Spasticity (stiffness) or rigidity (inflexibility)
* Bradykinesia (slowness of movement)
* Scanning (looking for support while walking)
* Pauses or freezing during gait
* Loss of balance or poor equilibrium
* Increased risk of falling

Gait disorders, neurologic can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, as they may limit their ability to perform daily activities and increase their risk of falling. Treatment for these disorders typically involves a combination of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and medications to manage symptoms such as spasticity and bradykinesia. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address underlying causes of the gait disorder.

There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:

1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.

The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance

In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also be accompanied by physical symptoms such as changes in appetite or sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

Treatment-resistant depressive disorder refers to a condition where an individual experiences significant distress and impairment despite receiving appropriate treatment for depression. This can include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. In such cases, the treatment may not be effective in alleviating symptoms, and new approaches may need to be explored to help the individual recover.

There are several factors that can contribute to treatment-resistant depressive disorder, including:

1. Inadequate or inappropriate treatment: If the treatment is not properly tailored to the individual's specific needs, it may not be effective.
2. Co-occurring mental health conditions: Individuals with co-occurring mental health conditions such as anxiety, bipolar disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may require more specialized treatment.
3. Substance abuse: Substance abuse can exacerbate depressive symptoms and make treatment less effective.
4. Social and environmental factors: Social isolation, stress, and other environmental factors can contribute to treatment resistance.
5. Neurobiological factors: Individual differences in brain chemistry and functioning may affect the response to treatment.

Treatment for treatment-resistant depressive disorder often involves a combination of medications and psychotherapy, as well as lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and stress management techniques. In some cases, alternative therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be considered. It is important to work with a mental health professional to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

Video: Deep brain stimulation to treat Parkinson's disease Video: Deep brain stimulation therapy for Parkinson's disease The ... Treatment center for Deep Brain Stimulation of movement disorders, OCD, Tourette or depression. Treatment center for Deep Brain ... "Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders". University of Pittsburgh. Young RF & Brechner T (1986). "Electrical stimulation ... Brain Stimulation. 4 (1): 17-27. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2010.01.005. PMC 3023999. PMID 21255751. Krauss JK (2002). "Deep brain ...
... (aDBS), also known as Closed Loop Deep Brain stimulation (clDBS), is a neuro-modulatory ... "Deep Brain Stimulation Systems - Activa Platform". europe.medtronic.com. "Adaptive deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's ... "Clinical perspectives of adaptive deep brain stimulation". Brain Stimulation. 14 (5): 1238-1247. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2021.07.063 ... "Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation (aDBS) for Tourette Syndrome". Brain Sciences. 8 (1): 4. doi:10.3390/brainsci8010004. PMC ...
... and TMS Deep Brain Stimulation: Neurosurgical Treatments Using Deep Brain Stimulation Drugs and The Brain: Drugs, Brain, ... Deep brain stimulation Reward system Affective neuroscience Addiction Wise RA (1996). "Addictive drugs and brain stimulation ... Brain stimulation reward (BSR) is a pleasurable phenomenon elicited via direct stimulation of specific brain regions, ... Brain Stimulation Reward. 1: 1-30. Heath RG (December 1963). "Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man". The American ...
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been effective at treating movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and cochlear ... Breit, S.; Schulz, J. B.; Benabid, A. L. (2004). "Deep Brain Stimulation". Cell and Tissue Research. 318 (1): 275-288. doi: ... Animat Artificial cardiac pacemaker Deep brain stimulation Patch clamp Bioelectronics Boven, K.-H.; Fejtl, M.; Möller, A.; ... There are several implantable interfaces that are currently available for consumer use including deep brain stimulators, ...
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) ... Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (Deep TMS) Responsive nerve stimulation (RNS) Strong ... In contrast, EBS, via deeply implanted electrodes in localized areas of the brain (deep brain stimulation; DBS), elicited both ... Electrical brain stimulation (EBS), also referred to as focal brain stimulation (FBS), is a form of electrotherapy used as a ...
"Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain Stimulation. Handbook of Clinical Neurology ... This may also be used on the brain, where CT perfusion imaging can often detect poor brain perfusion well before it is detected ... Oldendorf WH (1978). "The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques". ... For example, CT images of the brain are commonly viewed with a window extending from 0 HU to 80 HU. Pixel values of 0 and lower ...
Khan FR, Henderson JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano AM, Hallet M (eds.). Brain Stimulation: ... Image-guided surgery has been applied to procedures involving on multiple organs such as the brain, spine, pelvis/hip, knee, ... Image-guided surgery was originally developed for treatment of brain tumors using stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery that ... and more effective removal of brain tumors that were once considered inoperable due to their size or location. During image- ...
2016). "Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Brain Stimul (Review). 9 (2): 296 ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a valid option for individuals with severe symptoms that do not respond to conventional ... Part IV: deep brain stimulation". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 31 (3): 443-461. doi:10.1007/s00787-021-01881-9. PMC 8940783. ... Viswanathan A, Jimenez-Shahed J, Baizabal Carvallo JF, Jankovic J (2012). "Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: target ...
Rodrigues, Filipe B; Duarte, Gonçalo S; Prescott, David; Ferreira, Joaquim; Costa, João (2019). "Deep brain stimulation for ... A systematic review found that some patients benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, but the studies may have been ...
Khan FR, Henderson JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano AM, Hallet M (eds.). Brain Stimulation: ... Brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease greatly decrease brain metabolism of both glucose and oxygen in tandem. Therefore ... only the head and brain can be imaged at these high magnetic field strengths. For brain imaging, registration of CT, MRI and ... PET imaging with 18F-FDG takes advantage of the fact that the brain is normally a rapid user of glucose. Standard 18F-FDG PET ...
"Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain Stimulation: Handbook of Clinical Neurology ... Concussion is not a routine indication for having brain CT or brain MRI and can be diagnosed by a healthcare provider trained ... People with concussions usually do not have relevant abnormalities about which brain imaging could give insight, so brain ... CT scans of the head increase the risk of brain cancer, especially for children. As of 2018, it appeared that there was a risk ...
Chen R, Romero G, Christiansen MG, Mohr A, Anikeeva P (March 2015). "Wireless magnetothermal deep brain stimulation". Science. ... This method will allow penetration in to the deeper region of the brain, and may have lower response latency. In 1980, Young ... and the intensity of the stimulation. Experiments can be devised where the magnetic stimulation triggers some sort of cellular ... In magnetogenetics, magnetic stimulation is used instead of light, a characteristic that allows for a less invasive, less toxic ...
Chen, R.; Romero, G.; Christiansen, M. G.; Mohr, A.; Anikeeva, P. (2015-03-27). "Wireless magnetothermal deep brain stimulation ... in Science that magneto-thermal stimulation with magnetic nanomaterials could be used for wireless deep brain stimulation. ... "Wireless magnetothermal deep brain stimulation". Science. 347 (6229): 1477-1480. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1477C. doi:10.1126/ ... If these nanomaterials are injected into biological tissues such as the brain and exposed to AMFs, they can be triggered to ...
2016). "Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Brain Stimul (Review). 9 (2): 296 ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a valid option for individuals with severe symptoms that do not respond to conventional ... Part IV: deep brain stimulation". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 31 (3): 443-461. doi:10.1007/s00787-021-01881-9. PMC 8940783. ... Viswanathan A, Jimenez-Shahed J, Baizabal Carvallo JF, Jankovic J (2012). "Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: target ...
Benabid, A.L. (December 2003). "Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 13 (6): 696- ... also developed deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 1987. Parkinson's disease is commonly treated with medicines such as levodopa to ... "Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Neurology. 261 (11): ... who has had a global impact in the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and other movement ...
For example, botulinum toxin injections can help to control orolingual dystonia.Deep brain stimulation is a treatment that has ... "Deep brain stimulation in chorea acanthocytosis". Movement Disorders. 24 (10): 1546-1547. doi:10.1002/mds.22592. PMID 19425062 ...
"Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease". The Lasker Foundation. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 to ... ineffective T cell stimulation. This triggers the checkpoint that ipilumumab targets. Many patients do not benefit from ... "CD28 and CTLA-4 deliver opposing signals which regulate the response of T cells to stimulation". Journal of Experimental ...
Laxton, A. W.; Sankar, T; Lozano, A. M.; Hamani, C (2012). "Deep brain stimulation effects on memory". Journal of Neurosurgical ... A. Mailis, 1994) Performed the first deep brain stimulation in Canada to effectively control Parkinson's symptoms. (A. Lozano, ... M. Fehlings & S. Karimi, 2006) Performed the world's first deep brain stimulation for treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (A. ... B. Gallie, 2003) Performed the world's first deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant depression. (A. Lozano & S. Kennedy ...
Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating ... Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more ... Gallagher, James (28 November 2011). "Alzheimer's: Deep brain stimulation 'reverses' disease". BBC News. Thurston, Bonnie. "Was ... improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment. Retinal implants are another form ...
Mareke, Arends; Fangerau, Heiner (2010). "Deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders". In Heiner Fangerau; Fegert Jörg; ... The Neuroethics of Intracerebral Stem Cell Transplantation and Deep Brain Stimulation. Verlag. pp. 137-151. ISBN 978-3-8376- ... from the excision of brain tissue to the chronic electrical stimulation of neural networks". In Damianos E. Sakas; B.A. Simpson ... The final assumption of Buckhardt's was that the brain was modular which meant that each mental module or mental faculty could ...
Deep brain stimulation in psychiatric disorders. In: Fangerau, Heiner; Jörg, Fegert; Mareke, Arends (eds). Implanted Minds: The ... Neuroethics of Intracerebral Stem Cell Transplantation and Deep Brain Stimulation. Verlag; 2010. ISBN 978-3-8376-1433-6. Martin ... in the sensory regions of the brain and this abnormal stimulation would then be transmitted to the motor regions giving rise to ... from the excision of brain tissue to the chronic electrical stimulation of neural networks. In: Sakas, D.E.; Simpson, B.A. (eds ...
"Could Deep-Brain Stimulation Fortify Soldiers' Minds?". Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved 2017-06-05. "S. Matthew ... Liao, S. Matthew (4 September 2014). "Could Deep Brain Stimulation Fortify Soldiers' Minds?". Mind Guest Blog. Scientific ... and deep brain stimulation. For instance, he suggests some parents who find themselves unable to love their children might use ... Moral Brains: The Neuroscience of Morality (ed.), Oxford University Press 2016. Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights (ed ...
Goodman conducts research in the use of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. He has ... Goodman, WK; Alterman, RL (2012). "Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders". Annu Rev Med. 63: 511-24. doi ... "Deep brain stimulation for intractable obsessive compulsive disorder: pilot study using a blinded, staggered-onset design". ... The funding, which was re-issued by the NIH for 2017, is part of President Obama's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative ...
"The Parkinson's Appeal for Deep Brain Stimulation". Parkinsonsappeal.com. "Love, Hate and Race in the UK on Monday the 12th ... in support of The Parkinson's Appeal for Deep Brain Stimulation" (PDF). Parkinsonsappeal.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018. "Where ...
Deep brain stimulation is a surgical technique used to alleviate patients from phantom limb pain. Prior to surgery, patients ... It was found that all three patients studied had gained satisfactory pain relief from the deep brain stimulation. Pain had not ... Bittar, R. G.; Otero, S.; Carter, H.; Aziz, T. Z. (2005). "Deep brain stimulation for phantom limb pain". Journal of Clinical ... The D. O. Hebb lecture". Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 121 (9): 1603-1630. doi:10.1093/brain/121.9.1603. PMID 9762952. Cruz, V ...
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Mayberg HS (2010). "Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression". Am J Psychiatry. 167 (12): ... Parent, Andre (2004). "Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation". Can J Neurol Sci. 31 (4): 576-584 ... Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. Vol. 206. pp. 219-228. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63364-4.00029-6. ISBN 978-0444633644. PMID ... Placement can be bilateral, where the electric current is passed from one side of the brain to the other, or unilateral, in ...
Personality changes involved caused by deep-brain stimulation. Concerns regarding the state of becoming a "cyborg" - having ... 2016). "Interfacing brain with computer to improve communication and rehabilitation after brain damage". Brain-Computer ... Non-invasive brain stimulation has also been explored in combination with BCIs for motor recovery. In 2016, scientists out of ... Their BCI used high-density electrocorticography to tap neural activity from a patient's brain and used deep learning methods ...
He underwent deep brain stimulation surgery in 2012. He was an advocate for research on the disorder and participated in a ...
Deep-Brain Stimulation for Dystonia Study Group (2006). "Pallidal Deep-Brain Stimulation in Primary Generalized or Segmental ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is another form of neuroenhancement. Unlike tDCS, though, DBS involves the implantation of a ... Non-pharmacological measures include non-invasive brain stimulation, which has been employed to improve various cognitive and ... "Electrical brain stimulation improves cognitive performance by modulating functional connectivity and task-specific activation ...
Deep brain stimulation to the nucleus accumbens, a region in the brain involved heavily in addiction and reinforcement learning ... "Deep brain stimulation as OCD treatment: New guideline". 23 September 2014. Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T.H.; Chan, Cecilia L. ... In addition, dopamine is released in the brain's reward system and is a motive for behaviour (i.e. the compulsions in addiction ... there are a more powerful appetitive stimulation and a weaker ability to balance this response desire. The shortcoming between ...
Deep brain stimulation Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) ... Techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be used. The ... Non-invasive cerebellar stimulation is the application of non-invasive neurostimulation techniques on the cerebellum to modify ... van Dun, Kim; Manto, Mario (27 December 2017). "Non-invasive Cerebellar Stimulation: Moving Towards Clinical Applications for ...
Sleep can be broadly split into the lighter "rapid eye movement" (REM) and deeper "non-rapid eye movement" (NREM). Changes in ... "Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep". Office of Communications and Public Liaison, National Institute of Neurological Disorders ... Conditioned fear, for example, reduces REM sleep whereas auditory stimulation increases it. In humans, models of stress have ... Studies show that cortisol production correlates with heightened activity in the neural reward pathways of the brain, which ...
... before thrusting an ice pick through her ear into her brain. He then turned her body over and thrust the ice pick into her ... and driven to locations deep within the San Gabriel Mountains, where they would be sexually assaulted by both men, then usually ... with Norris also divulging to Bittaker the biggest stimulation for him was of seeing frightened young women, adding this was ... and of Bittaker's statements as to Norris's revelations to Bittaker regarding his prime sexual stimulations while both were ...
Predicts Brain Responses, and Reveals a Cortical Processing Hierarchy". Neuron. 98 (3): 630-644.e16. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... Deep Learning for Automatic Audiogram Interpretation". Journal of Medical Systems. 44 (9): 163. doi:10.1007/s10916-020-01627-1 ... Exploiting Stochastic Effects of Electrical Stimulation". Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 112 (9_suppl): 14-19. doi ...
Cognitive training, deep brain stimulation and transcranial direct-current stimulation have been studied more in Parkinson's ... November 2019). "Fluctuating cognition in the Lewy body dementias". Brain (Review). 142 (11): 3338-3350. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... Brain (Review). 143 (1): 31-46. doi:10.1093/brain/awz311. PMID 31612904. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. McKeith ... Damage in the brain is widespread, and affects many domains of functioning. Loss of acetylcholine-producing neurons is thought ...
Neurosurgery, KEMU (2018). "Deep Brain Stimulation Clinic Started at Mayo Hospital Lahore". Facebook. Retrieved 29 June 2019. ... Spine Trauma Dedicated Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Clinic Complete State of the Art Neurosurgery Services including Functional ... "Deep Brain Stimulation Clinic Started at Mayo Hospital Lahore". Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery. 2 March 2019. Retrieved ... Neurosurgery Department Pioneers Spinal Cord Stimulation in Pakistan: Pakistan's first Spinal Cord Stimulation surgery was done ...
"prospects seem good for new and deep scientific understanding of pleasure and of how it is organized in the brain." Conclusion ... Here, we show that opioid or orexin stimulations in orbitofrontal cortex and insula causally enhance hedonic "liking" reactions ... A second is found within the ventral pallidum, a deep-seated structure near the base of the forebrain that receives most of its ... "How we and our hedonic experience are situated or constituted in our brains and organisms remains to be seen."Conclusion, ...
... s' brains consist of a pair of pear-shaped cerebral ganglia. These are located in the dorsal side of the alimentary ... Stimulation of these causes the earthworm to very quickly retreat (perhaps contracting into its burrow to escape a bird). The ... When the worm excretes this in the form of casts, deposited on the surface or deeper in the soil, minerals and plant nutrients ... A pair of circum-pharyngeal connectives from the brain encircle the pharynx and then connect with a pair of sub-pharyngeal ...
Deep sequencing of complementary DNA of these receptor channels shows that this is not true for closely related fruit bats ... After stimulation of these receptors, there is a transient increase in impulse activity which quickly decays due to adaptation ... Klüver-Barrera and Nissl staining of vampire bat brain sections uncovered a unique nucleus located lateral to the descending ... The pits are about 1 millimeter wide and 1 millimeter deep, hairless, and glandless. A layer of dense connective-tissue with ...
Miller, TF; Saenko, IV; Popov, DV; Vinogradova, OL; Kozlovskaya, IB (July 2004). "Effect of mechanical stimulation of the ... a deep layered quadriceps muscle), which are composed mostly of the slow Type I myofibers containing the slow myosin heavy ... Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation Cerebrale. 113 (1): 104-16. doi:10.1007/bf02454146. ... 1979). "effects of physical conditioning and electric stimulation on metabolic processes in the soleus muscle and structure ...
Three broad types of distinct brain activity patterns can be measured: REM, light NREM and deep NREM. During deep NREM sleep, ... than animals whose levels of stimulation are restricted. The functions of the brain depend on the ability of neurons to ... It deals with the human brain insofar as it shares the properties of other brains. The ways in which the human brain differs ... The most important that are covered in the human brain article are brain disease and the effects of brain damage. The shape and ...
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy is often used to treat various types of neuropathy. A 2010 review of ... A physical examination will involve testing the deep ankle reflex as well as examining the feet for any ulceration. For large ... They have connections with the spinal cord and ultimately the brain, however. Most commonly autonomic neuropathy is seen in ... Mononeuritis multiplex is sometimes associated with a deep, aching pain that is worse at night and frequently in the lower back ...
"Digging Deep". 13 January 2022. "Lowell Bergman Bio - Herbert Marcuse Official Website". "Herbert Marcuse". A-Z Quotes. ... These men comprised the "theoretical brain trust" of the American war machine, which, according to its founder, William J. ... If people are preoccupied with inauthentic sexual stimulation, their political energy will be "desublimated"; instead of acting ...
A positron emission tomography (PET) study found that brain occupancy of the H1 receptor was 67.6% for a single 30 mg dose of ... Several reactions have been noted in manufacturer guidelines-deep sleep, incoordination, sedation, calmness, and dizziness have ... have described its overall calming effect described through the stimulation of areas within the reticular formation. The ... PET studies with antihistamines have found that brain H1 receptor occupancy of more than 50% is associated with a high ...
Unlike deep brain stimulation or Vagus nerve stimulation, which use implants and electrical impulses, TPU is a noninvasive and ... Tyler and his team still continue to improve their knowledge of brain stimulation therapy and hope to provide a strong ... Hameroff, Stewart (2013). "Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: A pilot study" (PDF). Brain Stimulation. ... "Ultrasound Shown To Exert Remote Control Of Brain Circuits". ScienceDaily. Brain Circuits. Retrieved 23 October 2013. Tyler, ...
Deep dissection Medical portal Alpha wave Lobes of the brain Regions of the human brain Sulcus Lunatus Visual evoked potential ... These are called flicker stimulation (usually through TV) these seizures are referred to as photo-sensitivity seizures. ... Base of brain. Drawing to illustrate the relations of the brain to the skull. Occipital lobe in blue Occipital lobe Occipital ... The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The name derives from its ...
A recently brain-dead man, aged 23, was selected for the transplant. Despite atrophy of blood vessels and nerves, the arteries ... Ejaculation usually happens as the result of sexual stimulation, but it can be due to prostatic disease in rare cases. ... Therefore, a long penis, which places the ejaculate deep in the vaginal tract, could reduce the loss of semen. Another ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. ...
"Vaccine skepticism runs deep among white evangelicals in US". AP NEWS. April 5, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2021. Beinart, Peter ( ... A person with measles encephalitis may become comatose, and death or brain injury may occur. The measles virus can deplete ... providing tactile stimulation; applying numbing agents to the skin; and saving the most painful vaccine for last. As above, the ... Hurst L (October 30, 2009). "Vaccine phobia runs deep". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 4, 2009. Heininger U (September 2006 ...
Nov 2008). "A Non-Invasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's ...
Studies have shown that declarative memories move between the limbic system, deep within the brain, and the outer, cortical ... "Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall". Nature. 484 (7394): 381-385. Bibcode:2012Natur. ... Such brain parts as the cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala are thought to play an important role ... It does not need to "reach out" to other brain structures for assistance in forming some memories of simple association. An MIT ...
... types of fully MRI-compatible robots for percutaneous prostate interventions and another one for guiding deep brain stimulation ... One type of tumor removal that would greatly benefit from MRI robots is brain tumor removal. Brain tumors are extremely ... By using real-time imaging, the whole brain tumor would have a greater chance of being removed. Within neuroscience, MRI robots ... researchers can monitor and notice changes in functional connectivity within the brain. When using fMRI, an MRI robot would be ...
... "demonstrating that drug addiction is a disease of the human brain", and "pioneering the use of brain imaging to investigate the ... Both areas receive stimulation from dopamine neurons that originate in the ventral tegmental area. A steady influx of dopamine ... evidence-based treatments and a deeper understanding of psychiatric, addictive, and developmental disorders." Volkow is married ... "This Is Your Brain On Drugs." Discover Magazine, 30 October 2014. Nora Volkow on Diane Rehm Appearances on C-SPAN Nora Volkow ...
Still other branches of the I-a axons synapse with interneurons leading to brain centers, e.g., the cerebellum, that coordinate ... They also produce sustained responses to static stimulation, but have large receptive fields. The Rapidly Adapting (RA) or ... detect tension deep in the skin and fascia and respond to skin stretch, but have not been closely linked to either ... Itch sensations are caused by stimulation of free nerve ending from chemicals. Hair follicle receptors called hair root ...
Bloodgood also serves as an Advisory Board Member and Faculty Fellow for the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind at UCSD. ... Inspired by her postdoctoral work, Bloodgood has focused her lab's research program on probing a deeper understanding of the ... Bloodgood discovered that upon sensory stimulation, Npas4 mediates a rearrangement of the distribution of inhibitory synapses ... "The San Diego BRAIN Consortium". sdbrain.org. Retrieved 2020-03-27. "Brenda Bloodgood - 2018-Sept Kavli Institute Community ...
Project Deep Spill Archived 4 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine Acevedo-Whitehouse, K. .; Rocha-Gosselin, A. .; Gendron, D ... Fetal Acoustic Stimulation Device, patent ES2546919B1, granted 29 September 2015 to Luis y Pallarés Aniorte and Maria Luisa ... Medicine: Jean-Pierre Royet, David Meunier, Nicolas Torquet, Anne-Marie Mouly and Tao Jiang, for using advanced brain-scanning ... Uchiyama, M.; Jin, X.; Zhang, Q.; Hirai, T.; Amano, A.; Bashuda, H.; Niimi, M. (2012). "Auditory stimulation of opera music ...
As the brain receives its plentiful supply of afferent information relating to ventilation, it is able to compare it to the ... Risk factors include deep vein thrombosis, recent surgery, cancer, and previous thromboembolism. It must always be considered ... The mechanism of action is thought to be stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. Systemic immediate release opioids are beneficial ... It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a " ...
The OECs were taken from the patient's olfactory bulbs in his brain and then grown in the lab, these cells were then injected ... Another potentially deadly threat to respiration is deep venous thrombosis (DVT), in which blood forms a clot in immobile limbs ... epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. Spinal cord injury can be traumatic or nontraumatic, and can be ... It results from lack of input from the brain that quells muscle responses to stretch reflexes. It can be treated with drugs and ...
Get the latest Deep-brainStimulation info from our tech-obsessed editors with breaking news, in-depth reviews, hands-on videos ... Deep-brain electrical stimulation brings man out of vegetative state. By J. Topolsky, 08.02.2007 ... Deep-brainStimulation. *. Brain pacemakers show promise in Alzheimers trials, might open new treatment possibilities. By S. ...
... uses a device called a neurostimulator to deliver electrical signals to the areas of the brain that control movement, pain, ... Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation; Subthalamic deep brain stimulation; Thalamic deep brain stimulation; DBS; Brain ... Deep brain stimulation (DBS) uses a device called a neurostimulator to deliver electrical signals to the areas of the brain ... Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions. Nat Rev Neuro. 2021;17:75-87. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ...
Maine Medical Center Neuroscience Institute in Portland has the only deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy in Maine. ... Deep brain stimulation side effects. Talk with your doctor before the surgery about the pros and cons of deep brain stimulation ... What is deep brain stimulation (DBS)?. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats several symptoms that affect patients with movement ... DBS is painless and does not hurt healthy brain tissue. Conditions treated with DBS. Deep brain stimulation is helpful for ...
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment through which small electrical pulses are delivered to the brain. DBS may ... We will note the type of brain activity associated with dystonia and other PD symptoms and examine whether this brain activity ... In DBS, electrodes -- thin wires inserted in the brain during surgery -- can measure brain activity and send electric signals ... avoid unwanted side effects of brain stimulation and develop new neurosurgical treatments. ...
Deep Brain Stimulation Market Report 2018-2025 has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry ... To provide overview of the global Deep Brain Stimulation market. *To analyze and forecast the global Deep Brain Stimulation ... Key Vision of Deep Brain Stimulation Market. - Historical and Future Market. - Supply and Demand. - Price and Cost. - Drivers ... Deep Brain Stimulation Market Report 2018-2025 has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry ...
Deep Brain Stimulation. Deep Brain Stimulation , Mind Control Techniques , Mind Power. *Home ...
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted method for the treatment of Parkinsons disease symptoms and concerns ... METHODS Deep brain stimulation can replace lesions in the surgical treatment of abnormal movements. After 10 years of ... OBJECTIVE To define the reason why two teams using the same procedure and the same target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) ... Improvement of levodopa induced dyskinesias by thalamic deep brain stimulation is related to slight variation in electrode ...
Silicon Nanowires and Optical Stimulation for Investigations of Intra- and Intercellular Electrical Coupling ...
A Unified Functional Network Target for Deep Brain Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biol. Psychiatry, 90 (10). S. ... BACKGROUND: Multiple deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets have been proposed for treating intractable obsessivecompulsive ... A Unified Functional Network Target for Deep Brain Stimulation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ... CONCLUSIONS: Pinpointing the network modulated by DBS for OCD from different target sites identified a set of brain regions to ...
Action Potential Initiation; Temporal Pattern Generation; Axonal Action Potentials; Therapeutics; Deep brain stimulation; ... Thalamic network model of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor (Birdno et al. 2012). ... Thalamic network model of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor (Birdno et al. 2012) ... Thalamic network model of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor (Birdno et al. 2012) ...
Consultant Neurosurgeon at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ms Catherine Moran, provided an update on the deep brain stimulation ... Update on deep brain stimulation national service after first year in operation. By Niamh Quinlan - 24th Oct 2022 ... Consultant Neurosurgeon at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ms Catherine Moran, provided an update on the deep brain stimulation (DBS ...
Brittle Biballism-Dystonia in a Pediatric Patient with GNAO1 Mutation Managed Using Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation. Autoři. ... Brittle Biballism-Dystonia; Pediatric Patient; GNAO1 Mutation; Deep Brain Stimulation Popis. Early onset movement disorders are ... Brittle Biballism-Dystonia in a Pediatric Patient with GNAO1 Mutation Managed Using Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation ...
New Frontiers for Depression: Deep Brain Stimulation, Esketamine, and the Immune System ... Deep Brain Stimulation. Video Deep Brain Stimulation with Percept™ PC for Parkinsons Disease ...
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) - Reducing Seizures By As Much As 50% , August 4, 2017. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been ... deep brain stimulation is a new concept for me. I know that it interrupts seizures. Can Deep Brain Stimulation prevent them? ... Similar to the VNS, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), is minimally invasive and consists of implanting tiny electrodes in the brain ... Tags: (RNS), 50% reduction of seizures, DBS, Deep Brain Stimulation, drug resistant epilepsy, generally safe, neurological or ...
The effects of deep brain stimulation will be analysed separately for each of the different diagnoses. Primary outcomes will be ... Previous reviews have assessed the effects of deep brain stimulation on different neurological disorders. These reviews all had ... We will include published and unpublished randomised clinical trial comparing deep brain stimulation versus no intervention, ... Deep brain stimulation is increasingly being used for different neurological diseases, and the effects are unclear based on ...
The "Leipzig DBS-Unit" enables the surgeon to perform deep brain stimulation with a precision of less than 1mm. ...
Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques, and Equipment [E] » Therapeutics [E02] » Electric Stimulation Therapy » Deep ... Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques, and Equipment [E] » Surgical Procedures, Operative [E04] » Deep Brain ... that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The ...
Primer Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a form of brain stimulation that involves invasive neurosurgical intervention and ... implantation of electrodes under MRI guidance into specific brain regions.Milev, R. V., Giacobbe, P., Kennedy, S. H., ... Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a form of brain stimulation that involves invasive neurosurgical intervention and implantation ... Deep-brain stimulation associates with improved microvascular integrity in the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinsons disease. ...
Deep-brain stimulation has shown to be an effective therapeutic option for dystonia, but not all types of dystonia may be ... Table 3. Deep-brain stimulation for myoclonus and tardive dystonia. Study (year). Method. Etiology (n). Target. Follow-up. ... Table 2. Deep-brain stimulation for segmental and focal primary dystonia. Study (year). Method. Etiology (n). Target. Follow-up ... Table 4. Deep-brain stimulation for other secondary dystonia. Study (year). Method. Etiology (n). Target. Follow-up. Outcome ...
Cure for Parkinsonism with deep brain stimulation surgery in India, DBS surgery. Best doctors & hospitals in India for DBS. ... What is DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) Surgery?. Deep brain stimulation is a procedure in which patients with certain ... Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinsons May Help Long Term. University of Houston 25 March,2021 - New Discoveries of Deep Brain ... Deep Brain Stimulation) Surgery. Two surgical procedures will be performed: one to put the lead into the brain, and the other ...
Efficacy and Safety of Deep Brain Stimulation in Tourette Syndrome: The International Tourette Syndrome Deep Brain Stimulation ... Deep brain stimulation was associated with symptomatic improvement in patients with Tourette syndrome but also with important ... The International Deep Brain Stimulation Database and Registry enrolled 185 patients (of 171 with available data, 37 females ... The prospective International Deep Brain Stimulation Database and Registry included 185 patients with medically refractory ...
The electrodes are placed deep in the brain to treat movement problems like Parkinsons disease and more recently to try to ... Deep Brain Stimulation is exactly what it sounds like. ... norman swan: Deep Brain Stimulation is exactly what it sounds ... norman swan: So this is like an electrical version of deep brain surgery, the lobotomy?. (Video) Deep Brain Stimulation for OCD ... Susannah is a Senior Research Fellow at the Queensland Brain Institute.. Suzanne tie: Deep brain stimulation is a form of ...
... Uses. Primarily used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease to reduce the need for drugs and ... This is a process used to stimulate the Brain where electrodes are implanted in the brain to produce small amounts of ...
... www.advancedsciencenews.com/deep-brain-stimulation-therapies-in-parkinsons-disease/,Deep Brain Stimulation Therapies in ... Deep Brain Stimulation Therapies in Parkinsons Disease From individual neuron models to cutting-edge control approaches, the ... www.advancedsciencenews.com/deep-brain-stimulation-therapies-in-parkinsons-disease/embed/#?secret=J7bpHudctI width=600 ... Deep Brain Stimulation Therapies in Parkinsons Disease” — Advanced Science News data-secret=J7bpHudctI ...
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Q: Can deep brain stimulation (DBS) make sleep worse? ... 32:48 Does deep brain stimulation help insomnia and sleep issues?. 35:13 I wake up frequently with leg and foot cramps/dystonia ... This section will help you understand the basics of Parkinsons Disease, how Parkinsons Disease affects the brain, its ... mental stimulation, or ideally a combination of all three. If you are looking for inspiration, we have a blog that details ways ...
Deep brain stimulation during sleep enhances human brain synchrony and memory Sleep helps to stabilize long-term memories, ... Chronic brain recordings reveal objective biomarkers of chronic pain Using long-term brain recordings in patients with chronic ... possibly through the temporal synchronization of neuronal activity in different brain regions. Intracranial stimulation during ... The human brain reactivates context-specific past information at event boundaries of naturalistic experiences Hahamy et al. ...
Deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure used to help people who suffer from Parkinsons disease and other neurological ... Deep Brain Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), noninvasive deep brain stimulation, Parkinsons treatment ... 7 Things to Know About Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinsons Disease 7 Things to Know About Deep Brain Stimulation for ... Deep brain stimulation doesnt destroy any brain tissue or cells, it blocks the electrical signals in the brain which bring ...
Harizs article is entitled Deep brain stimulation between 1947 and 1987: the untold story. ... Deep Brain Stimulation In this podcast, topic editor Jeff Elias of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia ... August 2010: Deep Brain Stimulation. August 2, 2010 - Neurosurgical Focus Deep Brain Stimulation ... Harizs article is entitled "Deep brain stimulation between 1947 and 1987: the untold story." ...
Your local Medtronic representative will be in touch to talk to you about deep brain stimulation therapies. ...
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms and concerns three major targets-namely, the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM), the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi), and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). (bmj.com)
  • Introduction and objectives Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a recognized treatment for drug -refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). (bvsalud.org)
  • The electrodes are placed deep in the brain to treat movement problems like Parkinson's disease and more recently to try to help people with what is known as treatment-resistant depression. (hokela.pics)
  • And it's been working for a while now, but they've put it into parts of the brain that might support your movement if you have Parkinson's disease, for example. (hokela.pics)
  • This section will help you understand the basics of Parkinson's Disease, how Parkinson's Disease affects the brain, its symptoms and ongoing research. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Neuro-ferritinopathy is suspected in patients with Excess iron may be detected in post-mortem studies adult-onset movement disorders, positive family of brains that have suffered Alzheimer's disease history and, in advanced cases, the cystic changes or Parkinson's disease possibly due to oxidative in relevant areas of the brain on MRI scans. (who.int)
  • Genotype and phenotype in Parkinson's disease: lessons in heterogeneity from deep brain stimulation. (cdc.gov)
  • GBA-Associated Parkinson's Disease: Progression in a Deep Brain Stimulation Cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE To define the reason why two teams using the same procedure and the same target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) obtained different results on levodopa induced dyskinesias, whereas in both, parkinsonian tremor was improved or totally suppressed. (bmj.com)
  • At this point, approximately 30,000 people worldwide are currently using deep brain stimulation to treat neurological or psychological conditions. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation is a procedure in which patients with certain neurological conditions such as Parkinson disease, critical tremor, epilepsy and dystonia, a movement disorder in which the muscles contract and spasm, can be helped. (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • From 1997 to 2013, the only neurostimulation modality approved in the United States was vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). (medscape.com)
  • In DBS, electrodes -- thin wires inserted in the brain during surgery -- can measure brain activity and send electric signals to treat dystonia symptoms. (michaeljfox.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to record dystonia-associated brain activity through an electrode and use the recordings to set up the new directional DBS technology for the treatment of dystonia. (michaeljfox.org)
  • We hypothesize that dystonia-associated brain activity measured through a DBS electrode will help predict locations in the brain where the electrode should be inserted to improve dystonia and other PD motor symptoms. (michaeljfox.org)
  • We will note the type of brain activity associated with dystonia and other PD symptoms and examine whether this brain activity predicts the effectiveness of the DBS therapy. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Deep-brain stimulation for segmental and focal primary dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • It sends a small electric current to an electrode implanted in affected areas of the brain. (mainehealth.org)
  • Results also can help experts better understand optimal positioning of the electrode in surgery, avoid unwanted side effects of brain stimulation and develop new neurosurgical treatments. (michaeljfox.org)
  • A lead, composed of a thin wire with electrode contacts on it, is implanted surgically into the brain. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation is a form of neuromodulation in which electrodes are implanted in specific nodes in the brain and the electrode is continuously activated, which is thought to act as a pacemaker for the brain. (hokela.pics)
  • The timing of this stage of surgery depends on where in the brain the stimulator will be placed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk with your doctor before the surgery about the pros and cons of deep brain stimulation. (mainehealth.org)
  • According to the article, it's designed for the considerable number of patients suffering from medically refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective brain surgery. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • What are the symptoms leading to doctor's recommending - DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) Surgery? (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • So this is like an electrical version of deep brain surgery, the lobotomy? (hokela.pics)
  • Clinical and computational findings indicate that DBS suppresses tremor by masking burst-driver inputs to the thalamus and that pauses in stimulation prevent such masking. (yale.edu)
  • Although stimulation of other anatomic targets may provide tremor suppression, we propose that the most relevant neuronal targets for effective tremor suppression are the afferent cerebellar fibers that terminate in the thalamus. (yale.edu)
  • Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS , especially PARKINSON DISEASE , that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS . (liu.edu)
  • But deep brain stimulation for depression initially showed promise but disappointment. (hokela.pics)
  • Therefore, deep brain stimulation for depression was performed experimentally and several groups were able to show that it was an effective procedure and that patients who did not respond to any other available treatment could obtain lasting benefit and recovery from their depression, which they had been incredibly handicapped. (hokela.pics)
  • ModelDB: Thalamic network model of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor (Birdno et al. (yale.edu)
  • Thalamic network model of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor (Birdno et al. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Birdno MJ, Kuncel AM, Dorval AD, Turner DA, Gross RE, Grill WM (2012) Stimulus features underlying reduced tremor suppression with temporally patterned deep brain stimulation. (yale.edu)
  • Correct, deep brain stimulation can target different aspects of the disease itself, and tremor is particularly responsive to stimulation. (hokela.pics)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) uses a device called a neurostimulator to deliver electrical signals to the areas of the brain that control movement, pain, mood, weight, obsessive-compulsive thoughts, and awakening from a coma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats several symptoms that affect patients with movement disorders. (mainehealth.org)
  • Deep brain stimulation is helpful for patients whose movement disorders do not get better with medication. (mainehealth.org)
  • And we know that in movement disorders, it modulates abnormal cell activity in the brain. (hokela.pics)
  • We think that's because it essentially silences the activity in the brain that's causing that particular movement. (hokela.pics)
  • Electrical impulses may need to be sent through the lead to make sure it is connected to the area of the brain responsible for your symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been called "a promising therapy for epilepsy," as reported by the BBC. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • Collective evidence has strongly suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for Tourette syndrome. (blogspot.com)
  • The prospective International Deep Brain Stimulation Database and Registry included 185 patients with medically refractory Tourette syndrome who underwent DBS implantation from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016, at 31 institutions in 10 countries worldwide. (blogspot.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation was associated with symptomatic improvement in patients with Tourette syndrome but also with important adverse events. (blogspot.com)
  • Maine Medical Center Neuroscience Institute in Portland has the only deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy in Maine. (mainehealth.org)
  • The therapy uses a pacemaker-like device, implanted in the brain to deliver a small amount of electricity when it detects the onset of a seizure. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation is a form of targeted therapy. (hokela.pics)
  • From individual neuron models to cutting-edge control approaches, the evolution of computer methods for deep brain simulation (DBS) can lead to personalized DBS therapy. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a form of brain stimulation that involves invasive neurosurgical intervention and implantation of electrodes under MRI guidance into specific brain regions. (psychdb.com)
  • Once connected, electric pulses travel from the neurostimulator, along the extension wire, to the lead, and into the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS system) was approved in 2013, and the approval of deep brain stimulation (DBS) was approved in May 2018. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS Deep brain stimulation can replace lesions in the surgical treatment of abnormal movements. (bmj.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment through which small electrical pulses are delivered to the brain. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Similar to the VNS, it's minimally invasive and consists of implanting tiny electrodes in the brain that release electrical pulses, reducing the frequency of partial seizures and secondarily generalized seizures. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • Used in conjunction with anti-seizure medications, the VNS uses electrical pulses that are delivered to the vagus nerve in the neck and travel up into the brain. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • This is a process used to stimulate the Brain where electrodes are implanted in the brain to produce small amounts of electrical pulses from stimulators which are implanted in the chest wall like pacemakers. (neurologist.com.sg)
  • It has the ability to constantly analyze brain activity, then deliver the correct electrical stimulation. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • On these grounds, we establish potential brain areas that could prospectively inform additional or alternative neuromodulation targets for obsessive-compulsive disorder. (uni-koeln.de)
  • One goal of this research is to combine the beneficial aspects of electrical stimulation with seizure detection technology, in an implantable responsive stimulator. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • One recent study showed that deep brain stimulation demonstrated significant and sustained seizure reduction at five years! (epilepsytalk.com)
  • The high-stimulation group in the E05 study had a 28% decrease in mean of seizure frequency, vs.15% decrease in the low-stimulation group. (medscape.com)
  • The "Leipzig DBS-Unit" enables the surgeon to perform deep brain stimulation with a precision of less than 1mm. (next3d.de)
  • Deep Brain Stimulation Market Report 2018-2025 has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (medgadget.com)
  • Similar to cardiac pacemakers and VNS, the IPG in DBS can be accessed using a handheld device, allowing the stimulation parameters to be monitored and/or programmed remotely. (psychdb.com)
  • The optimal stimulation parameters for different brain regions remains unknown. (psychdb.com)
  • Non-surgical adverse events include psychosis and hypomania caused by a change in the stimulation parameters in patients receiving DBS in the nucleus accumbens. (psychdb.com)
  • Stimulation parameters are many. (medscape.com)
  • DBS is painless and does not hurt healthy brain tissue. (mainehealth.org)
  • The present study aimed to determine the influence of orofacial pain in superficial and deep tissue on anxiety levels in male Wistar rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 50 µ L of 1% formalin in the lip (superficial tissue) and in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) (deep tissue) of male Wistar rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • It's considered relatively less invasive than going in and hurting where the field was before deep brain stimulation was used. (hokela.pics)
  • Second, we derived optimal target-specific connectivity patterns to determine brain regions mutually predictive of clinical outcome for both targets and others predictive for either target alone. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Clinical experience has since showed that the most common effects (hoarseness, cough, shortness of breath, paresthesias) appear during stimulation and tend to diminish over time. (medscape.com)
  • Using the directional DBS technology, we will record and evaluate brain activity while a patient is at rest and while moving arms and legs. (michaeljfox.org)
  • A brain scan is performed for the patient to generate the map using the frame or plate. (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • The trends and strategies section highlights the likely future developments in the Deep Brain Stimulation market and suggests approaches. (medgadget.com)
  • Consultant Neurosurgeon at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ms Catherine Moran, provided an update on the deep brain stimulation (DBS) national service as it approaches the one-year anniversary of performing surgeries. (medicalindependent.ie)
  • The report firstly introduced the Deep Brain Stimulation basics: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview, product specifications, manufacturing processes, cost structures, raw materials and so on. (medgadget.com)
  • Numbing medicine is applied to your scalp at the site where the surgeon will open the skin, then drill a small opening in the skull and places the lead into a specific area of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If both sides of your brain are being treated, the surgeon makes an opening on each side of the skull, and two leads are inserted. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A surgeon positions a machine underneath a patient's skin with deep brain stimulation (DBS). (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • Only eight out of 32 patients from team B experienced a moderate (four) or clear (four) improvement of dyskinesias, whereas in the remaining 24 patients, dyskinesias were unchanged with stimulation. (bmj.com)
  • The results support the hypothesis that patients experiencing an improvement of dyskinesias under DBS are actually stimulated in a structure which is more posterior, more internal, and deeper than the VIM, very close to the CM-Pf. (bmj.com)
  • [ 3 ] which compared the efficacy and safety of VNS in patients who received high stimulation vs. low stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • They include where in the brain the stimulus should be delivered, and what type of stimulation would be most effective. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pinpointing the network modulated by DBS for OCD from different target sites identified a set of brain regions to which DBS electrodes associated with optimal outcomes were functionally connected-regardless of target choice. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This pacemaker-like generator, is placed under the skin in the chest region, and is programmed to deliver the electrical stimulation to the brain lead. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • The Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS), is designed to prevent or interrupt seizures or electrical disturbances in the brain for people with hard to control seizures. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • The unit delivers electrical impulses to a particular part of the brain. (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • Some people liken the DBS system which is implanted in the brain to a pacemaker which is implanted in the heart. (mainehealth.org)
  • Settings are adjusted to maximize benefit and minimize any side-effects related to the stimulation. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • One of the advantages of deep brain stimulation is that it can be switched off - if side-effects appear - and the entire procedure is reversible. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • So we know that in certain parts of the brain there is this abnormal activity, so the hypothesis was to go in and target this abnormal activity and mainly have the improvement in motor dysfunction as a result. (hokela.pics)
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets have been proposed for treating intractable obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD). (uni-koeln.de)
  • Two surgical procedures will be performed: one to put the lead into the brain, and the other to put the pulse generator into the chest. (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • This can be through physical activity, social interactions, mental stimulation, or ideally a combination of all three. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Initial stimulation of carotid and aortic bodies and effects on the central nervous system adversely affect the function of the respiratory system, which contributes to the global histiotoxic hypoxia leading to death. (cdc.gov)
  • The programming computer, then allows the doctor to adjust the stimulation intensity and rate, along with other settings from outside the body. (epilepsytalk.com)
  • The doctor would need a way of helping him navigate specifically in the brain during procedure. (hbgmedicalassistance.com)
  • Final target location depended also on the results of intraoperative stimulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A connecting cable, tunneled under the scalp and neck, links the brain lead to the generator. (epilepsytalk.com)