Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.HomocystineVitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Cystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Gypsies: Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.CystathionineS-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.CreatinineVitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.HLA-B51 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Healthy Volunteers: Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the demethylation of L-homocysteine to L-METHIONINE.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Reduced Folate Carrier Protein: A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.Behcet Syndrome: Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.TriglyceridesTunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.JapanCysteic Acid: Beta-Sulfoalanine. An amino acid with a C-terminal sulfonic acid group which has been isolated from human hair oxidized with permanganate. It occurs normally in the outer part of the sheep's fleece, where the wool is exposed to light and weather.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Amino Acids, SulfurBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Methionine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Guanidinoacetate N-Methyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP): An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Vitamin U: A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.
... increased levels of homocysteine can lead to homocystinuria(see section Disease Relevance). In general, SDH levels decrease ... Homocystinuria is a disease characterized by high urine and plasma levels of homocysteine. L-Serine dehydratase condenses ... Similarly, increasing levels of glucagon, increase the activity of SDH because this hormone up-regulates the SDH enzyme. This ... Homocysteine, a compound that SDH combines with Serine to create cystathionine, also noncompetitively inhibits the action of ...
Deficiencies of vitamin B12 or folate cause increased levels of circulating homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine is a risk ... Transmethylation is decreased sometimes in parents of children with autism. Methylation Carmel R, Green R, Rosenblatt DS, ... An example of transmethylation is the recovery of methionine from homocysteine. In order to sustain sufficient reaction rates ... Watkins D (2003). "Update on cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2003: 62-81. doi: ...
... stimulation of the skeleton through physical activity promotes positive bone remodelling and decreases levels of homocysteine, ... decrease in osteoblast activity, decrease in bone blood flow, and direct action of homocysteine on bone matrix. Homocysteine ... Homocysteine, a non-protein amino acid and analogue to the protein amino acid cystine, has been shown to have negative effects ... Higher homocysteine concentrations are likely a result of folate, vitamin B12 B6 deficiencies. In addition, it was found that ...
Although this treatment significantly decreases the serum levels of homocysteine, this treatment is not thought to improve ... In common forms of MTHFR deficiency, elevated plasma homocysteine levels have sometimes been treated with Vitamin B12 and low ... "Effects of lowering homocysteine levels with B vitamins on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cause-specific mortality: meta- ... deficiency is the most common genetic cause of elevated serum levels of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia). It is caused by ...
Some studies have proposed that 3-OMD increases homocysteine levels, and this amino acid induces cardiovascular disease and ... It produces a decrease in symptoms of the disease. In fact, almost all patients that are treated with this drug show a ... Due to the high peripheral degradation rate of L-DOPA, high doses are required to improve the levels of this enzyme in blood ... Compounds capable of decreasing 3-O-methyldopa, like entacapone or tolcapone (COMT-inhibiting substances), when administered in ...
... a daily oral folic acid supplementation of 800μg resulted in an increase in folate levels and a decrease in homocysteine levels ... Folic acid supplementation is shown to lower blood homocysteine levels, while folic acid deficiency can lead to a condition of ... Thus, dietary intake of folate is a major determinant of homocysteine levels within the body. Folate deficiency most commonly ... Zinc is needed to maintain normal Vitamin A levels in blood plasma. It was found that VAD rats had lower plasma Retinol levels ...
Ghanizadeh, A (2013). "Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies ... Since diffusion and transport of free ammonia across the cell membrane will affect the pH level of the cell, the more ... Biopsies of sclerotic hippocampus tissue from human subjects suffering from epilepsy have shown decreased glutamate-glutamine ... NMR spectroscopy showed decreased glutamate neurotransmission activity and TCA cycling rate in patients suffering from ...
PEMT modulates levels of blood plasma homocysteine, which is either secreted or converted to methionine or cysteine. High ... This is largely a result of lower levels of VLDL lipids in the PEMT-deficient mice. Furthermore, the decreased lipid (PC) ... Robinson, Killian H. (2001). "Homocysteine and coronary artery disease". In Carmel, Ralph; Jacobsen, Ralph Carmel. Homocysteine ... Low substrate levels inhibit PEMT. The enzyme is further regulated by S-adenosylhomocysteine produced after each methylation. ...
For that reason, MGL has been studied to decrease the methionine levels in the blood serum and decrease the tumor growth and ... Additionally, it is crucial to maintain low homocysteine levels for the proper functioning of various pathways and for ... Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK (Nov 2002). "Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis". ... The isozymes differ in their ability to efficiently degrade methionine, homocysteine, and cysteine. E. histolytica MGL is ...
This could decrease the effect glutamate has on glutamate receptors and reduce cell response to a safer level, not reaching ... Using folic acid has been proposed as a possible treatment for Huntington's due to the inhibition it exhibits on homocysteine, ... An increase or decrease in the number of ionotropic glutamate receptors on a postsynaptic cell may lead to long-term ... In schizophrenia, the expression of the mRNA for the NR2A subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor was found to be decreased in a ...
677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... which is used to decrease homocysteine). Low dietary intake of the vitamin folic acid can also cause mild hyperhomocysteinemia ... It does not result in thermolabile MTHFR and does not appear to affect homocysteine levels. It does, however, affect the ... and have extremely high levels of homocysteine in their plasma and urine as well as low to normal plasma methionine levels. A ...
... detected in subclinical CD and is accompanied by a decrease in serum ferritin levels. This can cause addition problems (see: ... Prolactin - deficiency (childhood). homocysteine - excess. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is associated with GSE and is believed to ... The level of adult onset T1D plus ambiguous T1D/T2D is unknown. It is unclear how large a role Triticeae has in T1D, which also ... While GI disease is one of the major symptoms of GSE that are characterized by increased levels of IgA/IgG to food proteins, ...
... homocysteine levels) The diagnosis of pulmonary heart disease is not easy as both lung and heart disease can produce similar ... to decrease strain on the heart). Oxygen is often required to resolve the shortness of breath. Additionally, oxygen to the ...
Decreased pepsinogen I levels or a decreased pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II ratio may also be found, although these findings are ... An increase in both MMA and homocysteine can distinguish between B12 deficiency and folate deficiency because only homocysteine ... Serum vitamin B12 levels are used to detect its deficiency, but they do not distinguish its causes. Vitamin B12 levels can be ... Elevated gastrin levels can be found in around 80-90% of PA cases, but they may also be found in other forms of gastritis. ...
... percent of supposed correlations became significantly weaker in subsequent studies.Homocysteine is an amino acid whose levels ... One clinical trial showed that the drug could increase HDL and decrease LDL. Two days after Pfizer announced its plans for the ... However, a 2010 study showed that lowering homocysteine by nearly 30 percent had no effect on heart attack or stroke. "Priming ...
November 2002). "Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body ... a disease caused by abnormally high homocysteine levels at birth. TMG supplementation may cause diarrhea, stomach upset, or ... In theory, it would increase S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) by remethylating homocysteine. The same homocysteine-to-methionine ... TMG supplementation decreases the amount of adipose tissue in pigs; however, research in human subjects has shown no effect on ...
Chronic consumption of alcohol may result in increased plasma levels of the toxic amino acid homocysteine; which may explain ... A meta-analysis of randomized trials found that alcohol consumption in moderation decreases serum levels of fibrinogen, a ... 2001). "Moderate alcohol consumption in social drinkers raises plasma homocysteine levels: a contradiction to the 'French ... March 2005). "Evidence of increased homocysteine levels in alcoholism: the Franconian alcoholism research studies (FARS)". ...
High plasma levels of homocysteine inhibit DNA methyltransferases, which causes hypomethylation. Hypomethylation of DNA affects ... In atherosclerosis patients, there is an increase in methylation of the CpG islands in exon 2, which decreases MCT3 protein ... One proposed mechanism behind this global hypomethylation is elevated homocysteine levels causing hyperhomocysteinemia, a known ... High levels of homocysteine also result in hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor ...
... and two studies have found higher levels of plasma homocysteine in PEX patients, or elevated homocysteine concentrations in ... Studies of PEX patients have found a decrease in the concentrations of ascorbic acid, increase in concentrations of ... Scientists believe that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, ... In Europe, differing levels of PEX were found; 5% in England, 6% in Norway, 4% in Germany, 1% in Greece, and 6% in France. One ...
Decreased pepsinogen I levels or a decreased pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II ratio may also be found, although these findings are ... An increase in both MMA and homocysteine distinguishes B12 deficiency from folate deficiency because homocysteine alone ... Serum vitamin B12 levels are used to detect its deficiency, but they do not distinguish its causes. Vitamin B12 levels can be ... Low levels of serum vitamin B12 may be caused by other factors than B12 deficiency, such as folate deficiency, pregnancy, oral ...
... resulting in elevated homocysteine levels due to compromised methylation to methionine. Elevated homocysteine levels are ... Decreased MeCbl alongside normal cobalamin uptake is suggestive of decreased intracellular methionine biosynthesis. Occurring ... Chronic homocysteine elevation increases s-adenosyl-L-homocysteine levels, consequently inhibiting methyltransferase activity ... resulting in appropriate intracellular levels of methionine and tetrahydrofolate, alongside non-toxic homocysteine levels. The ...
S-adenosyl Homocysteine, further loses its "S-adenosyl" attachment, to become homocysteine, and the cycle repeats yet again! ... Pancytopenia: decreased number of blood cells of all lineages (RBCs, leucocytes, platelets), due to decreased bone marrow ... In absence of vitamin B12, levels of Methylmalonyl CoA increase, and this is in fact a great way to distinguish folate ... Laboratory findings indicating increased MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), decreased Hgb/Hct (indicating anemia), and decreased ...
Neuropeptide Y also known as NPY is a hormone that encourages eating and decreases metabolic rate. Blood levels of NPY are ... "Elevation of homocysteine levels is only partially reversed after therapy in females with eating disorders". Journal of neural ... hormones or neuropeptides and amino acids such as homocysteine, elevated levels of which are found in AN and BN as well as ... The increased levels of NPY in the blood of patients with eating disorders can in some ways explain the instances of extreme ...
... and is accompanied by a decrease in serum ferritin levels.[28] This can cause addition problems (see:symptoms of IDA and ... homocysteine - excess.[22]. Anemia[edit]. Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is associated with GSE and is believed to be the result of ... The level of adult onset T1D plus ambiguous T1D/T2D is unknown. It is unclear how large a role Triticeae has in T1D, which also ... While GI disease is one of the major symptoms of GSE that are characterized by increased levels of IgA/IgG to food proteins,[62 ...
The liver was the main organ affected in these animals and in it the levels of adenine nucleotides were decreased, while those ... which is cleaved by SAH hydrolase into Ado and homocysteine. The failure to efficiently remove these end products (Ado removed ... The overexpression of AdK in the brain, which leads to decreased Ado levels and loss of inhibition of neuronal excitability by ... AdK plays a central role in controlling the cellular levels of Ado, which via its interaction with adenosine receptors in ...
It has previously been suggested that the excessive androgen production in PCOS could be caused by a decreased serum level of ... The effect of serum and intrafollicular insulin resistance parameters and homocysteine levels of nonobese, nonhyperandrogenemic ... Fasting insulin level or GTT with insulin levels (also called IGTT). Elevated insulin levels have been helpful to predict ... Many women with normal levels may benefit from combination therapy. A hypoglycemic response in which the two-hour insulin level ...
... which could lead to a decrease of intracellular levels of nicotinamide, compound known as a radiosensitizer able to enhance the ... S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is converted into homocysteine by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. N1-methylnicotinamide is ... No significant correlation between NNMT and CEA serum levels were found. Therefore, the measurement of serum levels of both ... High levels of NNMT enzyme activity were detected in eight of ten papillary lines, and in three of six of the follicular cell ...
Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis After Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine Levels - Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis After Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine Levels ... There is an association between homocysteine levels and restenosis after PTCA. This study evaluated the effect of lowering ... Treatment lowered homocysteine levels from 11.1 +/- 4.3μm/L to 7.2 +/- 2.4 μm/L. The rate of restenosis was significantly lower ...
Homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood, is associated with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Some experts predict ... Tips to Decrease Homocysteine Levels: *Eat foods rich in vitamin B-6, such as whole grains, bananas, nuts and seeds. ... In addition, researchers havent set a "safe" level of homocysteine.. The good news is that homocysteine levels can often be ... like your homocysteine level and C reactive protein.. Homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood, is associated with an increased ...
Homocysteine levels may be assessed by a blood test. Lowering homocysteine can be achieved with vitamin supplements and folic ... Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with heart attack, stroke, and blood clots. ... In pregnancy, homocysteine levels tend to decrease. Elevated homocysteine levels may be associated with some fetal ... levels of homocysteine in the body increase. Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with heart attack, stroke, blood ...
There are no signs or symptoms of elevated, normal or low levels; however, high levels have been associated with heart disease ... The blood test is used to detect high levels to help diagnose infants and young adults with a family history of the problem and ... normal levels in the blood vary between 4-15 micromoles/liter. ... In pregnancy, homocysteine levels tend to decrease. Elevated ... Doctors Notes on Homocysteine,Test, 6 Symptoms, Levels, and Function. Homocysteine is an amino acid; normal levels in the ...
The levels of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 contained in Liquid Healths NeuroLogic may help to decrease levels of homocysteine in ... a medical condition characterized by high levels of homocysteine in the blood. The concentration of homocysteine in the blood ... High Levels of Homocysteine May be Associated with Increased Cognitive Decline According to Recent Study. ... A study published on August 5, 2013 found a link between homocysteine levels and cognitive impairment in older adults. Liquid ...
Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1593-1600. ... 8 9 indicating that high homocysteine levels cause cardiovascular disease.. Whether moderate increases in serum homocysteine ... On this basis a decrease in serum homocysteine of 3 μmol/l (achievable by daily intake of about 0.8 mg folic acid) should ... Randomised trial of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine levels. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 695-700. ...
Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1593-1600. ... Measurement of plasma homocysteine. The most robust measure of tHcy level is a fasting tHcy test. Testing with methionine ... Homocysteine and vascular disease. Lancet 1999; 354: 407-413.. *2. DAngelo A, Selhub J. Homocysteine and thrombotic disease. ... 14. The Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. A meta-analysis. JAMA ...
The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements decreases homocysteine levels in diabetic patients.Jun 01, 2010. ... Significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and higher levels of homocysteine were found in people with OCD.Dec 31 ... Serum homocysteine levels were higher and vitamin B12 levels were lower among individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus.Jul ... Folic acid supplementation increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decreased plasma homocysteine levels and improved ...
The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements decreases homocysteine levels in diabetic patients.Jun 01, 2010. ... Type 2 diabetic patients patients treated with statin drugs have decreased coq10 levels and may be associated with subclinical ... Fish oil decreases inflammation and reduces cardiac remodeling in rosiglitazone treated aging mice.Dec 28, 2010. ... Paradoxically, elevated HbA1c levels were associated with improved survival in patients with diabetes and advanced heart ...
"Vitamin B-12 has been shown to lower homocysteine levels ... and homocysteine can cause inflammation as well," he says. "But ... "Omega-3 decreases inflammation, and omega-6 increases inflammation, so there has to be a balance there," Schaefer says. ... Researchers suspect that these two supplements work because they decrease inflammation.. *It is too soon to prescribe fish oil ... "A lot of people have found that omega-3 fatty acids decrease inflammation and clearly there is inflammation that goes on [ ...
... increases homocysteine plasma levels. This may support the onset of atherosclerosis-related disorders and neuropsychiatric ... There was a homocysteine increase in Group I (F = 5; P = 0.005) and a moderate decrease in Group II (F = 4.27; P = 0.01). A ... Levodopa (L-dopa) administered with a dopadecarboxylase inhibitor (DDI) increases homocysteine plasma levels. This may support ... Homocysteine / blood*. Humans. Levodopa / administration & dosage*, blood. Male. Middle Aged. Parkinson Disease / blood*, drug ...
In cases of iron deficiency, decreased serum iron levels and increased TIBC may be observed. Conversely, in cases of iron ... LB2HCY - Homocysteine (umol/L). Variable Name: LB2HCY. SAS Label: Homocysteine (umol/L). English Text: Homocysteine (umol/L). ... In cases of infection, inflammation, and malignancy, both serum iron levels and TIBC may be decreased (3). ... DTT reduces homocysteine bound to albumin and to other small molecules, homocysteine, and mixed disulfides, to free thiol. S- ...
Homocysteine levels are lower in women than in men. Womens concentrations increase after menopause, possibly due to decreased ... and phenytoin can all cause increased levels of homocysteine. Azaribine also raises homocysteine levels, though it was ... can also increase homocysteine levels. Oral contraceptives can also affect the metabolism of homocysteine. ... Homocysteine levels can increase with age, when a person smokes, and with the use of drugs such as carbamazepine, methotrexate ...
Decreased rate of coronary stenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract ... Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View ... high triglyceride levels, lowering high homocysteine levels (which may contribute to heart disease), male infertility, diabetes ... For high blood levels of homocysteine: Vitamin B12 doses of 400-500 mcg in combination with 0.54-5 mg of folic acid and 16.5 mg ...
Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1593-600. ... Recent studies have shown that plasma PLP levels are significantly decreased in other pathological conditions, including ... The association of low vitamin B6 levels with the risk for DVT is also independent of the tHCY levels. Testing for Vitamin B6 ( ... Reactive Protein Independently of Plasma Homocysteine Levels. Circulation 2001; 103: 2788-2791. ...
Some studies suggest that Juice Plus+ could decrease blood levels of homocysteine (. 1. , 5. , 6. ). ... This includes levels of a risk marker called homocysteine.. High levels of homocysteine are linked to an increased risk of ... Its important to note that multivitamins are also associated with lower levels of homocysteine (. 10. , 11. , 12. , 13. , 14. ... Finally, its also unclear if reducing homocysteine levels by taking vitamin supplements can reduce your risk of heart disease ...
AST or Cr levels but it decreased BUN and total bilirubin levels as compared with the vehicle and homocysteine groups: BUN (mg/ ... Plasma levels of liver and renal biochemistry in cirrhotic rats with vehicle (V), homocysteine (H), homocysteine plus folic ... Plasma levels of liver and renal biochemistry in cirrhotic rats with vehicle (V), homocysteine (H), homocysteine plus folic ... homocysteine (H, n=7) vs. homocysteine plus folic acid (H+F, n=5) vs. folic acid (F, n=8)]: 395.0±36.1 vs. 338.6±23.4 vs. 367.6 ...
Does Lowering Homocysteine Levels Decrease the Risk for Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis?. *How Can You Lower Homocysteine Levels ... Does Lowering Homocysteine Levels Decrease the Risk for Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis?. *How Can You Lower Homocysteine Levels ... Causes of Elevated Homocysteine Levels. Some people have elevated homocysteine levels (Table 1) caused by a deficiency of B ... How Can You Lower Homocysteine Levels?. Elevated homocysteine levels can be lowered. We know that folic acid, vitamin B6, and ...
PubMed journal article Effects of supplementation with folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on homocysteine levels and LDL ... Serum homocysteine levels decreased from 8.7 +/- 4.3 to 6.3 +/- 2.2 mumol/L (P , 0.001). In vitro LDL oxidation decreased from ... Serum homocysteine levels decreased from 8.7 +/- 4.3 to 6.3 +/- 2.2 mumol/L (P , 0.001). In vitro LDL oxidation decreased from ... and homocysteine levels were similar. No changes in serum lipid levels or body weight were observed. In conclusion, a short- ...
Homocysteine Blood Levels: A type of amino acid in the body, elevated levels of homocysteine may increase your likelihood of a ... The Mayo Clinic reviews these pieces, and some of the steps a person can take in order to decrease their risk. ... High Estrogen Levels: For women, high estrogen levels indicate a greater risk of being diagnosed with dementia. ... Cholesterol: High levels of LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, have been linked with a significant increase in developing vascular ...
In correlation with this, results also showed a decreased nitration level of cystathionine -synthase in liver. Together data ... Alleviation of Plasma Homocysteine Level by Phytoestrogen -Zearalanol Might Be Related to the Reduction of Cystathionine - ... synthase, the key enzyme in homocysteine metabolism, was significantly elevated and level of nitrative stress in liver was ... zearalanol can protect cardiovascular system from hyperhomocysteinemia and ameliorate the level of plasma total homocysteine; ...
Clinical trials are under way to assess the potential benefit of decreasing homocysteine levels. The role of lipoprotein(a) ... Preliminary evidence suggests that reducing fibrinogen levels in patients with high baseline levels and coronary disease may be ... Either cholesterol or apolipoprotein levels can be used to determine risk for CVD; triglycerides are not useful Annals of ... role of hypertriglyceridemia in cardiovascular disease and a possible clinical benefit from decreasing triglyceride levels. ...
In the group taking folic acid supplements, homocysteine levels decreased by 25 percent. However that group did not see any ... Folic acid is known to affect blood levels of a protein building-block called homocysteine. Most people get homocysteine from ... The new study showed, although taking folic acid supplements lowered homocysteine levels, it did not reduce a persons risk of ... or by pregnant women to decrease the risk of birth defects, according to the National Institutes of Health. ...
... serum homocysteine levels and ischaemic heart disease in a Mediterranean population - Volume 91 Issue 6 - George E. Vrentzos, ... Silaste, ML, Rantala, M, Alfthan, G, Aro, A & Kesaniemi, YA (2003) Plasma homocysteine concentration is decreased by dietary ... Nygard, O, Nordrehaug, JE, Refsum, H, Ueland, PM, Farstad, M & Vollset, SE (1997) Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in ... Diet, serum homocysteine levels and ischaemic heart disease in a Mediterranean population. * George E. Vrentzos (a1), John A. ...
  • Furthermore, the odds of brain atrophy are up to 10 times higher in HHcy patients than in those with normal homocysteine levels,'' - See L-methylfolate , methylcobalamin , and N-acetyl-cysteine at Amazon.com. (qualitycounts.com)
  • This study evaluated the effect of lowering homocysteine on the rate of restenosis following PTCA with or without stents. (acc.org)
  • Clinical studies have shown omega-3 fatty acids to help maintain healthy triglyceride levels. (nutrametrix.com)