Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Decision Making, Computer-Assisted: Use of an interactive computer system designed to assist the physician or other health professional in choosing between certain relationships or variables for the purpose of making a diagnostic or therapeutic decision.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Resuscitation Orders: Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.Advance Care Planning: Discussions with patients and/or their representatives about the goals and desired direction of the patient's care, particularly end-of-life care, in the event that the patient is or becomes incompetent to make decisions.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intuition: Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Great BritainAdvance Directive Adherence: Compliance by health personnel or proxies with the stipulations of ADVANCE DIRECTIVES (or similar directives such as RESUSCITATION ORDERS) when patients are unable to direct their own care.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Comparative Effectiveness Research: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Decision Support Systems, Management: Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Patient Navigation: The process of helping patients to effectively and efficiently use the health care system when faced with one or more of these challenges: (1) choosing, understanding, and using health coverage or applying for assistance when uninsured; (2) choosing, using, and understanding different types of health providers and services; (3) making treatment decisions; and (4) managing care received by multiple providers.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Information Literacy: The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.

The identification of agreed criteria for referral following the dental inspection of children in the school setting. (1/7635)

AIM: To clarify the function of the school based dental inspection. OBJECTIVE: For representatives of the Community Dental Service, General Dental Service and Hospital Dental Service to identify an agreed set of criteria for the referral of children following school dental inspection. DESIGN: Qualitative research methodology used to establish a consensus for the inclusion of referral criteria following dental screening. SETTING: Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, England. MATERIALS: A Delphi technique was used to establish a consensus amongst the study participants on the inclusion of nine possible criteria for referral following dental screening. All participants scored each criterion in the range 1-9, with a score of 1 indicating that referral of individuals with the condition should definitely not take place, and a score of 9 indicating referral should definitely take place. Referral criteria were accepted only if they achieved a group median score of 7 or more, with an interquartile range of three scale points, with the lower value being no less than 7. RESULTS: Four of the nine possible criteria met the agreed group standard for inclusion: 'Sepsis', 'Caries in the secondary dentition', 'Overjet > 10 mm', and 'Registered & caries in the permanent dentition'. CONCLUSION: It is possible to agree clear criteria for the referral of children following the school dental inspection.  (+info)

The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization. (2/7635)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

Slippery slopes in flat countries--a response. (3/7635)

In response to the paper by Keown and Jochemsen in which the latest empirical data concerning euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands is discussed, this paper discusses three points. The use of euthanasia in cases in which palliative care was a viable alternative may be taken as proof of a slippery slope. However, it could also be interpreted as an indication of a shift towards more autonomy-based end-of-life decisions. The cases of non-voluntary euthanasia are a serious problem in the Netherlands and they are only rarely justifiable. However, they do not prove the existence of a slippery slope. Persuading the physician to bring euthanasia cases to the knowledge of the authorities is a problem of any euthanasia policy. The Dutch notification procedure has recently been changed to reduce the underreporting of cases. However, many questions remain.  (+info)

Conditions required for a law on active voluntary euthanasia: a survey of nurses' opinions in the Australian Capital Territory. (4/7635)

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain which conditions nurses believe should be in a law allowing active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). DESIGN: Survey questionnaire posted to registered nurses (RNs). SETTING: Australian Capital Territory (ACT) at the end of 1996, when active voluntary euthanasia was legal in the Northern Territory. SURVEY SAMPLE: A random sample of 2,000 RNs, representing 54 per cent of the RN population in the ACT. MAIN MEASURES: Two methods were used to look at nurses' opinions. The first involved four vignettes which varied in terms of critical characteristics of each patient who was requesting help to die. The respondents were asked if the law should be changed to allow any of these requests. There was also a checklist of conditions, most of which have commonly been included in Australian proposed laws on AVE. The respondents chose those which they believed should apply in a law on AVE. RESULTS: The response rate was 61%. Support for a change in the law to allow AVE was 38% for a young man with AIDS, 39% for an elderly man with early stage Alzheimer's disease, 44% for a young woman who had become quadriplegic and 71% for a middle-aged woman with metastases from breast cancer. The conditions most strongly supported in any future AVE law were: "second doctor's opinion", "cooling off period", "unbearable protracted suffering", "patient fully informed about illness and treatment" and "terminally ill". There was only minority support for "not suffering from treatable depression", "administer the fatal dose themselves" and "over a certain age". CONCLUSION: Given the lack of support for some conditions included in proposed AVE laws, there needs to be further debate about the conditions required in any future AVE bills.  (+info)

Patient removals from general practitioner lists in Northern Ireland: 1987-1996. (5/7635)

BACKGROUND: Being struck off a general practitioner's list is a major event for patients and a subject for much media attention. However, it has not hitherto received much research attention. AIMS: To quantify the numbers of patients removed at doctors' request in Northern Ireland between 1987 and 1996. To describe the characteristics of those removed and to determine if the rate of removal has increased. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiological study involving a secondary data analysis of records held by the Central Services Agency. RESULTS: Six thousand five hundred and seventy-eight new patients were removed at general practitioner (GP) request between 1987 and 1996. This equated to 3920 removal decisions, a rate of 2.43 per 10,000 person-years. The very young and young adults had the highest rates of removal; most of the young being removed as part of a family. Ten point six per cent of removed patients had a repeat removal, and 16.3% of first removal decisions required an assignment to another practice. Family removals have decreased and individual removals have increased over the 10 years. Disadvantaged and densely populated areas with high population turnover were associated with higher rates of removal, though heterogeneity is evident between general practitioners serving similar areas. Compared to the period 1987 to 1991, removal rates for the years 1992 to 1993 were reduced by 20.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) for rate ratio (RR) 0.73-0.87), and those for the years 1994 to 1996 increased by 8% (95% CI = 1.01-1.16). The greatest increase was in the over-75 years age group (standardized RR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.57-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Removals are relatively rare events for both patients and practices, though they have been increasing in recent years. Further research is needed to understand the processes that culminate in a removal.  (+info)

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (6/7635)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

When to consider radiation therapy for your patient. (7/7635)

Radiation therapy can be an effective treatment modality for both malignant and benign disease. While radiation can be given as primary treatment, it may also be used pre- or postoperatively, with or without other forms of therapy. Radiation therapy is often curative but is sometimes palliative. There are many methods of delivering radiation effectively. Often, patients tolerate irradiation well without significant complications, and organ function is preserved. To ensure that all patients with cancer have the opportunity to consider all treatment options, family physicians should be aware of the usefulness of radiation therapy.  (+info)

Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics. (8/7635)

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)

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Recent work has suggested an association between the orbitofrontal cortex in humans and practical decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of cognitive deficits, with particular emphasis on decision‐making processes, following damage to different sectors of the human prefrontal cortex. Patients with discrete orbitofrontal (OBF) lesions, dorsolateral (DL) lesions, dorsomedial (DM) lesions and large frontal lesions (Large) were compared with matched controls on three different decision‐making tasks: the Iowa Gambling Task and two recently developed tasks that attempt to fractionate some of the cognitive components of the Iowa task. A comprehensive battery including the assessment of recognition memory, working memory, planning ability and attentional set‐shifting was also administered. Whilst combined frontal patients were impaired on several of the tasks employed, distinct profiles emerged for each patient group. In contrast to previous data, patients with focal ...
English 1000 Images About Decision Making On Pinterest Making Decisions Facts Decision Making Worksheets Printable Worksheets and Free for Kids
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal lethal conditions. T2 - The effect of diagnosis on decision making. AU - Hassed, Susan J.. AU - Miller, Connie H.. AU - Pope, Sandra K.. AU - Murphy, Pamela. AU - Quirk, J. Gerald. AU - Cunniff, Christopher. PY - 1993/7. Y1 - 1993/7. N2 - Objective: To identify factors influencing pregnancy management decisions following identification of a perinatal lethal condition. Methods: One hundred thirty pregnancies with perinatal lethal conditions diagnosed before 24 weeks gestation were examined. Information collected included demographic data, estimated gestational age at presentation, referral indication, nature of the defect, and performance of autopsy. Results: Eighty-seven families elected to abort affected pregnancies and 43 elected to continue. Demographic factors did not influence decision making, nor did gestational age at diagnosis or referral indication. When comparing the diagnosis of one lethal condition with diagnoses of all other lethal conditions, pregnancies ...
2015 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Speed-accuracy trade-offs are well studied in human decision making, but we are only beginning to understand how such trade-offs affect other animals. Similarly, it is poorly understood how consistent individual differences in decision making are influenced by their social context. Here we investigated whether zebrafish, Danio rerio, show individual consistency (personality) in speed-accuracy trade-offs based on a colour discrimination task, and how pairs of fish with distinct personalities make consensus choices. The results showed that zebrafish exhibit between-individual speed-accuracy trade-offs: some fish made careful, slow but accurate decisions, while others made swift but less accurate choices. We also found that these decision-making strategies were constant over time: fish retained the same strategy for 3 days. When testing pairs of careful and fast-and-inaccurate individuals, the combined choice strategy was intermediate in ...
Using a proven, practical, algorithmic approach, Surgical Decision Making summarizes evidence-based guidelines and practice protocols in an easy-to-follow format. Designed to sharpen the decision-making skills of both trainees and practicing surgeons, the 6th Edition directs your focus to the critical decision points in a wide range of clinical scenarios, helping you determine optimal evaluation and management to secure the best possible patient outcomes. Algorithms are accompanied by annotations that explain all critical factors affecting decisions in a concise, readable manner.. Author Info. By Robert C. McIntyre, MD, FACS, Professor and Chief, Division of GI, Trauma, and Endocrine Surgery; Vice Chair of Finance, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado, USA and Richard D. Schulick, MD, Professor & Chair of the University of Colorado Department of Surgery; Director of the University of Colorado Cancer Center; The Aragón/Gonzalez-Gíustí Chair, ...
Britney Spears has broken her silence on her X Factor exit, describing it as a very difficult decision. Ive made the very difficult decision not to return for another season, she said in a statement Friday. I had an incredible time doing the show and I love the other judges and I am so proud of my teens but its time for me to get back in the studio. Watching them all do their thing up on that stage every week made me miss performing so much! I cant wait to get back out there and
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Downloadable (with restrictions)! In problems to do with managing water resources multiple decision makers are involved, each acting in their own right and using different value systems. In the literature on management science, several procedures are proposed in order to establish a collective preference based on the aggregation of different individual preferences. However, the well-known methods that focus on a single winner have some inconveniences that should be addressed. This paper is focused on a group decision making procedure based on the analysis of individual rankings with the aim of choosing an appropriate alternative for a water resources problem. This alternative is found to be the best compromise from the points of view of all actors involved in the decision problem. The structure of the method is set out as is its application to the water resources problem. A comparison with other methods is presented and discussed.
How is Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) abbreviated? HCPA stands for Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making). HCPA is defined as Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) somewhat frequently.
(A)(Benchmark Assignment) Applying Decision-Making Models in Health CareThis is a benchmark assignment.Choose an ethical decision-making model from among the fo
This paper describes a new multi-player computer game, Colored Trails (CT), which may be played by people, computers and heterogeneous groups. CT was designed to enable investigation of properties of decision-making strategies in multi-agent situations of varying complexity. The paper presents the results of an initial series of experiments of CT games in which agents choices affected not only their own outcomes but also the outcomes of other agents. It compares the behavior of people with that of computer agents deploying a variety of decision-making strategies. The results align with behavioral economics studies in showing that people cooperate when they play and that factors of social dependency influence their levels of cooperation. Preliminary results indicate that people design agents to play strategies closer to game-theory predictions, yielding lower utility. Additional experiments show that such agents perform worse than agents designed to make choices that resemble human cooperative ...
By studying bacteria which are living under stressful conditions, scientists have gained fresh insights into the manner of human decision making, especially crucial ones.
Despite exciting advances toward the promise of genomics-driven cancer treatment [1, 2], there is not yet an established framework for optimal communication of test results in a clinical setting in a way that cancer best informs decision-making [3]. Research on the implementation of gene expression profiling for cancer treatment decisions has identified variable levels of understanding among patients, with misperceptions of test validity [4], and concerns among oncologists regarding patients understanding of test results [5]. This suggests a need for decision aids to support communication of genomic expression profiling test results and informed decision-making. Optimal implementation of genomic risk stratification tools, which have the potential to better match patients with the right treatments for them, should be performed within a patient-centered context that meets the National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) goals for patient-centeredness by considering "individual ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Basic and Translation Research on Decision Making in Aging and Alzheimers Disease (R21 - Clinical Trial Optional) PAR-18-538. NIA
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of observed decision time on expectations of extremity and cooperation.. AU - Evans, A.M.. AU - van de Calseyde, P.P.F.M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The present research investigates how people use observed decision time to form expectations of others behavior in social dilemmas. In four studies, participants received information about others decision times (fast or slow) and were asked to estimate how much they contributed to a common pool. People believe fast decisions are more extreme than slow decisions; in other words, they assume that fast decisions are either extremely selfish or extremely cooperative. People also believe that fast deciders are less moral (Studies 1 and 2) and less conflicted (Study 2) than slow deciders. Beliefs about decision time depend on whether time can be attributed to self-paced reaction times or external time constraints. When decisions are made under external time constraints, time has inconsistent or heterogeneous effects ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Understanding Clinical Information Needs and Health Care Decision Making Processes in the Context of Health Information Technology (IT) (R01) PA-11-198. AHRQ
Outline Classical SDT under normative rationality Behavioral factors From the decision-making literature: CPT From the phishing & deception literatures Re-derivation of optimal cutoff threshold under CPT-SDT Using T&K92 probability weighting function Using neo-additive probability weighting function Incorporating the psychology of deception Beyond comparative statics: comparative simulation results Implications Spam filtering Education & training End
To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations. The senior team at Amazon is determined to keep our decision-making velocity high. Speed matters in business - plus a high-velocity decision making environment is more fun too. We dont know all the answers, but here are some thoughts.. First, never use a one-size-fits-all decision-making process. Many decisions are reversible, two-way doors. Those decisions can use a light-weight process. For those, so what if youre wrong? I wrote about this in more detail in last years letter.. Second, most decisions should probably be made with somewhere around 70% of the information you wish you had. If you wait for 90%, in most cases, youre probably being slow. Plus, either way, you need to be good at quickly recognizing and correcting bad decisions. If youre good at course correcting, being wrong may be less costly than you think, ...
Consult the Stent Save a Life session on STEMI during EuroPCR 2017 from Thursday 18 May if you want to exchange with your colleagues about the difficult decisions in primary PCI, learn more about challenging STEMI cases from a real life setting and appraise different strategies for these patients from a global perspective.
I met someone : A true, personal story from the experience, I Have a Difficult Decision to Make. I met someone and the butterflies are gone. Im a little shocked how I lost interest so quickly. Although I am not a picky person, I dont think I should have to settle either. I realize now that I li...
This study assessed the impact of a computerised decision aid applied in a shared decision-making consultation on the primary outcome measure of decision conflict as compared to a traditional doctor-led application of paper guidelines. The key finding was a significantly lower decision conflict in the decision aid group than in the paper-based guidelines group immediately after the research clinic and this finding was present across all patients regardless of their initial treatment. Decision conflict was lower after the clinic in both groups.. In addition, there was a marked difference between the two arms in the decision whether or not to take warfarin when patients were not already on this treatment; those in the decision aid group were significantly much less likely to start warfarin than those in the paper guidelines arm.. There has been considerable debate about the most appropriate outcome measures for assessing the effectiveness of decision support tools.17 Many studies of guidelines ...
Downloadable! The subject of this paper is decision-making on the adoption, ratification and implementation of conventions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation (lLO). The first part of the paper provides-a brief introduction to the ILO as an international organisation, its treaty base and its most important bodies. In the second part of the paper, we focus on international labour standards. We first explain the decision-making procedure within the ILO which leads to the adoption of conventions and recommendations. We then deal with the ratification of conventions at the national stage and discuss the compliance with the obligations arising from ratification. The focus of the paper is not so much on the formal rules and procedures but on the question of how the rules are applied. Descriptive statistics give evidence on the degree of consensus at the decision-making stage, the voting behaviour of the delegates to the International Labour Conference, the ratification behaviour of
A Consumer Decision-Making Model in M-Commerce: The Role of Reputation Systems in Mobile App Purchases: 10.4018/IRMJ.2016040103: The objective of this paper is to understand the importance of mobile reputation systems in mobile users app discovery and purchase satisfaction. A
The objective of this study is to determine if the implementation of guidelines utilizing immediate CT Perfusion and CT Angiography in addition to non-contrast CT alters (reduces or increases) the time to decision-making for or against rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke, and by extension, time to therapy in treated patients and time to transfer from the department for all patients. A secondary objective is to determine if using CTP/CTA-inclusive hyperacute stroke guidelines improves safety by decreasing symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and mortality in patients who receive rt-PA ...
Ethical considerations. Ethical permission was obtained from the universitys research ethical committee and the manager of the primary healthcare clinic. In this study, the three main ethical guidelines of the Belmont Report of 1979, as cited in Polit and Beck (2012:252) namely, beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice were used. This included the principle of respect for persons or autonomy, whereby participants are treated as autonomous and capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research (Lobiondo-Wood 2010:252; Polit & Beck 2012:152-154). Assent and consent were obtained and no participants were coerced to take part. Participation was voluntary and no names of participants were revealed; only numbers were assigned to each interview recorded and the transcripts so as to ensure that no data will be linked to a participant when reported. This was done to ensure beneficence, respect and confidentiality. A clinic social worker and psychologist located in ...
NOTE: In the original design of this study, we hoped to utilize a modified Client Satisfaction Questionnaire for assessment of satisfaction of patient participants and physicians as secondary trial outcomes. However, we are unable to utilize any modified Client Satisfaction Questionnaires in this study, because of lack of permission from the original developer of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8, who has copyrighted and trademarked the questionnaire and prohibits such modifications. No modified client satisfaction questionnaire results have been analyzed in this study and will not be analyzed.. Study design The project design will be a single-centre randomized controlled trial conducted at University Health Network. The participants will be randomized to a) the decision aid group (in addition to usual care [counseling by his or her physician, called usual care]) or b) usual care. The DA will be available only to participants during the study (not the public or treating physicians). The ...
A Mashup Application to Support Complex Decision Making for Retail Consumers: 10.4018/jisss.2010100103: Purchase processes often require complex decision making and consumers frequently use Web information sources to support these decisions. However, increasing
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) is critical for cost-benefit decision-making. Generally, cognitive and reward-based behaviour in rodents is not thought to be lateralised within the brain. In this study, however, we demonstrate that rats with unilateral MFC lesions show a profound change in decision-making on an effort-based decision-making task. Furthermore, unilateral MFC lesions have a greater effect when the rat has to choose to put in more effort for a higher reward when it is on the contralateral side of space to the lesion. Importantly, this could not be explained by motor impairments as these animals did not show a turning bias in separate experiments. In contrast, rats with unilateral dopaminergic midbrain lesions did exhibit a motoric turning bias, but were unimpaired on the effort-based decision-making task. This rare example of a cognitive deficit caused by a unilateral cortical lesion in the rat brain indicates that the MFC may have a specialised and lateralised role in evaluating the costs
Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a
New Chemical Entities and Scheduling delegates final decisions and reasons for decisions for medicines and chemicals referred to the November 2016 ACCS, ACMS and Joint ACCS-ACMS meetings
Over the last several decades opioid treatment for chronic pain has become increasingly popular. From the sense that chronic pain had previously been undertreated, to drug companies anxious to sell new designer opioids, usage has increased several-fold. In its unfortunate history non-specialists were persuaded to prescribe opioids before they could possibly understand the complexity of the treatment.
After months of meetings and feedback, a final decision on new catchment areas for the three Lake Country elementary schools will go to the Central Okanagan School Board in the next two months.. The Central Okanagan School District held a final public consultation Thursday night in Lake Country where two different options for the new catchment areas were presented to the public.. Both options are very similar and would re-direct students living in the SouthWest quadrant of Lake Country (south of Seaton Road and west of the highway) that are currently in the Davidson Road catchment to Peter Greer Elementary. Students in the Woodsdale Flats area would be sent to Oyama Traditional School as opposed to their current catchment of Peter Greer.. The only difference in the two options is a development known as Sage Glen, where just 14 students currently reside. Those students, and any new students in that specific development, are either going to be in the Davidson Road catchment or the Peter Greer ...
Researchers have discovered that two neurons in the brain hold the key to explaining how complex behavioral decisions are made.. Get the Free Tracker App to find a Nintendo Switch in Stock. In this study, scientists monitored the snails behavior while they made decisions in their search for food.. "Our study reveals for the first time how just two neurons can create a mechanism in an animals brain which drives and optimizes complex decision making tasks," said lead researchers George Kemenes, Professor at the University of Sussex in Britain.. They then measured the activity in the snails brain by using electrodes to record small electrical changes, called action potentials, in individual neurons.. The results showed a controller type neuron which lets the snails brain know potential food is present and a second neuron which transmits signals telling the snails brain what its motivational state is, i.e., whether its hungry or not.. Also, the system created by the neurons was found to ...
The Juneau School Board is poised to make its final decision Tuesday on whether or not to shuffle school start times around in the fall.
Part A - Final decisions on matters referred to an expert advisory committee Advisory Committee on Chemicals Scheduling (ACCS#18)
The FEI Tribunal last night (Friday) published its Final Decision in the case against the Iranian rider Abdulla Mahmood Abdulla Darban (FEI ID 10044343). Samples taken from the horse Lunatica (FEI ID 103JV94/QAT), which finished fourth at the CEI1* in Doha (QAT) on 2 May 2015, returned positive for two prohibited substances, Propranolol and Dexamethasone.…
The fact is its part of your childrens "job" to do stupid things. Bad decision making is an essential part of their road to maturity. A problem arises, however, if their poor decision making continues. This usually occurs when parents dont hold them responsible for their poor decisions, instead, bailing them out of the trouble their children get into. These children learn that they arent responsible for their decisions and can continue to do stupid things without fear of consequences.. Raise Good Decision Makers. Encouraging your children to make their own decisions isnt as simple as saying, "You make the decision. Youre on your own." Instead, ceding decision making to your children is an incremental process based on their age and maturity. It would be downright dangerous to give children complete latitude in their decision making. But you can begin to teach decision-making skills in small doses even with very young children. For example, you wouldnt tell your children they can have any ...
The locus coeruleus (LC) can exhibit tonic or phasic activity and release norepinephrine (NE) throughout the cortex, modulating cellular excitability and synaptic efficacy and thus influencing behavioral performance. We study the effects of LC-NE modulation on decision making in two-alternative forced-choice tasks by changing conductances in a biophysical neural network model, and we investigate how it affects performance measured in terms of reward rate. We find that low tonic NE levels result in unmotivated behavior and high levels in impulsive, inaccurate choices, but that near-optimal performance can occur over a broad middle range. Robustness is greatest when pyramidal cells are less strongly modulated than interneurons, and superior performance can be achieved with phasic NE release, provided only glutamatergic synapses are modulated. We also show that network functions such as sensory information accumulation and short-term memory can be modulated by tonic NE levels, and that ...
Racial/ethnic minority parents were more likely to express regret about initial cancer treatment decisions for their children, according to a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Mack et al found that factors associated with less decisional regret included receiving high-quality information and detailed prognostic information as well as trust in the oncologist.. Study Details. The study consisted of a survey of 346 parents of children with cancer within 12 weeks of their initial cancer treatment decision and the childrens physicians at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Childrens Hospital and The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. The primary outcome measure was heightened regret measured by the Decisional Regret Scale.. Factors Associated With Regret. Overall, 54 parents (16%) met the criteria for heightened decisional regret. In multivariate analysis, race/ethnicity was associated with regret, with black (odds ratio [OR] = 6.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30-18.7), ...
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From the clinical perspective, the study design and the ensuing LOE classification may not always be the most important factor to consider while assessing the available evidence. Occasionally, even a well conducted RCT may not necessarily generate new knowledge superior to the knowledge gained from a case series study. Thus an RCT may be less significant to the clinical decision making than a case series study. For example, when a clinician assesses the benefits and risks of a possible treatment modality, the use of LOE alone can be misleading. An historical example is the use of Bisphosphonates for dental purposes:. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of drugs that inhibit bone resorption and they are successfully used across a wide range of medical disciplines for bone diseases (Molvik & Khan 2015; Costa 2014; Anagha & Sen 2014; Giusti 2014; Bhatt et al. 2014; Eriksen et al. 2014). However, like any drug, BPs possess the risk of side effects. BPs-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) has been ...
by Prof. Dr. Claus-Peter Rückemann, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster / Leibniz Universität Hannover / North-German Supercomputing Alliance, Germany. Description:. This tutorial focusses on the challenges of increasing the overall long-term efficiency of information, knowledge and computing related application scenarios, respecting the interests of users and disciplines, service, and resources providers.. This tutorial presents the basics of decision making and High End Computing (HEC). The term HEC summarises cluster, Grid, Cloud, High Performance Computing, and supercomputing as well as these resources may be utilised for advanced scientific computing. Decision making is the fundamental base for any process as well as decision making is a process and result itself. The tutorial will show what decision making can mean for HEC and will discuss prominent decision making processes, necessary with High End Computing and collaboration.. In order to understand deficits in decision ...
To make an optimal decision you need to know all relevant data about an individual (used to estimate the probability of an outcome), and the utility (cost, loss function) of making each decision. Sensitivity and specificity do not provide this information. Thats why direct probability models such as the binary logistic model are so popular. For example, if you estimated that the probability of a disease given age, sex, and symptoms is 0.1 and the "cost" of a false positive equaled the "cost" of a false negative, you would act as if the person does not have the disease. Given other utilities you might make different decisions. If the utilities are unknown, you give the best estimate of the probability of the outcome to the decision maker and let her incorporate her own unspoken utilities in making an optimum decision for her.. Besides the fact that cutoffs do not apply to individuals, only to groups, individual decision making does not utilize sensitivity and specificity. For an individual we ...
The Decision of Johnson Johnson Acquires Dabao. Essay The decision of Johnson Johnson Acquires Dabao. Di Wang MGT 540 MI004 Professor: Arthur Annechino 20th February 2013 Table of Contents Executive Summary3 Introduction4 The reasons of decision6 Decision making style7 The problem in decision making process8 Recommendations9 Conclusion11 Reference12 Executive Summary This paper is talking about the Johnson Johnson Acquires Dabao. It starts with review the two companiesâ⠬⠢ history, and then shows the problem of them before acquiring. Further analysis of Johnson Johnsonâ⠬⠢s decision with the problems that in their decision making process and also the decision making style that could be found in the acquisition. At last, give some recommendations to JNJ and the conclusion for this whole paper. Introduction Johnson Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. Its common stock is a ...
Methods: Prospective observational study of mental healthcare in six European countries: Germany, UK, Italy Hungary, Denmark and Switzerland. Patients (N = 588) and treating clinicians (N = 213) reported preferred and experienced decision making at baseline using the Clinical Decision Making Style Scale (CDMS) and the Clinical Decision Involvement and Satisfaction Scale (CDIS). Retrospective service use was assessed with the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI-EU) at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Negative binomial regression analyses examined the effects of CDMS and CDIS on service use and inpatient costs at baseline and multilevel models examined these relationships over time ...
Background: Patients with advanced cancer for whom standard systemic treatment is no longer available may be offered participation in early phase clinical trials. In the decision making process, both medical-technical information and patient values and preferences are important. Since patients report decisional conflict after deciding on participation in these trials, improving the decision making process is essential. We aim to develop and evaluate an Online Value Clarification Tool (OnVaCT) to assist patients in clarifying their values around this end-of-life decision. This improved sharing of values is hypothesized to support medical oncologists in tailoring their information to individual patients needs and, consequently, to support patients in taking decisions in line with their values and reduce decisional conflict. Methods: In the first part, patients values and preferences and medical oncologists views hereupon will be explored in interviews and focus groups to build a first prototype ...
BMJ Best Practice now even better placed to support decision making at the point of care Clinical decision-making has become a little easier with the launch of
I know I write a lot about bringing as many people as possible into the decision making process. When a certain issue affects a lot of people, its important to get a sense of the scope of the…
A video training series providing an overview of important considerations of radiation epidemiology, describing what distinguishes a well-designed or reliable study from an unreliable, and a flawed study. The series explores how the results of epidemiologic studies are misused or misrepresented and the impact on creating public health policy and evidence-based health practices.
... decision making; technology, policy and assessment - with an HQ function aimed at engaging with the wider UK energy research ... in the UK and a series of energy roadmaps showing research problems to be overcome before new technologies can be made ...
DREAM: 3,900 adolescent girls participate in these school-based clubs, which teach life skills; decision-making; sexual and ... Young Heroes was created in 2006 as an initiative by Swaziland's National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA). Its ... It is affiliated with the U.S.-based Young Heroes Foundation, which was created at the same time as the Swazi operation. • Life ...
... decision-making; and the Arab Israeli conflict. He received a bachelor's degree in Middle Eastern studies and Political Science ... decision-making, and the Arab Israeli conflict. Since the 1990s, his research primarily has focused on conflict resolution, and ... decision-makers, researchers, and the general public. He also held several additional senior academic positions at the Hebrew ... The Complexity of Decisionmaking - The Israeli Case (The Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research, 1996) The Disengagement from ...
Decision-making. Ability to quickly solve the problems, make decisions under pressure and take responsibility for the outcome. ... These changes are made in an effort to reduce costs and to make the organization flatter - subsequently increasing the ... Their duties include creating an effective working environment, administrating the work process, making sure it is compliant ... This creates barriers to a growth of a company and lags the overall working process. The overall necessity of middle managers ...
"Decision Making". The Scout Association. Retrieved 17 December 2013. "Network Badges and Awards". The Scout Association. ... Scout Network was created as a result of the Scout Association's Programme Review that began in 1995. Throughout the 1990s, the ... In larger County networks there can often be large committees made up of representatives from all the Network groups. In ... the International Scouts of the World Award which focuses on making a social impact through an international journey, and the ...
Kasperson, Roger E.; Minghi, Julian V. (2011). "Decision Making". The Structure of Political Geography. New Brunswick, NJ: ... The main branch is found on Coleridge Street, in a coral-stone building, built in the style of the English Renaissance. For a ... Driving is done of the left-hand side of the road with a speed limit of 60 km/h (37 mph) in built-up areas. The speed limit on ... Bridgetown was built upon a street layout resembling early English Medieval or market towns with its narrow serpentine street ...
"Decision Making". The Structure of Political Geography. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. Pg. 554. ISBN 978-1-4128- ... Barbados and the Government of Trinidad and Tobago signed an agreement to construct an undersea 177 mile oil or Liquid Natural ... A Trinidadian the Right Excellent Clement Osbourne Payne was made a national hero of Barbados by the Barbadian government for ...
"One-third of Americans say they've had to make a decision about whether to keep a loved one alive using extraordinary means". ... Medical Decision-Making. 1994;14:9-19. "Living Wills, Health Care Proxies, & Advance Health Care Directives". ABA. American Bar ... It is a six-page document that provides six case scenarios for advance medical decision-making. The scenarios are each ... 1989). "Decision-making ability and advance directive preferences in nursing home patients and proxies". Gerontologist. 29: 622 ...
... decision-making). Psychologists in particular would be particularly interested in the different types of decision-making. ... Instead of making choices between profiles, the respondent must make best and worst (most and least) choices within a profile. ... of decision-making and/or merely to collect data in a systematic way. Three chapters, one for each case, follow, detailing the ... Medical Decision Making. 31 (3): 458-468. doi:10.1177/0272989X10381280. ISSN 0272-989X. PMID 20924044. Ratcliffe, Professor ...
ISBN 1-412-90546-X. Borror, Connie M. (2009). "Statistical decision making". The Certified Quality Engineer Handbook (3rd ed ... ISBN 1-412-93982-8. McKillup, Steve (2006). "Probability helps you make a decision about your results". Statistics Explained: ... In specific fields such as particle physics and manufacturing, statistical significance is often expressed in multiples of the ... as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding (or implied truth) leads to considerable distortion of the scientific ...
Behavioral decision-making. The attribution of human characteristics to animals. Machines and artificial agents. Evolutionary ...
Decision-Making; Coordinating Bodies". United Nations. Retrieved 15 July 2014. Ministry of Environment website. ...
"Quality-adjusted Life Years, Utility Theory, and Healthy-years Equivalents". Medical Decision Making. 9 (2): 142-149. doi: ... It also created the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB), an independent semi-judicial body, which had the purpose of ... The GDUFA was designed to build upon the 20-year-old Prescription Drug Fee Act and improve the generic drug review and approval ... An effort is being made to determine if the value of a drug justifies its price. Such measures include cost-minimization, cost- ...
Reyna, V.F. (2008). "A theory of medical decision making and health: Fuzzy trace theory". Medical Decision Making. 28 (6): 850- ... medical decision making, risk perception and estimation, and biases and fallacies in decision making. FTT was initially ... An integrative theory of judgment and decision making". Emerging perspectives on judgment and decision research: 201-245. Reyna ... Society for Medical Decision Making Spring Newsletter (2012) Tversky, A.; Koehler, D. J. (1994). "Support theory: A ...
... and decision making. EMIS information is specifically used to create indicators that monitor the performance of an education ...
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 3 (4): 263-277. doi:10.1002/bdm.3960030404. Baron, Jonathan (2006). "Omission versus ... Medical Decision Making. 14 (2): 118-123. doi:10.1177/0272989X9401400204. PMID 8028464. ...
In (book chapter): Decision-making Frameworks. In: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the ... In (book chapter): Decision-making Frameworks. In: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the ... Decision-making Frameworks. Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report ... including private and social cost perspectives and relationships to other decision-making frameworks". In B. Metz; et al. ...
... societal decision-making; economic activities and their impact on humankind and the environment. Sharing the planet: An inquiry ... Making the PYP Happen, World School IB: A Curriculum framework for international primary education, 2007. "General FAQ". ibo. ... How we organize ourselves: An inquiry into the interconnections of human-made systems and communities; the structure and ... The programme was created by a group of international school educators (Kevin Bartlett of the Vienna International School, Paul ...
25 (7). doi:10.1007/s11136-016-1337-z. Kattan, Michael (2009). Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making. SAGE Publications. ISBN ... Medical Decision Making. 17 (4): 439-46. doi:10.1177/0272989X9701700409. PMID 9343802. Frosch, Dominick L.; Kaplan, Robert M.; ... De Jong, Z.; Van Der Heijde, D.; McKenna, S. P.; Whalley, D. (1997). "The reliability and construct validity of the RAQoL: A ... Hughes, T. E.; Kaplan, R. M.; Coons, S. J.; Draugalis, J. R.; Johnson, J. A.; Patterson, T. L. (1997). "Construct Validities of ...
One statement in particular created considerable debate when he said, "The decision is not whether or not we will ration care- ... Ayanian JZ, Berwick DM (1991). "Do physicians have a bias toward action? A classic study revisited". Medical Decision Making. ... Comparison of assessment methods". Medical Decision Making. 4 (3): 315-29. doi:10.1177/0272989X8400400307. PMID 6335216. . ... In that position, Berwick investigated quality control measures in other industries such as aeronautics and manufacturing, in ...
Structure of the decision-making unit can be one of the most effective criteria. Knowing the decision-making process has been ... local decision-making structure, decision-making power of purchasing officers vs. engineers or technical specifiers. Supply ... Decision-making stage. This criterion can only apply to newcomers. In cases of long-term relationship, which is usually the ... However, type of buying institution and the decision-making stage can only work on paper. As institutional buyers cut ...
"Bios , Cell Decision Making". physicsoflivingsystems.org. Retrieved 2016-09-22. Redfield, Rosemary J. (1980). Methylation and ...
Beck, J.Robert; Pauker, Stephen G. (1983-12-01). "The Markov Process in Medical Prognosis". Medical Decision Making. 3 (4): 419 ... Gotz, Glenn A.; McCall, John J. (1983-03-01). "Sequential Analysis of the Stay/Leave Decision: U.S. Air Force Officers". ...
This principle, applied to decision making, suggests that making a decision in a problem should not be affected by how the ... Reyna, V. F. (2008). "A Theory of Medical Decision Making and Health: Fuzzy Trace Theory". Medical Decision Making. 28 (6): 850 ... which can affect decision making, resulting in decisions that are more systematic. Framing effects in decision-making become ... It is significant that, when prompted to do so, older adults will often make a less biased decision with reevaluation of their ...
Loomes, Graham; McKenzie, Lynda (1989). "The use of QALYs in health care decision making". Social Science & Medicine. 28 (4): ... Medical Decision Making. 28 (1): 66-89. doi:10.1177/0272989X07309642. PMID 18263562. Dolan, P (January 2008). "Developing ... which recommended not using QALYs in healthcare decision making. Instead, the guidelines recommended that cost-effectiveness ... and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development made the following points. First, QALYs are better than ...
... processes like acquired rule-based systems in decision making and the manipulation of visual representations in decision making ... Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details. (March 2014) (Learn ... Francis Crick and Christof Koch made some attempts to formulate a consistent framework for future work in neural correlates of ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
Shared decision making involves the following steps of medical decision making, and a decision might require more than one ... Assess how comfortable the patient is with his or her decision.. At the end of the process, as a decision is made, the ... Shared decision making in preventive health care. Roland Grad, France Légaré, Neil R. Bell, James A. Dickinson, Harminder Singh ... Shared decision making in preventive health care. Roland Grad, France Légaré, Neil R. Bell, James A. Dickinson, Harminder Singh ...
Decision-making techniques[edit]. Decision-making techniques can be separated into two broad categories: group decision-making ... Participative decision-making occurs when an authority opens up the decision-making process to a group of people for a ... Automated decision support: setting up criteria for automated decisions.. *Decision support systems: using decision-making ... Biases usually affect decision-making processes. Here is a list of commonly debated biases in judgment and decision-making:. * ...
... learn what is decision and decision stages . • Distinguish between DM and Problem Solving • Difference between Programmed and ... 2) Never make a snap decision about anything. 3) Make written notes when you are making a decision - perform a SWOT analysis if ... 8. Decision Making Process Step 5 : Select a decision making tool There are several tools for selecting a decision , Please see ... 6) When youve made a decision, stick to it. 7) When you have made your decision, and before you take any action on it, think ...
... Pablo T. Spiller, Rafael Gely. NBER Working Paper No. 13321. Issued in August 2007. NBER ... We explore, then, the role politics play in judicial decision-making. We provide a brief overview of what is called the " ... Published: Strategic Judicial Decision-making Pablo T. Spiller and Rafael Gely The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics Print ... w10120 Behavioral Decision-Making: An Application to the Setting of Magazine Subscription Prices. ...
Bad decision making is an essential part of their road to maturity. A problem arises, however, if their poor decision making ... Coach Good Decision Making. You can help your children learn good decision making by coaching them through decisions. This ... "You make the decision. Youre on your own." Instead, ceding decision making to your children is an incremental process based on ... understand why they made a poor decision, and ensure that they "get it" so that they dont make the same bad decision again. ...
The article Decision making on Wikipedia projects: (. en. ) Decision making ·. (. ar. ) اتخاذ القرار · (. cs. ) Rozhodování · ( ... Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of ... Media in category "Decision making". The following 184 files are in this category, out of 184 total. ... Attracting-Dynamics-of-Frontal-Cortex-Ensembles-during-Memory-Guided-Decision-Making-pcbi.1002057.s008.ogv 1 min 4 s, 560 × 420 ...
... who makes the final decision, and whos on the committee if there is one. Ask more questions, ask how you can assist, and ask ... Just dont get the names of the other decision-makers, ask the buyer to make an introduction for you. Fourth, some buyers will ... An important part of your research phase of the sales process is knowing your customer, who makes the final decision, and whos ... if they arent the one making the decision, who does? If the buyer truly does like your program, she could be a really big help ...
Still have concerns about making the vaccine decision? Find answers to common vaccine concerns here. ... Making sure vaccines are safe is a priority for CDC. CDC and FDA take many steps to make sure vaccines are very safe both ... A decision not to immunize your child also involves risk and could put your child and others who come into contact with him or ... Think of it this way: You always make sure to buckle your child in his car seat even though you dont expect to be in an ...
Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test for and treat ... Shared decision making is often used when you and your provider need to make big decisions such as:. *Taking a medicine for the ... Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(1):6-8. PMID: 23281971 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ... Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test for and treat ...
Priiva Consulting www.priiva.com On Decision Making Achieving your optimal outcome through game theory. By: Bill Forquer www. ... On decision making r6 oct 2010 * 1. Priiva Consulting www.priiva.com On Decision Making Achieving your optimal outcome through ... How we do it... features decision-making strategy by three renowned business executives. How to test your decision-making ... Decision Armed with the camaraderie of debating the "right" strategy, a decision gets made. When I ask executives how decisions ...
Its not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are. -- Roy Disney Yes, its that time of year again… Spring ... Its common knowledge but bears repeating: Technology should never lead the decision-making process for DAM demands - business ... And yet, the decision to go with a DAM system entails a chain of questions to be carefully considered before proceeding down ... The decision to implement a Digital Asset Management system is a vital step to gaining operational and intellectual control of ...
But the work of behavioral economists has made it clear that its much easier for people to make the right decision when that ... Nudges and Decision-Making. Posted by Jonah Lehrer on May 16, 2007 ... to encourage good decision-making. He begins with a fascinating anecdote about patients in hospital beds:. For more than a ... so that people can make a decision based on relevant facts. Our brain is easily intimidated, and too much information is ...
Decision. Circumstances That May Guide Best Level of Decision-Making. Potential Best Level of Decision-Making. ... A final decision is made by one of the providers. Shared decision-making (level 4). Each healthcare provider presents their ... A two-way flow of information with some discussion, yet a decision is not made with shared decision-making. During medical ... a joint decision is made and followed. The decision may involve ethical dilemmas, where no decision is totally correct. ...
Mela K, Tiainen T, Heinisuo M (2012) Comparative study of multiple criteria decision making methods for building design. Adv ... Simulation results show that the proposed method has a high efficiency compared to some of the existing decision-making methods ... This paper proposes a novel, knowledge and learning based method called behavior-based decision making, BBDM, in control and ... Ho W, Xu X, Dey PK (2010) Multi-criteria decision making approaches for supplier evaluation and selection: a literature review ...
Daniel Morgan failed to consider the role that psychological factors play in physician decision-making. He presumed that ... The Lilys 2018 gift guide: 52 items made and curated by women ...
Making decisions - "What are some things to think about when making decisions?" ... Making decisions that are right for you can be hard. Professionals and other people and groups can help you look at all of the ... But you are the final decision maker, because you know your family and child better than anyone else. ...
... in not making decision that cannot be made effective, and in not making decisions that others should make. Not to decide ... Once you make any decision, it works around that decision. There is no right or wrong, only a series of possibilities that ... When making any decision, decision makers should be aware of the opportunity costs that accompany each possible action. In fact ... Not to make decisions that cannot be made effective is to refrain from destroying authority. Not to make decisions that others ...
Tiny Brain Region Linked To Decision Making. A University of British Columbia study revealed that region of the brain called ... Read the Article: Decision Making Linked To One Of The Brains Oldest, Smallest Regions ] ... They said these findings "clarify the brain processes involved in the important decisions that we make on a daily basis, from ... However researchers found that its also important for choosing the right decision when were given choices, and without it, we ...
The decision making process involves evaluating a scenario from different angles, or perspectives, in order to identify ... How to Develop Alternative Perspectives for Decision Making. ... Employ all of your senses during the decision making process. ... How to Develop Alternative Perspectives for Decision Making. The decision making process involves evaluating a scenario from ... Imagine you are a different person approaching the problem. Just imaging you are making a decision from a different viewpoint ...
Collective decision making in bacterial viruses.. Weitz JS1, Mileyko Y, Joh RI, Voit EO. ... depending on the cellular multiplicity of infection within a broad class of gene regulatory models of viral decision-making. ... and that features of collective decision-making in viruses are evolvable life history traits. ... Simulated dynamics of the decision switch as a function of multiplicity of infection, where = 1, 3, and 5. Notice that CII ...
Talk to your health care provider about all the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization ... However, some may regret the decision later. Men or women who are younger at the time they have surgery are more likely to ...
The importance of game theory to modern analysis and decision-making can be gauged by the fact that since 1970, as many as 12 ... Advanced Game Theory Strategies For Decision-Making By Elvis Picardo, CFA Share ... The importance of game theory to modern analysis and decision-making can be gauged by the fact that since 1970, as many as 12 ... Game theory can be used very effectively as a tool for decision-making whether in an economical, business or personal setting. ...
Decision making, Drug therapy, Handbooks, Mental Disorders, Methods, Psychopharmacology, Decision theory: general, Psychiatry, ... Decision making in psychopharmacology by S. Kasper, Siegfried Kasper, Joseph Zohar, Dan J. Stein; 2 editions; First published ... Decision making, Drug therapy, Handbooks, Mental Disorders, Methods, Psychopharmacology, Decision theory: general, Psychiatry, ... Decision making in psychopharmacology 2002, Martin Dunitz, Distributed in the USA by Fulfilment Center, Taylor & Francis ...
No matter what the decision is, however, it all starts with the trustees. It is this body that makes the decision to move ... or go to the public to procure community-based funding for a building, they must make an informed decision that includes the ... once the board makes a decision, it is imperative that all its members support that decision. After deliberations in one ... Once the decision to move forward is made, the board must put a plan in place that educates elected officials or the voters. ...
Decision Making. Decision making is one of the fundamental responsibilities of every leader. A leader may have all the skills ... 6. Decision-making process. a. State the purpose of the decision. b. Brainstorm all possible alternatives. c. Determine the ... Such a process will enable the leader to avoid the hidden traps of decision making, determine the appropriate person to make ... Fortunately, decision making is a skill that can be learned, and that skill is the focus of this program. ...
  • This Enforcement Decision Making Committee (EDMC) annual report covers the period from the EDMC's establishment in August 2018 until end-February 2020. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • The Enforcement Decision Making Committee (EDMC) is a committee of the Bank of England ('the Bank') that was established in August 2018 to decide contested enforcement cases. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Just don't get the names of the other decision-makers, ask the buyer to make an introduction for you. (lynda.com)
  • Fourth, some buyers will tell you that they'll discuss your offering with other decision-makers. (lynda.com)
  • Lastly, ask your buyer for assistance to meet with other decision-makers. (lynda.com)
  • This video is intended for users and producers of statistics, middle and senior staff in the Statistical Offices, policy and decision makers, academia, and stakeholders interested in gender statistics. (unece.org)
  • Finally, this comprehensive resource can be used as a guide for non-expert industry decision-makers and government policymakers who need a thorough overview on the industry. (elsevier.com)
  • It is often assumed that decision-makers at any age have both the right and ability to make their own choices that maximizes their welfare, but our data suggest that this one-size-fits-all approach may be wrong for models that target broad populations. (psychcentral.com)
  • Model simulations further predict that quorum responses by fish improve the accuracy and speed of their decision-making over that of independent decision-makers or those using a weak linear response. (pnas.org)
  • Scientific input can help decision makers and resource managers anticipate the consequences of interventions. (eawag.ch)
  • Ethics policy recently adopted by the AMA recommends ways that physicians should support parents in helping children become independent decision-makers. (ama-assn.org)
  • The considerations described above should always be kept in mind by decision-makers, but are reflected in the principles, outcomes, rules and policies they are applying. (sra.org.uk)
  • What is very important in the case of this particular handbook is how the authors are able to introduce the two quite different groups of people - the decision-makers and the ecologists - to the areas they are not familiar with. (springer.com)
  • The author provides two strategies to help the decision-makers select and design an appropriate approach to a complex decision problem. (worldcat.org)
  • The results indicate that stress may help decision-makers when they are evaluating potential threats. (redorbit.com)
  • It is intended to strengthen the Bank's enforcement processes by ensuring a functional separation between the Bank's investigation teams and executive as a whole, and the Bank's decision makers in contested enforcement cases. (bankofengland.co.uk)
  • Studies done at the University of Colorado have shown that more complex environments correlate with higher cognitive function, which means that a decision can be influenced by the location. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have long-observed that cognitive function improves throughout adolescence, peaks in adulthood, and declines with age, but behavioral changes in decision-making across a lifespan have been largely unstudied. (psychcentral.com)
  • This memorandum reports results from the first round of cognitive interviews with draft items on doctor discussions about PSA testing and PSA test decision making. (cdc.gov)
  • Cognitive Fluctuations as a Challenge for the Assessment of Decision-Making Capacity in Patients with Dementia. (innovations-report.com)
  • A series of NDM books have been published, and in 1995 the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society established a new technical group, Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, that has built on the NDM tradition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NDM framework focuses on cognitive functions such as decision making, sensemaking, situational awareness, planning - which emerge in natural settings and take forms that are not easily replicated in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dean Mobbs, assistant professor of cognitive neuroscience, and Colin Camerer, the Robert Kirby Professor of Behavioral Economics and T&C Chen Center for Social and Decision Neuroscience Leadership Chair, will focus on the neural systems used in threat response. (caltech.edu)
  • But the work of behavioral economists has made it clear that it's much easier for people to make the right decision when that decision is the default choice. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The knowledge base is built by the system based on various behavioral styles (e.g., safe) associated to other systems and humans. (springer.com)
  • All operations of the BBDM method are performed by a proposed behavioral decision system, called BDS, which consists of three main units: decomposition, behavioral inference, and composition. (springer.com)
  • A new study suggests a display of poor decision making during primary school increases the risk of interpersonal and behavioral difficulties during adolescence. (psychcentral.com)
  • The study was recently published in the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making . (psychcentral.com)
  • Researchers compared each child's scores from the initial decision-making assessment to the child's and their parent's behavioral reports. (psychcentral.com)
  • They found that children who scored worse on the initial decision-making assessment were more likely to have behavioral problems two years later. (psychcentral.com)
  • This estimation has been shown to be close to optimal in many cases, making optimal Bayesian decision making a successful framework shared by behavioral, neurobiological, and psychological studies ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Research by Columbia Business School's Modupe Akinola, Assistant Professor, Management, and Wendy Berry Mendes, Associate Professor, Sarlo/Ekman Endowed Chair of Emotion, University of California San Francisco in Behavioral Neuroscience examines how increases in cortisol, brought on by an acute social stressor, can influence threat-related decision making. (redorbit.com)
  • We have set up an exchange program with three labs in Australia that share similar interests, to build the theoretical and applied expertise in both countries. (usgs.gov)
  • Forbes CommunityVoice ™ allows professional fee-based membership groups ("communities") to connect directly with the Forbes audience by enabling them to create content - and participate in the conversation - on the Forbes digital publishing platform. (forbes.com)
  • Below is all of the content on our site that has been tagged Policy-Consensus/Decision Making . (cohousing.org)
  • More specifically, he found that damage to the amygdala, the center of our emotions in the brain, can affect our capacity for decision making. (forbes.com)
  • Adolphs and Cendri Hutcherson, director of the University of Toronto's Decision Neuroscience Lab, will team up to look at how different social situations affect altruistic behavior in an individual. (caltech.edu)
  • 22. The Connections between Affect and Decision Making: Nine Resulting Phenomena: Yuval Rottenstreich And Suzanne Shu (both University of Chicago). (wiley.com)
  • The task also included a race-related component allowing the researchers to test whether cortisol increases differentially affect decision making depending on the race of the potentially hostile (i.e., armed) target. (redorbit.com)
  • The main decision that expectant parents need to make about cord blood is whether to publicly donate their baby's newborn stem cells or to save them privately for their own family. (babycenter.com)
  • Multiple criteria decision-making research has developed rapidly and has become a main area of research for dealing with complex decision problems which require the consideration of multiple objectives or criteria. (worldcat.org)
  • This area of decision-making, although very old, has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners and is still highly debated as there are many MCDA methods which may yield very different results when they are applied on exactly the same data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Minnesota have discovered that rats in a decision making experiment showed three behaviors consistent with regret . (slashdot.org)
  • Researchers believe the study helps to clarify the association between decision-making and high-risk behavior. (psychcentral.com)
  • Decision researchers had conducted experiments and developed models for decades prior to the emergence of NDM in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the researchers' knowledge, this is the first study to report an effect of cortisol on threat-related decision making, a departure from studies that observe the impact cortisol has on non-threatening situations. (redorbit.com)
  • Using a virtual reality maze and brain imaging system, Princeton researchers have detected a form of neural activity the formation of short-term memories used in decision-making. (princeton.edu)
  • Before a vaccine is ever given to people, FDA oversees extensive lab testing of the vaccine that can take several years to make sure it is safe and effective. (cdc.gov)
  • In many cases, it's even more important to present the information in as clear and simple a manner as possible, so that people can make a decision based on relevant facts. (scienceblogs.com)
  • According to historian Jon Meacham's account in "Songs of America ," Ike asked, "Mr. President, before you approved this [plan for the invasion], did you have everybody in front of you debating the thing so you got the pros and cons yourself and then made the decision, or did you see these people one at time. (smartbrief.com)
  • Volume 2, Individual Decision Making, considers how people make choices, including choices between complex options, and choices involving risk and time. (sagepub.com)
  • Does Living in California Make People Happy? (sagepub.com)
  • Most people can benefit from decision-making training. (psychcentral.com)
  • The representativeness heuristic can also make people susceptible to the gambler's fallacy. (sparknotes.com)
  • Recalling a few dramatic TV reports of plane crashes could make people overestimate the likelihood of a plane crash. (sparknotes.com)
  • Instead of beginning with formal models of decision making, they began by conducting field research to try to discover the strategies people used. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who do that - especially if they leverage themselves in doing so - will normally make a lot of money, and cash large bonuses. (reuters.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/852790680 Title: Intelligent Strategies for Meta Multiple Criteria Decision Making Author: Thomas Hanne Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 2001. (worldcat.org)
  • Starting from the research of factors that influence the reliability of city distribution system, further construction of city distribution system reliability influence model is built based on Bayesian networks. (hindawi.com)
  • We first obtained a decision rule based on Bayesian estimation that uses the information provided by the behaviors of the other individuals to improve the estimation of the structure of the world. (pnas.org)
  • As a result, they make a "consensus decision" to shelter together under one of two identical shelters ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Noting that the "best-interest standard" has long predominated, the report noted that consensus today rests on a more nuanced view of medical decision-making for minors. (ama-assn.org)
  • Searching for Policy-Consensus/Decision Making in the Cohousing-L email archives. (cohousing.org)
  • No decision to break consensus may be made until the group has attempted to reach consensus by all reasonable means, including the hiring of an outside consultant to assist the group in reaching consensus. (cohousing.org)
  • McKinsey Quarterly is always a great source for strategy topics, including strategic decision making. (slideshare.net)
  • And not so recent, yet relevant, "Making the board more strategic: A McKinsey Global Survey" offers great insights about board and management interactions. (slideshare.net)
  • Decision-Making for Biomass-Based Production Chains: The Basic Concepts and Medothologies presents a comprehensive study of key-issues surrounding the integration of strategic, tactical and operational decision levels for supply chains in the biomass, biofuels and biorefining sectors. (elsevier.com)
  • He has been involved for 25 years in teaching, research, training, and consultancy in Decision Aid, Project Management, Strategic Planning and Knowledge Management. (springer.com)
  • An advance decision can be made if you're aged 18 or over, to specify which medical treatments you would accept or refuse under certain circumstances, even if this will cause an earlier death. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • You should keep your advance decision under review and amend it if circumstances change, or if new treatments become available. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Our motivating hypothesis is that enabling agents to dynamically set and re-assess both their degree of commitment to one another and the sanctions for decommitment according to their prevailing circumstances will make coordination more eective. (psu.edu)
  • Each of these articles deal with some aspect of Cost-Volume-Profit and its use or impact on decision making for financial managers. (bartleby.com)
  • Get Accounting for Managers: Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision-Making, Canadian Edition now with O'Reilly online learning. (oreilly.com)
  • Explore a preview version of Accounting for Managers: Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision-Making, Canadian Edition right now. (oreilly.com)
  • The Canadian edition of Accounting for Managers: Interpreting Accounting Information for Decision-Making builds on the success of the original textbook that was published in the United Kingdom. (oreilly.com)
  • WORKPLACE DECISION MAKING- MY REFLECTION 'S Dealing with ambiguity comes naturally to us humans, and it starts with learning our first language as an infant. (ipl.org)
  • Previous studies in monkeys and humans indicate that the posterior parietal cortex is a part of the brain that is important for movement planning, spatial attention and decision-making. (princeton.edu)
  • A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a finite set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker(s) when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may follow a recognition primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, National Park Service, and Argonne National Laboratory, completed a decision analysis to use in the evaluation of alternatives in the Environmental Impact Statement concerning the long-term management of water releases from Glen Canyon Dam and associated management. (usgs.gov)
  • What are the alternatives to an advance decision? (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • Tier 1 Chairholder of the Canada Research Chair in Shared Decision Making and Knowledge Translation and Full Professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. (cfp.ca)
  • Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving , in particular in European psychological research . (wikipedia.org)
  • This research underscores that decision-making is a skill and it can be taught," he said. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is based on selected and invited papers presented and discussed at the 2013 International Conference on Multidimensional Finance, Insurance and Investment (ICMFII'13), held at the College of Business Administration at the University of Bahrain from 25th to 27th November 2013 with the co-sponsorship of the International Society on Multiple Criteria Decision Making and the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences - MCDM section. (springer.com)
  • The fact is that in the real world we make choices where there is no clear 'best' choice, where other people's opinions influence us, and where we often choose something that we know we should not choose," says Adolphs, who is also the director and the Allen V. C. Davis and Lenabelle Davis Leadership Chair of the Caltech Brain Imaging Center , where much of the research will be conducted. (caltech.edu)
  • An extension of the Electre I method for group decision-making under a fuzzy environment ," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2278, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE). (repec.org)
  • He is a member of the Centre for Research into Economic Learning and Social Evolution and is a former president of the European Association for Decision Making . (wiley.com)
  • Part II concentrates on management accounting information for planning, decision-making and control, while Part III provides the supporting information including relevant readings that demonstrate some current research and literature in management accounting. (oreilly.com)
  • CDC and FDA take many steps to make sure vaccines are very safe both before and after the public begins using the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • There are many steps to building the 'House of DAM' that merit attention well before any technology has been considered, let alone purchased. (cmswire.com)
  • Follow these steps for how to develop alternative perspectives for decision making. (wikihow.com)
  • It is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision-making. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decision making is one of the most important skills your children need to develop to become healthy and mature adults. (psychologytoday.com)
  • More than 3,000,000 copies downloaded, perhaps the most important book to read about creating ideas that spread. (typepad.com)
  • Even the healthiest of elders showed profoundly compromised decision-making, and risk attitudes showed systematic changes across the lifespan that the authors say have important policy implications. (psychcentral.com)
  • We conclude that if appropriately designed, implemented, analysed and interpreted, DCEs offer several advantages in the health sector, the most important of which is that they provide rich data sources for economic evaluation and decision making, allowing investigation of many types of questions, some of which otherwise would be intractable analytically. (springer.com)
  • Why Is Decision-Making so Important? (reference.com)
  • It is important to make an advance decision when you are mentally competent. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • It's important to keep an up-to-date copy of your advance decision with your GP, or healthcare professional, your family and your solicitor. (parkinsons.org.uk)
  • However, it is important to note that in other laboratory studies using the same shooter paradigm as the one in this study, it has been found that civilians do tend to make more errors when completing this task, and do tend to shoot unarmed Black targets more frequently than unarmed White targets, but that was not the case in our sample of police officers. (redorbit.com)
  • It's much easier psychologically to just keep talking and studying because making a decision puts you at risk of being wrong. (oreilly.com)
  • We believe that raising a platform for environmental decision-making puts issues into their right perspective, it is fun, and it lets an individual contribute to society's understanding of the environment in a very short while. (springer.com)
  • The growth in deployment of data-producing sensors on the Internet of Things, the exposure of government and commercially created data, and the explosion in volunteered information via social media and other channels have left organizations awash in varied, voluminous, and high-velocity data. (esri.com)
  • Tools are needed to convert this data richness into insight that allows organizations to make reliable forecasts. (esri.com)
  • 18. Internal and Substantive Inconsistencies in Decision-Making: Christopher K. Hsee (University of Chicago), Jiao Zhang (University of Chicago), and Chen Junsong (China Europe International Business School). (wiley.com)
  • So Dr. Gropper made a new rule. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We here show that this diversity of decision systems corresponds to a single rule of decision making in collectives. (pnas.org)
  • We then tested this rule in decision experiments using zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), and in existing rich datasets of argentine ants ( Linepithema humile ) and sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), showing that a unified model across species can quantitatively explain the diversity of decision systems. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, clinicians should consider using an IP-SDM model that allows for the exchange of information, deliberation, and joint attainment of a treatment decision in a structured manner. (medscape.com)