A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.

Direct evidence of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in squid rhabdomeric membranes. (1/1021)

Na+/Ca2+ exchange has been investigated in squid (Loligo pealei) rhabdomeric membranes. Ca2+-containing vesicles have been prepared from purified rhabdomeric membranes by extrusion through polycarbonate filters of 1-micrometer pore size. After removal of external Ca2+, up to 90% of the entrapped Ca2+ could be specifically released by the addition of Na+; this finding indicates that most of the vesicles contained Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux had a half-maximum value (K1/2) of approximately 44 mM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 1.7. The maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was approximately 0.6 nmol Ca2+. s-1. mg protein-1. Similar Na+-induced Ca2+ effluxes were measured if K+ was replaced with Li+ or Cs+. Vesicles loaded with Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange also released this Ca2+ by Na+/Ca2+ exchange, suggesting that Na+/Ca2+ exchange operated in both forward and reverse modes. Limited proteolysis by trypsin resulted in a rate of Ca2+ efflux enhanced by approximately fivefold when efflux was activated with 95 mM NaCl. For vesicles subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin, Na+/Ca2+ exchange was characterized by a K1/2 of approximately 25 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. For these vesicles, the maximal Na+-induced Ca2+ efflux was about twice as great as in control vesicles. We conclude that Na+/Ca2+ exchange proteins localized in rhabdomeric membranes mediate Ca2+ extrusion in squid photoreceptors.  (+info)

Distinguishing surface effects of calcium ion from pore-occupancy effects in Na+ channels. (2/1021)

The effects of calcium ion on the Na+ activation gate were studied in squid giant axons. Saxitoxin (STX) was used to block ion entry into Na+ channels without hindering access to the membrane surface, making it possible to distinguish surface effects of calcium from pore-occupancy effects. In the presence of STX, gating kinetics were measured from gating current (Ig). The kinetic effects of external calcium concentration changes were small when STX was present. In the absence of STX, lowering the calcium concentration (from 100 to 10 mM) slowed the closing of Na+ channels (measured from INa tails) by more than a factor of 2. Surprisingly, the voltage sensitivity of closing kinetics changed with calcium concentration, and it was modified by STX. Voltage sensitivity apparently depends in part on the ability of calcium to enter and block the channels as voltage is driven negative. In external medium with no added calcium, INa tail current initially increases in amplitude severalfold with the relief of calcium block, then progressively slows and gets smaller, as calcium diffuses out of the layers investing the axon. INa tails seen just before the current disappears suggest that closing in the absence of channel block is very slow or does not occur. INa amplitude and kinetics are completely restored when calcium is returned. The results strongly suggest that calcium occupancy is a requirement for channel closing and that nonoccupied channels fold reversibly into a nonfunctional conformation.  (+info)

Detyrosination of tubulin regulates the interaction of intermediate filaments with microtubules in vivo via a kinesin-dependent mechanism. (3/1021)

Posttranslationally modified forms of tubulin accumulate in the subset of stabilized microtubules (MTs) in cells but are not themselves involved in generating MT stability. We showed previously that stabilized, detyrosinated (Glu) MTs function to localize vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in fibroblasts. To determine whether tubulin detyrosination or MT stability is the critical element in the preferential association of IFs with Glu MTs, we microinjected nonpolymerizable Glu tubulin into cells. If detyrosination is critical, then soluble Glu tubulin should be a competitive inhibitor of the IF-MT interaction. Before microinjection, Glu tubulin was rendered nonpolymerizable and nontyrosinatable by treatment with iodoacetamide (IAA). Microinjected IAA-Glu tubulin disrupted the interaction of IFs with MTs, as assayed by the collapse of IFs to a perinuclear location, and had no detectable effect on the array of Glu or tyrosinated MTs in cells. Conversely, neither IAA-tyrosinated tubulin nor untreated Glu tubulin, which assembled into MTs, caused collapse of IFs when microinjected. The epitope on Glu tubulin responsible for interfering with the Glu MT-IF interaction was mapped by microinjecting tubulin fragments of alpha-tubulin. The 14-kDa C-terminal fragment of Glu tubulin (alpha-C Glu) induced IF collapse, whereas the 36-kDa N-terminal fragment of alpha-tubulin did not alter the IF array. The epitope required more than the detyrosination site at the C terminus, because a short peptide (a 7-mer) mimicking the C terminus of Glu tubulin did not disrupt the IF distribution. We previously showed that kinesin may mediate the interaction of Glu MTs and IFs. In this study we found that kinesin binding to MTs in vitro was inhibited by the same reagents (i.e., IAA-Glu tubulin and alpha-C Glu) that disrupted the IF-Glu MT interaction in vivo. These results demonstrate for the first time that tubulin detyrosination functions as a signal for the recruitment of IFs to MTs via a mechanism that is likely to involve kinesin.  (+info)

Characterization of a Na+-dependent betaine transporter with Cl- channel properties in squid motor neurons. (4/1021)

Most marine invertebrates, including squids, use transporters to accumulate organic osmolytes such as betaine, to prevent water loss when exposed to elevated salinity. Although a limited number of flux studies have shown the Na+ dependence of betaine transport, nothing is known about the electrogenic properties of osmolyte transporters. We used whole cell and perforated-patch voltage-clamp techniques to characterize the electrical properties of the betaine transporter in giant fiber lobe motor neurons of the squid Lolliguncula brevis. Betaine activated a large, Cl--selective current that was reversibly blocked by 100 microM niflumic acid (97 +/- 2% block after 40 s, SD; n = 7) and partially inhibited by 500 microM SITS (29 +/- 11%; n = 5). The Cl- current was Na+ dependent and was virtually eliminated by isotonic replacement of Na+ with Li+, NMDG+, or Tris+. Concentration-response data revealed an EC50 in a physiologically relevant range for these animals of 5.1 +/- 0.9 mM (n = 11). In vertebrates, the betaine transporter is structurally related to the GABA transporter, and although GABA did not directly activate the betaine-induced current, it reversibly reduced betaine responses by 34 +/- 14% (n = 8). Short-term changes in osmolality alone did not activate the Cl- current, but when combined with betaine, Cl- currents increased in hypertonic solutions and decreased in hypotonic solutions. Activation of the betaine transporter and Cl- current in hypertonic conditions may affect both volume regulation and excitability in L. brevis motor neurons. This study is the first report of a novel betaine transporter in neurons that can act as a Cl- channel.  (+info)

The bombesin receptor subtypes have distinct G protein specificities. (5/1021)

We used an in situ reconstitution assay to examine the receptor coupling to purified G protein alpha subunits by the bombesin receptor family, including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R), and bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). Cells expressing GRP-R or NMB-R catalyzed the activation of squid retinal Galphaq and mouse Galphaq but not bovine retinal Galphat or bovine brain Galphai/o. The GRP-R- and NMB-R-catalyzed activations of Galphaq were dependent upon and enhanced by different betagamma dimers in the same rank order as follows: bovine brain betagamma > beta1gamma2 >> beta1gamma1. Despite these qualitative similarities, GRP-R and NMB-R had distinct kinetic properties in receptor-G protein coupling. GRP-R had higher affinities for bovine brain betagamma, beta1gamma1, and beta1gamma2 and squid retinal Galphaq. In addition, GRP-R showed higher catalytic activity on squid Galphaq. Like GRP-R and NMB-R, BRS-3 did not catalyze GTPgammaS binding to Galphai/o or Galphat. However, BRS-3 showed little, if any, coupling with squid Galphaq but clearly activated mouse Galphaq. GRP-R and NMB-R catalyzed GTPgammaS binding to both squid and mouse Galphaq, with GRP-R activating squid Galphaq more effectively, and NMB-R also showed slight preference for squid Galphaq. These studies reveal that the structurally similar bombesin receptor subtypes, in particular BRS-3, possess distinct coupling preferences among members of the Galphaq family.  (+info)

An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the biomedically and commercially valuable squid Loligo pealei off Cape Cod, Massachusetts. (6/1021)

Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system. Because a thorough knowledge of body patterns is fundamental to an understanding of squid behavior, we have compiled and described an ethogram (a catalog of body patterns and associated behaviors) for Loligo pealei. Observations of this species were made over a period of three years (> or = 440 h) and under a variety of behavioral circumstances. The natural behavior of the squid was filmed on spawning grounds off Cape Cod (northwestern Atlantic), and behavioral trials in the laboratory were run in large tanks. The body pattern components--34 chromatic (including 4 polarization components), 5 postural, and 12 locomotor--are each described in detail. Eleven of the most common body patterns are also described. Four of them are chronic, or long-lasting, patterns for crypsis; an example is Banded Bottom Sitting, which produces disruptive coloration against the substrate. The remaining seven patterns are acute; they are mostly used in intraspecific communication among spawning squids. Two of these acute patterns--Lateral Display and Mate Guarding Pattern--are used during agonistic bouts and mate guarding; they are visually bright and conspicuous, which may subject the squids to predation; but we hypothesize that schooling and diurnal activity may offset the disadvantage presented by increased visibility to predators. The rapid changeability and the diversity of body patterns used for crypsis and communication are discussed in the context of the behavioral ecology of this species.  (+info)

Slow transport of unpolymerized tubulin and polymerized neurofilament in the squid giant axon. (7/1021)

A major issue in the slow transport of cytoskeletal proteins is the form in which they are transported. We have investigated the possibility that unpolymerized as well as polymerized cytoskeletal proteins can be actively transported in axons. We report the active transport of highly diffusible tubulin oligomers, as well as transport of the less diffusible neurofilament polymers. After injection into the squid giant axon, tubulin was transported in an anterograde direction at an average rate of 2.3 mm/day, whereas neurofilament was moved at 1.1 mm/day. Addition of the metabolic poisons cyanide or dinitrophenol reduced the active transport of both proteins to less than 10% of control values, whereas disruption of microtubules by treatment of the axon with cold in the presence of nocodazole reduced transport of both proteins to approximately 20% of control levels. Passive diffusion of these proteins occurred in parallel with transport. The diffusion coefficient of the moving tubulin in axoplasm was 8.6 micrometer(2)/s compared with only 0.43 micrometer(2)/s for neurofilament. These results suggest that the tubulin was transported in the unpolymerized state and that the neurofilament was transported in the polymerized state by an energy-dependent nocodazole/cold-sensitive transport mechanism.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel isoform of myosinase from spear squid liver. (8/1021)

A novel isoform of myosinase was purified to homogeneity from liver of spear squid by sequential chromatographies using SP Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, Zn/Co chelating affinity, and TSK-gel G2000SW columns. Myosinase activity was detected as a single peak of 45-kDa protein by gel filtration. The novel isoform of myosinase specifically hydrolyzed a rabbit skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain into products of 120 and 100 kDa in the presence of Co(2+) ions, and the cleavage site in the myosin heavy chain was quite different from those of two known myosinase isoforms, I and II. Therefore, we named the novel isoform myosinase III. Myosinase III was also distinguishable from myosinase I by its amino-terminal sequence. The sequence showed similarity to an internal sequence of the astacin family.  (+info)

The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is one of the most economically important squid species in Japan; however, its population structure is poorly understood due to the lack of hypervariable markers. Such information is critical for managing sustainable fisheries, as well as for ensuring the existence of wild S. lessoniana stocks. Eleven candidate microsatellite loci were isolated from a small insert genomic DNA library. Polymorphisms in these 11 loci were screened in 24 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus was found to range from 5 to 19 alleles, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.292 to 0.958. No evidence for linkage disequilibrium was detected among all the loci. The genotypic proportions conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except at one locus. In conclusion, these polymorphic microsatellite loci may be used to develop a genetic framework to manage S. lessoniana in the future.
Cephalopoda have extreme nervous development, predacious and a closed circulatory system.. Order Teuthida. All organisms in the order Teuthida are marine squid.. Family Loligidae. Consists of mostly of squid that occupy waters that cover the continental shelves. They all have a cornea that covers the lens of each eye. Genus Sepioteuthis. Broad, posterior rounded mantle and fins that extend the full length of the mantle. Compared to other Loliginids, Sepioteuthis lay much larger eggs. Species Sepioteuthis lessoniana. One of three Sepioteuthis species. For more information please visit zipcodezoo.com for a look into a favorite species of your own!. ...
by Jerry Vic Kashiwada, A thesis presented to the faculty of Moss Landing Marine Laboratories., Thesis (M.S.) -- San Jose State University, 1981.. ...
Squids from the family Loliginidae (Suborder: Myopsida) are represented by 47 species grouped in ten genera and nine subgenera (Jereb et al., 2010). They are widely distributed in neritic zones of tropical, subtropical, and temperate seas around the world, excepting Polar Regions (Young, 1972; Okutani, 1980; (Roper et al, 1984; Hanlon et al., 1992). In Mexico, loliginids are commonly fished artisanally, and also caught as by-catch in trawl fisheries for shrimp (e.g., Litopenaeus stylirostris, L. vannamei, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, and F. brevirostris), off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California Roper et al., 1984, 1995; Cardozo & Valdivieso, 1988; Barrientos & Garcia-Cubas, 1997; Alejo-Plata et al, 2001, 2002).. Five species have been reported off the Pacific coast of Mexico and in the Gulf of California: Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) panamensis Berry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula) argus Brakoniecki & Roper, 1985, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis) diomedeae (Hoyle, 1904), ...
ABSTRACT: Coleoid cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, and octopus) have the largest and most complex brains of all invertebrates and show behavioral abilities similar to those of vertebrates. Among the coleoids, the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana forms well-structured schools that are indicative of sociality. These behaviors are reflected in aspects of the well-developed brain. In this study, we focused on the role of the cephalopod brain in complex behavior. In order to reveal the network of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in coleoids, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is the synthetic enzyme of GABA, in the brain of young S. lessoniana. We found that GABAergic neurons and their axons were distributed throughout the brain. GABA neurons were abundantly localized in the inferior frontal lobe, which is involved in controlling arm motions, and in the subesophageal masses, which are lower and intermediate centers of action. GABAergic fibers were ...
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Spherical lenses with a graded refractive index design are required for camera-like vision in aquatic animals. In cephalopods, these lenses are made of a group of closely related proteins collectively called S-crystallins. Our earlier work has shown that an adaptive radiation these S-crystallin genes and positive selection on the electrostatic properties of S-crystallin proteins led to a graded refractive index lens capable of forming high-resolution images in the squid Loligo opalescens. In the L. opalescens lens, S-crystallins with high charge stabilize the optical properties of regions of low refractive index in peripheral layers, and S-crystallins with lower charge are tightly packed in the high refractive index cortex. The mechanistic link between S-crystallin sequence, biochemistry and refractive index allows us to understand in molecular detail the optical evolution of a camera-like eye in cephalopods. To understand the transition from ancestral cephalopod vision to extant camera-like ...
Biology Assignment Help, Giant nerve fibres, Giant Nerve Fibres We now know that giant nerve fibres take place in the central nervous system of many polychaetes, oligochaetes, insects cephalopod etc. They are broader and longer as compared to the other, ordinary nerve fibres which are abo
Author: Ryba, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 1993-04-06; Title: Rhodopsin mobility, structure, and lipid-protein interaction in squid photoreceptor membranes.
Inactivation of the sodium current in squid giant axons by hydrocarbons.: The voltage dependence of the steady state inactivation parameter (h infinity) of the
Studies of unidirectional Cl-, Na+, and K+ effluxes were performed on isolated, internally dialyzed squid giant axons. The studies were designed to determine whether the coupled Na/K/Cl co-transporter previously identified as mediating influxes (Russell. 1983. Journal of General Physiology. 81:909-925) could also mediate the reverse fluxes (effluxes). We found that 10 microM bumetanide blocked 7-8 pmol/cm2 X s of Cl- efflux from axons containing ATP, Na+, and K+. However, if any one of these solutes was removed from the internal dialysis fluid, Cl- efflux was reduced by 7-8 pmol/cm2 X s and the remainder was insensitive to bumetanide. About 5 pmol/cm2 X s of Na+ efflux was inhibited by 10 microM bumetanide in the continuous presence of 10(-5) M ouabain and 10(-7) M tetrodotoxin if Cl-, K+, and ATP were all present in the internal dialysis fluid. However, the omission of Cl- or K+ or ATP reduced the Na+ efflux, leaving it bumetanide insensitive. K+ efflux had to be studied under voltage-clamp ...
Membrane leakage is a common consequence of traumatic nerve injury. In order to measure the early secondary effects of different levels of membrane leakage on axonal structure and function we studied the squid giant axon after electroporation at field strengths of 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, or 3.3 kV/cm. Immedi …
Fast transport of axonal vesicles and organelles is a microtubule-associated movement (Griffin, J. W., K. E. Fahnestock, L. Price, and P. N. Hoffman, 1983, J. Neuroscience, 3:557-566; Schnapp, B. J., R. D. Vale, M. P. Sheetz, and T. S. Reese, 1984, Cell, 40:455-462; Allen, R. D., D. G. Weiss, J. H. Hayden, D. T. Brown, H. Fujiwake, and M. Simpson, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1736-1752). Proteins that mediate the interactions of axoplasmic vesicles and microtubules were studied using stable complexes of microtubules and vesicles (MtVC). These complexes formed spontaneously in vitro when taxol-stabilized microtubules were mixed with sonically disrupted axoplasm from the giant axon of the squid Loligo pealei. The isolated MtVCs contain a distinct subset of axoplasmic proteins, and are composed primarily of microtubules and attached membranous vesicles. The MtVC also contains nonmitochondrial ATPase activity. The binding of one high molecular mass polypeptide to the complex is significantly enhanced by ...
Figure. Twisting dorsolateral view of the anterior mantle of S. syrtensis showing the intertwining muscles that form the dorsal wall of the mantle at its anterior end. In this preserved octopod, the anterior mantle was contracted into a tube that, at first, appeared to be the funnel. The true funnel was withdrawn inside of the mantle cavity. The mantle opening, in this drawing, is colored purple and is at the lower right of the drawing. The skin has been removed showing the mantle muscles. Beneath the dorsal mantle muscles, the dark violet lining of the mantle cavity is seen. In a fresh, translucent Stauroteuthis (below), the pigmented mantle cavity has the shape of a bow tie due to the large, central unpigmented region occupied by the thick mantle septum and the pigmented extensions of the mantle cavity anterolaterally leading to the dorsal mantle cavity. ...
The effect of tetrodotoxin on the sodium currents of the squid (Doryteuthis plei and Sepioteuthis sepiodea) giant axons was studied under potential control conditions. The axons were immersed in artificial seawater at 21 degrees C and pH 7.5. When the effect of the toxin is studied in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 nM the Eadie-Haldane plot is not a straight line and indicates that there are two populations of sodium channels open during activity. 19.0 +/- 4.7% of the channels are accociated to receptors with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.11 +/- 0.05 nM and 84.0 +/- 4.1% of the channels are related to receptors having an affinity constant of 4.90 +/- 0.49 nM (nine nerves). ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Caracterización parcial del colágeno extraído a partir del manto, aleta y tentáculos de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigans). AU - Torres-Arreola, W.. AU - Pacheco-Aguilar, R.. AU - Sotelo-Mundo, R. R.. AU - Rouzaud-Sández, O.. AU - Ezquerra-Brauer, J. M.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Proyecto académico sin fines de lucro, desarrollado bajo la iniciativa de acceso abierto Abstract In Dosidicus gigas or jumbo squid, collagen plays an important role in squid swimming mechanisms. Scarce information is available on collagen. The content as well some physical and chemical properties of pepsin-soluble (PSC) and insoluble collagen (IC) were compared in mantle, arm, and fin from adult fresh jumbo squid. The total collagen content and SDS-electrophoresis profile were different in each anatomic part evaluated, the highest IC value was in arms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed same structural arrangement in the PSC from the three anatomical parts and different structural ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
The chemical composition and evaluation of Indian squid (Loligo duvauceli) mantle, epidermal connective tissue and tentacle is investigated in this current study. It is observed that squid mantle contains 22.2% total protein; 63.5% of the total protein is myofibrillar protein. The unique property of squid myofibrillar protein is its water solubility. Squid mantle contains 12.0% total collagen. Epidermal connective tissue has highest amounts of total collagen (17.8%). SDS-PAGE of total collagen identified high molecular weight α-, β- and γ- sub-chains. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that mantle and tentacle contain essential amino acids. Arginine forms a major portion of mantle collagen (272.5 g/100 g N). Isoleucine, glutamic acid and lysine are other amino acids that are found in significantly high amounts in the mantle. Sulphur containing cystine is deficit in mantle collagen. Papain digest of mantle and epidermal connective tissue is rich in uronic acid, while papain digest, ...
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The list above is the entire discography of Jumbo except for two rare singles, one from 1970 and one from 1975, and Vietato Ai Minori Di 18 Anni? which is covered elsewhere. At the beginning, Jumbo were a sextet with a sax/flute player and a very distinctive vocalist. Alvaro Fellas voice is loud, harsh, and raspy, yet has a unique poetic style that may make these albums an acquired taste.. Jumbo started out as a bluesy rock group. The music was only vaguely experimental or unusual on their self-titled debut in 1970, with hints of the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Canned Heat and Jethro Tull. Musically, there is a lot of acoustic guitar (by Fella) and piano, which gives it a folkier and more individual edge to the bluesy feel. I doubt this will do much for those into more progressive music as its a very straight rock album.. DNA from 1971 showed Jumbo becoming more interested in experimentation and classical stylings. Featuring a long suite that includes a revamped Dio E from the first album, ...
1 (see figure below). The squid begins to form the cage with the arms, tentacles and arm suckers all involved. The anttenuate arm tips, however, are curled aborally and play role in this feeding method. The arms are somewhat spread and form the ribs of the cage. The arm suckers are flared laterally on each arm which form the mesh of the cage. [This is most easily seen in image 5 of a second individual squid in which the camera has an aboral view of arm II (arrow) that shows the extreme lateral spread of the suckers.] The squid has moved forward to engulf a myctophid fish through the open, anterior end of the cage (see grey arrow). Note that the tentacle club (below the arrow) is also involved in forming the cage ...
The cell membrane in the axon and soma contain voltage-gated ion channels which allow the neuron to generate and propagate an electrical impulse (an action potential). Substantial early knowledge of neuron electrical activity came from experiments with squid giant axons. In 1937, John Zachary Young suggested that the giant squid axon can be used to study neuronal electrical properties.[9] As they are much larger than human neurons, but similar in nature, it was easier to study them with the technology of that time. By inserting electrodes into the giant squid axons, accurate measurements could be made of the membrane potential. Electrical activity can be produced in neurons by a number of stimuli. Pressure, stretch, chemical transmitters, and electrical current passing across the nerve membrane as a result of a difference in voltage can all initiate nerve activity.[10] The narrow cross-section of axons lessens the metabolic expense of carrying action potentials, but thicker axons convey impulses ...
The cell membrane in the axon and soma contain voltage-gated ion channels which allow the neuron to generate and propagate an electrical impulse (an action potential). Substantial early knowledge of neuron electrical activity came from experiments with squid giant axons. In 1937, John Zachary Young suggested that the giant squid axon can be used to study neuronal electrical properties.[9] As they are much larger than human neurons, but similar in nature, it was easier to study them with the technology of that time. By inserting electrodes into the giant squid axons, accurate measurements could be made of the membrane potential. Electrical activity can be produced in neurons by a number of stimuli. Pressure, stretch, chemical transmitters, and electrical current passing across the nerve membrane as a result of a difference in voltage can all initiate nerve activity.[10] The narrow cross-section of axons lessens the metabolic expense of carrying action potentials, but thicker axons convey impulses ...
Squid are popular in cuisines as widely separated as Korean and Italian. In fish markets and restaurants in English-speaking countries, Squid, especially when fried, is often known as calamari, from the Greek and Italian word for these animals. Squid can be pickled, breaded and fried, or added to stews. Pre-packaged sun-dried Squid (surume) are popular snacks in East Asia. Squid is common in sushi and sashimi. Salted Squid may be fermented for up to a month and served in small quantities as an accompaniment to white rice or alcoholic drinks. Squid ink may be utilised in food: for example, to colour spaghetti black in the traditional Italian spaghetti al nero di seppia. Squid may be used as fish bait ...
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The eyes of the colossal squid are believed to be the most highly developed and the most remarkable in the animal kingdom and are probably the largest, measuring about 27 centimetres across and being about the size of a football. Unlike any other type of squid, the eyes of the colossal squid are forward facing and have binocular vision. Their eyes are a little like the human eye with a lens and an iris that filters light back to the retina. The lens is in 2 pieces and has optic nerves to relay visual information back to the optic lobe in the brain.. What makes the eyes of cephalopods so remarkable is the position of the optic nerves. The eyes of vertebrates, such as human eyes, have optic nerves that block some of the photoreceptors detecting light, creating what we know as a blind spot. Cephalopods dont have this blind spot at all because their eyes are arranged in such as way that the nerves never block the light. This is a clever evolutionary ploy in a world thats visually challenging at ...
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Burnip and his fireman picked themselves up from the ground, badly shaken but not seriously injured. Some circus men pulled the crippled Tom Thumb to his feet and helped him down the track. He would live, though he would limp for the rest of his days.. Scott was stunned as he approached the crumpled body of his companion of twenty years. Jumbo was still conscious. When Scott crawled under the car by the huge, lacerated head to comfort the groaning animal, Jumbo took his hand in his trunk, as if he understood, and died quietly. Scott wept unashamedly. A large crowd had gathered, and when Jumbo ceased breathing, Scott was gently pulled away. A hundred sixty men, straining on ropes, prying with timbers, stanchions, crowbars, and whatever else they could find, dragged the corpse to the edge of the embankment and rolled it over.. As the large crowd milled around, souvenir hunters, armed with knives and scissors, moved in immediately on the body, though circus men protected it as well as they could. ...
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Fri Mar 15 10:31:02 UTC 2013 - [email protected] - New revision for squid.service (using only sed) handle multiple cache_dir line Added sed as require Thu Mar 14 13:08:54 UTC 2013 - [email protected] - Packaging : fixed systemd squid.service - Rework on squid.service ExecStartPre line remove dependency on unfunctionnal wrapper - Fix bnc#802635 (creating cache struture fail on first call) - Fixed Type=forking and remove the use off -N (non daemon flag) - Fixed missing pid file - Structural : add all -k to end of Exec/Stop line - Ulimit : Added LimitNOFile=4096 ( same value as in /etc/sysconfig) but theres no way to decode dynamically /etc/sysconfig - Remove syslog.target ( no need anymore : advise from fcrozat ) - Clean up squid_cache_build.sh - Changes to squid-3.2.9 (12 Mar 2013): - Regression fix: Accept-Language header parse - Bug 3673: Silence Failed to select source messages - Fix authentication headers sent on peer digest requests - Fix build error on Solaris, OpenIndiana, Omnios - ...
Hello All, At TONMOCon, Dr. Gilly and I had a few moments to discuss ammoniaism in squid and about the lifestyle of Dosidicus gigas and possible...
So in the minimovie the K+ channel conductance is blocked and yet the voltage-gated Na+ channels STILL inactivate? Then why stay at ENa? There is no longer any more Na+ conductance due to the channels being inactivated, PNa+ would be back to resting levels in the absence of Na+ conductance and the membrane potential would fall back to rest. Na+ inactivation is within milliseconds and so why the very long plateau at ENa+? That makes no sense. Experimentally in the mammalian nerve if you blockvoltage-gated K+ channels with TEA in non-myelinated axons you still get rapid repolarization to rest within milliseconds due to the lack of Na+ conductance and the presence of the leak channels (Belluzzi and Sacchi, 1991). Is the leak channel so minor a component in the frog nerve compared to mammalian? What happens if you model a mammalian non-myelinated nerve does the membrane potential still plateau for as long as in the frog? If so then I am guessing that the conductances need to be corrected. Anyway the ...
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One of the more whimsical squid news stories Ive seen in a while: A squid, a dog, and a mini-mystery solved at a Minnesota lake.Of course, squid are not found in Minnesota lakes, reports journalist Al Edenloff. So true, and so charmingly put!
...In order to pass on their genes southern dumpling squid engage in up ...The research provides new insight into the evolution of reproductive s...The research was conducted by Master of Science student Ms Amanda Fran...The team studied dumpling squid ( Euprymna tasmanica ) that live ...,Promiscuous,squid,fatigued,after,mating,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
A computer simulation of the isolated giant axon of the squid to investigate the biophysical properties of nerve. Describes the preparation, apparatus used to record the resting potential of the axon and the techniques of current and voltage clamping. May be used to investigate the resting and action potential. Students may design experimental protocols that allow them to perform current clamp and voltage clamp experiments. Results are derived from widely accepted algorithms and displayed on a simulated oscilloscope screen ...
Squids are fascinating creatures that reside in the ocean. Squid have a large head, 8 arms with suckers, 2 longer feeding tentacles, a beak, 2 large eyes, and 2
The main difference between squids and octopus is physical structure and behaviour of these animals. An Octopus can be well-known for its eight arms and has a roundish head.. On the other hand, squid will have ten of these appendages, eight are arms and two are tentacles, and the shape of the head of a squid is triangular. Also, they have two fins on their head.. So, the differences between the squids and octopuses are discussed below. ...
½ cup pea cream. Preheat your broiler.. Combine all the ingredients except for the seafood and lemon juice in a bowl. The breadcrumbs should be just moistened with olive oil, so be careful not to add too much. Add the seafood and toss it in the breadcrumbs. Skewer the shrimp and squid on metal or wood skewers (if you use wood skewers you have to soak them in water first so they dont burn). My skewers are 8 inches long. I made 2 skewers per person, with about 3 pieces of squid and 3 shrimp per skewer. Dont pack the squid and shrimp tightly or they wont cook as well.. Please the skewers on a rimmed baking tray. Sprinkle the remaining breadcrumbs and lemon juice over the top of the skewers.. Place under the broiler and cook for a few minutes, until the breadcrumbs brown, the shrimp turns pink and the squid becomes opaque and dry looking. Then flip the skewers over. (This can be a messy job, as the shrimp tend to spin on the skewers.) Broil until the shrimp and squid are cooked all over. Heat ...
Metric: Yes from the year 1475. Platina mentions several odd fishes not usually used today as food, such as cuttlefish, scorpions, lampreys and sea-lion. But most of his fish are still favorites-eels, lobsters, crabs, oysters, sturgeon and sturgeon eggs (which he calls caviar), salmon, sole, etc., and he gives a recipe for a Squid Dish for Days of Abstinence. Although squid is eaten today in the South of France and Greece, and can be found in special fish shops here, I would prefer salmon or halibut. But if you hanker for squid, just go ahead with it if you can find some, and be sure to have the fish man prepare it for you by removing the black liquid from the backbone.
Like all living creatures, squid are classified using a system developed by Carlus Linnaeus in the 1700s. This method organizes species based on their relationships to one another into a series of broadening categories. From most broad to most specific, these categories are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus ...
Proposed Expansion of the Abattoir and Rendering Facility and Atmospheric Emissions License Variation, Portion of Farm Jumbo 724, ...
Homeodomain transcription factors regulate development of embryos and cellular physiology in adult systems. Paired-type homeodomain genes constitute a subclass that has been particularly implicated in establishment of neuronal identity in the mammalian nervous system. We isolated fragments of eight homeodomain genes of this subclass expressed in the stellate ganglion of ... read more the North Atlantic long finned squid Loligo pealei (lp) [Note: Loligo pealei has been officially renamed Doryteuthis pealei. For reasons of uniformity and clarity Loligo pealei (lp) is used here]. Of the most abundant ones, we cloned a full length cDNA which encoded the squid ortholog of the paired-type homeodomain proteins Phox2a/b. The homology of lpPhox2 to invertebrate and mammalian Phox2 was limited to the homeodomain. In contrast to mouse Phox2b, lpPhox2 was unable to transactivate the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter in a heterologous mammalian transfection system. In vivo, lpPhox2 was expressed in ...
The mutualistic association between the squid Euprymna scolopes and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri is an emerging experimental system for the study of the influence of bacteria on animal development. Taking advantage of the ability to raise both this host and its microbial partner independently under laboratory conditions, we describe the effects of bacterial interactions on morphogenesis of the juvenile host symbiotic organ. Our results show that bacteria are essential for normal postembryonic development of the symbiotic organ, which involves changes in both the surface epithelium and the epithelial tissue within the organ where the bacterial culture will take up residence. Cell death induced by exposure to symbiotic V. fischeri results in the regression of a complex ciliated surface epithelium, a tissue that apparently functions to facilitate inoculation of the juvenile organ with the appropriate specific bacterial species. Regression of this tissue begins within hours of exposure to ...
Bobtail squid (order Sepiolida) are a group of cephalopods closely related to cuttlefish. Bobtail squid tend to have a rounder mantle than cuttlefish and have no cuttlebone. They have eight suckered arms and two tentacles and are generally quite small (typical male mantle length being between 1 and 8 cm). Sepiolids live in shallow coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean and some parts of the Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean as well as in shallow waters on the west coast of the Cape Peninsula off South Africa. Like cuttlefish, they can swim by either using the fins on their mantle or by jet propulsion. They are also known as dumpling squid (owing to their rounded mantle) or stubby squid. Bobtail squid have a symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri), which inhabit a special light organ in the squids mantle. The bacteria are fed a sugar and amino acid solution by the squid and in return hide the squids silhouette when viewed from below by matching the amount of light ...
Effects of Vibrio fischeri colonization on cognition, foraging behavior, and survival in the Hawaiian bobtail squid Conference Paper ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Movement of organelles along filaments dissociated from the axoplasm of the squid giant axon. AU - Vale, Ronald D.. AU - Schnapp, Bruce J.. AU - Reese, Thomas S.. AU - Sheetz, Michael P.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Raymond Lasek, Scott Brady, Susan Gilbert, and Robert Allen for many helpful discussions and for sharing unpublished observations with us. We would also like to thank Robert Allen for use of his video microscopy system during the initial phase of this project, Dr. Hideshi Fujiwakafor assistance in using it, and John Murphy for preparation of the figures. R. D. V. is a trainee in the National Institutes of Health Medical Scientist Training Program (GM 07365). This work was supported in part by Hoechst-Rousselle Pharmaceuticals and NIH (GM 33351; M. P S.). M. P. S. is an established investigator of the American Heart Association.. PY - 1985/2. Y1 - 1985/2. N2 - Cytoplasmic filaments, separated from the axoplasm of the squid giant axon and visualized by ...
Euprymna scolopes, a Hawaiian species of bioluminescent squid, harbors Vibrio fischeri as its specific light organ symbiont. The population of symbionts grew inside the adult light organ with an average doubling time of about 5 h, which produced an excess of cells that were expelled into the surrounding seawater on a diurnal basis at the beginning of each period of daylight. These symbionts, when expelled into the ambient seawater, maintain or slightly increase their numbers for at least 24 h. Hence, locations inhabited by their hosts periodically receive a daily input of symbiotic V. fischeri cells and, as a result, become significantly enriched with these bacteria. As estimated by hybridization with a species-specific luxA gene probe, the typical number of V. fischeri CFU, both in the water column and in the sediments of E. scolopes habitats, was as much as 24 to 30 times that in similar locations where squids were not observed. In addition, the number of symbiotic V. fischeri CFU in seawater ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the dipolar form of phloretin on potassium conductance in squid giant axons. AU - Strichartz, G. R.. AU - Oxford, G. S.. AU - Ramon, F.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The effects of phloretin on membrane ionic conductances have been studied in the giant axon of the squid, Loligo pealei. Phloretin reversibly suppresses the potassium and sodium conductances and modifies their dependence on membrane potential (Em). Its effects on the potassium conductance (GK) are much greater than on the sodium conductance; no effects on sodium inactivation are observed. Internal perfusion of phloretin produces both greater shifts in GK(Em) and greater reductions maximum GK than does external perfusion; the effect of simultaneous internal and external perfusion is little greater than that of internal perfusion alone. Lowering the internal pH, which favors the presence of the neutral species of weakly acidic phloretin (pKa 7.4), potentiates the actions of internally perfused ...
Description: In the Hawaiian bobtail squid (pictured), scientists have found that the same bacterial toxin that causes whooping cough and gonorrhea in humans is responsible for the development of an important organ. The finding, reported in the Nov. 12 Science magazine, suggests that the role of bacteria in their host organisms depends significantly on the biological context in which they are found. In one place, a bacterium may have a harmful role; in another, it may be critical for the animals survival. The corresponding author of the Science paper is Margaret McFall-Ngai, a UW-Madison professor of medical microbiology ...
Courtesy of: http://dels-old.nas.edu/oceans/oceans_and_human_health_part_2.shtml Introduction: This blog examines the relationship between the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid and a bioluminescent bacterium. The Hawaiian Bobtail squid acquires an enhanced ability to capture prey and avoid predators, while the bacterium receives key nutrients from residing within the squid [2]. Distribution of this aquatic relationship is limited by the habitat of the squid (Hawaii). Several bioluminescent bacteria cycle through a single squid daily. Description of Relationship: The type of relationship observed between Euprymna scolope(Hawaiian Bobtail squid) and Vibrio fischeri(bioluminescent bacterium) is unique to organisms with specialized structures called light organs. These light organs are specialized structures that have evolved to allow the organisms that house them to create light. While the evolutionary reason for this structure is unknown, many individuals hypothesize that certain marine organisms form these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis and by autohydrolysis in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). AU - González-Félix, Mayra L.. AU - Perez-Velazquez, Martin. AU - Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina. AU - Bringas-Alvarado, Lorena. AU - Sánchez-Sánchez, Anabel. AU - Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. M3 - Artículo. VL - 34. SP - 552. EP - 558. JO - Food Science and Technology. JF - Food Science and Technology. SN - 1678-457X. IS - 3. ER - ...
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) is a bacterial virulence factor in whooping cough (and other infections) that triggers leukocyte infiltration and strips airways of ciliated epithelium. However, not all host-bacterial encounters are negative. In the relationship between the glow-in-the dark squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, Koropatnick et al. have discovered that the same toxin plays a benign role. In this association, TCT still initiates apoptosis of ciliated cells and host cell infiltration. However, these cellular responses are triggered when juvenile squid first encounter V. fischeri and constitute a normal developmental stage in the generation of the specialized light organ that allows it to accommodate the incoming symbiont.. T. A. Koropatnick, J. T. Engle, M. A. Apicella, E. V. Stabb, W. E. Goldman, M. J. McFall-Ngai, Microbial factor-mediated development in a host-bacterial mutualism. Science 306, 1186-1188 (2004). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
The spawning behavior of a Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) is described based on up-close observation of a captive female. The squid was first transferred from a 10-ton tank to a polystyrene plastic box containing 45 liters of seawater. About one hour later, the mantle-contraction rate increased rapidly, followed by a brief convulsion of the mantle and arms and a whitening of the body. The mantle contractions become shallow and rapid, and several seconds later, semitransparent jelly presumably from the nidamental glands emerged from the funnel and passed between the ventral pair of arms. Approximately 90 seconds after the egg mass first emerged, the female began ejecting oocytes through the funnel into the egg mass using rapid, powerful mantle contractions. Soon after the oocytes were ejected, translucent strands (presumably sperm) emanated from the buccal membrane. The female continued to eject oocytes for approximately two minutes, after which the mantle convulsed, and the ...
The developmental changes bobtail squid undergo when colonized by the bacteria are both dramatic and accessible for biologists to study. The bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, hatches as a fully formed squid. They have no larval stage. However, theres a vestige of the ciliated structures seen in other mollusks. (Cilia are like tiny hairs on the surface of individual cells.) These ciliated cells cover the surface of a pair of appendages in the undeveloped light organ (Koropatnick, 2014). After hatching, the bobtail squid has no association with any bacteria, and is not capable of luminescence. The light organ can only complete its development once it is colonized by a specific species of bacteria, Vibrio fischeri. Once V. fischeri is obtained from the surrounding seawater, the bacteria become suspended in mucus and migrate to the light organ. The cells smell their way! They follow a trail of chemical cues left by the squids cells (Koropatnick, 2014). Approximately 12 hours after hatching, the ...
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The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bioluminescent bacteria living in its light organ has been studied for decades as a model of symbiosis. Now researchers have used a powerful chemical analysis tool to identify a small molecule produced by the bacteria that appears to play an important role in their colonization of the light organ.. The study, published March 9 in the journal mBio, adds a new wrinkle to scientists understanding of the chemical signaling involved in this iconic symbiotic relationship. Its exciting that there are still new things to discover, even in such a well-studied system, said corresponding author Laura Sanchez, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UC Santa Cruz.. The Hawaiian bobtail squid is a small nocturnal squid, about the size of a thumb, that lives in shallow coastal waters, hiding in the sand during the day and coming out at night to hunt for small shrimp and other prey. The bioluminescent glow from its light organ is ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - X-ray, spectroscopic and normal-mode dynamics of calexcitin. T2 - structure-function studies of a neuronal calcium-signalling protein. AU - Erskine, PT. AU - Fokas, A. AU - Muriithi, C. AU - Rehman, H. AU - Yates, LA. AU - Bowyer, A. AU - Findlow, IS. AU - Hagan, R. AU - Miles, JM. AU - Wallace, BA. AU - Wells, Stephen. AU - Wood, SP. AU - Cooper, JB. PY - 2015/4. Y1 - 2015/4. N2 - The protein calexcitin was originally identified in molluscan photoreceptorneurons as a 20 kDa molecule which was up-regulated and phosphorylatedfollowing a Pavlovian conditioning protocol. Subsequent studies showed thatcalexcitin regulates the voltage-dependent potassium channel and the calciumdependentpotassium channel as well as causing the release of calcium ions fromthe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to the ryanodine receptor. A crystalstructure of calexcitin from the squid Loligo pealei showed that the fold issimilar to that of another signalling protein, calmodulin, the N- and ...
At UCLA, he has been given the Outstanding Teaching Award by the physics department 14 times in the last 16 years, including the Overall Excellence Award (i.e., Teacher of the Year Award) in 2001/2002 and 2005/2006. Various applications require assemblies of nanostructures having different properties. In silicon, a one-dimensional nanowire consisting of P donors is studied with density functional theory. The nervous systems of certain species, such as the longfin inshore squid (Loligo pealei), can control the reflective properties of the reflectin structures by releasing neurotransmitters that modulate the phosphorylation of reflectin ...
Sodium entry during an action potential determines the energy efficiency of a neuron. The classic Hodgkin-Huxley model of action potential generation is notoriously inefficient in that regard with about 4 times more charges flowing through the membrane than the theoretical minimum required to achieve the observed depolarization. Yet, recent experimental results show that mammalian neurons are close to the optimal metabolic efficiency and that the dynamics of their voltage-gated channels is significantly different than the one exhibited by the classic Hodgkin-Huxley model during the action potential. Nevertheless, the original Hodgkin-Huxley model is still widely used and rarely to model the squid giant axon from which it was extracted. Here, we introduce a novel family of Hodgkin-Huxley models that correctly account for sodium entry, action potential width and whose voltage-gated channels display a dynamics very similar to the most recent experimental observations in mammalian neurons. We speak ...
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The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri is well chronicled, but writing in the current issue of the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, a group led by University of Wisconsin-Madison microbiologists Margaret McFall-Ngai, Edward Ruby and their colleagues adds a new wrinkle to the story.
caffeined writes I think almost every geeks heart must skip a beat when they hear about giant squids (think Jules Verne). It appears the two Japanese researchers have managed (for the first time) to get actual footage of a live giant squid in action. It was only 26 feet long (a little more t...
Does everyone remember one of this spring awesomest New Yorker articles? The one about giant squid hunters? [ newyorker ]? Look! National Geographic has pictures of real! live! giant! squid! on their website [ # ]
This species of squid is very important to fishing industries throughout the world, including the United States, where a big market exists for this animal in both commercial and recreational fishing. In commercial fishing, Longfin inshore squid are sold to restaurants and other stores. In recreational fishing they serve as bait to catch to fish such as Mahi-mahi, Swordfish, and Marlins (Cadrin 2000, von der Linden et al. 1998).. Loligo pealeii is also used as specimen in neurobiology research. Its neurons, one thousand times larger than their counterparts in humans, have provided scientists ample opportunity to study such things as sodium and potassium ion pumps. The study of these neurons has helped scientists better understand heart disease, cancer, Alzherimers Disease, and kidney disease (Marine Biological Laboratory, 2000).. ...
Glowing bacteria inside squids use light and chemical signals to control circadian-like rhythms in the animals, according to a study to be published in mBio®. The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna ...
Other articles where Loligo is discussed: cephalopod: Reproduction and life cycles: …(the squids of the genus Loligo) or opaque and leathery (Octopus and cuttlefishes). The eggs of oceanic species may be laid in large sausagelike gelatinous masses or singly. The eggs of most coastal species are laid inshore and are attached singly or in clusters, primarily to rocks and shells on…
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A giant squid that wandered into a Japanese port has been guided back out to sea almost a week after it was spotted, giving enthusiasts and experts a rare glimpse of the mysterious creature.
Axoplasm is the cytoplasm within the axon of a neuron (nerve cell). Neural processes (axons and dendrites) contain about 99.6% of the cells cytoplasm, and 99.7% of that is in the axons.[1] Axoplasm has a different composition of organelles and other materials than that found in the neurons cell body (soma) or dendrites. In axoplasmic transport, materials are carried through the axoplasm to or from the soma. The electrical resistance of the axoplasm, called axoplasmic resistance, is one aspect of a neurons cable properties, because it affects the rate of travel of an action potential down an axon. If the axoplasm contains many molecules that are not electrically conductive, it will slow the travel of the potential because it will cause more ions to flow across the axolemma (the axons membrane) than through the axoplasm. ...
Effect of warming in the early ontogeny squid, Loligo vulgaris, namely: Development time (A), survival rates (B) and growth rates (% - C; mm day−1 - D) of emb
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Hi Im a highschool student and as my AP biology final project, I have chosen to research the giant squid. I was wondering if anyone can tell me...
TOKYO (AP) -- Researchers and broadcasters say they have captured video images of a giant squid in its natural habitat deep in the ocean for the first time.
For the first time, scientists have successfully sequenced and annotated the genome of the giant squid -- the real-life inspiration for the Kraken, the sea monster mythologized for dragging shipping vessels to the bottom
Hey Guys this is an essay I wrote when I was a receptionist at Medisystem Pharmacy Ltd. And they gave me a project to count all the pens in the company so instead I poorly researched an essay about Giant Squid then wrote it. Hope you enjoy and learn some now out of date facts!…
One insight into this question has also turned out to be surprising. Contrary to the classical central dogma of molecular biology, genetic information does not always pass faithfully from genomic DNA to messenger RNA to the synthesis of proteins. Rather, the information can be significantly altered along the way by a variety of means, including by precision editing at the RNA stage to fine-tune the type of proteins that will be produced.. RNA editing was thought to be sparingly used, based on a limited number of studies in mammals and flies. But recently, MBL Whitman Investigator Joshua Rosenthal and colleagues discovered the most prolific usage yet of RNA editing in the common squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a behaviorally sophisticated marine organism that has long been prized for studies of the nervous system.. By comparing DNA and RNA sequences from the squid brain, the team found that 60 percent of the RNA transcripts had been edited. (A transcript is a stretch of DNA transcribed into an ...
RNA editing of genomic information was thought to be sparingly used, based on a limited number of studies in mammals and flies. But recently, MBL Whitman Investigator Joshua Rosenthal and colleagues discovered the most prolific usage yet of RNA editing in the common squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, a behaviorally sophisticated marine organism that has long been prized for studies of the nervous system.
Let us consider the squid giant axon. [Since the work done on this cell was honored with a Nobel Prize (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid_giant_axon), this axon and other similar preparations have become a favorite subject of numerous studies]. Remove its axoplasm to obtain the axon ghost (axon without axoplasm), then fill the axon ghost with natural or artificial seawater. The composition of the solution inside the axon will serve us as a reference point (the sodium and potassium concentrations in it will be the same as in the washing solutions). Now add ATP (and an ATP generating system, e.g. phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyruvate kinase) to the interior of the axon ghost and securely tie the ends of the axon so that its contents are not mixed with the external medium. Prepare a sufficient number of such ghosts, and take one axon after another at various time points to determine the ionic composition of their contents. Take the first axon after 10 minutes after the start of the experiment (analyze ...
This activity explores the content presented in the animated video Natures Cutest Symbiosis: The Bobtail Squid, which describes how the light produced by bacteria living inside bobtail squid helps the squid avoid its predators.. ...
Shortly after the publication of Hodgkin and Huxleys equations for the squid giant axon, Richard FitzHugh was working at the Biophysics Laboratory of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. He undertook an analysis of the mathematical properties of their equations. He used the new techniques of nonlinear mechanics which had been developed by Russian mathematicians led by A. A. Andronov. This was before digital computers became easily accessible. John Moore and FitzHugh started by planning how to program an analog computer which could be used to solve the Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The equipment needed included operational amplifiers, function generators, multipliers, and an ink pen plotter. The laboratory purchased the computer, which occupied four floor-to-ceiling relay racks, full of vacuum tubes. These were continually failing, and FitzHugh had to find and replace several tubes a week, requiring some detective work. The heat from all these tubes sometimes overloaded the ...
In 1962, Denis Noble published one of the first mathematical models of a cardiac cell. By adapting the equations of the original Hodgkin-Huxley squid axon model (1952), Noble described the long lasting action and pace-maker potentials of the Purkinje fibres of the heart. The potassium-current equations differ from those of Hodgkin and Huxley in that the potassium ions are assumed to flow through two types of channel in the membrane. By contrast, the sodium current equations are very similar to those of Hodgkin and Huxley. The main failure of the Noble (1962) model is that it only includes one voltage gated inward current, INa. Calcium currents had not yet been discovered, but there was a clue in the model that something was missing. The only way the model could be made to work was to greatly extend the voltage range of the sodium current by reducing the voltage dependence of the sodium activation process. In effect the sodium current was made to serve the function of both the sodium and the ...
Few New Zealanders ate squid before the 1980s, and those who did were likely to have come from Italy or Greece, where calamari (squid) are part of a long culinary history. The tentacles, mantle or tube and fins are all edible, and may be cooked in a variety of ways. Whole tubes can be stuffed and baked, or cut into rings, which are then crumbed and fried. Tentacles and fins are suitable for stir fries. Squid flesh takes only a few minutes to cook, changing from translucent ivory to opaque, milky white. It has a delicate shellfish taste, but becomes rubbery and unpalatable if overcooked.. ...
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For all the acceptance of Gibson acoustics as leaders in the field, you sometimes encounter a little confusion about the terminology behind some of the classic models. And its not entirely surprising, considering the Gibson company set much of the tangled terminology in motion itself back in the 1930s and 40s by using names like
The squid orders Myopsida and Oegopsida are in the superorder Decapodiformes (from the Greek for "ten-legged"). Two other ... Squid are cephalopods in the superorder Decapodiformes with elongated bodies, large eyes, eight arms and two tentacles. Like ... in The Tree of Life Web Project MolluscaBase (2019). Decapodiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: ... Nei: not elsewhere included see Boletzkyida, Belemnite Young, R. E., Vecchione, M., Mangold, K. M. (2008). Decapodiformes Leach ...
Decapodiformes Order:. Oegopsida Family:. Cranchiidae Subfamily:. Taoniinae Genus:. Mesonychoteuthis. Robson, 1925 Species: M. ...
Decapodiformes in Tree of Life Web Project.. ...
Superorder Decapodiformes (also known as Decabrachia or Decembranchiata) *† Belemnoidea: Belemnites and kin[104] ...
These are the standard measures of beak size in Decapodiformes; hood length is preferred for Octopodiformes. They can be used ...
However, the structure of the beak of Plesioteuthis resembles that of the Decapodiformes. These squids lived in the Tithonian, ...
Decapodiformes. Ordena:. Teuthida. A. Naef, 1916. Azpiordenak. †Plesioteuthididae (incertae sedis). Myopsina. Oegopsina ...
Among Decapodiformes (ten-limbed cephalopods), generally either one or both of arms IV are hectocotylized. In incirrate ...
The firefly squid belongs to the Cephalopoda class and the superorder Decapodiformes, commonly known as squids. Their body is ...
Blizzard (ブリザード, Burizādo, 44, 45): A decapodiformes Saucer Creature from an ice age alien planet. The blue side emits -100° ...
... is one of the two orders of squid in the superorder Decapodiformes, in the class Cephalopoda. Together with the ...
Superorder Decapodiformes Order Spirulida: ram's horn squid Order Sepiida: cuttlefish Order Sepiolida: bobtail squid Order ... This cohort contains two extant groups: Decapodiformes (squid, cuttlefish, and relatives) and Octopodiformes (octopuses and the ...
In Decapodiformes (ten-limbed cephalopods), mantle length is measured from the anterior edge of the mantle (near the head), to ... The rostral length of the lower and upper beaks is the standard measure of beak size in Decapodiformes; hood length is ...
Within this class there are two orders, the Myopsida and Oegopsida, which both fall under the superorder Decapodiformes. A. ...
... specifically Decapodiformes and nautiluses) and gastropods. In cephalopods, nidamental glands are large, paired glandular ...
According to some authors, belemnites were a stem-group of Decapodiformes: According to the "belemnoid root-stock theory", ... In 1994, American geologist Peter Doyle defined Coleoidea as composing of three superorders: Decapodiformes (squid and ... but Doyle considered it to be a stem-group to Decapodiformes and Octopodiformes. However, the higher classification of ...
The superorder Decapodiformes has arm pair IV modified into long tentacles with suckers generally only on the club-shaped ... Belemnitida Division Neocoleoidea Superorder Decapodiformes Order Spirulida: ram's horn squid Order Sepiida: cuttlefish Order ...
Eight major fin shapes can be distinguished among the Decapodiformes: sagittate (the most common shape in squid), rhomboid, ...
... ammonites Subclass Coleoidea Superorder Decapodiformes: squid, cuttlefish Superorder Octopodiformes Family †Trachyteuthididae ( ...
... decapodiformes MeSH B01.500.644.116.150.500 - loligo MeSH B01.500.644.116.150.700 - sepia MeSH B01.500.644.116.550 - nautilus ...
Cohort Neocoleoidea Superorder Decapodiformes (also known as Decabrachia or Decembranchiata) Order Spirulida: Ram's horn squid ...
... may refer to: Decapoda, an order of crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs Decapodiformes, ten-limbed cephalopods with ...
CLASS CEPHALOPODA Subclass Nautiloidea: nautilus Subclass †Ammonoidea: ammonites Subclass Coleoidea Superorder Decapodiformes: ...
Class Cephalopoda Subclass Nautiloidea: nautilus Subclass Coleoidea: squid, octopus, cuttlefish Superorder Decapodiformes Order ...
... the order Sepiida and the bobtail squid in the order Sepiolida but the exact placement of this family within the Decapodiformes ...
The tentacles of Decapodiformes are thought to be derived from the fourth arm pair of the ancestral coleoid, but the term arms ...
The gladius (plural: gladii), or pen, is a hard internal bodypart found in many cephalopods of the superorder Decapodiformes ( ...
Superorder Decapodiformes Order Boletzkyida † Order Spirulida ram's horn squid Order Sepiida cuttlefish Order Sepiolida bobtail ...
Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda. It includes cephalopods with ten feet. These are usually eight short arms and ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Decapodiformes&oldid=5543623" ...
十腕總目(Decapodiformes). 烏賊目 · 耳烏賊目 · 槍形目 · 旋乌贼目 ...
Comparisons of the major taxa within the Decapodiformes. Shell type. Cornea present Branchial canal present Buccal supports ... The Decapodiformes includes species with a wide range of body forms and habits. Muscular sepioids bury in the sand during the ... Decapodiformes Leach, 1817 Squids, cuttlefishes and their relatives. Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. ... The Decapodiformes contains about 95 genera and 450 species in 31 families. Many of these families seem to form natural groups ...
... Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ...
Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda. It includes cephalopods with ten feet. These are usually eight short arms and ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Decapodiformes&oldid=5543623" ...
MolluscaBase (2018). [unassigned] Decapodiformes. Accessed through: Land J. van der (ed). (2008) UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine ... Land J. van der (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). [unassigned] Decapodiformes. Accessed at: http:// ...
Decapodiformes, Enoploteuthid families, Eukaryotes, Gonatidae, Histioteuthid families, Idiosepiidae, Lepidoteuthid families, ...
This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
Decapodiformes Order:. Oegopsida Family:. Cranchiidae Subfamily:. Taoniinae Genus:. Mesonychoteuthis. Robson, 1925 Species: M. ...
Decapodiformes • Ordo: Teuthida • Familia: Ommastrephidae Steenstrup, 1857 ...
The squid orders Myopsida and Oegopsida are in the superorder Decapodiformes (from the Greek for "ten-legged"). Two other ... Squid are cephalopods in the superorder Decapodiformes with elongated bodies, large eyes, eight arms and two tentacles. Like ... in The Tree of Life Web Project MolluscaBase (2019). Decapodiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: ... Nei: not elsewhere included see Boletzkyida, Belemnite Young, R. E., Vecchione, M., Mangold, K. M. (2008). Decapodiformes Leach ...
Decapodiformes, Octopodiformes *ITIS link: Coleoidea Bather, 1888 (mirror). *World Register of Marine Species link: Coleoidea ...
Decapodiformes * Ion Channel Gating* / drug effects * Kinetics * Mathematics * Membrane Potentials / drug effects ...
Decapodiformes * Fluorides* * Hydrogen-Ion Concentration * Intracellular Fluid / drug effects* * Nematoda * Nitrilotriacetic ...
Superorder Decapodiformes (also known as Decabrachia or Decembranchiata) *† Belemnoidea: Belemnites and kin[104] ...
Decapodiformes in Tree of Life Web Project.. ...
Superordo: Decapodiformes Ordo: Teuthida Subordo: Oegopsina Familia: Cranchiidae Subfamiliae: Cranchiinae - Taoniinae Name[edit ...
Superordo: Decapodiformes Ordo: Teuthida Subordo: Oegopsina Familia: Mastigoteuthidae. Genera (3): Idioteuthis - Mastigoteuthis ...
Similar to other decapod cephalopods (Cephalopoda: Decapodiformes), fertilisation in most bobtail squids (Decapodiformes: ... Pygmy squids (Decapodiformes: Idiosepiida) are an order of small, short-lived (80-150 days: Tracey et al., 2003; Sato et al., ... Spirulida (Decapodiformes: Spirulida) is a monotypic order comprising the Rams horn squid (Spirula spirula; Figure 7). Very ... In sepiids (Decapodiformes: Sepiida; Figure 6), fertilisation, where studied, is always external (Naud and Havenhand, 2006). ...
Superorder Decapodiformes (also known as Decabrachia or Decembranchiata) *Order Spirulida: Rams Horn Squid ...
Decapodiformes / parasitology*. Invertebrates / anatomy & histology, classification*. Japan. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database ...
Decapodiformes. Ordena:. Teuthida. A. Naef, 1916. Azpiordenak. †Plesioteuthididae (incertae sedis). Myopsina. Oegopsina ...
Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Greek word ... Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Greek word ... This cohort contains two extant groups: Decapodiformes and Octopodiformes . Species within this group exist in all major ...
Decapodiformes (Superorder). *Oegopsida (Order). *Chiroteuthidae (Family). *Asperoteuthis (Genus). *Asperoteuthis mangoldae ( ...
The name Cephalopoda literally means head feet which refers to the cluster of [[arm]]s and/or [[tentacle]]s that project forward from the head, surrounding the mouth. The group includes living [[Coleoidea,coleoids]] (squid, octopods, and cuttlefish) and [[Nautilus]], and a large number of ancient (mostly [[Paleozoic]] and [[Mesozoic]]) forms. All are active marine predators (although some early types were drifters), able to swim swiftly, and easily competing with fish in the marine habitat. There are 650 living species, but more than 7,500 fossil forms are known (and as in all cases like this this number is obviously a gross underestimate of the real number of cephalopod species that have ever lived through the [[Phanerozoic]] time). Like fish they are equipped with highly developed eyes and other sense organs, include both active swimmers and bottom-dwellers, and in many cases have a streamlined body for more efficient locomotion. Swimming is by rapidly expelling water from the [[mantle ...
The cephalopods first appeared in the late [[Cambrian]]. The first forms had gently curved shells. During the [[Ordovician]] the group underwent an astonishing evolutionary radiation, possibly due to the new ecological niches made possible by the extinction of [[Anomalocarida,anomalocarids]] at the end of the Cambrian. Some eight new orders appeared. There was tremendous diversity among them. Some had long straight shells, short straight ones, curved, lightly coiled, and tightly coiled ones evolved. The internal structure of the shell differed greatly as well, mostly in the structure of the [[siphuncle]]. Most were probably relatively slow movers, at least compared to todays forms. The largest ones had huge straight shells that reached 3 to 5 or even 10 metres in length. All these early forms are classed under the [[paraphyletic]] and probably [[artificial taxon]] Nautiloidea ...
Superorder Decapodiformes (also known as Decabrachia or Decembranchiata) *(?Order Boletzkyida). *Order Spirulida: Rams Horn ...
The opalescent squid is a member of the Cephalopoda class, from the Decapodiformes group. It lives in the sea and has survived ...
Subjects: 18th century Decapodiformes instrumentation Microscopy Natural history Pictorial works. * Nouvelles recherches sur ...
Decapodiformes). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 92: 1629-1636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ ...
Lindgren AR (2010) Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special ...
Localization of EsAP activity in intact juvenile light organs. Images of fluorescence in 48-h nonsymbiotic and 48-h symbiotic light organs. (A and B) Detection
  • Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda , subclass Coleoidea , superorder Decapodiformes , order Teuthida , of which there are 2 major suborders, Myopsina and Oegopsina . (phadia.com)
  • Squid are cephalopods in the superorder Decapodiformes with elongated bodies, large eyes, eight arms and two tentacles. (wikipedia.org)
  • squid Decapodiformes sp. (koreanstudies.net)
  • Squid and cuttlefish, for example, belong to a super-order known as Decapodiformes. (mom.me)
  • This Idiosepiidae contains the smallest species within the Decapodiformes. (tolweb.org)
  • The Decapodiformes contains about 95 genera and 450 species in 31 families. (tolweb.org)
  • The Decapodiformes includes species with a wide range of body forms and habits. (tolweb.org)
  • Especially in Decapodiformes, the sucker morphology is diversified among species [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)