The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
An acute necrotic infection of the SCROTUM; PENIS; or PERINEUM. It is characterized by scrotum pain and redness with rapid progression to gangrene and sloughing of tissue. Fournier gangrene is usually secondary to perirectal or periurethral infections associated with local trauma, operative procedures, or urinary tract disease.
Removal or disruption of DENTAL DEPOSITS and plaque-retentive DENTAL CALCULUS from tooth surfaces and within the periodontal pocket space without deliberate removal of CEMENTUM as done in ROOT PLANING and often in DENTAL SCALING. The goal is to conserve dental cementum to help maintain or re-establish healthy periodontal environment and eliminate PERIODONTITIS by using light instrumentation strokes and nonsurgical techniques (e.g., ultrasonic, laser instruments).
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
Localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The application of a vacuum across the surface of a wound through a foam dressing cut to fit the wound. This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing.
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.
Inflammation of the mediastinum, the area between the pleural sacs.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
Fibrocartilage that makes up the triangular fibrocartilage complex which is found in the WRIST JOINT.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.
Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
A tibial fracture is a medical term that describes a break or crack in the shinbone, one of the two bones in the lower leg, which can occur anywhere along its length due to various traumatic injuries or stresses.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.

The orthopaedic aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (1/933)

Five cases of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) were treated from 1985-1996 at the Orthopaedics and Trauma Department of SSK Izmir Educational Hospital. Four patients were female and one was male. The pedigrees of the first two female patients had the same features of inter-related marriages. The patients have been followed up for 5.5-11 years (average of 7.5 years). Surgical operations were mostly required in the lower limbs. Problems in the hips required adductor myotomy, the Soutter procedure, total hip replacement, and pertrochanteric extension osteotomy. Management of the knees required supracondylar shortening and extension osteotomy of the femur, high tibial extension osteotomy, debridement of the knee joint with removal of osteophytes, ogleotomy of the patellar lengthening of the knee flexors and posterior capsulotomy. Interphalangeal arthrodesis for hammer toes, extension osteotomy of the head of the first metatarsals, and Kellers operation were carried out in the foot. In the upper limb decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve, debridement of the elbow joint, extension and valgus osteotomy of the distal radius, and extension osteotomy of the head of the first metacarpal were required.  (+info)

Diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in children. (2/933)

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but progressive soft tissue infection. This condition is difficult to recognize in the early phase, when it is often confused with cellulitis. We report the cases of four children with necrotizing fasciitis. The initial presentation in these cases was cellulitis. Fever and soft tissue swelling occurred within 24 h and spreading erythema within 4 to 12 h. Radiologic studies of the lesions showed soft tissue thickening. Ultrasonography of the lesions demonstrated distorted, thickened fascia with fluid accumulation. Well-defined, loculated abscesses were demonstrated in two cases. Although typical dusky skin and purplish patches were not found in our cases, necrotizing fasciitis was strongly suspected on the basis of the clinical course and sonographic findings. Ultrasonography also was used as a guide for aspiration of pus. Gram-stained smears and bacterial cultures yielded the pathogens. The choice of antibiotic therapy was made on the results of smears and culture. All patients survived after immediate surgical debridement, intensive antibiotic therapy, and aggressive wound care. In conclusion, ultrasonography provides a rapid and valuable diagnostic modality for necrotizing fasciitis. The pus obtained through sonographically guided aspiration for bacterial culture can allow identification of the pathogenic organisms.  (+info)

Thoracic blastomycosis and empyema. (3/933)

Blastomycosis is endemic in river valley areas of the southeastern and Midwestern United States. Pulmonary manifestations include chronic cough and pleuritic pain. Radiographic appearance of the infection can mimic bronchogenic lung carcinoma. Pleural effusion is rarely associated with this pulmonary infection, and empyema has not been previously reported. We report a case of pulmonary and pleural Blastomyces dermatitidis infection presenting as empyema thoracis. Diagnosis and treatment were attained with video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) pleural and lung biopsy and debridement.  (+info)

Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream. (4/933)

The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants.  (+info)

Inhibition of choriocapillaris regeneration with genistein. (5/933)

PURPOSE: To test the effects of genistein on choriocapillaris regeneration and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) wound healing in a surgical model in the rabbit. METHODS: Intravitreal injections of either 0.1 ml of a 90-microM concentration of genistein, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; negative control), or 2 microg cycloheximide (positive control) were given 24 hours before surgical debridement of RPE in rabbits. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) of choroidal vascular casts and the RPE wounds and histologic evaluation by light microscopy and EM of the disturbed areas were performed at days 1, 7, and 30 after surgery. Quantitative analysis of the area of the choriocapillaris bed and RPE was performed by automated image analysis, and the results were analyzed by paired Student's t-test. RESULTS: Loss of RPE caused a rapid initial atrophy followed by slower subsequent revascularization of the choriocapillaris, which paralleled the RPE wound healing. Choriocapillaris regeneration appeared nearly normal by day 30 in the DMSO group. Inhibition of choriocapillaris revascularization by genistein was significant at day 30 when compared with the DMSO-treated negative control (P = 0.013). There was a strong trend toward inhibition in the cycloheximide-treated positive control group (P = 0.062), which reached significance at day 7 compared with the DMSO group (P = 0.02). RPE covered the wound area by day 7 in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal injection of genistein was found to cause significant inhibition of choriocapillaris regeneration without apparent effect on RPE wound healing. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as genistein may be useful as a pharmacologic approach in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization.  (+info)

Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region. (6/933)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. METHODS: With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. CONCLUSION: These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.  (+info)

Debridement for osteoarthritis of the elbow in athletes. (7/933)

The results of surgical treatment for osteoarthritis of the elbow in athletes were investigated. Athletic activities consisted mainly of judo wrestling and baseball; and included 26 elbows. The mean age was 32 years. The radiological changes were mild in most cases. Debridement consisted of resecting osteophytes and removing loose bodies. Pain scores were improved, and the range of movement was improved by an average of 24 degrees with an average follow-up of 4 years and 2 months. Recurrence of mild symptoms occurred in most cases.  (+info)

Synchronization of the G1/S transition in response to corneal debridement. (8/933)

PURPOSE: This study's intention was to examine the progression of ocular surface epithelium through the G1/S transition of the cell cycle after corneal epithelial debridement. METHODS: Three-millimeter debridements were made in central rat cornea and allowed to heal 4 to 48 hours in vivo. Unwounded contralateral eyes served as controls. Two hours before the animals were killed, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected to detect S-phase cells. Incorporated BrdU was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and expression of G1 cell-cycle markers cyclins D and E was examined by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. RESULTS: The number of BrdU-labeled cells in conjunctival, limbal, and peripheral epithelium peaked at 28 hours after wounding (3.9-, 4.5-, and 3.2-fold increases, respectively). In unwounded eyes, cyclin D showed diffuse cytoplasmic localization with occasional basal cells exhibiting a nuclear localization, while anti-cyclin E showed intense localization in limbal and conjunctival basal cells but only minimal labeling in corneal epithelium. Within 8 to 12 hours after wounding, the nuclei of most corneal basal cells outside the wound area were bound intensely by anti-cyclins D and E. Immunoblotting revealed that cyclin D and E protein levels increased 4.5- and 12.1-fold after wounding, respectively. Epithelium migrating into the wound area did not incorporate BrdU and did not exhibit nuclear localization of cyclins D and E. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal epithelial debridement stimulates basal cells outside the wound area to synchronously enter the cell cycle. However, cells migrating to cover the wound area do not progress through the cell cycle. These data suggest a compartmentalization of the proliferative and migratory phases of wound repair.  (+info)

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

Therapeutic irrigation, also known as lavage, is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of fluids or other agents into a body cavity or natural passageway for therapeutic purposes. This technique is used to cleanse, flush out, or introduce medication into various parts of the body, such as the bladder, lungs, stomach, or colon.

The fluid used in therapeutic irrigation can be sterile saline solution, distilled water, or a medicated solution, depending on the specific purpose of the procedure. The flow and pressure of the fluid are carefully controlled to ensure that it reaches the desired area without causing damage to surrounding tissues.

Therapeutic irrigation is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, obstructions, and toxic exposures. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify abnormalities or lesions within body cavities.

Overall, therapeutic irrigation is a valuable technique in modern medicine that allows healthcare providers to deliver targeted treatment directly to specific areas of the body, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

Fournier gangrene is a type of necrotizing fasciitis, which is a severe soft tissue infection that involves the fascia (the layer of connective tissue covering the muscle). Fournier gangrene specifically affects the genital region and can spread to the abdominal wall or thighs. It's characterized by rapid progression, extensive tissue damage, and a high mortality rate if not treated promptly with surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics. The infection typically involves multiple types of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, and can arise from various sources such as urinary tract infections, anal abscesses, or trauma to the genital area.

Periodontal debridement is a dental procedure that involves the removal of plaque, calculus (tartar), and diseased tissue from the periodontal pocket around the teeth. The aim of this procedure is to smooth the root surface and create an environment that allows for the reattachment of healthy gum tissue to the tooth. This helps to prevent the progression of periodontal disease and promotes oral health. It is typically performed by a dental hygienist or dentist using specialized instruments, and may require local anesthesia to ensure patient comfort.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

Callosities are areas of thickened and hardened skin that develop as a result of repeated friction, pressure, or irritation. They typically appear on the hands and feet, particularly on the palms and soles, and can vary in size and shape. Callosities are not harmful but can cause discomfort or pain if they become too thick or develop cracks or sores. They are often seen in people who have jobs or hobbies that involve manual labor or frequent use of their hands, such as musicians, athletes, and construction workers.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine, also known as Pott's disease, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves the vertebral column. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which primarily affects the lungs but can spread through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, including the spine.

In Pott's disease, the infection leads to the destruction of the spongy bone (vertebral body) and the intervertebral disc space, resulting in vertebral collapse, kyphosis (hunchback deformity), and potential neurological complications due to spinal cord compression. Common symptoms include back pain, stiffness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Early diagnosis and treatment with a multidrug antibiotic regimen are crucial to prevent long-term disability and further spread of the infection.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious bacterial infection that affects the fascia, which is the tissue that surrounds muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. The infection can also spread to the muscle and skin. It is often caused by a combination of different types of bacteria, including group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The infection causes extensive tissue damage and necrosis (death) of the fascia and surrounding tissues. It can progress rapidly and can be fatal if not treated promptly with aggressive surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics.

Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area; fever; chills; and general weakness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if these symptoms occur, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) is a medical treatment used to promote wound healing and prevent infection in acute or chronic wounds. It involves the application of controlled sub-atmospheric pressure to the surface of the wound, usually through the use of a vacuum-assisted device.

The negative pressure helps to remove excess fluid and infectious materials from the wound, while also promoting the growth of new tissue by increasing blood flow and stimulating cell proliferation. NPWT can be used in various types of wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, surgical wounds, and traumatic injuries.

The therapy is typically administered through a sealed dressing that covers the wound and is connected to a vacuum pump. The negative pressure is applied continuously or intermittently, depending on the specific needs of the patient and the type of wound being treated. NPWT has been shown to be effective in reducing wound size, promoting healing, and improving overall clinical outcomes in many patients with complex wounds.

An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is a type of bone injury in which the bone breaks and penetrates through the skin, creating an open wound. This condition exposes the fractured bone to the external environment, increasing the risk of infection and complicating the healing process. Open fractures can result from high-energy trauma such as car accidents, falls from significant heights, or industrial incidents. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper treatment and prevention of infection.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Mucormycosis is a serious and often life-threatening invasive fungal infection caused by the Mucorales family of fungi. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer, organ transplant recipients, or those who have been treated with high doses of corticosteroids.

The infection typically begins in the respiratory tract after inhaling spores from the environment, but it can also occur through skin wounds or gastrointestinal exposure to the fungi. The infection can quickly spread to other parts of the body, including the sinuses, brain, and lungs, causing tissue damage and necrosis.

Symptoms of mucormycosis depend on the site of infection but may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, sinus congestion, facial swelling, and blackened areas of skin or tissue. Treatment typically involves a combination of antifungal medications, surgical debridement of infected tissue, and management of underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of infection.

Soft tissue injuries refer to damages that occur in the body's connective tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These injuries can be caused by various events, including accidents, falls, or sports-related impacts. Common soft tissue injuries include sprains, strains, and contusions (bruises).

Sprains occur when the ligaments, which connect bones to each other, are stretched or torn. This usually happens in the joints like ankles, knees, or wrists. Strains, on the other hand, involve injuries to the muscles or tendons, often resulting from overuse or sudden excessive force. Contusions occur when blood vessels within the soft tissues get damaged due to a direct blow or impact, causing bleeding and subsequent bruising in the affected area.

Soft tissue injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. In some cases, these injuries may require medical treatment, including physical therapy, medication, or even surgery, depending on their severity and location. It is essential to seek proper medical attention for soft tissue injuries to ensure appropriate healing and prevent long-term complications or chronic pain.

Discitis is a medical condition that refers to an inflammation of the intervertebral disc space, which is the area between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine. The condition is usually caused by an infection, most commonly bacterial, that spreads to the disc space from nearby tissues or the bloodstream.

The symptoms of discitis may include lower back pain, fever, and difficulty walking or standing upright. In some cases, the condition may also cause nerve root compression, leading to radiating pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs. Diagnosis of discitis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans, as well as blood tests and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the presence of an infection.

Treatment for discitis usually involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as pain management and physical therapy to help manage symptoms and maintain mobility. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or stabilize the spine.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A bandage is a medical dressing or covering applied to a wound, injury, or sore with the intention of promoting healing or preventing infection. Bandages can be made of a variety of materials such as gauze, cotton, elastic, or adhesive tape and come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate various body parts. They can also have additional features like fasteners, non-slip surfaces, or transparent windows for monitoring the condition of the wound.

Bandages serve several purposes, including:

1. Absorbing drainage or exudate from the wound
2. Protecting the wound from external contaminants and bacteria
3. Securing other medical devices such as catheters or splints in place
4. Reducing swelling or promoting immobilization of the affected area
5. Providing compression to control bleeding or prevent fluid accumulation
6. Relieving pain by reducing pressure on sensitive nerves or structures.

Proper application and care of bandages are essential for effective wound healing and prevention of complications such as infection or delayed recovery.

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of acute pancreatitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. In acute necrotizing pancreatitis, there is widespread death (necrosis) of pancreatic tissue due to autodigestion caused by the activation and release of digestive enzymes within the pancreas. This condition can lead to systemic inflammation, organ failure, and infection of the necrotic areas in the pancreas. It typically has a more complicated clinical course and worse prognosis compared to acute interstitial pancreatitis, which is another form of acute pancreatitis without significant necrosis.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The term "diabetic foot" refers to a condition that affects the feet of people with diabetes, particularly when the disease is not well-controlled. It is characterized by a combination of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation (peripheral artery disease) in the feet and lower legs.

Neuropathy can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet, making it difficult for people with diabetes to feel injuries, cuts, blisters, or other foot problems. Poor circulation makes it harder for wounds to heal and increases the risk of infection.

Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetic neuropathy and can lead to serious infections, hospitalization, and even amputation if not treated promptly and effectively. Preventive care, including regular foot exams, proper footwear, and good blood glucose control, is essential for people with diabetes to prevent or manage diabetic foot problems.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

Skin care, in a medical context, refers to the practice of maintaining healthy skin through various hygienic, cosmetic, and therapeutic measures. This can include:

1. Cleansing: Using appropriate cleansers to remove dirt, sweat, and other impurities without stripping the skin of its natural oils.
2. Moisturizing: Applying creams or lotions to keep the skin hydrated and prevent dryness.
3. Sun Protection: Using sunscreens, hats, and protective clothing to shield the skin from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays which can cause sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.
4. Skin Care Products: Using over-the-counter or prescription products to manage specific skin conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, or rosacea.
5. Regular Check-ups: Regularly examining the skin for any changes, growths, or abnormalities that may indicate a skin condition or disease.
6. Lifestyle Factors: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and avoiding habits like smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which can negatively impact skin health.

It's important to note that while some general skincare advice applies to most people, individual skincare needs can vary greatly depending on factors like age, skin type (oily, dry, combination, sensitive), and specific skin conditions or concerns. Therefore, it's often beneficial to seek personalized advice from a dermatologist or other healthcare provider.

Mucorales is a order of fungi that includes several genera of mold-like fungi, such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia. These fungi are commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and animal manure. Some species can cause mucormycosis, a serious and often life-threatening invasive fungal infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer, or organ transplants. The infection typically begins in the respiratory tract, but it can spread to other parts of the body, including the sinuses, brain, and lungs. Mucormycosis is difficult to diagnose and treat, and it has a high mortality rate.

An infected aneurysm, also known as a mycotic aneurysm, is a localized dilation or bulging of the wall of a blood vessel that has been invaded and damaged by infectious organisms. This type of aneurysm can occur in any blood vessel, but they are most commonly found in the aorta and cerebral arteries.

Infected aneurysms are usually caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream from another part of the body, such as endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), pneumonia, or skin infections. The infection weakens the vessel wall, causing it to bulge and potentially rupture, which can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or even death.

Symptoms of infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and localized pain or tenderness in the area of the aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT angiography, MRI, or ultrasound, along with blood cultures to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgical intervention to repair or remove the aneurysm.

Mediastinitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the mediastinum, which is the area in the chest that separates the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and major blood vessels. Mediastinitis can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, trauma, or complications from medical procedures such as esophageal surgery or heart catheterization.

The symptoms of mediastinitis may include chest pain, fever, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, cough, and neck stiffness. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, and confirmed with laboratory tests that identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, fluids, and nutrition. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain infected fluid or remove damaged tissue.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Empyema is a collection of pus in a body cavity. Pleural empyema refers to the presence of pus in the pleural space, which is the thin fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. This condition usually develops as a complication of pneumonia or lung infection, and it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus from the pleural space through procedures such as thoracentesis or chest tube placement. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected pleura and prevent recurrence.

A leg ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs on the lower extremities, typically on the inner or outer ankle. It's often caused by poor circulation, venous insufficiency, or diabetes. Leg ulcers can also result from injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. These ulcers can be painful, and they may take a long time to heal, making them prone to infection. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and wound care are essential for healing leg ulcers and preventing complications.

A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure injury or bedsore, is defined by the National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel (NPIAP) as "localized damage to the skin and/or underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence or related to a medical or other device." The damage can be caused by intense and/or prolonged pressure or shear forces, or a combination of both. Pressure ulcers are staged based on their severity, ranging from an initial reddening of the skin (Stage 1) to full-thickness tissue loss that extends down to muscle and bone (Stage 4). Unstageable pressure ulcers are those in which the base of the wound is covered by yellow, tan, green or brown tissue and the extent of tissue damage is not visible. Suspected deep tissue injury (Suspected DTI) describes intact skin or non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence due to pressure and/or shear. The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a structure located in the wrist, more specifically at the junction between the ulna bone of the forearm and the wrist bones (carpals). It consists of several components including:

* The triangular fibrocartilage disc: A piece of cartilage that provides shock absorption and helps to distribute forces across the wrist.
* The meniscal homologue: A small structure similar to a meniscus found in some other joints, which also helps with force distribution.
* The ulnar collateral ligament: A ligament that supports the medial (ulnar) side of the wrist.
* The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon sheath and subsynovial connective tissue: These structures provide stability to the TFCC and allow for smooth movement of the tendons in this area.

The primary function of the TFCC is to maintain the stability of the distal radioulnar joint (the joint between the ulna bone and one of the wrist bones) and to distribute loads transmitted across the wrist, particularly during rotational movements of the forearm. Injuries or degeneration of the TFCC can lead to pain, stiffness, and decreased grip strength in the affected wrist.

Infectious bone diseases are a category of medical conditions that result from an infection or inflammation caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These infections can affect the bones directly or spread to the bones from nearby tissues. Some common infectious bone diseases include:

1. Osteomyelitis: This is a bone infection that can occur in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the long bones of the arms and legs, as well as the vertebrae in the spine. It is usually caused by bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections.
2. Septic arthritis: This is an infection of the joints that can spread to the nearby bones. It is usually caused by bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): This is a bacterial infection that can affect any part of the body, including the bones and joints. When it affects the bones, it is called skeletal tuberculosis.
4. Brucellosis: This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated food products. It can cause fever, fatigue, and joint pain, and can also affect the bones.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is a fungal infection that is common in the southwestern United States. It can cause respiratory symptoms, such as cough and shortness of breath, and can also spread to the bones and joints.
6. Echinococcosis: This is a parasitic infection that is caused by tapeworms. It can affect various organs in the body, including the bones and joints.

Infectious bone diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and supportive care to help manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses.

Osteoarticular tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) that involves the bones and joints. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection can spread to the bones and joints through the bloodstream or from nearby infected organs, such as the lungs.

The most commonly affected sites are the spine (Pott's disease), hip, knee, wrist, and small bones of the hands and feet. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint or bone. In some cases, the infection can lead to deformity, chronic disability, or even death if left untreated.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as blood tests, sputum cultures, or biopsy). Treatment usually consists of a long course of antibiotics (usually for at least six months) to kill the bacteria. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove infected tissue or stabilize damaged joints.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Fasciitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation or irritation of the fascia, which are the bands of connective tissue that surround muscles, tendons, and bones in the body. The most common type of fasciitis is plantar fasciitis, which affects the fascia on the bottom of the foot and can cause heel pain. Other types of fasciitis include:

* Achilles tendonitis or Achilles tendinopathy, which affects the fascia that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone
* Shin splints, which affect the fascia that covers the front of the lower leg
* Necrotizing fasciitis, a rare and serious bacterial infection that can cause extensive tissue damage and is potentially life-threatening.

The symptoms of fasciitis may include pain, stiffness, or tenderness in the affected area, especially after prolonged periods of rest or physical activity. Treatment for fasciitis typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) of the affected area, as well as physical therapy exercises to stretch and strengthen the fascia and surrounding muscles. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms and promote healing.

Spondylitis is a term used to describe inflammation in the spinal vertebrae, often leading to stiffness and pain. The most common form is Ankylosing Spondylitis, which is a chronic autoimmune disease where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joints in the spine. This can cause the bones in the spine to grow together, resulting in a rigid and inflexible spine. Other forms of spondylitis include reactive spondylitis, infectious spondylitis, and seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Symptoms may also include pain and stiffness in the neck, lower back, hips, and small joints of the body.

The sternum, also known as the breastbone, is a long, flat bone located in the central part of the chest. It serves as the attachment point for several muscles and tendons, including those involved in breathing. The sternum has three main parts: the manubrium at the top, the body in the middle, and the xiphoid process at the bottom. The upper seven pairs of ribs connect to the sternum via costal cartilages.

A tibial fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the shin bone, which is called the tibia. The tibia is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and is responsible for supporting much of your body weight. Tibial fractures can occur in various ways, such as from high-energy trauma like car accidents or falls, or from low-energy trauma in individuals with weakened bones due to osteoporosis or other medical conditions.

Tibial fractures can be classified into different types based on the location, pattern, and severity of the break. Some common types of tibial fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A straight break that goes across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A diagonal break that slopes across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that spirals around the bone, often caused by twisting or rotational forces.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break where the bone is shattered into multiple pieces.
5. Open fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin, increasing the risk of infection.
6. Closed fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Tibial fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, and rehabilitation to restore strength, mobility, and function to the injured limb.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

Zygomycosis is a rare, but serious fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the class Zygomycetes. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and decaying organic matter. The infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Zygomycosis can manifest in various forms depending on the site of infection. The two main types are rhinocerebral zygomycosis (affecting the sinuses and brain) and pulmonary zygomycosis (affecting the lungs). Other forms include cutaneous (skin), gastrointestinal, and disseminated zygomycosis. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, sinus pain or congestion, skin lesions, and neurological symptoms like headache, altered mental status, or vision changes.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antifungal medications and surgical debridement are crucial for managing zygomycosis. The prognosis depends on the patient's underlying health condition and the extent of infection at the time of diagnosis.

Orbital diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony cavity in the skull that contains the eye, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as eyelid swelling, protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, pain, and limited extraocular muscle movement.

Orbital diseases can be broadly classified into inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic (benign or malignant), vascular, traumatic, and congenital categories. Some examples of orbital diseases include:

* Orbital cellulitis: a bacterial or fungal infection that causes swelling and inflammation in the orbit
* Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland and can cause protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
* Orbital tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the orbit, such as optic nerve gliomas, lacrimal gland tumors, and lymphomas
* Carotid-cavernous fistulas: abnormal connections between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus, leading to pulsatile proptosis and other symptoms
* Orbital fractures: breaks in the bones surrounding the orbit, often caused by trauma
* Congenital anomalies: structural abnormalities present at birth, such as craniofacial syndromes or dermoid cysts.

Proper diagnosis and management of orbital diseases require a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other specialists.

Paranasal sinus diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nasal cavity. These sinuses include the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses.

Paranasal sinus diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, allergies, structural abnormalities, or autoimmune disorders. Some common paranasal sinus diseases include:

1. Sinusitis: Inflammation or infection of the sinuses, which can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, and reduced sense of smell.
2. Nasal polyps: Soft, benign growths that develop in the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses, which can obstruct airflow and cause difficulty breathing through the nose.
3. Sinonasal tumors: Abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, which can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and bleeding from the nose.
4. Sinus cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that form in the sinuses, which can cause symptoms similar to those of sinusitis.
5. Fungal sinusitis: Infection of the sinuses with fungi, which can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and thick, discolored mucus.

Treatment for paranasal sinus diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, or corticosteroids, as well as surgical intervention in more severe cases.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Ununited fracture is a medical term used to describe a fractured bone that has failed to heal properly. This condition is also known as a nonunion fracture. In a normal healing process, the broken ends of the bone will grow together, or "unite," over time as new bone tissue forms. However, in some cases, the bones may not reconnect due to various reasons such as infection, poor blood supply, excessive motion at the fracture site, or inadequate stabilization of the fracture.

Ununited fractures can cause significant pain, swelling, and deformity in the affected area. They may also lead to a decreased range of motion, weakness, and instability in the joint near the fracture. Treatment for ununited fractures typically involves surgical intervention to promote bone healing, such as bone grafting or internal fixation with screws or plates. In some cases, electrical stimulation or ultrasound therapy may also be used to help promote bone growth and healing.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

Occlusive dressings are specialized bandages or coverings that form a barrier over the skin, preventing air and moisture from passing through. They are designed to create a moist environment that promotes healing by increasing local blood flow, reducing wound desiccation, and encouraging the growth of new tissue. Occlusive dressings can also help to minimize pain, scarring, and the risk of infection in wounds. These dressings are often used for dry, necrotic, or hard-to-heal wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. It is important to monitor the wound closely while using occlusive dressings, as they can sometimes lead to skin irritation or maceration if left in place for too long.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

Necrosis is the premature death of cells or tissues due to damage or injury, such as from infection, trauma, infarction (lack of blood supply), or toxic substances. It's a pathological process that results in the uncontrolled and passive degradation of cellular components, ultimately leading to the release of intracellular contents into the extracellular space. This can cause local inflammation and may lead to further tissue damage if not treated promptly.

There are different types of necrosis, including coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, fibrinoid, and gangrenous necrosis, each with distinct histological features depending on the underlying cause and the affected tissues or organs.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

The forefoot is the front part of the human foot that contains the toes and the associated bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is made up of five long bones called metatarsals and fourteen phalanges, which are the bones in the toes. The forefoot plays a crucial role in weight-bearing, balance, and propulsion during walking and running. The joints in the forefoot allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction of the toes, enabling us to maintain our footing on various surfaces and adapt to different terrain.

Soft tissue infections are medical conditions that involve infection of the soft tissues of the body, which include the skin, muscles, fascia (the connective tissue that surrounds muscles), and tendons. These infections can be caused by various types of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

Soft tissue infections can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of organism causing the infection, the extent of tissue involvement, and the patient's overall health status. Some common types of soft tissue infections include:

1. Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection that affects the skin and underlying tissues. It typically presents as a red, swollen, warm, and painful area on the skin, often accompanied by fever and chills.
2. Abscess: An abscess is a localized collection of pus in the soft tissues, caused by an infection. It can appear as a swollen, tender, and warm lump under the skin, which may be filled with pus.
3. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a rare but severe soft tissue infection that involves the rapid destruction of fascia and surrounding tissues. It is often caused by a mixture of bacteria and can progress rapidly, leading to shock, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly.
4. Myositis: This is an inflammation of the muscle tissue, which can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms may include muscle pain, swelling, weakness, and fever.
5. Erysipelas: This is a superficial skin infection that affects the upper layers of the skin and the lymphatic vessels. It typically presents as a raised, red, and painful rash with clear borders.

Treatment for soft tissue infections depends on the type and severity of the infection but may include antibiotics, drainage of pus or abscesses, and surgery in severe cases. Preventive measures such as good hygiene, wound care, and prompt treatment of injuries can help reduce the risk of developing soft tissue infections.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Staphylococcal infections are a type of infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which are commonly found on the skin and nose of healthy people. However, if they enter the body through a cut, scratch, or other wound, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of Staphylococcus bacteria, but the most common one that causes infections is Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can range from minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, and impetigo to serious conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms of staphylococcal infections depend on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections. It is important to note that some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to certain antibiotics, making them more difficult to treat.

Arthrodesis is a surgical procedure to fuse together the bones of a joint, in order to restrict its movement and provide stability. This procedure is typically performed when a joint has been severely damaged by injury, arthritis, or other conditions, and non-surgical treatments have failed to relieve symptoms such as pain and instability.

During the surgery, the cartilage that normally cushions the ends of the bones is removed, and the bones are realigned and held in place with hardware such as plates, screws, or rods. Over time, the bones grow together, forming a solid fusion that restricts joint motion.

Arthrodesis can be performed on various joints throughout the body, including the spine, wrist, ankle, and knee. While this procedure can provide significant pain relief and improve function, it does limit the range of motion in the fused joint, which may impact mobility and daily activities. Therefore, arthrodesis is typically considered a last resort when other treatments have failed.

A periodontal abscess is a localized collection of pus in the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, caused by an infection. It's typically characterized by symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and sometimes drainage of pus from the affected area. The infection usually arises from dental plaque that accumulates on the teeth and gums, leading to periodontal disease. If left untreated, a periodontal abscess can result in tissue destruction, bone loss, and even tooth loss. Treatment typically involves draining the abscess, removing any infected tissue, and providing oral hygiene instruction to prevent future infections. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help clear up the infection.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

A varicose ulcer is a type of chronic wound that typically occurs on the lower leg, often as a result of poor circulation and venous insufficiency. These ulcers form when there is increased pressure in the veins, leading to damage and leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissues. Over time, this can cause the skin to break down and form an open sore or ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are often associated with varicose veins, which are swollen and twisted veins that are visible just beneath the surface of the skin. These veins have weakened walls and valves, which can lead to the pooling of blood and fluid in the lower legs. This increased pressure can cause damage to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of an ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are typically slow to heal and may require extensive treatment, including compression therapy, wound care, and sometimes surgery. Risk factors for developing varicose ulcers include obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and a history of deep vein thrombosis or other circulatory problems.

Surgical or "sharp" debridement and laser debridement under anesthesia are the fastest methods of debridement. They are very ... "debridement". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 5 September 2013. "Understand Debridement Before You Regret - Why you Need ... "Hydrosurgical debridement versus conventional surgical debridement for acute partial-thickness burns". Cochrane Database of ... Debridement is an important part of the healing process for burns and other serious wounds; it is also used for treating some ...
Debridement may be performed in the process of personal or professional teeth cleaning. Professional debridement techniques ... In dentistry, debridement refers to the removal by dental cleaning of accumulations of plaque and calculus (tartar) in order to ... Dental debridement is a procedure by which plaque and calculus (tartar) that have accumulated on the teeth is removed. ... Debridement may be performed using ultrasonic instruments, which fracture the calculus, thereby facilitating its removal, as ...
In dentistry, open flap debridement is a periodontal procedure in which the supporting alveolar bone and root surfaces of teeth ...
Swigart, Rob (May 1975). "Retroactive Debridement". Poetry. 126: 80. Archived from the original on October 5, 2018. Retrieved ... "Retroactive Debridement" (1975, in Poetry #126) "Still Lives" (1975, in Poetry #126) "On Reading the Norton Anthology of Poetry ...
Live maggots of certain species of flies have been used since antiquity for wound debridement. Larvae of calliphorid flies of ... Three midgut lysozymes of L. sericata have antibacterial effects in maggot debridement therapy. The study demonstrated that the ... Ngan, Vanessa (2005). "Maggot debridement therapy". DermNet. Tait, Amelia (26 February 2023). "Medieval medicine: the return to ... Valachova, I. (2014). "Midgut lysozymes of Lucilia sericata - new antimicrobials involved in maggot debridement therapy". ...
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of blow fly larvae to remove the dead tissue from wounds, most commonly being ... Gilead, L.; Mumcuoglu, K. Y.; Ingber, A. (16 August 2013). "The use of maggot debridement therapy in the treatment of chronic ... They are also used in medicine in debridement to clean wounds. Dipterans are endopterygotes, insects that undergo radical ... Stegman, Sylvia; Steenvoorde, Pascal (2011). "Maggot debridement therapy". Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society ...
Debridement- Part I- Multiple Soft Tissue Wounds; Adequate and minimal skin incision, incision of fascia, excision of ... debridement of skin; occlusive dressing treatment; skin grafting; air treatment; importance of preventing contamination of ... new method applied to debridement; actual combat conditions are simulated in laboratory (16 min; color; distribution to Central ... devitalized tissue, complete hemostasis, primary closures and dressings (12 min., color). PMF 5305 (1956) - Debridement - Part ...
Debridement: Song I Want a Witness & Debridement 2002: Selected Poems, ARC Publications Poetry accompanied by jazz music: 2004 ... Lerner, Ben (ed.). To Cut Is To Heal: A Critical Companion to Michael S. Harper's "Debridement". Providence, RI: Paradigm Press ... ISBN 978-0-7868-6662-5. Harper, Michael S. Debridement. Poetry Foundation, 1977. "Michael S. Harper: chronology". go.galegroup. ... Debridement (included in Images of Kin) 1985: Healing Song for the Inner Ear 1995: Honorable Amendments 2000: Songlines in ...
Harper, Michael S. - "Debridement". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved October 5, 2010. (Articles with short description, Short ... Harper also wrote a poetry series in 1973 titled Debridement. One song has been written about Johnson's tragic life (with some ...
Cochrane Wounds Group) (January 2010). "Debridement of diabetic foot ulcers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010 ... The treatment consists of debridement, appropriate bandages, managing peripheral arterial disease and appropriate use of ...
Some recommend delaying surgical debridement. The overall risk of death is about 50% in streptococcal disease, and 5% in ...
Surgical debridement may be necessary. For those with mycotic aneurysm, urgent surgery is required for prosthetic vascular ...
Osseous debridement from the Achilles tendon. Retrocalcaneal enthesophyte resection with functional Achilles tendon lengthening ...
Surgical debridement is a common treatment. Bacterial superinfection of debrided tissues after treatment can therefore be a ...
Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo (2011). "Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement". ePlasty. Copenhagen. 11 (33 ... September 2013). "Maggot debridement therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a meta-analysis". Journal of Wound Care ... A Cochrane review of methods for the debridement of venous leg ulcers found maggot therapy to be broadly as effective as most ... However, there have not been many case studies done with maggot debridement therapy on animals, and as such it can be difficult ...
Conservative debridement and local amphotericin irrigation". Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 5 (3): 207-211. doi ... aggressive invasive aspergillosis include voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. ...
Debridement (dental) Jones, Trish (July 2016). "Selective Polishing: An Approach to Comprehensive Polishing" (PDF). www.rdhmag. ... Tooth polishing has little therapeutic value and is usually done as a cosmetic procedure after debridement and before fluoride ...
Flint DJ, Sugrue WJ (April 1999). "Stingray injuries: a lesson in debridement". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 112 (1086): ...
The extent of surgical debridement needed depends on the extent of the gangrene and may be limited to the removal of a finger, ... Dead tissue alone does not require debridement, and in some cases, such as dry gangrene, the affected part falls off ( ... After the gangrene is treated with debridement and antibiotics, the underlying cause can be treated. In the case of gangrene ... Surgical efforts may include debridement, amputation, or the use of maggot therapy. Efforts to treat the underlying cause may ...
Debridement is done in necrotic ulcers. In gangrenous digits, amputation is frequently required. Below-knee and above-knee ...
Debridement involves the removal of dead or damaged tissue from wounds in order to assist healing. Much of the debris to be ... It has been used (without regulation) for wound debridement for many years, but in the US in 2008 it was brought under ... Maggot therapy for wound debridement is a traditional therapy which was in recent years approved by the FDA. It has been ... On the other hand, recent research has been exploring new ways of administering papain for wound debridement. Papain as well as ...
For this reason, it is often necessary to remove necrotic tissue surgically, a procedure known as debridement.[citation needed ... Singhal A, Reis ED, Kerstein MD (2001). "Options for nonsurgical debridement of necrotic wounds". Advances in Skin & Wound Care ... Debridement, referring to the removal of dead tissue by surgical or non-surgical means, is the standard therapy for necrosis. ...
Large infected ulcers may require debridement under anesthesia. Skin grafting may be helpful in advanced cases to ensure the ...
Surgical debridement is usually indicated in these cases. A replacement prosthesis is usually not inserted at the time of ... During surgery, lysis of the adhesions, drainage of pus, and debridement of the necrotic tissues are done. Close follow up with ...
... nor did debridement with titanium curettes compared to an ultrasonic debridement tool. A double‐blind randomized controlled ... Debridement with manual curettes, followed by air polishing with glycine powder, and a prophylaxis brush, showed significant ... Applying chlorhexidine varnish in addition to debridement on implant surfaces had no significant additional benefit. When ... In these trials mechanical debridement being followed by minocycline or chlorhexidine gel had no statistically significant ...
Maggot therapy is the process of using fly larvae to treat infected wounds; it is also known as Maggot Debridement Therapy. The ... They usually produce positive results via three mechanisms of action: Debridement, disinfection, and stimulation of healing ...
Treatment options include gentle debridement and nasal irrigation. Grey parrots are highly intelligent and are considered by ...
Removing the damaged tissue (debridement) is then indicated. Arthroscopic debridement as a treatment for degenerative TFC tears ... Arthroscopic debridement of TFC discus tissue The central part of the TFC has no blood supply and therefore has no healing ...
Debridement and steroid therapy is preferred over antibiotics. Recurrent AF is extremely rare. Bone lesions typically resolve ...
The amount of surgical debridement required remains controversial. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Ultrasonic therapy Antibiotics are ...
Surgical or "sharp" debridement and laser debridement under anesthesia are the fastest methods of debridement. They are very ... "debridement". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 5 September 2013. "Understand Debridement Before You Regret - Why you Need ... "Hydrosurgical debridement versus conventional surgical debridement for acute partial-thickness burns". Cochrane Database of ... Debridement is an important part of the healing process for burns and other serious wounds; it is also used for treating some ...
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Wound, debridement. *under GA or major block 30023 *dressing of, requiring GA 30055 ...
There were significant differences in the outcome between use of debridement only and use of debridement with wafer resection ... Arthroscopic debridement. Minami et al reviewed 16 patients (average age, 30 y) with a follow-up of 35 months. Palmer class 1 ... 14] Patients who underwent debridement for any Palmer type 1 injury returned to work at a rate of 92%, but only 44% were free ... The 1D lesions were treated with both repair and debridement, and results were similar. Data for types 1A and 1C were limited. ...
service_title:Knee cartilage repair (incl debridement). *service_title:Shoulder repair surgery (rotator cuff repair) ...
After debridement, the patient may return as often as necessary for further surgical debridement. The anesthesiologist is an ... In the authors experience, this may take at least 2 debridements. When the debridement involves relatively small (, 25%) body ... Surgical Debridement. Surgery is the primary treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. .Surgeons must be consulted early in the care ... Following each debridement of the necrotic tissue, daily antibiotic dressings are recommended. [79] Silver sulfadiazine ( ...
Podiatry Services - Routine Foot Care and Debridement of Nails. × While the Medicare program generally excludes routine foot ... During this webinar, we will review the Local Coverage Determination policy for Routine Foot Care and Debridement of Nails ( ...
Debridement Advanced Medical Solutions microfibre technology provides healthcare professionals with a safe and efficient ... Our hydrogel provides essential hydration to facilitate the autolytic debridement of dry and damaged tissue. Our easy-to-use ... particularly when dealing with chronic wounds that may not be suitable for sharp debridement. ...
Debridement. * Developmental and Autism Screening. * DEXA Body Scan. * Diabetes Care. * Diabetes Risk Management. ...
Be included in the most comprehensive wound care products directory ...
Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT). 5. Massage. 206. Meditation. 117. Meridian energy therapy (EFT). 102. ...
The infraorbital nerve block is often used to accomplish regional anesthesia of the face. The procedure offers several advantages over local tissue infiltration.
Debridement. AMK; then CLR, LVX. 6 (2/4). Cured. 11. 57/F. SLE. Skin nodules (both elbows). Skin. None. CLR, CIP, RIF. 6. Cured ... Debridement. IMI, AMK; then AZM, CIP, RIF. 6 (1.5/4.5). Relapsed. 10. 39/F. SLE. Tenosynovitis (right index finger). Pus. ... Debridement. AMK, CLR, LVX, LZD; then MFX, AZM, RIF, LZD. 11 (1/10). Improved. ...
... or surgical debridement). This also includes those with or at risk for ocular lesions (i.e., presence of eyelid lesions, facial ... or surgical debridement. MCMs should be considered in these cases irrespective of patient immune status. Children and ... or necrosis necessitating surgical debridement, penectomy, or amputation of extremities). ...
If blisters have formed, they should be opened and drained and debrided of necrotic tissue before treatment; early debridement ...
Surgery to remove burned skin (debridement).. *Washing of the skin (irrigation). This may need to be done every few hours for ...
Comparison of clinical effects between periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement and flap surgery].. Pei, X Y; Yang ... To compare the clinical effects of periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement with periodontal flap surgery on ... Periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement could improve periodontal status by reducing the PD and BI significantly ... were divided into test group and control group randomly.Test group sites underwent periodontal endoscopy aiding debridement and ...
Impingement & Debridement * Isolated Proximal Biceps Procedures * Arthroscopic Biceps Tenodesis * Rotator Cuff Repair * Small ...
Severe cases might require aggressive debridement, fasciotomy, or amputation of the infected limb. ...
Wound cleaning, debridement when indicated, and proper immunization are important. The need for tetanus toxoid (active ... completed a primary series may require tetanus toxoid and passive immunization at the time of wound cleaning and debridement ( ...
Yes, debridement of devitalized tissue plays a major role in wound healing. Oakin is considered a form of enzymatic debridement ... sharp wound debridement (performed every 7 to 14 days, depending on the wound care setting) ... my question is do you think debridement had a major role in the treatment and then is amerigel ( oakin) a chemical debrider or ...
... and limited or extensive joint debridement. Our expert physicians and Surgicenter staff along with our top of the line ...
Frequently spray, rinse, or irrigate nasal cavity maintaining the implant remains moist; routine debridement ...
... debridement of ATFL lesion borders, capsular shrinkage, microfractures of the post-traumatic osteochondral lesions. ...
  • Surgical or "sharp" debridement and laser debridement under anesthesia are the fastest methods of debridement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autolytic debridement can be achieved with the use of occlusive or semi-occlusive dressings which maintain wound fluid in contact with the necrotic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autolytic debridement can be achieved with hydrocolloids, hydrogels and transparent films. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a faster method than autolytic debridement, but slower than sharp debridement. (wcei.net)
  • Autolytic debridement is the slowest type. (wcei.net)
  • joint lavage and arthroscopic debridement in knee OA, and joint fusion as a salvage procedure when joint replacement had failed. (lu.se)
  • Surgical debridement can be performed in the operating room or bedside, depending on the extent of the necrotic material and a patient's ability to tolerate the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wound debridement refers to the removal of dead or necrotic, or even infected skin tissue, to allow a wound to heal properly. (epainassist.com)
  • Wound debridement is the removal of necrotic , dead tissue from the wound bed. (wcei.net)
  • Biological debridement is also known as maggot debridement and involves using sterile medical maggots to remove necrotic tissue. (wcei.net)
  • This type of debridement is not appropriate for large amounts of necrotic tissue or infected wounds. (wcei.net)
  • Mechanical debridement is a method that uses an external force to separate the necrotic tissue from the wound bed. (wcei.net)
  • It is also important to remember that not every patient with necrotic tissue will be a candidate for debridement. (wcei.net)
  • Surgeons must be consulted early in the care of these patients, as early and aggressive surgical debridement of necrotic tissue can be life-saving. (medscape.com)
  • Wide debridement of all necrotic and poorly perfused tissues is associated with more rapid clinical improvement. (medscape.com)
  • Growth in the North American market can be attributed to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, high penetration of enzymatic debridement products, and strong market player presence. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Enzymatic debridement is the use of collagenase ointment (Santyl) once daily to the wound bed. (wcei.net)
  • Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are very selective, meaning that the person performing the debridement has complete control over which tissue is removed and which is left behind. (wikipedia.org)
  • When removal of tissue is necessary for the treatment of wounds, hydrotherapy which performs selective mechanical debridement can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is primarily attributed to factors such as their high efficacy in debriding and precision (lack of damage to healthy tissue) during debridement. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Wound debridement is also done in order to remove any foreign material from the tissue surrounding the wound. (epainassist.com)
  • At Forrest City Medical Center, we offer a full range of treatments to help you heal including surgical debridement, an outpatient procedure to remove unhealthy tissue from foot wounds and promote a fast recovery. (forrestcitymedicalcenter.com)
  • A regimen of surgical debridement is continued until tissue necrosis ceases and the growth of fresh viable tissue is observed. (medscape.com)
  • Because necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency, the patient should be admitted immediately to a surgical intensive care unit in a setting such as a regional burn center or trauma center, where the surgical staff is skilled in performing extensive debridement and reconstructive surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Some have presented with severe localized infection at injection site, proceeding to necrotizing fasciitis requiring debridement. (cdc.gov)
  • Contraindications for mechanical debridement would be epithelializing and granulating wounds. (wcei.net)
  • Topical anaesthesia of leg ulcers to facilitate mechanical cleansing/debridement in adults only. (medicines.org.uk)
  • There is lack of high quality evidence to compare the effectiveness of various debridement methods on time taken for debridement or time taken for complete healing of wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Debridement is an important medical procedure that can help treat and heal wounds and injuries. (medimodels.com.au)
  • Neurolysis (39330), wound debridement (30023) and ganglion excision (30107) items are not to be claimed unless performed at a site separate to the arthrodesis site. (health.gov.au)
  • Be sure that you understand indications and contraindications for each debridement method when you are selecting the appropriate one for your patient. (wcei.net)
  • Allowing a dressing to proceed from moist to dry, then manually removing the dressing causes a form of non-selective debridement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective Debridement With Labral Preservation Using Narrow Indications in the Hip: Minimum 5-Year Outcomes With a Matched-Pair Labral Repair Control Group. (uchicago.edu)
  • There are two main categories of debridement: selective and non- selective. (wcei.net)
  • This article explores the clinical outcomes of using posterior fixation with one- or two-stage anterior debridement and bone grafting to treat young children under the age of 3 with thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis. (londonspine.com)
  • Posterior fixation, combined with one- or two-stage anterior debridement and bone grafting, is a safe and effective surgical strategy for treating young children with thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis. (londonspine.com)
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of posterior fixation, combined with one- or two-stage anterior debridement and bone grafting in treating children younger than 3 years of age with thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis. (londonspine.com)
  • If the wound does not respond, we may recommend surgical (or sharp) debridement, the gold standard treatment for severe diabetic foot infections. (forrestcitymedicalcenter.com)
  • Additionally, the Europe Wound Debridement Devices market is estimated to attain notable absolute $ opportunity value by the end of 2033 as compared to the value achieved in 2022. (crifax.com)
  • Comparison of clinical effects between periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement and flap surgery]. (bvsalud.org)
  • To compare the clinical effects of periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement with periodontal flap surgery on residual deep pockets of chronic periodontitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • The debridement method you choose for treatment will be based on a variety of factors, all of which need to be considered. (wcei.net)
  • Periodontal endoscopy aiding subgingival debridement could improve periodontal status by reducing the PD and BI significantly in short term.The effect was almost the same with periodontal surgery and endoscopy treatment may decrease the necessity of surgery .Meanwhile, periodontal endoscopy has more comfortable treatment experience than flap surgery and does not need extra treatment time . (bvsalud.org)
  • If a patient (nursing home resident) who is being treated with a subq debridement 11042 for a pressure ulcer L89.154 an. (aapc.com)
  • The ultrasonic debridement products segment is expected to grow at the highest growth rate during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The Europe Wound Debridement Devices Market is projected to experience a modest CAGR during the forecast period, i.e., 2023-2033. (crifax.com)
  • The study of the Europe Wound Debridement Devices market offers a detailed analysis that is associated with the growth of the market during the forecast period. (crifax.com)
  • After debridement, the patient may return as often as necessary for further surgical debridement. (medscape.com)
  • With patient critical condition and debridement no longer an option, Veraflo Therapy with V.A.C. Veraflo Cleanse Choice Dressing was initiated. (3m.com)
  • Therefore, this type of debridement is used sparingly and is not considered a standard of care for burn treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study on the Europe Wound Debridement Devices market is driven by the surge in adoption of an exhaustive approach towards the industry analysis which comprises of the overall market size and revenue growth, along with the recent market developments. (crifax.com)
  • Want to learn more about Wound Debridement and Care? (wcei.net)
  • See PHIL 20835 through 20839, for views of this lesion, as it continued to progress to a point that required debridement and skin grafting. (cdc.gov)
  • The fastest method of debridement is the sharp method . (wcei.net)
  • Although the literature highlights the importance of wound debridement, there is often confusion around selecting the most appropriate method[1]. (woundsinternational.com)
  • After the initial debridement, the wound must be carefully examined. (medscape.com)
  • Debridement" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • The global wound debridement market in terms of revenue was estimated to be worth $822 million in 2020 and is poised to reach $1,162 million by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 7.2% from 2020 to 2025. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The authors recommend wide, extensive debridement of all tissues that can be easily elevated off the fascia with gentle pressure. (medscape.com)
  • Small-joint arthroscopy provided the opportunity for newer techniques in the debridement or repair of these structures. (medscape.com)
  • Smith & Nephew offers a wide range of products in the global wound debridement market, such as surgical devices, gels, and ointments. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Debridement" by people in this website by year, and whether "Debridement" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • These five major debridement methods for wound clinicians are easy to remember (BEAMS), and key to the wound healing process. (wcei.net)
  • Debridement methods can be categorized under two main types. (wcei.net)
  • The author aims to clarify the fundamentals of successful debridement in the clinical practice setting. (woundsinternational.com)

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