SmokeTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)FiresFetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.AcroleinWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.RestaurantsReceptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.United StatesCaspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.CarboxyhemoglobinAir Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Respiratory Tract DiseasesRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.EnglandWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
  • In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently launched a series of video shorts about people who lives have been dramatically altered by the health effects of smoking. (rwjf.org)
  • THURSDAY, Aug. 16, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with long-term exposure to secondhand smoke as children are at increased risk of early death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), new research suggests. (medicinenet.com)
  • Other services are in a similar situation around the nation, and Mr Calma said the cuts will make it difficult to reach the target of halving Indigenous smoking rates by 2018. (abc.net.au)
  • Despite widespread efforts to educate U.S. youths about the health consequences associated with smoking (2), the prevalence of smoking among this group has been increasing since 1992 (3). (cdc.gov)
  • State-specific data on the prevalence of current smoking among adults aged 18-30 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia were obtained from the BRFSS for 1994 and 1995 (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Because the prevalence of smoking in a birth cohort peaks during early adulthood (2), the average prevalence of smoking among adults aged 18-30 years for each state during 1994-1995 was used to estimate the future prevalence of smoking during early adulthood for the birth cohorts currently aged 0-17 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the estimated PSAM variance and the state-specific sampling errors from the BRFSS estimates of smoking prevalence, the estimated number of smoking-related deaths for the United States overall was predicted to vary by less than or equal to 160,000 deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • The Massachusetts study took into account a number of variables, including the general downward trend in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) deaths, as well as influenza outbreaks, seasonality, pollution, smoking prevalence, and related data. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Eight years after Canada implemented the warnings, smoking prevalence fell by 12 to 20 percent compared to the period before those warnings were in effect. (drugs.com)
  • By modeling the would-be effects in the United States, the study authors projected a 5 percent reduction in smoking prevalence in the near term, increasing to 10 percent over time. (drugs.com)
  • In a nationally representative sample of 1.1 million homes, we compared the prevalence of smoking among 33,000 deceased women and 41,000 deceased men (case subjects) with the prevalence of smoking among 35,000 living women and 43,000 living men (unmatched control subjects). (nih.gov)
  • The findings support the need for more research to develop and implement interventions to manage exposure to particulate matter during wildfire smoke episodes in this and other populations with a high prevalence of frailty," the authors write. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Although the prevalence of smoking has declined in the United States and many other countries since the 1970s, older Americans are still suffering the health effects of previous or current smoking habits-and this is reflected in their life expectancy. (prb.org)
  • D. T. Levy, A. Hyland, C. Higbee, L. Remer, and C. Compton, "The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Sovinová, P. Sadílek, and L. Csemy, "Vývoj Prevalence Kuřáctví V Dospělé Populaci České Republiky (1991-2009)," Development Of The Prevalence Of Smoking In The Adult Population Of The Czech Republic-Part I, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • 2-4 One approach to increasing the prevalence of smoke alarms in high-risk houses, is through community-based smoke alarm installation programmes, 5-8 but there are few studies that have evaluated the impact of such programmes on the rate of fire deaths and injuries. (bmj.com)
  • While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These two variances were combined with the variances for the probabilities of continued smoking or quitting using a Taylor Series approximation method, which yielded an estimate of 0.00422 of the relative error of the PSAM. (cdc.gov)
  • Quitting smoking after an acute ischemic stroke may be more effective than any medication in reducing the risk of further adverse events. (medicinenet.com)
  • An inquiry by the Government's Health Select Committee into health inequalities, which is due to be published soon, is also expected to flag up the importance of quitting smoking in order to narrow the health gap between rich and poor. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Quitting smoking is hard. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Quitting smoking was associated with a 23 per cent reduction in the risk. (medindia.net)
  • The most important takeaway is for women to understand that quitting smoking before and during pregnancy by far results in the greatest reduction in the SUID risk," she said. (medindia.net)
  • Deborah Arnott, chief executive of health charity ASH said: "Quitting smoking is the single most important thing a pregnant smoker can do to improve her baby's health and chance of survival. (express.co.uk)
  • While the protective effects of quitting smoking are well documented among older individuals who have experienced a heart attack, the benefits have not been well studied among younger heart attack survivors. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In a study published this week in JAMA Network Open , investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital share results from a study of the association between quitting smoking and survival among young adults who have survived a heart attack. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our findings show the dramatic magnitude of the effect that quitting smoking can have for young adults . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Since research suggests that nicotine is as addictive as heroin, cocaine, or alcohol and that the frequency of smoking is often what prevents people from quitting, a strong intent behind these graphic labels is that perhaps each time someone picks up a pack, the image could put them over the edge into the say no or quit category. (ciggyfree.com)
  • These observations remind us of the powerful effects of smoking on health and the value of quitting at any age. (acpjc.org)
  • A new study simulating the effects of wildfire smoke on human health finds continued increases in wildfire activity in the continental United States due to climate change could worsen air quality over the coming decades. (eurekalert.org)
  • Wildfire smoke is composed of a mixture of gases and microscopic particles from burned material known as particulate matter. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the new study, Pierce and his team analyzed the potential effects of wildfire smoke on human health over the coming decades. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new study predicts that average visibility due to particulate matter will improve across the contiguous United States over the 21st century, but fire-related particulate matter will reduce visibility on the worst days in the western and southeastern U.S. Haze from wildfire smoke affects how people see colors, forms and textures of a given vista or skyline. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using data on fire emissions, mortality rates, population density and weather conditions, the team assessed how small particles in wildfire smoke affect health . (scidev.net)
  • The new study , published in GeoHealth , a journal of the American Geophysical Union, provides the first estimates of future smoke health and visibility impacts using a predictive land-fire model. (eurekalert.org)
  • We know from our own research and many, many other groups that smoke has negative impacts on human health," said Jeff Pierce, associate professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University in Fort Collins and co-author of the new study. (eurekalert.org)
  • One-third of those killed are children, often exposed to smoke at home, the World Health Organization (WHO) found, after carrying out the study across all 192 countries. (marieclaire.co.uk)
  • DPH partnered with the Harvard School of Public Health on the study, which reviewed heart attack death data from all 351 Massachusetts cities and towns and showed an estimated average of 577 fewer fatal heart attacks annually than expected since the ban took effect. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This study shows how a public policy to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure can save lives on a large scale. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Lead author of the study Brian D. Carter, public health specialist with the American Cancer Society says smoking should be treated as a form of drug addiction just like alcohol or heroin. (news4jax.com)
  • Older patients and women were most likely to begin smoking again, the study found. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is well established that smoking increases the risk of having a stroke," study author Furio Colivicchi, from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome, said in a society news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, on the other hand, our study shows that stroke patients resuming active smoking after leaving the hospital can raise their risk of dying by as much as threefold. (medicinenet.com)
  • Overall, our findings provide further evidence for reducing secondhand smoke exposure throughout life," said study leader W. Ryan Diver, a cancer society epidemiologist. (medicinenet.com)
  • A major new study shows conclusively that smoking is a much more significant cause of health inequalities than wealth or social class. (emaxhealth.com)
  • But this study shows that if the Government is to succeed in reducing health inequalities in the next generation it needs to have a comprehensive strategy to drive down smoking rates. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The study, co-authored by professor of infant health and developmental physiology Peter Fleming and senior research fellow Dr Peter Blair, is based on analysis of the evidence of 21 international studies on smoking and cot death. (medindia.net)
  • That s because a new study found that a new study , published in the medical journal The Lancet , found that poor eating habits are more likely to result in death than smoking. (care2.com)
  • The study explored 15 dietary factors around the world to assess their role in deaths in each country. (care2.com)
  • Fay Johnston, a researcher at the University of Tasmania, Australia who led the study, said she was surprised the figures were so high given the intermittent nature of smoke exposure. (scidev.net)
  • Cigarettes are responsible for nearly half of all cases of the 12 kinds of cancer that can be caused by smoking, according to a new study. (latimes.com)
  • An estimated 1.6 million Americans tried to quit and at least 100,000 likely succeeded as a result of graphic anti-smoking ads, a new study says. (ash.org)
  • A study published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2004 shows that on-screen smoking rates in movies have now returned to rates seen in the 1950s, even though far fewer people smoke now than in the 1950s. (prwatch.org)
  • Men who continued to smoke after a cancer diagnosis had an increased risk of death compared with those who quit smoking after diagnosis, according to a study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our study provides evidence of the impact of postdiagnosis smoking on survival after cancer, and assists in addressing the critical issue of tobacco control in cancer survivorship. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study by Hacettepe revealed that some 2.57 million Turkish youth, who are currently under the age of 15, will die earlier than life expectancy figures project due to their smoking habits. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • The early start to smoking is not unique to Turkey, as the study underlines that a quarter of adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age have tried a tobacco product at least once before the age of 10. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • Some findings of the study highlighted problems with the proper application of smoking bans in Turkey, as a majority of participants said they witnessed violations of the law. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • This study shows that poor diet is the leading risk factor for deaths in the majority of the countries of the world," says study author Ashkan Afshin of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. (npr.org)
  • The study authors examined the effects of pictorial warning labels on smoking rates in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom to estimate the impact in America. (drugs.com)
  • In the NIH-AARP study population, younger age at initiation was associated with increased risk of mortality, highlighting the importance of youth and early-adult smoking on lifetime mortality risk, even among people who live to age 70 years. (eurekalert.org)
  • A nationally representative case-control study of smoking and death in India. (nih.gov)
  • CBS Local - A new study is warning that people who smoke marijuana have three times the risk of dying from high blood pressure than those who don't use the drug. (cbslocal.com)
  • The study revealed that of the 1,200 people tested, those who smoked pot were 3.4 times more likely to die from hypertension. (cbslocal.com)
  • The D:A:D study (Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs) has collected information on antiretroviral safety and participants' experiences of illness and death since 1999. (aidsmap.com)
  • It is the largest study to date to look at the relation between smoking at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality and recurrence. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A new study concludes that stop smoking can dramatically reduce the risk of death due to heart attacks and bring it down to the level of a never-smoker. (chantixhome.com)
  • Subjects -Home interviews were completed with parents of 393 (81.0% of total) infants who died from the sudden infant death syndrome in the postneonatal age group, and 1,592 (88.4% of total) controls who were a representative sample of all hospital births in the study region. (ovid.com)
  • Lead Researcher C. Arden Pope Ph.D. of Brigham Young University commented, saying, "A critical finding of our study is that smoking is unhealthy even at small amounts. (choosehelp.com)
  • Study: Quit Smoking while You Quit Drugs? (choosehelp.com)
  • The study, published in the open-access journal PLoS Medicine this week, finds that other dietary, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors also cause a substantial number of deaths in the United States. (brightsurf.com)
  • WALTHAM, Mass. - One-of-every-4 deaths among Americans between the ages of 35 years and 69 years can be attributed to smoking, according to a study published Thursday in The New England Journal of Medicine . (drugstorenews.com)
  • A new study by the University of Arizona points to two possible culprits: a greater likelihood of smoking after divorce and lower levels of physical activity. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • While the study didn't explicitly examine why divorce seems to be associated with greater likelihood of smoking and lower levels of exercise, one possible explanation, supported by existing research, is that divorced individuals no longer have spouses holding them accountable for their health behaviors, Bourassa said. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Hsien-Ho Lin, a graduate student in the Department of Epidemiology at HSPH and the lead author of the study, said, "This analysis shows that smoking and fuel use, which affects hundreds of millions of people in China, will be a defining feature of future health in that country. (harvard.edu)
  • Please disclose the raw death rates for cancer in the 3 groups following the stratification into -65 and +65 (that division is the central pillar of your human study, hence it is bad science and poor reviewing not to have asked for them). (zoeharcombe.com)
  • while in 15 130 study members (7995 women) with plasma cotinine data, there were 119 dementia deaths during 14.3 years of mortality surveillance. (bmj.com)
  • Because the study is based on unusually long and complete follow-up, it adds to our understanding of how the duration of smoking affects risk. (acpjc.org)
  • The first, comprised of 148 studies and nearly 300,000 subjects, found those who claimed better social connections also boasted a 50% lower risk of early demise-and poor social connectivity offered the same mortality risk as smoking 15 cigarettes a day. (newser.com)
  • Pop Smoke allegedly stole a 2019 Rolls-Royce valued around $375,000 that he used in a music video shoot in California and brought back to New York. (yahoo.com)
  • To assess the need for continued public health efforts to prevent nicotine addiction, CDC used a model including data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to project the future impact of smoking on the health of children and teenagers. (cdc.gov)
  • Can nicotine be blamed for smoking-related deaths? (hindustantimes.com)
  • Fearing a blanket ban on e-cigarettes by the government in view of the limited awareness about the relative benefits of vaping over smoking, the Association of Vapors India (AVI) on Saturday stressed that nicotine should not be blamed for smoking-related deaths. (hindustantimes.com)
  • It's the other chemical compounds in tobacco and the smoke created by setting tobacco on fire, that directly and primarily cause the illness and death, not the nicotine," FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said in a meeting held at White Oak, Maryland in 2017. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Michael Russell, the father of tobacco harm reduction theory and the developer of nicotine gum, famously said in 1976: "People smoke for nicotine but they die from the tar. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Freebasing is a chemical process that makes smoke slightly more alkaline, resulting in nicotine being converted to a form that is more rapidly absorbed by the body. (prwatch.org)
  • Reviewing a new report by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) on the role of e-cigarettes in tobacco harm reduction, the authors write that e-cigs and other non-tobacco nicotine products "offer the potential to radically reduce harm from smoking in our society. (psychcentral.com)
  • Around 80 percent of UK prisoners currently smoke, so the Prison Service might want to stock up on nicotine patches and gum. (rt.com)
  • This is due to the addictive effects of nicotine, which have been shown to create deeper addictions with those who have smoked for longer periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Tobacco-related deaths have nearly tripled in the past decade and big tobacco firms are undermining public efforts that could save millions, a report led by the health campaign group the World Lung Foundation (WLF) said on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • That is part of a broader shift, with smoking rates in the developed world declining but numbers growing in poorer regions, said Michael Eriksen, one of the report's authors and director of the Institute of Public Health at Georgia State University. (reuters.com)
  • The report said the industry had stepped up its fight against anti-tobacco policies, launching legal challenges and seeking to delay or stop the introduction of plain packaging, legislation banning smoking in public places, advertising bans and health warnings on packets. (reuters.com)
  • More than 170 countries have signed up to a World Health Organization-led convention committing them to cut smoking rates, limiting exposure to second-hand smoke, and curbing tobacco advertising and promotion. (reuters.com)
  • The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) today released new data indicating a significant decrease in the number of heart attack deaths following the implementation of the statewide smoke-free workplace law in 2004. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Commenting on the findings, ASH Chief Executive, Deborah Arnott, said: "The measures in the Health Bill to deter children from taking up smoking such as a ban on the display of tobacco products in shops and a ban on tobacco vending machines are a welcome step forward. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Smoking is one of the highly health threatening bad habits in our economy today. (bartleby.com)
  • Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body and diminishes a person's overall health. (bartleby.com)
  • Millions of Americans have health problems caused by smoking. (bartleby.com)
  • Smoking remains the largest avoidable cause of premature death, disability, and social inequalities in health in the UK. (psychcentral.com)
  • Many cancer patients and their health care providers assume that it is not worth the effort to stop smoking at a time when the damage from smoking has already been done, considering these patients have been diagnosed with cancer," said Li Tao, M.D., M.S., Ph.D., epidemiologist at the Cancer Prevention Institute of California in Fremont. (innovations-report.com)
  • Turkey's Health Ministry is set to introduce a new plan to combat widespread smoking habits by increasing restrictions on tobacco companies and launching campaigns to raise awareness of the negative effects of smoking, sources from the ministry have said. (hurriyetdailynews.com)
  • i fail to see how smoking can harm the health. (arrse.co.uk)
  • According to results published in the British journal The Lancet , scientists concluded that a range of 79 health dangers contributed to 30.8 million deaths in 2013 - 5.7 million more than in 1990, even when population growth and ageing were taken into account. (citizen.co.za)
  • This anti-tobacco campaign from the United Kingdom's Health Education Authority warned about the dangers of smoking while pregnant. (wkar.org)
  • Saturday marks an important milestone in public health - the 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. (wkar.org)
  • Few if any documents have had the impact of this one - both on the amount of disease and death prevented, and on the very scope of public health. (wkar.org)
  • The National Center for Health Statistics, which published the new report on the dementia death rate, is part of the CDC. (baptisthealth.net)
  • As the deleterious health effects became more widely known, and as governments adopted policies to reduce smoking, the practice has declined in many developed countries-also at very different rates. (prb.org)
  • Lung cancer is closely tied to smoking tobacco, making it a good proxy for the measuring the health damage resulting from smoking. (prb.org)
  • A spate of deaths in New Zealand linked to "zombie drug " synthetic cannabis has prompted the country's chief coroner and police to issue an urgent public health warning. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Gathering data on the risk factors from nationally representative surveys that had already been conducted, they obtained information on deaths from the US National Center for Health Statistics. (brightsurf.com)
  • A growing body of research links divorce to a wide range of poor health outcomes, including greater risk for early death. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • We know marital status is associated with both psychological and physical health, and one route from divorce to health risk is through health behaviors, like smoking and exercise. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Health Minister Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai declared these areas as strictly no-smoking zones and said enforcement would be based on the provisions of the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations 2004. (factsanddetails.com)
  • Just recently, we received this heartbreaking letter from a caregiver taking care of a parent who developed serious health problems brought on from smoking and died a horrible death. (ciggyfree.com)
  • We already know that smoking is bad for health and that alcohol can be. (acpjc.org)
  • To reflect the uncertainty of the multiple assumptions about future smoking and mortality patterns, this error estimate for the PSAM was increased by a factor of 2.5, yielding an estimated standard error of 0.0106. (cdc.gov)
  • They devised a "comparative risk assessment" - an estimate of the number of deaths that would be prevented if the distribution of the lifestyle, dietary and metabolic risk factors were at a hypothetical optimum (e.g. if nobody smoked). (brightsurf.com)
  • More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • High blood pressure - which is easily diagnosed and readily treated - was the top risk in 2013, contributing to 10.4 million deaths in the 188 countries studied. (citizen.co.za)
  • However, a lack of sufficient food still contributed to the deaths of 1.3 million children in 2013. (citizen.co.za)
  • According to Reuters , the report explains that tobacco is expected to kill 7.5 million people worldwide by 2020, accounting for 10 percent of all deaths. (drugfree.org)
  • An analysis in the JAMA, the American Medical Association journal, estimates that 8 million Americans avoided premature death as a result of tobacco control efforts launched by the 1964 report. (wkar.org)
  • The second grouping was made up of more than 3.4 million participants over 70 studies and found that social isolation (lack of actual contact with others), loneliness (the perception of feeling lonely, whether others are around or not), or simply living alone all carried more risk of premature death than obesity. (newser.com)
  • in comparison, tobacco is linked to 8 million deaths, and blood pressure to 10.4m. (thenational.ae)
  • ABC News reports Pop Smoke was known to be connected to gang members and police are looking into whether the killing was related to his case in New York. (yahoo.com)
  • In just one glaring example, a four page obituary about the 2005 death of prominent news anchor Peter Jennings published by his own network, ABC, fails to mention the contribution that smoking made to Jennings' tragic and untimely death. (prwatch.org)
  • Something is up when major news organizations omit any mention the single most prominent cause of the death of a renowned news anchor. (prwatch.org)
  • As you browse the internet, you will come across an array of news and news-related details citing the benefits of smoking. (chantixhome.com)
  • AFP reported: "The Pan-Malaysia Islamic (PAS) party's spiritual leader Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat said smoking was un-Islamic and people who smoked did not fully understand Islam, state Bernama news agency reported. (factsanddetails.com)
  • When we compare municipalities with strong smoke-free laws and those without laws during the same time period, we see that, though heart attack deaths declined overall, a strong smoke-free workplace law was the single factor that is most closely related to the sharp decline in deaths," said Dr. Lois Keithly, Director of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Secondhand smoke is an insidious killer," said Dr. George Philippides, a cardiologist from Boston Medical Center and American Heart Association Boston Board President. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If a smoker has a heart attack or a stroke, it is more likely than not that it was caused by smoking. (news-medical.net)
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA, also for most ethnicities, including African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. (scam.com)
  • But, unfortunately, we also found that most young patients kept on smoking after their heart attack, reinforcing that there is a major opportunity for improvement. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The interaction between maternal smoking and bed sharing suggests that a mechanism involving passive smoking, rather than the previously proposed mechanisms of overlaying and hyperthermia, increases the risk of sudden infant death from bed sharing. (ovid.com)