Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pathology, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with pathology of the oral cavity.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLNecrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Pathology, Molecular: A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Forensic Pathology: The application of pathology to questions of law.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.United StatesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tauopathies: Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mice, Inbred BALB CTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMaternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Englandbcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor: An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Gliosis: The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
"Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death". Toxicologic Pathology. 35 (4): 495-516. doi:10.1080/01926230701320337. ISSN ... "Death fold domain interaction in apoptosis". doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401203.. *^ "Caspase function in programmed cell death". doi: ... Caspases have other identified roles in programmed cell death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis. These forms of cell death are ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction). The other end of the adaptor contains a DED ...
Sudden death (in young adults, myocarditis causes up to 20% of all cases of sudden death)[12] ... Sheppard, Mary (2011). Practical Cardiovascular Pathology, 2nd edition. CRC Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780340981931. .. ... Deaths. 354,000 with cardiomyopathy (2015)[5]. Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the ... December 2004). "Sudden death in young adults: a 25-year review of autopsies in military recruits". Ann. Intern. Med. 141 (11 ...
"The inflammatory response to cell death". Annual Review of Pathology. 3: 99-126. doi:10.1146/annurev.pathmechdis.3.121806. ... "Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009" (PDF). Cell Death Differ. 16 ... Programmed cell death Apoptosis. Pyknosis. Karyorrhexis. Karyolysis. Accumulations. pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin ... Cell death. Necrosis Coagulative necrosis. Liquefactive necrosis. Gangrenous necrosis. Caseous necrosis. Fat necrosis. ...
Forensic pathology, part 1: death in custody. Clinics in Lab Med 1998;18:19-20; Watson WA, Stremel KR, and Westdorp EJ. ... there is a risk of death. In 1995, the Los Angeles Times reported at least 61 deaths associated with police use of pepper spray ... In all 27 cases, the coroners' report listed other factors as the primary cause of death, though in some cases the use of ... There is much debate over the actual "cause" of death in these cases. There have been few controlled clinical studies of the ...
Developmental pathology of the embryo and fetus. Philadelphia: Lippincott. pp. 103-109. ISBN 978-0-397-51040-5. OCLC 23868557. ... Tyson RW, Kalousek DK (1992). "Chromosomal abnormalities in stillbirth and neonatal death". In Dimmick JE and Kalousek DK. ...
Torre, Carlo (1987). "Delayed death from "fisting"". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 8 (1): 91. doi: ... Reay, Donald T.; John W. Eisele (1983). "Sexual abuse and death of an elderly lady by "fisting"". The American Journal of ... Fain, Dawn B.; McCormick, George M. (1989). "Vaginal "fisting" as a cause of death". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine ... Preuss, Johanna; Strehler, Marco; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, B. (2007). "Death after anal "fisting"". Archiv für Kriminologie ...
"Near Death At SeaWorld: Worldwide Exclusive Video". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2015.. ... Piantadosi, C. A.; Thalmann, E. D. (2004). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness". Nature. 428 (6894): 716-718. ... Kandu V broke her jaw, which severed an artery, and then bled to death.[106] In November 2006, a dominant female killer whale, ... The healing process is rapid and even very deep wounds do not cause dolphins to hemorrhage to death. Even gaping wounds restore ...
Advances in entomological methods for estimating time of death. In: Turk EE, ed. Forensic Pathology Reviews. Heidelberg: Humana ... The post-decay time interval, beginning at day six after death and ending around day 15 after death, is greatly reduced from ... Entomology & Death: A Procedural Guide. Joyce's Print Shop, Inc. 1990. p5. *^ Greenberg, Bernard, and John C. Kunich. ... 1990). Entomology & Death: A Procedural Guide. Clemson, SC: Joyce's Print Shop, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9628696-0-0. .. Spiralbound ...
Milroy CM, Clark JC (2000). "Injuries and deaths in vehicle occupants". In Mason JK, Purdue BN. The Pathology of Trauma. Arnold ... Although associated injuries are often the cause of death, pulmonary contusion is thought to cause death directly in a quarter ... It is difficult to determine the death rate (mortality) because pulmonary contusion rarely occurs by itself. Usually, deaths of ... The risk of death following a pulmonary contusion is between 14-40%. Pulmonary contusion is usually accompanied by other ...
Death may occur, with complications in the kidney or brain.. Angioma Hemangioma List of cutaneous conditions Angiomatosis at ... Report of 17 cases". Pathology. 19 (4): 377-82. PMID 3444663. "angiomatosis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Von Hippel-Lindau ...
a b Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson; & Mitchell, Richard N. (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders ... GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ... Leslie Delong; Nancy Burkhart (27 November 2017). General and Oral Pathology for the Dental Hygienist. Wolters Kluwer Health. p ... Liang Cheng; David G. Bostwick (24 January 2014). Urologic Surgical Pathology E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 863. ISBN ...
"Deaths from Environmental Hypoxia and Raised Carbon Dioxide". Academic Forensic Pathology. 8 (1): 2-7. doi:10.23907/2018.001 ... "The American Journal of Pathology. 164 (6): 1875-82. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63747-9. PMC 1615763. PMID 15161623.. ... Accidental death has occurred in cases where concentrations of nitrogen in controlled atmospheres, or methane in mines, has not ... and low blood pressure followed by heart failure eventually leading to shock and death.[11][12] ...
Samarasekera, Ananda; Cooke, Clive (1996). "The Pathology of Hanging Deaths in Western Australia". Pathology. 28 (4): 334-8. ... 616-. Forensic Pathology, p. 211. Forensic Pathology, p. 213. Gunn, p. 181. Matsuyama, Takeshi; Okuchi, Kazuo; Seki, Tadahiko; ... Kyle, Donald G. (2001). Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. Routledge. pp. 131-2. Edwards, Catharine (2007). Death in Ancient ... "How does death by hanging work?". HowStuffWorks. Accessed 9 August 2011. Mann, John Dixon (1908). Forensic Medicine and ...
Elmore, S (June 2007). "Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death". Toxicologic pathology. 35 (4): 495-516. doi:10.1080/ ... Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death (cell suicide), the mechanism by which cells are programmed to die in the event ... If they can't be repaired, they commit programmed cell death (apoptosis). They can only divide a limited number of times. They ... Cell Death Differ. 10: 709-717. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401231. Barañano KW, Hartman AL (2008). "The ketogenic diet: uses in ...
Elmore, Susan (2007-01-01). "Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death". Toxicologic pathology. 35 (4): 495-516. doi:10.1080 ... Kressel, M.; Groscurth, P. (1994-12-01). "Distinction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death by in situ labelling of fragmented ... "A zinc-dependent nuclear endonuclease is responsible for DNA laddering during salt-induced programmed cell death in root tip ...
Elmore, Susan (2007). "Apoptosis: A review of programmed cell death". Toxicologic Pathology. 35 (4): 495-516. doi:10.1080/ ... CED-12 (Cell Death Abnormality Protein-12) is a cytoplasmic, PH-domain containing adaptor protein found in Caenorhabditis ... Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, activates during development as well as in situations where a cell has received ... "Programmed cell death". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2005-10-06. Retrieved 2015-12-02. ...
... a dangerous link for sudden death". Diagnostic Pathology. 7: 144. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-7-144. ISSN 1746-1596. PMC 3502434 . ... Shaktawat, Sameer S; Salman, Walid D; Twaij, Zuhair; Al-Dawoud, Abdul (25 July 2006). "Unexpected death after headache due to a ... Symptoms can include headache, vertigo, memory deficits, diplopia, behavioral disturbances and in extreme cases, sudden death. ...
caused the deaths of 4 fledglings in a study of wild golden eagles in Idaho. Several further diseases that contribute to golden ... Avian Pathology. 27 (3): 321-5. doi:10.1080/03079459808419345. PMID 18484007. Daly, Matthew (18 April 2013). "New federal rule ... On the Isle of Rùm in Scotland, there are few cases of red deer trampling golden eagles to death, probably the result of a hind ... An attempted capture of a great blue heron by a golden eagle resulted in the death of both birds from wounds sustained in the ...
"Sudden coronary death due to IgG4-related disease". Cardiovascular Pathology. 22 (6): 505-507. doi:10.1016/j.carpath.2013.05. ... the European Journal of Pathology. European Society of Pathology. 458 (1): 109-113. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0995-4. PMID ... "Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease". Modern Pathology. 25 (9): 1181-1192. doi:10.1038/modpathol. ... Human Pathology. 42 (8): 1178-1184. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.03.011. PMID 21334715. Sanghui Park; Jae Y. Ro; Dong Hyeon Lee; ...
on North American and European trees." Proceedings of the Second Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium: The state of our knowledge ... Plant Pathology. 61: 224-233. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02506.x. Retrieved 19 Oct 2015. Denman, S.; et al. (2006). " ... of sudden oak death. Although the main concentration of this pathogen is primarily in South West England, its reach has ... Plant Pathology. 58 (2): 393-393. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01961.x. ISSN 1365-3059. Martin, Frank (December 2003). " ...
January 2009). "Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009". Cell Death ... Apoptosis Karyolysis Kumar V, Abbas A, Nelson F, Mitchell R (2007). "Robbins Basic Pathology". Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed ...
ISBN 978-0-8160-6799-2. Prahlow, Joseph (2010). Forensic Pathology for Police, Death Investigators, Attorneys, and Forensic ... In forensic pathology the presence of defense wounds is highly indicative of homicide and also proves that the victim was, at ... Miletich, John J.; Lindstrom, Tia Laura (2010). An introduction to the work of a medical examiner: From death scene to autopsy ... ISBN 978-0-8493-1691-3. Adelson, Lester (1974). The Pathology of Homicide: A Vade Mecum for Pathologist, Prosecutor and Defense ...
Rockel, B. A.; McGann, L. R.; Murray, D. I. L. (1982). "Phytophthora cinnamomi causing death of Dryandra sessilis on old ... Australasian Plant Pathology. 30 (4): 343-51. doi:10.1071/AP01055. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Fairbanks, Meredith ... dieback sites in the jarrah forest". Australasian Plant Pathology. 11 (4): 49-50. doi:10.1071/APP9820049. Powell, Robert (1990 ...
Carotid sinus reflex death is sometimes considered a mechanism of death in cases of strangulation, but it remains highly ... "Asphyxia". pathology.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Koiwai, Karl. How Safe is Choking in Judo?. judoinfo.com ... Deaths Allegedly Caused by the Use of "Choke Holds" (Shime-Waza). judoinfo.com URL last accessed March 3, 2006. Culloden. BBC ... Asphyxial Deaths. www.dundee.ac.uk. URL last accessed March 3, 2006. Reston, James Jr. Dogs of God: Columbus, the Inquisition, ...
"Asphyxia". pathology.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. "Family urges 'thorough' investigation into deaths of ... "Investigation into two suspicious deaths, 50 Old Colony Road, Victims identified, Causes of death released" (Press release). ... "most experienced in dealing with sudden unexpected deaths". Post-mortem examinations showed the cause of death for both ... The deaths are being treated as "suspicious" and the Toronto Police Service Homicide Squad has taken the lead in the ...
The template below (Endocrine pathology) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a ... Sun T, Han X (2019). "Death versus dedifferentiation: The molecular bases of beta cell mass reduction in type 2 diabetes". ... cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. ... and death.[114] There is some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are superior to other inhibitors ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Atlas of Forensic Pathology by Joseph A. Prahlow at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free ... Asphyxial Deaths.- Drowning Deaths.- Electrical Deaths.- Temperature-Related Deaths.- Burns- and Fire-Related Deaths.- Deaths ... forensic pathology, death investigation, cause, manner and mechanism of death, death certification, and anatomy and physiology ... Drug-Related and Toxin-Related Deaths.- Blunt Force Injury Deaths.- Gunshot Wound Deaths.- Sharp Force Injury Deaths.- ...
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is ... Investigation of death[edit]. Main article: Coroner. Deaths where there is a known cause and those considered unnatural are ... The manner of death, the circumstances surrounding the cause of death, which, in most jurisdictions, include the following:[1] ... Eckert WG (1988). "The forensic pathology specialty certifications". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 9 ...
The system investigates about 12,000 deaths in North Carolina each year. Approximately 40% of these deaths are autopsied, with ... The OCME also functions as the Division of Forensic Pathology in the UNC Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. The ... Contact Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Campus Box #7525, Brinkhous-Bullitt Building Chapel Hill NC 27599-7525 ... These cases represent a wide spectrum of natural and traumatic causes of death. All autopsy examinations are performed under ...
The authors discuss the benefits of forensic pathology for the assessment and classification of the manner of death as suicide ... The death investigation, the statement of the circumstances of related measures, the death, his examinations look under the ... They assert that accurately establishing the manner of death as suicide can be difficult due to the absence of a suicide note ... Do Medical Examiners Determine Elder Mistreatment as a Cause of Death? Lucia Choe Kim; Stacey Mitchell; Carmel Bitondo Dyer // ...
Color Atlas Of Forensic Pathology (9780849302787) by Jay Dix and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books ... the Color Atlas of Forensic Pathology will provide investigators with valuable insight into the many different causes of death ... The atlas shows the various causes of death and injury with case -- "visuals" to help investigators understand the work they ... Originally published on CD-ROM, the Color Atlas of Forensic Pathology addresses much of the basic information which forensic ...
in Goldring, Sampford and Simmonds, above download knights forensic pathology saukko knights forensic pathology 29, 70. 1996) ... support 36 tics in the amino-acid death of the NC autism. VpAT( Table 1) and MesAT( 27), has mathematically gleaned by the ... Download Knights Forensic Pathology Saukko Knights Forensic Pathology. download knights forensic pathology saukko and caps of a ... download knights forensic pathology saukko knights forensic pathology been option Acids communicate a board of going new and ...
These ideas have such, many or first prevention assignment in speech language pathology machines, here what one may consider as ... but the insights clear possibilities were below the cold prevention assignment in speech language pathology. ... If novel within the type is unnamed and death is injured, this could result in important monitor study tricks, disrupt commerce ... Comments to "Prevention Assignment In Speech Language Pathology". * Alonzo Oberle. December 5. This was when elie and his ...
6: Fresh research has opened up new vistas in forensic pathology that are allowing for closer national and international ... sudden natural death and death time estimation. Now with numerous color illustrations, the book gives forensic experts across ... Startseite » Pathologie / Rechtsmedizin » Rechtsmedizin / Autopsie » Forensic Pathology Reviews, Vol. 6 Kategorien. * ... The chapters cover an exhaustive range of aspects in the discipline, from the analysis of sudden natural deaths in infancy and ...
The investigation of unexplained illnesses and deaths is a major component of Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch (IDPB) ... The investigation of unexplained illnesses and deaths is a major component of IDPB pathology work. ... The following illnesses were identified through a study of outbreaks of unknown severe illness and death:. *Legionnaires ... These studies were successful because of the use of pathology. Scientists examined tissue specimens saved from patients with ...
encoded search term (Pathology of Asphyxial Death) and Pathology of Asphyxial Death What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Indications for Death Investigation. A medicolegal death investigation is performed to evaluate the cause and manner of a death ... Spitz and Fishers Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigation. 4th ... Mechanical asphyxiation and deaths in custody. The death of a suspect temporally related to apprehension by law enforcement can ...
... particularly when the death occurred suddenly, unexpectedly, or in the young, is an important part of forensic autopsy practice ... for reasons including the following: Performance of a complete and through autopsy on apparent natural deaths can provide ... Determination of cause of death in natural deaths, ... Pathology of Sudden Natural Death * Sections Pathology of ... encoded search term (Pathology of Sudden Natural Death) and Pathology of Sudden Natural Death What to Read Next on Medscape. ...
Death Certificates. A death certificate is a legal documentation of the date, fact and cause of death. The medical portion of ... Department of Pathology 310 Cedar Street LH 108 PO Box 208023 New Haven CT 06520-8023 203.785.2759 203.785.7303 ... Yale Surgical Pathology Medical School Receiving 200 South Frontage Road YNHH EP2-631 New Haven CT 06520 203.785.2788 203.785. ... Surgical Pathology For Physicians, Consults, and Reports. Please ship clinical specimens via FedEx to the following address: ...
Keywords: Umbilical cord, coiling index, torsion, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). ... Cellular Pathology. OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE SOCIETY FOR CELLULAR PATHOLOGY SCIENTISTS OF NIGERIA. *Abbreviation: Afr. J. ... Umbilical cord torsion leading to intrauterine fetal death. Mohammed U.. *Mohammed U. ...
Early and sustained innate immune response defines pathology and death in nonhuman primates infected by highly pathogenic ... Early and sustained innate immune response defines pathology and death in nonhuman primates infected by highly pathogenic ... Early and sustained innate immune response defines pathology and death in nonhuman primates infected by highly pathogenic ... Early and sustained innate immune response defines pathology and death in nonhuman primates infected by highly pathogenic ...
The pathology of sudden cardiac death in patients with ischemic heart disease--arrhythmology for anatomic pathologists.. ... Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. [email protected]pathology.wustl.edu. ... of arrhythmia mechanisms is necessary to understand the role of pathologic anatomy in the pathophysiology of sudden death. ...
WKP Definition : Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living entity or a living component. For ... Definition : Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living entity or a living component. ... 1996 - 2019 Humpath.com - Human pathology Site Map , Log in , Contact , RSS 2.0 ... For organism, this phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging , predation , malnutrition , diseases , suicide , ...
Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 11;349(11):1064-75. PMID: (...) ... Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 11;349(11):1064-75. PMID: 12968091 ... 1996 - 2018 Humpath.com - Human pathology Site Map , Log in , Contact , RSS 2.0 ... Classification: sudden cardiac death References Maron BJ. ... Home , D. General pathology , sudden death. sudden death. ...
Sudden Oak Death. , The Top 10 Oomycete Pathogens in Molecular Plant Pathology. ... The Top 10 Oomycete Pathogens in Molecular Plant Pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology. DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12190.. ... The Top 10 Oomycete Pathogens in Molecular Plant Pathology. Author. A. Figueiredo, A. Zambounis, B. Petre, B.M. Tyler, D. ...
Unequivocal apoptosis were seen by light microscopy in examples of leprosy, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Crohns disease and foreign body granulomata. A limited electron microscopic investigation showed typical apoptotic bodies in both sarcoid and leprosy granulomata. The number of apoptosis and mitoses in granulomata were counted and their densities calculated. The wide variation in the results between individual lesions may reflect differences in disease activity.. ...
Deaths were divided into those associated with methadone only and deaths in which the cause of death was a combination of ... This evidence supports the view that methadone only deaths are slower than many polydrug deaths, where only 20% of deaths ... Of the adult deaths, there was evidence of intent to commit suicide in two cases. In three cases death occurred while the ... The department of forensic pathology, University of Sheffield examines all suspicious deaths in the North, South, and West ...
Sudden infant death syndrome: pathology and pathophysiology. Pathology Annals. 1984;19:1-14. [PubMed] ... Is Shock a key element in the pathology of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?. Jane Blood-Siegfried,* Margaret T. Bowers, ... Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Causes of Sudden Death in Infants; ... In developed countries Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death for infants between the age of 1 ...
Cardiac Pathology in SUDEP Compared With Sudden Arrhythmic or Traumatic Deaths There does not appear to be a higher prevalence ... compared with patients with autopsy-defined sudden arrhythmic death (SAD) or traumatic death, according to a study published in ... Using data from the Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death (POST SCD) study, researchers identified 541 ... the researchers found that the SUDEP cases demonstrated significantly less gross and histologic evidence of cardiac pathology ...
Morphological changes in the Heart in unrelated deaths * LM Ilias Department of Pathology, M.E.S Medical College, ... K Gautam Department of Pathology, Samyak Diagnostic Pvt. Ltd, Lalitpur * S Shukla Department of Pathology, Ram Manohar Lohia ... but it should also be made mandatory in unrelated deaths too, as it can diagnose a lot of hidden pathology. ... No cardiac pathology was detected in 5.88% cases.. Conclusion: Our study highlights the prevelace of atherosclerotic changes ...
Atlas Of Forensic Pathology: For Police, Forensic Scientists, Attorneys, And Death Investigators > http://tinyurl.com/p766re7. ... Atlas Of Forensic Pathology: For Police, Forensic Scientists, Attorneys, And Death Investigators. Patton 1970 DVDRip XviD DMZ. ... Atlas Of Forensic Pathology: For Police, Forensic ,Scientists, Attorneys, And Death Investigators , ,Patton 1970 DVDRip XviD ... Subject: Atlas Of Forensic Pathology: For Police, Forensic Scientists, Attorneys, And Death Investigators. ...
Cell Death and Disease}, title = {GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntingtons disease ... GSK-3β-induced Tau pathology drives hippocampal neuronal cell death in Huntingtons disease : involvement of astrocyte-neuron ... 2016) In Cell Death and Disease 7. p.1-14 *Mark. Abstract. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical ... Cell Death and Disease. volume. 7. pages. 1 - 14. publisher. Nature Publishing Group. external identifiers. *scopus:84986300521 ...
  • Packed with 780 full-color, captioned photographs, this atlas examines everything from time of death and decomposition, to identification, to causes of death from blunt trauma, firearm injuries, asphyxia, cutting and stabbing injuries, and more. (abebooks.com)
  • Alberta and Nova Scotia are examples of ME systems In the United States, a coroner is typically an elected public official in a particular geographic jurisdiction who investigates and certifies deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persons most likely to benefit from this interesting book are beginners just entering the profession of forensic pathology, but the book can serve as useful review material for more senior forensic practitioners, too. (abebooks.com)
  • Roger Byard Professor Roger Byard is currently the Marks Professor of Pathology at the University of Adelaide, and Senior Specialist Forensic Pathologist at Forensic Science SA in Adelaide, Australia. (indigo.ca)
  • The pathologic process, injury, or disease that directly results in or initiates a series of events that lead to a person's death (also called the mechanism of death), such as a bullet wound to the head, exsanguination caused by a stab wound, manual or ligature strangulation , myocardial infarction resulting from coronary artery disease, etc. (wikipedia.org)
more