A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
All deaths reported in a given population.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The killing of one person by another.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The act of killing oneself.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
The consumption of liquids.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
All liquids are subject to radiation damage, with few exotic exceptions; e.g. molten sodium, where there are no chemical bonds ... The reducing environment in pressurized water reactors is less prone to buildup of oxidative species. The chemistry of boiling ... a cumulative damage which may be significant enough to cause the cell death, or may cause DNA damage possibly leading to cancer ... The free radicals attack the biomolecules forming structures within the cells, causing oxidative stress ( ...
... is an inhibitor of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. ... Biosynthetically, ustalic acid is thought to originate from oxidative cleavage of the red pigment phlebiarubron. A low-yield ... High enough concentrations of the toxin (10 milligrams per mouse) cause death. ... Physiologically, inhibition of the sodium-potassium pump generally causes diarrhea, as it prevents water reabsorption from the ...
Large increases in extracellular ATP that are associated with cell death serve as a "danger signal" in the inflammatory ... This inhibits the release of granules and prevents oxidative burst. On the other hand, nanomolar concentrations of adenosine ... in which an increased distal tubular sodium chloride concentration causes a basolateral release of ATP from the macula densa ... These receptors enable the regulation of multiple processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, function, and death. ...
... and brain death eventually follows. During this period the victim may suffer convulsions. Death is caused by cerebral hypoxia. ... KCN and sodium cyanide (NaCN) are widely used in organic synthesis for the preparation of nitriles and carboxylic acids, ... hence blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. Initially, ... Modern wet plate photographers may prefer less toxic fixers, often opting for sodium thiosulfate, but KCN is still used. It was ...
When MH develops during a procedure, treatment with dantrolene sodium is usually initiated; dantrolene and the avoidance of ... eventually leading to circulatory collapse and death if not treated quickly. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is often ... from suxamethonium administration can result in a drastic and uncontrolled increase in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. ...
... if cell death is not immediate, the damaged DNA may lead to the development of cancer. Oxidative stress would be another ... The vesicant property of mustard agent can be neutralized by oxidation or chlorination, using household bleach (sodium ... Severe mustard agent burns (i.e. where more than 50% of the victim's skin has been burned) are often fatal, with death ... until their deaths, but even those who had previously filed claims with the VA went without compensation. African-American ...
Benzodiazepines were a factor in all deaths related to drug addiction in this study of causes of deaths. Nitrazepam and ... It is long acting, lipophilic, and metabolised hepatically by oxidative pathways. It acts on benzodiazepine receptors in the ... Sustained repetitive firing seems to be limited by benzodiazepines effect of slowing recovery of sodium channels from ... In a retrospective study of deaths, when benzodiazepines were implicated in the deaths, the benzodiazepines nitrazepam and ...
Necrosis is an unprogrammed death of cells, which involves early plasma membrane changes leading to loss of calcium and sodium ... These changes are accompanied by a loss of oxidative phosphorylation, a drop in ATP production, and a loss of homeostatic ... "Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009". Cell Death and Differentiation ... Programmed cell death means genetic control of the process, thus genes specifying cell death in a developmental sequence must ...
J. Gilloteaux, J.M. Jamison, D. Arnold, J.L. Summers: Autoschizis: another cell death for cancer cells induced by oxidative ... Scanning electron and light microscopy of a new cell death induced by sodium ascorbate: Menadione treatment". Scanning. 25 (3 ... The cell death results from karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Autoschizis can be initiated via in vivo treatment with vitamin C (VC ... Cell death by autoschizis in TRAMP prostate carcinoma cells as a result of treatment by ascorbate: menadione combination. ...
7 H2O Sodium bismuthate can perform oxidative 1,2-cleavage on glycols, ketols and alpha hydroxy acids with no further oxidation ... Large doses cause diarrhea and death. Continued absorption of NaBiO3 into body causes permanent kidney damage. These effects ... sodium carbonate and sodium peroxide. A related compound with the approximate formula Na3BiO4 also exists. Sodium bismuthate ... Sodium bismuthate is an inorganic compound, and a strong oxidiser. It is somewhat hygroscopic, but not soluble in cold water, ...
... leading to cellular retention of sodium ions. Accumulation of sodium in the cell causes a rapid uptake of water through osmosis ... The association of brain edema with increased in hospital risk of death was observed in TBI across all level of severity. Edema ... Return of blood flow to theses cells after an ischemic stroke can cause excitotoxicity and oxidative stress leading to ... The ultimate consequence of cytotoxic edema is the oncotic death of neurons. The swelling of the individual cells of the brain ...
... chance of death. Yet, death by sodium nitrite ingestion can happen at lower dose. Sodium nitrite is sometimes used for homicide ... Sodium nitrite is also able to effectively delay the development of oxidative rancidity. Lipid peroxidation is considered to be ... Sodium nitrite is an efficient drug in case of cyanide poisoning. It is used together with sodium thiosulfate. It is on the ... In the laboratory, sodium nitrite can be used to destroy excess sodium azide. 2 NaN3 + 2 NaNO2 + 4 H+ → 3 N2 + 2 NO + 4 Na+ + 2 ...
Postmortem blood GHB was 18-4400 mg/L (median=347) in deaths negative for co-intoxicants. One report has suggested that sodium ... In addition, the neurotoxicity appears to be caused by oxidative stress. Although there have been reported fatalities due to ... Of 226 deaths included, 213 had a cardiorespiratory arrest and 13 had fatal accidents. Seventy-one deaths (34%) had no co- ... The toxicity of GHB has been an issue in criminal trials, as in the death of Felicia Tang, where the defense argued that death ...
This form of inactive hemoglobin is called methemoglobin and can be made by ingesting sodium nitrite[28][unreliable medical ... Accidental death has occurred in cases where concentrations of nitrogen in controlled atmospheres, or methane in mines, has not ... but the cells are unable to use the oxygen effectively as a result of disabled oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. This may ... and low blood pressure followed by heart failure eventually leading to shock and death.[11][12] ...
Scully learns from blood tests that the contaminated water causes rapid oxidative damage and dramatically increases sodium ... told that her written observations on the case helped naval doctors reverse their aging and save Mulder from near-certain death ...
Alkalinization of the urine and plasma, by giving a bolus of sodium bicarbonate then adding sodium bicarbonate to maintenance ... In 2004, more than 20,000 cases with 43 deaths were reported in the United States. About 1% of those with an acute overdose die ... Salicylate toxicity also causes an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and a decrease in citric acid cycle activity in the ... Potassium and sodium bicarbonate are excreted in the urine. This phase may last as long as 12 hours. Phase II is characterized ...
Both lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress can cause membrane damage. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress take place as ... Furthermore, dietary management may include protein and sodium management, adequate hydration and phosphate and potassium ... acute kidney failure and death. The damage of the kidneys can be treated by removing the toxin from the body, monitoring and ... This leads to an increased toxicity since oxidative stress cannot be reduced. In addition, nephrotoxicity is augmented by ...
... leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. AEME is also used in scientific research for the manufacture of ... Following deprotection of N8 nitrogen with TBAF and reductive methylation with formaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride, (R/S)- ... stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells Studies on Hydrolytic and Oxidative Metabolic ...
... apoptotic cell death becomes less likely. Oblimersen sodium (G3139, Genasense) targets BCL-2 mRNA ABT-737 (oral form navitoclax ... leading to oxidative stress and apoptosis via the induction of the transcription factor Gadd153 and the Bcl-2-family member ... Cell death does not appear to be mediated by complement, but modest antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct killing ... Bcl-2 proteins prevent the activation of the caspases that lead to programmed cell death (apoptosis). Activation of the nuclear ...
... which work in conjunction to reduce the oxidative species such as hydrogen peroxide to decrease the oxidative stress upon the ... Starting in the early 19th century and continuing into the 20th century, Fowler's solution, a toxic concoction of sodium ... Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cancer cells, ... The oxidative damage is caused by modification of DNA nucleobases, in particular 8-oxoguanine (8-OHdG) which leads to G:C to T: ...
Accidental death has occurred in cases where concentrations of nitrogen in controlled atmospheres, or methane in mines, has not ... This form of inactive hemoglobin is called methemoglobin and can be made by ingesting sodium nitrite[unreliable medical source ... but the cells are unable to use the oxygen effectively as a result of disabled oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. This may ... If severe or prolonged it could lead to cell death. In humans, hypoxia is detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the ...
It is assumed that REST represses genes that promote cell death and Alzheimer's disease pathology, and induces the expression ... Moreover, REST potently protects neurons from oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity. REST is also responsible for ... a mammalian silencer protein that restricts sodium channel gene expression to neurons". Cell. 80 (6): 949-57. doi:10.1016/0092- ... leading to the epigenetic repression of neuronal genes leading to cell death. The mechanism beyond REST induction in ischaemia ...
Silver ions have been shown to react with the thiol group in enzymes and inactivate them, leading to cell death. These ions can ... It was also noted that antimicrobial agents such as Novaron AG 300 (Silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate) do not inhibit ... Under these conditions, copper participates in the so-called Fenton-type reaction - a chemical reaction causing oxidative ... This leads to desiccation and subsequent cell death. While copper is needed for many protein functions, in an excess situation ...
However, this increased risk was calculated on the basis of two deaths from Alzheimer's disease and six deaths from ALS out of ... It may work by protecting motor neurons from oxidative stress. The most common side effects are bruising and gait disturbance. ... In a study from 2020, AMX0035, a combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol, was shown to prolong the survival of ... There were 375 deaths in this group, including eight from ALS. Based on this information and the incidence of ALS, it was ...
... the enzyme is activated and plays a role in creating a harmful condition known as oxidative stress which can lead to cell death ... One study found that injecting sodium acetate into rats caused them to have nociceptive behavior (headaches). In addition, ... Also known as insulin shock, hypoglycemia can lead to coma or even death. In current research, the significant relationship ... and increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress. Likewise, acetic acid (or the acetate ion) can cause additional problems ...
... which further leads to secondary cell damage and death. Additionally, oxidative stress may be responsible for loss of striatal ... Sodium valproate has been used for the treatment of generalized and partial seizures in humans for both epilepsy and bipolar ... Succinate semialdehyde is considered a reactive carbonyl and may lead to increased oxidative stress. This stress is believed to ... a lot of the research that was published in 2007 examined the pathogenesis for the disorder by examining the role of oxidative ...
Vinylic halides, such as PhCH=CHBr, are converted to the unsaturated esters upon treatment with Ni(CO)4 followed by sodium ... Such reactions also probably proceed via oxidative addition. Allylic halides give the π-allylnickel compounds, such as (allyl) ... These reach greatest severity after four days, possibly resulting in death from cardiorespiratory or acute kidney injury. ... It can also be prepared by reduction of ammoniacal solutions of nickel sulfate with sodium dithionite under an atmosphere of CO ...
Short-term, high-level exposure can induce immediate collapse, with loss of breathing and a high probability of death. If death ... hydrogen sulfide converts to alkali hydrosulfides such as sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O NaSH ... At some threshold level, believed to average around 300-350 ppm, the oxidative enzymes become overwhelmed. Many personal safety ... Their deaths remained unexplained as the medical examiner waited for results of toxicology tests on the victims, until urine ...
... decreased accumulation of ROS lowers oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells, decreasing oxidative degeneration of BH4 ... The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes produce an excess of the gas, leading to the death of these cells and to a ... The vasodilatation, caused by sodium nitroprusside, has been shown to be mediated not only by NO generation, but also by ... During an AMI, oxidative degradation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor in NO production, limits BH4 availability and ...
GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all- ... Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 124. doi:10.17226/10925. ISBN 978-0-309-09169-5. .. ... which is able to reduce oxidative stress to the gallbladder.[17] Researchers believe that gallstones may be caused by a ... in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths.[9][10] Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after ...
Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ... The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[3][61] The U.S. Institute ... In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth and, eventually, death. The human body can store only a ... E301 sodium ascorbate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[88] U.S.[91] and Australia and New Zealand)[90] ...
... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. EFSA Panel ... attributes the reddish-purple color of the mulberry fruits to the tragic deaths of the lovers Pyramus and Thisbe. Meeting under ...
Radiation can increase the risk of heart disease and death as observed in previous breast cancer RT regimens.[18] Therapeutic ... Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead to these and other late side effect symptoms.[20 ... including preclinical and clinical investigations into the use of an oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound such as trans sodium ... Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To spare normal tissues (such as ...
Sodium Butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment slowed neuronal degeneration in Drosophila models.[18] Sodium butyrate treatment ... Patients are often diagnosed after the age of 40 and the median survival time from onset to death is around 3-4 years. In the ... Dietary SAM supplementation has also been shown to reduce oxidative stress and delay buildup of neurological hallmarks of AD ... sodium butyrate has not been used in human trials to date.. Sodium phenylbutyrate. Sodium phenylbutyrate increases SMN2 full ...
... which further leads to secondary cell damage and death. Additionally, oxidative stress may be responsible for loss of striatal ... Sodium valproate[edit]. Sodium valproate has been used for the treatment of generalized and partial seizures in humans for both ... Succinate semialdehyde is considered a reactive carbonyl and may lead to increased oxidative stress. This stress is believed to ... a lot of the research that was published in 2007 examined the pathogenesis for the disorder by examining the role of oxidative ...
The symptoms of lactic acidosis are treated by supplementing the diet with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or sodium citrate, ... The age of onset is, on average, 5 months and the median age of death is 1 year and 7 months. Children with the disease are ... Disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce their main energy source of adenosine triphosphate ( ... The most severe forms of the disease, caused by a full deficiency in one of the affected proteins, cause death at a few years ...
Sodium percarbonate (Na. 2H. 3CO. 6), an adduct of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate ("soda ash" or "washing soda", Na. 2 ... Generally speaking, ingestion of bleaches will cause damage to the esophagus and stomach, possibly leading to death. On contact ... "Bleach Activates A Redox-Regulated Chaperone by Oxidative Protein Unfolding". Cell. 135 (4): 691-701. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is one of the most important reductive bleaching agents. It is a white ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Oxygen is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... a copy of the letter was found in Scheele's belongings after his death).[13] ... Pulling on the masks "to start the flow of oxygen" as cabin safety instructions dictate, forces iron filings into the sodium ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Oxygen is used in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is ... a copy of the letter was found in Scheele's belongings after his death).[13] ... Pulling on the masks "to start the flow of oxygen" as cabin safety instructions dictate, forces iron filings into the sodium ...
... death of corolla tissue. At the chemical level, ethylene mediates the reduction in the amount of fragrance volatiles produced. ... Other technologies employed for the production of ethylene include oxidative coupling of methane, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
Sodium nitrite is a preservative used in lunch meats, hams, sausages, hot dogs, and bacon to prevent botulism. It serves the ... This may be true, but the occurrence of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths are still high. It is estimated by the Center ... The free radical pathway for the first phase of the oxidative rancidification of fats. This process is slowed by antioxidants. ... ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate cheese, chips E321 butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole also used in food ...
... lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease and a 14% lower risk of death from any cause.[84] Low-dose aspirin use was also ... Salicylate is also produced as a result of exposure to bismuth subsalicylate, methyl salicylate, and sodium salicylate.[117][ ... It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in cartilaginous (and hepatic) mitochondria, by diffusing from the inner membrane space ... Ferguson RK, Boutros AR (August 1970). "Death following self-poisoning with aspirin". JAMA. 213 (7): 1186-8. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
These blockages can lead to cell death. In multicellular organisms, cell death in response to DNA damage may occur by a ... For eukaryotes, oxidative reactions are a major source of DNA damage (see DNA damage (naturally occurring) and Sedelnikova et ... Cellular swelling (or cloudy swelling) may occur due to cellular hypoxia, which damages the sodium-potassium membrane pump; it ... Cell death occurs when the severity of the injury exceeds the cell's ability to repair itself.[2] Cell death is relative to ...
Lai SH, Yao YJ, Lo DS (October 2006). "A survey of buprenorphine related deaths in Singapore". Forensic Science International. ... This has been found by measuring sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in mouse brain cells in vitro, after ... Diazepam undergoes oxidative metabolism by demethylation (CYP 2C9, 2C19, 2B6, 3A4, and 3A5), hydroxylation (CYP 3A4 and 2C19) ... The benzodiazepines are also far less dangerous; death rarely results from diazepam overdose, except in cases where it is ...
NaK-77, a eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium, can be used as a hydraulic fluid in high-temperature and high-radiation ... severe injuries and death can result from component failures and care must always be taken when performing maintenance on ... Thermal and oxidative stability. *Hydrolytic stability / water tolerance. *Cleanliness and filterability. *Demulsibility ...
But for most cells it is death by senescence or injury that releases Mg2+ and many of the other ionic constituents, recycling ... March 2008). "Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers". Arch. Intern. Med. 168 (5 ... which all leads to the production of oxygen free radicals in the chloroplast that then cause oxidative damage.[97] ... "Spectrochemical Analysis of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc in Normal Human Erythrocytes". Journal of ...
Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to ... "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes" and "[a]dvanced ... The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to ... they start fasting until death.[177][178] Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians.[179] Honey is forbidden, ...
Sodium chlorate (disused/banned in some countries), a nonselective herbicide, is considered phytotoxic to all green plant parts ... Some herbicides cause a range of health effects ranging from skin rashes to death. The pathway of attack can arise from ... This is due to differences in the vulnerability of these two herbicides to oxidative metabolism. Consequently, care is needed ... Many soil applied herbicides are absorbed through plant shoots while they are still underground leading to their death or ...
... an agent that causes oxidative stress leading to oxidative DNA damage, strongly induces mating and the formation of meiotic ... It is also naturally low in fat and sodium. Contrary to some claims, it contains little or no vitamin B12.[55] Some brands of ... causing over 600,000 deaths annually.[103] The cells of these yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which ...
While many antioxidants have been researched to treat a large number of diseases by reducing the negative effect of oxidative ... This may lead to severe liver damage and even death by acute liver failure. ... UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental). *Enflurane ...
... which cotransports sodium and glucose back into circulation. This leads to a decrease in the delivery of sodium chloride to the ... It is associated with an increased risk of deathin general, particularly from cardiovascular disease.[11][14] ... oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. As injury worsens, kidney function decreases and glomerular basement membrane (GBM ... Due to the higher load of filtered glucose, there is an up-regulation in the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the ...
Certoparin sodium)、達肝素(英語:Dalteparin sodium)、依諾肝素、那屈肝素(英語:Nadroparin calcium)、帕肝素(英語:Parnaparin sodium)、瑞肝素(英語:Reviparin sodium ... Death following self-poisoning with aspirin. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1970-08-17, 213 (7): 1186-8. PMID ... Uncoupling of intestinal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase are required for the ... 低分子量肝素(貝米肝素
... sodium starch glycollate, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, and sodium benzoate. In addition ... The product undergoes oxidative degradation in the presence of periodate and ruthenium dioxide in acetone solution, giving 2-[4 ... Sedative drugs, including alprazolam, have been associated with an increased risk of death.[29] ... s-Triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepines by oxidative cyclization of hydrazones". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 20 (12): 1694- ...
Radiation necrosis is the death of healthy tissue near the irradiated site. It is a type of coagulative necrosis that occurs ... Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead to these and other late side effect symptoms.[28 ... including preclinical and clinical investigations into the use of an oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound such as trans sodium ... Radiation can increase the risk of heart disease and death as observed in previous breast cancer RT regimens.[26] Therapeutic ...
... an agent that causes oxidative stress leading to oxidative DNA damage, strongly induces mating and the formation of meiotic ... It is naturally low in fat and sodium as well as an excellent source of protein and vitamins, especially most B-complex ... causing over 600,000 deaths annually.[109] The cells of these yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which ...
Ingestion of sufficient amounts can be fatal if untreated.[20] Several deaths are recorded annually in the U.S. alone.[21] ... The oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate provides a promising approach to the production of C1-based ... Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon dicarbide. *Silicon naphthalocyanine. *Sulfur dioxide ...
... is incorporated into neurons via the sodium ascorbate co-transporter SVCT2. However, this transporter is not expressed in ... Kim EJ, Park YG, Baik EJ, Jung SJ, Won R, Nahm TS, Lee BH (2005) Dehydroascorbic acid prevents oxidative cell death through a ... This study analyzed the effects of oxidative stress and DHA uptake on neuronal cell death in vitro. Different analyses revealed ... Dehydroascorbic Acid Promotes Cell Death in Neurons Under Oxidative Stress: a Protective Role for Astrocytes. ...
Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Signaling Protects Photoreceptors from Oxidative Damage and Cell Death Induced by Sodium Iodate ... Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Signaling Protects Photoreceptors from Oxidative Damage and Cell Death Induced by Sodium Iodate ... Inhibition of Thyroid Hormone Signaling Protects Photoreceptors from Oxidative Damage and Cell Death Induced by Sodium Iodate. ... Conclusions : Suppression of TH signaling protects photoreceptors from oxidative damage and cell death induced by NaIO3 and may ...
Effects of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on MIN6 cell death induced by palmitate, cytokines, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or ... Protection by sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) of pancreatic islets from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Mouse ... Cytoprotective effects of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) against pancreatic islet cell death induced by palmitate (A) and ... Lack of effect of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on cell death induced by thapsigargin (A) or tunicamycin (B). Pancreatic islets ...
2003) Histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate chemotherapy ameliorates the neurodegenerative phenotype in ... Our findings suggested that TG1 and TG2 might work redundantly to ensure the death of neurons following oxidative death. To ... 5A,B), but also potently protected cortical neurons from oxidative death (Fig. 4B). As cystamine has been shown to have off- ... The in vitro model of oxidative death used in this study has been used by many laboratories to identify a number of targets ...
Sodium Nitroprusside for Injection) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, ... The infusion of 25 mcg/kg/min of sodium nitroprusside for one hour in pregnant ewes resulted in the death of all fetuses. ... When the Fe+++ of cytochromes is bound to cyanide, the cytochromes are unable to participate in oxidative metabolism. In this ... Sodium Nitropress Nitroprusside. *Generic Name: sodium nitroprusside for injection. *Brand Name: Sodium Nitroprusside ( ...
Nitroprusside Sodium) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... The infusion of 25 mcg/kg/min of sodium nitroprusside for one hour in pregnant ewes resulted in the death of all fetuses. ... When the Fe+++ of cytochromes is bound to cyanide, the cytochromes are unable to participate in oxidative metabolism. In this ... sodium nitroprusside) Fliptop Vial for Injection. NITROPRESS® (Sodium Nitroprusside Injection) is not suitable for direct ...
The infusion of 25 mcg/kg/min of sodium nitroprusside for one hour in pregnant ewes resulted in the death of all fetuses. ... When the Fe+++ of cytochromes is bound to cyanide, the cytochromes are unable to participate in oxidative metabolism. In this ... Co-infusions of sodium thiosulfate have been administered at rates of 5 to 10 times that of sodium nitroprusside. Care must be ... Incautious administration of sodium nitroprusside must still be avoided, and all of the precautions concerning sodium ...
Confers susceptibility to cell death following oxidative stress. Isoform 2 does not seem to be regulated by ADPR. Has ADP- ... Nonselective, voltage-independent cation channel mediating sodium and calcium ion influx in response to oxidative stress. ... Preservative: 0.1% Sodium azide. Constituents: 0.021% PBS, 1.764% Sodium citrate, 1.815% Tris ... Sun HS et al. Suppression of hippocampal TRPM7 protein prevents delayed neuronal death in brain ischemia. Nat Neurosci 12:1300- ...
Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage ... Oxidative stress is a pathological state that arises when free radicals (collectively known of as reactive oxygen species or ... Agents such as superoxide dismutase mimetics, sodium thiopental and propofol can be used to treat reperfusion injury that ... These agents prevent neural cell death. Individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons ...
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by ... Here, the group induced with sodium arsenite but treated with 20% (v/v) showed honey significantly (. ) reduced oxidative ... reduced level of oxidative stress as evident by the lower level of MDA compared to the group induced with sodium arsenite ... showed reduced oxidative stress as evident by the lower level of MDA compared to the group induced with sodium arsenite without ...
Oxidative stress was induced by sodium iodate as confirmed by the nuclear signal of 8-OHdG. Moreover, the viability of sodium ... In reverse, GTE rescued the cell death and oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells as well as the disorganization of outer nuclear ... Conclusions: Sodium iodate induces oxidative stress, photoreceptor cell disorganization and apoptosis through RPE ... Purpose: Oxidative stress is the most critical risk factor for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration in age-related ...
Zhao E, Amir M, Lin Y, Czaja MJ (2014) Stathmin mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down ... Banala RR, Karnati PR (2015) Vitamin a deficiency: an oxidative stress marker in sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative damage ... Vitamin C Attenuates Sodium Fluoride-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis via Sirt1-SOD2 Pathway in F9 Cells. ... Song C, Fu B, Zhang J, Zhao J, Yuan M, Peng W, Zhang Y, Wu H (2017) Sodium fluoride induces nephrotoxicity via oxidative stress ...
NaAsO,sub,2,/sub, treatment significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated oxidative stress in the hepatic cells both in ,i,in vitro,/ ... A. K. Das, S. Bag, R. Sahu et al., "Protective effect of Corchorus olitorius leaves on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in ... To study the effect of NaAsO2 on death receptor-mediated apoptosis, immunoblot analysis of FAS, Bid and cleaved caspase 8 was ... NaAsO2 treatment significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated oxidative stress in the hepatic cells both in in vitro and in vivo ...
... and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). B) Skin-derived fibroblasts from MsrA−/− mice show no difference in sensitivity to cell death ... Fibroblasts from MsrA−/− mice are more sensitive to oxidative stress. A) Skin-derived fibroblasts from MsrA−/− mice are more ... Thus, under the oxidative stress theory of aging, these results would predict that MsrA regulates the aging process in mammals ... Each circle represents time of death of a single animal; control animals are represented by dashed line with open squares; MsrA ...
One particular problem in DMD is hyperactive "TRPC" channels in the muscle cell membrane that leak calcium and sodium. These ... channels can increase calcium levels inside the cell, stimulating oxidative stress, which can lead to cell damage and/or death. ... The funds will help support Israelsons study of the underlying mechanisms governing motor neuron (nerve cell) death in SOD1- ... The grant will help support Millers research into the fundamental molecular mechanisms responsible for the death of nerve ...
Heme, but not Fe+2, induced oxidative stress-associated cell death. These findings indicate that heme promotes intracellular L ... Heme, but not Fe+2, induced oxidative stress-associated cell death. These findings indicate that heme promotes intracellular L ... Here, we examine the heme-driven oxidative stress-associated cell death mechanisms in human neutrophils infected with ... infantum survival via activation of neutrophil function and oxidative stress. This study opens new perspectives for the ...
However, the exact molecular mechanisms triggered by oxidative stress in photoreceptor cell death remain undefined. This study ... the molecular events that occur after treatment of the photoreceptor cell line 661W with the nitric oxide donor sodium ... Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal photoreceptor cells is mediated by calpains and caspases and blocked by the ...
Moreover, salt stress causes a secondary oxidative stress, resulting in the more severe cases in plant death. ... Salinity drives the plant into water deficit and is accompanied by toxicity of sodium and chloride ions, resulting in ... A method for increasing plants tolerance to salt stress and thus preventing stunted growth and even plant death has been ...
Necrosis is an unprogrammed death of cells, which involves early plasma membrane changes leading to loss of calcium and sodium ... These changes are accompanied by a loss of oxidative phosphorylation, a drop in ATP production, and a loss of homeostatic ... "Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2009". Cell Death and Differentiation ... Programmed cell death means genetic control of the process, thus genes specifying cell death in a developmental sequence must ...
Thymol pronouncedly decreased Cd-induced ROS accumulation, oxidative injury, cell death, and Cd accumulation in roots. ... The application of NO donor (SNP, sodium nitroprusside) resulted in the increase in endogenous NO level, which in turn ...
Time to death [ Time Frame: 60 days after randomization ]. Time to death after randomization ... Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Sodium ascorbate Hydrocortisone cypionate Thiamine mononitrate Magnesium ascorbate ... Several studies have shown vitamin C have decreased the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.Thiamine ... Despite recent medical advances, sepsis and septic shock remain a major cause of death. Sepsis is a syndrome with a wide array ...
Fas associated death domain (FADD), TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8) ... Sodium fluoride causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in the mouse liver.. Author: Liu H, Luo Q, Cui H, Deng H, Kuang P, Lu Y, ... The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the oxidative stress and apoptosis as ... Fluoride & Oxidative Stress. A vast body of research demonstrates that fluoride exposure increases oxidative stress. Based on ...
oxidative stress. Introduction. Sudden cardiac arrest is a major cause of death in the Western world,1 and mortality after ... reverse-mode operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger related to intracellular sodium overload during ischemia and ... Oxidative Fluorescent Microtopography. O2•− was detected in the ventricle with the fluorescent probe dihydroethidium (Molecular ... Because oxidative stress and aldehydic adduct formation were high after arrest, we tested a small-molecule activator of ...
Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside in SH-SY5Y cells. ... 2011). Constituents of bile, bilirubin and TUDCA, protect against oxidative stress-induced retinal degeneration. J. Neurochem. ... Sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cytotoxicity of human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells has been used as a model of PD. UDCA was ... TUDCA ameliorated cell death and loss of photoreceptor function after exposure to high levels of light (10,000 lux) that can ...
13 Oxidative stress deprives the nerve cells of oxygen, impedes growth, and leads to cellular apoptosis or cell death; this ... sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphate [Na+/K+-ATPase pump]), causing abnormal action potential of the cell.12, ... Babizhayev MA, Strokov IA, Nosikov VV, et al The role of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy: generation of free radical ... autonomic nervous system, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, diagnostics, erectile dysfunction, oxidative stress, sexual ...
2001) Dieldrin-induced oxidative stress and neurochemical changes contribute to apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic cells. ... and 1.6 mM sodium pyruvate. LDH activity was measured continuously by monitoring the decrease in the rate of absorbance at 339 ... dependent proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase Cδ is essential for oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic cell death after ... suggesting that downstream cell death processes could be blocked only if mitochondria regulate MMT-induced apoptotic cell death ...
Oct, 2013 , Pubmed ID: 23824679 In the present study, the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced ... The oxidative mechanism underlying arsenite-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. Western blot assay showed that arsenite ... At the same time, arsenite-induced caspase 3 activation and neuronal death were attenuated in the HO-1 siRNA-transfected cells ... Incubation with arsenite was found to cause cell death of primary cultured cortical neurons in concentration- and time- ...
... that acts on site 1 of voltage-dependent sodium channels in excitable membranes, blocking sodium influx and, consequently, ... death rate provoked by pufferfish poisoning is around 50 (8). On the other hand, L. lagocephalus is occasionally caught by ... Our results showed that in Lcu+b rats, this diet provoked oxidative stress in the liver. Such evidence came from the increase ... Studies on oxidative damage induced by cyanobacteria extract in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Environ Res. 1998;78(1):12-8 ...
Melatonin does this by suppressing oxidative damage. It also protects keratinocytes against cell death, while stimulating the ... With soothing and nourishing oils and skin hydrators such as phospholipids and sodium hyaluronate, the good in Dr Dennis Gross ... which fight free radical damage and protect the skin from oxidative stress. Not only do these potent antioxidants fight signs ...
ATG5 contributes to autophagic cell death by interacting with Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD). The ATG5-ATG12 ... ATG5 is also involved in other cellular processes that include mitochondrial quality control after oxidative damage, negative ... Prior to immunostaining paraffin tissues, antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) is recommended. Suggested ...
  • H₂S may prevent pancreatic β-cells from cell apoptosis via an anti-oxidative mechanism and the activation of Akt signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression analysis showed that the NaIO 3 -induced photoreceptor damage/cell death involves multiple mechanisms, including cellular oxidative stress responses, activation of necroptosis/apoptosis signaling, and inflammatory responses. (arvojournals.org)
  • Markers for RPE (RPE65), oxidative stress (8-OHdG), tight junction (ZO-1) and apoptosis (caspase-3) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. (arvojournals.org)
  • Sodium iodate induces oxidative stress, photoreceptor cell disorganization and apoptosis through RPE disintegration and dysfunction. (arvojournals.org)
  • Moreover, pretreatment with vitamin C enhanced the expression of Sirt1 and decreased NaF-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Tian Y, Xiao Y, Wang B, Sun C, Tang K, Sun F (2018) Vitamin E and lycopene reduce coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis via oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium fluoride causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in the mouse liver. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as their relationship in the mouse liver by using methods of flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, biochemistry and experimental pathology. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The results showed that NaF caused oxidative stress and apoptosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • NaF induced apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor recpter-1 (TNF-R1) signaling pathway, which was characterized by significantly increasing mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-R1, Fas associated death domain (FADD), TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), cysteine aspartate specific protease-8 (caspase-8) and cysteine aspartate specific protease-3 (caspase-3) in dose- and time-dependent manner. (fluoridealert.org)
  • NaF-caused oxidative stress and apoptosis finally impaired hepatic function, which was strongly supported by the histopathological lesions and increased serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartic acid transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities and TBIL contents. (fluoridealert.org)
  • ONOO − and H 2 O 2 -induced cell death and apoptosis were attenuated in cells treated with PJ34 or PARP-1 siRNA. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other hand, elevation of intracellular concentration of ascorbic acid by treatment with ascorbate 2-phosphate or dehydroascorbic acid makes the cells resistant to the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. (chiro.org)
  • Subchronic arsenism-induced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to apoptosis through mitochondrial and death receptor dependent pathways in chicken. (oncotarget.com)
  • In many organ dysfunctions, arsenic and its compounds are well known to induce apoptosis by the mitochondria and death receptor apoptotic pathways in liver and airway. (oncotarget.com)
  • 4) As 2 O 3 -induced apoptosis of immune organs involved in mitochondrial pathway (decrease of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and increase of protein 53 (p53), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), caspase-9, caspase-3) and death receptor pathway (increase of factor associated suicide (Fas) and caspase-8). (oncotarget.com)
  • In conclusion, this work is the first to demonstrate that the activation of mitochondria and death receptor apoptosis pathways can lead to excessive apoptosis in immune organs of chickens, which suffer from subchronic arsenism, meanwhile, oxidative stress as well as subsequent inflammatory is a crucial driver of apoptosis. (oncotarget.com)
  • Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of cell death, that probably evolved with multicellularity, and is indispensable for normal growth and development. (ias.ac.in)
  • This includes oxidative stress, organelle damage, and apoptosis in single cells, and skeletal and soft tissue damage in multicellular organisms. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Anuradha CD, Kanno S, Hirano S (2001) Oxidative damage to mitochondria is a preliminary step to caspase-3 activation in fluoride-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. (fluoridealert.org)
  • DNA strand breaks were induced by this association but this process did not correspond to oligosomal DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of cell death by apoptosis). (ac.be)
  • It prevents apoptosis via inhibition of caspase-3, a key mediator of the apoptotic cascade, suggesting that seladin-1 may be involved in the regulation of cell survival and death. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Tumor growth is characterized by the disturbances in metabolic microenvironment associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that provide the modification of intracellular signaling pathways involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, cellular death (apoptosis, autophagy) and neoangiogenesis, as well as disturbancy in macromolecules and biological membranes [1, 2]. (dcawatch.com)
  • Although astrocytes are essential for the antioxidant defense of neurons under oxidative stress, a condition in which a large amount of ROS is generated that may favor the extracellular oxidation of AA and the subsequent neuronal uptake of DHA via GLUT3, potentially increasing oxidative stress in neurons. (springer.com)
  • Nonselective, voltage-independent cation channel mediating sodium and calcium ion influx in response to oxidative stress. (abcam.com)
  • The Hog1-mediated response to oxidative stress was different from that of transcription factor Cap1, the homologue of S . cerevisiae Yap1, as shown by the different sensitivities to oxidants and the kinetics of cell death of cap1 Δ, hog1 , and hog1 cap1 Δ mutants. (asm.org)
  • In Schizosaccharomyces pombe , two mechanisms seem to control the response to oxidative stress-the activation of the StyI/Spc1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the function of the Yap1 homologue-although these phenomena seem to be interdependent. (asm.org)
  • Cytoglobin is a hemoprotein expressed in response to oxidative stress in a variety of tissues, including striated muscle. (pnas.org)
  • FoxM1 is a transcription factor that has recently been implicated in the cellular response to oxidative stress. (uiowa.edu)
  • Agents such as superoxide dismutase mimetics, sodium thiopental and propofol can be used to treat reperfusion injury that occurs after traumatic brain injury. (news-medical.net)
  • NaF-caused oxidative stress was accompanied by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and decreasing mRNA expression levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Forced expression of TG1 or TG2 proteins is sufficient to induce neuronal death in Rattus norvegicus cortical neurons in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • and second, to understand whether a common putative mediator of death, oxidative stress, could induce TG message levels and activity as part of a death cascade. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent evidence has shown that some toxins induce oxidative stress and disruption of osmotic and ionic regulation in crustacean species (9, 10). (scielo.br)
  • Low level of intracellular ROS is critical for normal cellular homeostasis but at higher level it can reversibly impair different cellular functions and its further increase can cause irreversible cellular dysfunctions, formation of tumours and even induce cellular death [ 13 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Higher concentrations of vitamin C induce apoptotic cell death in various tumor cell lines including oral squamous cell carcinoma and salivary gland tumor cell lines, possibly via its prooxidant action. (chiro.org)
  • In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. (ias.ac.in)
  • 2016. Bile acids induce necrosis in pancreatic stellate cells dependent on calcium entry and sodium-driven bile uptake . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Can Triamcinolone acetonide, platelet-rich plasma, and pentosan polysulfate sodium induce oxidative stress in cultured equine chondrocytes? (scielo.br)
  • Green tea extract (GTE) has been shown to be anti-oxidative in different disease models. (arvojournals.org)
  • Ocimum gratissimum, widely used as a folk medicine in many countries, has therapeutic and anti-oxidative properties and may protect SCs survival. (medsci.org)
  • Copper is a key component of enzymatic anti-oxidative defence systems yet under conditions of copper excess, it can be a key inducer of ROS. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Salinity drives the plant into water deficit and is accompanied by toxicity of sodium and chloride ions, resulting in restricted growth and reduction in yield. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The application of NO donor (SNP, sodium nitroprusside) resulted in the increase in endogenous NO level, which in turn compromised the alleviating effects of thymol on Cd toxicity. (bireme.br)
  • found a different path to toxicity for verteporfin-mediated death of colorectal cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important role in testicular toxicity. (usda.gov)
  • However, pretreatment of normal cells with sodium selenite or overexpression of sepp1 is able to mitigate radiation-induced normal cell toxicity. (uiowa.edu)
  • The finding, which is reported in the June 28 issue of Nature, resounds with emerging evidence that calcium toxicity contributes to cell death associated with Alzheimer disease (see ARF related news story ) and suggests that calcium channel blockade may be an effective treatment for PD. (alzforum.org)
  • The calcium-dependent nature of the pacemaking served as a red flag to the researchers, because it hinted at the potential for cell death due to calcium toxicity. (alzforum.org)
  • Toxicity by ALP is caused by the liberation of phosphine gas, which rapidly causes cell hypoxia due to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to circulatory failure. (coconutoil.com)
  • The case was referred to the Coroner who confirmed the cause of death to be acute selenium toxicity. (mja.com.au)
  • It protects neurons from β-amyloid toxicity and oxidative stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Oxidative stress - the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and actions of the antioxidant network - takes part in pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, arthritis, diabetes, influenza-like symptomatology as well as some lung disturbances namely pulmonary oxygen toxicity, adult respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [4] and cystic fibrosis. (termedia.pl)
  • Moreover, the study provided evidence that BF induced neuronal death in OHSCs and suggests that microglia exert a protective function against BF toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These changes are accompanied by a loss of oxidative phosphorylation, a drop in ATP production, and a loss of homeostatic capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we investigated the hypothesis that PARP-1 inhibition protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from ROS- and RNS-induced cell death by limiting NAD + depletion and by activating a prosurvival signaling pathway via VEGFR2 phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- PARP-1 inhibition prevents ROS- and RNS-induced HUVEC death by maintaining cellular energy in the form of NAD + and ATP, and also by activating a survival pathway via VEGFR2, Akt, and BAD phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, SLC7A11 overexpression was associated with altered cellular metabolism including increased mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP generation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell death induced by such an association was actively dependent on protein phosphorylation since it was totally prevented by preincubating cells with sodium orthovanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. (ac.be)
  • Reversible: decreased oxidative phosphorylation leads to less ATP. (brainscape.com)
  • Oxidative stress is a pathological state that arises when free radicals (collectively known of as reactive oxygen species or ROS) chemically interact with and damage biological molecules. (news-medical.net)
  • In this context, free heme, being quite hydrophobic, merges in cell membranes and increases cell susceptibility to oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study investigated the effect of 1-methylated beta-carbolines (harmaline, harmalol and harmine) on change in the mitochondrial membrane permeability and cell death due to reactive nitrogen species in differentiated PC12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knockdown of SLC7A11 increased basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased glutathione generation resulting in increased cell death under oxidative and genotoxic stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. (ias.ac.in)
  • Fenton chemistry/Haber-Weiss reaction are most extensively studied mechanisms by which heavy metals produces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and ultimately causes oxidative stress. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated glial cells. (jove.com)
  • siRNA-mediated depletion of cytoglobin from C2C12 myoblasts increased levels of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death both at baseline and in response to stress stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Conversely, overexpression of cytoglobin reduced reactive oxygen species levels, caspase activity, and cell death. (pnas.org)
  • Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy that is well known to generate reactive oxygen species leading to cell damage and death. (uiowa.edu)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in this chondrocyte catabolic activity, leading to cell death and matrix components breakdown. (scielo.br)
  • What Is Sodium (Nitropress) Nitroprusside and how is it used? (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is an antihypertensive drug indicated for the immediate reduction of blood pressure of adult and pediatric patients in hypertensive crises. (rxlist.com)
  • Concomitant longer-acting antihypertensive medication should be administered so that the duration of treatment with sodium nitroprusside can be minimized. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is also indicated for producing controlled hypotension in order to reduce bleeding during surgery, and for the treatment of acute congestive heart failure . (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is available in generic form. (rxlist.com)
  • What Are Side Effects of Sodium (Nitropress) Nitroprusside? (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium Nitroprusside Injection is not suitable for direct injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium Nitroprusside can cause precipitous decreases in blood pressure (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside should be used only when available equipment and personnel allow blood pressure to be continuously monitored. (rxlist.com)
  • 2 mcg/kg/min) infusion rates, sodium nitroprusside gives rise to important quantities of cyanide ion, which can reach toxic, potentially lethal levels (see WARNINGS ). (rxlist.com)
  • If blood pressure has not been adequately controlled after 10 minutes of infusion at the maximum rate, administration of sodium nitroprusside should be terminated immediately. (rxlist.com)
  • Dry sodium nitroprusside is a reddish-brown powder, soluble in water. (rxlist.com)
  • In an aqueous solution infused intravenously, sodium nitroprusside is a rapid-acting vasodilator, active on both arteries and veins. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside solution is rapidly degraded by trace contaminants, often with resulting color changes. (rxlist.com)
  • 50 mg Fliptop Vial - Each 2 mL vial contains the equivalent of 50 mg sodium nitroprusside dihydrate in sterile water for injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside injection is indicated for the immediate reduction of blood pressure of adult and pediatric patients in hypertensive crises. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside injection is also indicated for producing controlled hypotension in order to reduce bleeding during surgery. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside injection is also indicated for the treatment of acute congestive heart failure. (rxlist.com)
  • Depending on the desired concentration, the solution containing 50 mg of sodium nitroprusside must be further diluted in 250 to 1000 mL of sterile 5% dextrose injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium nitroprusside solution can be inactivated by reactions with trace contaminants. (rxlist.com)
  • The products of these reactions are often blue, green, or red, much brighter than the faint brownish color of unreacted sodium nitroprusside. (rxlist.com)
  • Infusion of sodium nitroprusside should therefore be started at a very low rate (0.3 mcg/kg/min), with upward titration every few minutes until the desired effect is achieved or the maximum recommended infusion rate (10 mcg/kg/min) has been reached. (rxlist.com)
  • The principal pharmacological action of sodium nitroprusside is relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and consequent dilatation of peripheral arteries and veins. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium nitroprusside is more active on veins than on arteries, but this selectivity is much less marked than that of nitroglycerin. (nih.gov)
  • In association with the decrease in blood pressure, sodium nitroprusside administered intravenously to hypertensive and normotensive patients produces slight increases in heart rate and a variable effect on cardiac output. (nih.gov)
  • In normotensive subjects, acute reduction of mean arterial pressure to 60 to 75 mm Hg by infusion of sodium nitroprusside caused a significant increase in renin activity. (nih.gov)
  • In the same study, ten renovascular-hypertensive patients given sodium nitroprusside had significant increases in renin release from the involved kidney at mean arterial pressures of 90 to 137 mm Hg. (nih.gov)
  • The hypotensive effect of sodium nitroprusside is seen within a minute or two after the start of an adequate infusion, and it dissipates almost as rapidly after an infusion is discontinued. (nih.gov)
  • This study delineates the molecular events that occur after treatment of the photoreceptor cell line 661W with the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). (csic.es)
  • Dose-dependent induction of cell death by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), in situ generation of H 2 O 2 by hydroxylamine, and nitric oxide (NO) generation by sodium nitroprusside treatment in D. discoideum were studied. (ias.ac.in)
  • For example, antioxidants may be useful in treating patients after a stroke to protect the nerves and brain cells from oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation. (news-medical.net)
  • Interestingly, oxidative stress-induced lipid membrane peroxidative damage could not be detected. (ias.ac.in)
  • Accumulating evidence demonstrates that vitamin C administration ameliorate sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced oxidative stress. (springer.com)
  • Zuo H, Chen L, Kong M, Yang Y, Lu P, Qiu L, Wang Q, Ma S, Chen K (2018) The toxic effect of sodium fluoride on Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and differential protein analysis following NaF treatment of cells. (springer.com)
  • Suzuki M, Bandoski C, Bartlett JD (2015) Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling. (springer.com)
  • Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a well-known environmental pollutant prevalently found in drinking water and is also used for the treatment of dental problems. (imedpub.com)
  • Sodium fluoride (NaF) is widely used in dental treatments to prevent cavity formation and provides resistance to decay due to acid and bacteria [ 1 , 2 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • The use of sodium fluoride is harmless and rather healthy up to 20 mg per day but it causes severe chronic and acute organ pathophysiology upon sustained use in higher amounts. (imedpub.com)
  • Excess intake of fluoride (e.g., sodium fluoride) also causes degeneration in the different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system [ 5 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Aaron JE, de Vernejoul MC, Kanis JA (1991) The effect of sodium fluoride on trabecular architecture. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Abdelaleem MM, El-Tahawy NFG, Abozaid SMM, Abdel-Hakim SA (2018) Possible protective effect of curcumin on the thyroid gland changes induced by sodium fluoride in albino rats: light and electron microscopic study. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Green tea mouth rinse resulted in significant reduction of colony number of salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus which is comparable with sodium fluoride mouth rinse. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Multiple myeloma patients with high 18F-sodium fluoride metabolic active volume had shorter overall survival. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Dictyostelium discoideum , an eukaryotic developmental model, shows both unicellular and multicellular forms in its life cycle and exhibits apparent caspase-independent programmed cell death, and also shows high resistance to oxidative stress. (ias.ac.in)
  • The results shed light on the biochemical basis for the observed high resistance to oxidative stress in D. discoideum . (ias.ac.in)
  • Three major pathologic pathways underlying heart failure symptoms have been identified: fluid overload, inflammation, and oxidative stress. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2016. Nitric oxide signals are interlinked with calcium signals in normal pancreatic stellate cells upon oxidative stress and inflammation . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The possible pathways through which NAC modulates an oxidative stress and inflammation, is presented in Fig. 1. (termedia.pl)
  • Depleted pool of GSH is often caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. (termedia.pl)
  • In conclusion, inflammation, RRF, and LVH are interrelated and combine adversely to increase mortality and cardiovascular death risk of PD patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • These protect against oxidative stress and inflammation, which contribute to the development of heart disease. (healthline.com)
  • Perl A, Hanczko R, Telarico T, Oaks Z, Landas S. Oxidative stress, inflammation and carcinogenesis are controlled through the pentose phosphate pathway by transaldolase. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, As further promotes oxidative stress by reacting with -SH group and thereby deactivates the defense mechanism of several antioxidant enzymes and glutathione system [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxidative stress is involved in the process of apoptotic occurrence, and can be triggered by promoting ROS production and reducing antioxidant function. (fluoridealert.org)
  • An enhanced ROS production exceeding the antioxidant defense and repair capacity could lead to oxidative stress and cell damage (18). (scielo.br)
  • RS100642, a mexiletine analogue, is a novel sodium channel blocker with neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. (termedia.pl)
  • Due to the oxidative environment, it disrupts the intracellular homeostasis between the endogenous free radical and antioxidant defence mechanisms of the body [ 11 , 12 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Both redox-active and inactive metals can diminish cellular antioxidant system specifically thiol- containing enzymes and antioxidants and may lead to cellular death. (omicsonline.org)
  • TLT cells were particularly sensitive to such an oxidative stress due to its poor antioxidant status. (ac.be)
  • Given that oxidative processes are major sources of DNA damage, we propose that the antioxidant properties of ATOX1 may protect genomic integrity. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In this in vitro study, the use of these three substances (triamcinolone acetonide, platelet-rich plasma, and pentosan polysulphate sodium) in healthy chondrocytes did not alter the antioxidant status when compared to control groups, indicating that they could be considered safe in healthy conditions. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of the present review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the biological and epidemiological evidence of the role of oxidative stress as a major underlying feature of the toxic effect of air pollutants, and the potential role of dietary supplementation in enhancing antioxidant defences. (ersjournals.com)
  • To provide an up-to-date overview on the biological and epidemiological evidence of the role of oxidative stress as a major underlying feature of the toxic effect of air pollutants and the potential role of dietary supplementation as an enhancer 11 of antioxidant defences, a bibliogaphic search was conducted through PubMed. (ersjournals.com)
  • Aim: to study the activity of antioxidant enzymes and to evaluate an intensity of prooxidant processes in sarcoma 37 (S37) cells during tumor development and under influence of sodium dichloroacetate (SDA). (dcawatch.com)
  • The ability of antioxidant system to neutralize ROS is accompanied with involvement of some components of this system within the set of signal transduction pathways associated with cell death and division [4]. (dcawatch.com)
  • However, all NaF-induced mitochondrial oxidative injuries were efficiently ameliorated by overexpression of Sirt1 or incubation with Mito-TEMPO (a SOD2 mimetic). (springer.com)
  • In summary, our data indicate that Sirt1 plays a pivotal role in the ability of vitamin C to stimulate SOD2 activity and attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress, which partially through vitamin C receptor in NaF-induced F9 cells injury. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, the results presented herein demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death in cultured dopamine-producing cells after exposure to MMT. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ATG5 is also involved in other cellular processes that include mitochondrial quality control after oxidative damage, negative regulation of the innate anti-viral immune response, lymphocyte development and proliferation, MHC II antigen presentation, and adipocyte differentiation. (fishersci.com)
  • Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are frequently implicated in the pathology of secondary neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • Here we examined the protective effects of sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), an H₂S donor, on various types of β-cell damage. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have shown that higher TH levels were associated with increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease characterized by oxidative damage/progressive cell dystrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • These mice were then analyzed for retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) and photoreceptor damage/cell death by biochemical and morphological approaches at 3 days post-NaIO 3 injection, and for gene expression alterations at 1 day post-NaIO 3 injection. (arvojournals.org)
  • Treatment with antithyroid drug protected photoreceptors from oxidative damage and cell death induced by NaIO 3 , and preserved retinal function. (arvojournals.org)
  • Suppression of TH signaling protects photoreceptors from oxidative damage and cell death induced by NaIO 3 and may represent a strategy for photoreceptor protection in AMD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage. (news-medical.net)
  • Free radicals cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids leading to many biological complications including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, aging, and atherosclerosis[ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 9,10 Hyperglycemia causes damage to the ANS, resulting in an oxidative stress response. (nursingcenter.com)
  • These results indicate that L. lagocephalus meat cooked with water produces hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage. (scielo.br)
  • Although it is now established that these symptoms, including death, are due to the increase in neurotransmitter release secondary to the binding of toxins to voltage-sensitive sodium channels, the mechanism of tissue damage remains unclear. (scielo.br)
  • Dark Spot Sun Defense contains a unique blend of melatonin along with three forms of Vitamin C and one form of Vitamin E, which fight free radical damage and protect the skin from oxidative stress. (truthinaging.com)
  • Melatonin does this by suppressing oxidative damage. (truthinaging.com)
  • Further, our results showed that shGRP78 dysregulates multiple transcriptomic and proteomic pathways that involve DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cell death, that were reversed upon treatment with a ROS inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine. (nature.com)
  • We found that (1) Oxidative damage and inflammatory response were confirmed in the immune organs of chickens fed on As 2 O 3 diet. (oncotarget.com)
  • These are required for physiological and biochemical functioning of the body, but at higher concentration they causes the oxidative damage. (omicsonline.org)
  • Literature highlighted the role of metals like chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) in oxidative damage. (omicsonline.org)
  • We examined the protective effects of aqueous O. gratissimum extract (OGE) against cell damage caused by H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in RSC96 Schwann cells. (medsci.org)
  • Sodium arsenite, the DNA damaging agent used in this study, is a potent environmental toxicant and a known inducer of oxidative damage. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Increased DNA damage was observed in Atox1 deficient MEFs when challenged with sodium arsenite and radiation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In addition, genes in the DNA damage signalling, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant defence pathways were differentially expressed in the absence of ATOX1. (nus.edu.sg)
  • That is, predisposition to cell death in Parkinson disease may be due to more than simply possessing dopamine, which has been linked to oxidative damage (see ARF related news story ). (alzforum.org)
  • Therefore, because eye, renal, nerve, and endothelial cells absorb glucose at the level that it is in the serum, a great deal of oxidative damage occurs to the cells and they can suffer devastating complications. (townsendletter.com)
  • Haloacetate-induced oxidative damage to DNA in the liver of male B6C3F1 mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is a drinking water disinfection by-product (DBP) that induces renal cell death via DNA damage-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Oxidative stress was induced by sodium iodate as confirmed by the nuclear signal of 8-OHdG. (arvojournals.org)
  • The use of antioxidants to treat disease states induced by oxidative stress is controversial. (news-medical.net)
  • While studies show that that beta carotene, for example, has a pro-oxidative effect in the lungs of smokers, other epidemiological research has demonstrated an inverse relationship between levels of established antioxidants such as vitamin E and C and disease states such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Two antioxidants, namely mangiferin and genistein, have been reported to exert protective effect against NaF-induced oxidative insult. (imedpub.com)
  • Secondly, the role of antioxidants in oxidative stress will be briefly discussed. (ersjournals.com)
  • The synergistic effect of sodium chlorite and bromochloroacetic acid on BrO3(-)-induced renal cell death. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It promotes oxidative stress and disrupts tissue homeostasis in the vital organs of the body including kidney and liver. (imedpub.com)
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. (hindawi.com)
  • From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • For animal experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with single dose of sodium iodate (40 mg/kg) and then fed intragastrically with GTE (550 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. (arvojournals.org)
  • For the sodium iodate-treated rats, photoreceptor rosettes were appeared along the whole retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • RPE65 and ZO-1 expressions were drastically reduced in RPE cells of sodium iodate-treated rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • In reverse, GTE rescued the cell death and oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells as well as the disorganization of outer nuclear layer in rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • Linnik MD, Zobrist RH, Hatfield MD. Evidence supporting a role for programmed cell death in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. (termedia.pl)
  • Necrosis is an unprogrammed death of cells, which involves early plasma membrane changes leading to loss of calcium and sodium imbalance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the purpose, data has been collected from the literature regarding ten mineral contents (sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn)) of 100 medicinal plants grown in Pakistan. (omicsonline.org)
  • Rather, a variety of lines of evidence suggest that the sodium and potassium channels manifest their effects upon degeneration through changes in the resting membrane potential, which in turn regulates the level of intracellular free calcium within the isolated distal axon. (jneurosci.org)
  • Edetate disodium (the sodium salt of EDTA), which binds to calcium among other cations, was first used to treat hypercalcemia and digitalis intoxication. (acc.org)
  • We looked at dopaminergic cells and much to our surprise those cells were firing at a perfectly normal rate but were using sodium not calcium," Surmeier said. (alzforum.org)
  • Further experiments showed that age determined whether pacemaking was governed by sodium or calcium. (alzforum.org)
  • Recordings of SNc dopaminergic neurons from wild-type mice less than 3 weeks old showed a dependency on sodium that waned with age as calcium channels took over the pacemaking activity. (alzforum.org)
  • The calcium blockade forced the cells to revert to their younger way of sodium-dependent pacemaking that had lain latent after the calcium signaling came to dominate. (alzforum.org)
  • Having observed that SNc neurons could be swayed from their potentially vulnerable calcium-dependent state, the researchers studied whether the juvenile, sodium-dependent pacemaking approach could protect the cells from Parkinson disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Administering chronic isradipine with subcutaneous pellets shifted pacemaking from calcium- to sodium-dependent channels and protected against SNc cell loss when combined with MPTP treatment, a predominant animal model for Parkinson disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Andre Herchuelz and Mordecai P. Blaustein are the authors of Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Estimation of calcium, sodium and potassium ions in brain tissue and gamma aminobutyric acid level in serum was carried out. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Treatment with antithyroid drug abolished these cellular stress/death responses. (arvojournals.org)
  • To demonstrate cell death in some cases a vital dye is used to detect when cellular function is disrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 Glucose is shunted into the autonomic pathway and then converted to a sorbitol and fructose substance, which decreases the permeability of cellular membrane (sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphate [Na+/K+-ATPase pump]), causing abnormal action potential of the cell. (nursingcenter.com)
  • If the toxic metabolites accumulate as a result of insufficient glucuronide or sulfate metabolism or insufficient glutathione, they are converted to toxic macromolecules that directly cause cellular death. (maxshouse.com)
  • 8 , 10 It has been suggested that the ready substitution of selenium for sulfur in biochemical reactions may inactivate the sulfhydryl enzymes necessary for oxidative reactions in cellular respiration, 10 contributing to the acute toxic effect. (mja.com.au)
  • Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). (mdpi.com)
  • Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, DHA promotes the death of stressed neuronal cells, which is reversed by incubating the cells with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of DHA uptake by GLUT1 and GLUT3. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, the presence of glial cells (U87 and astrocytes), which promote DHA recycling, reverses the observed cell death of stressed neurons. (springer.com)
  • Hydrogen sulphide protects mouse pancreatic β-cells from cell death induced by oxidative stress, but not by endoplasmic reticulum stress. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the viability of sodium iodate-treated APRE-19 cells was reduced. (arvojournals.org)
  • NaAsO 2 treatment significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated oxidative stress in the hepatic cells both in in vitro and in vivo systems. (hindawi.com)
  • The role of cell death is the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis , for example, the regular loss of skin cells or a more active role seen in involuting tissues like the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another indicator of cell death is acid hydrolysis, which is released from digestion during phagocytosis of dead cells by macrophages or neighboring cells, and the intravital dye is a marker of secondary phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, PARP-1 inhibition protected cells from death induced by serum starvation, evidence for a role in cell survival independent of energy protection. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ustalic acid is an inhibitor of the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antioxidative and gene modulatory role of mangiferin and genistein were found to be effective in NaF induced oxidative stress in renal cells. (imedpub.com)
  • Sodium 5,6-benzylidene-L-ascorbate, intravenous administration of which induces degeneration of human inoperable tumors and rat hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo, induces apoptotic or non-apoptotic cell death, depending on the types of target cells. (chiro.org)
  • One of the situations that often challenges growing yeast cells is oxidative stress, which is characterized by an abnormally high oxidative potential. (asm.org)
  • Muscle injury and subsequent activation of myogenic progenitor cells is associated with oxidative stress. (pnas.org)
  • Our results showed that the RSC96 cells, damaged by H 2 O 2 oxidative stress, decreased their viability up to 32% after treatment with different concentrations of up to 300 μM H 2 O 2 , but OGE pretreatment (150 or 200 μg/mL) increased cell viability by approximately 62% or 66%, respectively. (medsci.org)
  • Results from DHE-oxidation analysis show that in irradiated proliferating normal cells there is a late ROS accumulation that occurs independent of cell cycle checkpoint activation and precedes cell death. (uiowa.edu)
  • We identified that PARP-1 is a critical factor required for mouse cells to withstand arsenite-induced chromosomal aberrations and cell death. (nus.edu.sg)
  • To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes ( ompFW ) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
  • New treatments for OA, platelet-rich plasma and pentosan polysulphate sodium have also been used and further investigations are necessary to determine their safety in joint cells. (scielo.br)
  • The use of substances that cause the death of malignant cells by inducing the metabolic stress mediated by accumulation of the excess amounts of ROS is promising for the cancer therapy [5]. (dcawatch.com)
  • One of the preparations influencing the metabolic processes in mitochondria is sodium dichloroacetate (SDA) that selectively inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activated in tumor cells [6]. (dcawatch.com)
  • Overall, BF exhibited cytotoxic effects in primary microglial cells, accompanied by the induction of various inflammatory and oxidative stress markers including the Nrf-2/COX-2/mPGES-1/NF-kappaB pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we examine the heme-driven oxidative stress-associated cell death mechanisms in human neutrophils infected with Leishmania infantum , an etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the exact molecular mechanisms triggered by oxidative stress in photoreceptor cell death remain undefined. (csic.es)
  • 14 Here we investigated, using oxidative (H 2 O 2 ) and nitrosative (ONOO − ) stress, the mechanisms by which inhibiting PARP-1 inhibition protect against EC death. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that gallic acid (GA) reverses oxidative stress in rat model of streptozotocin-induced dementia, but the roles and mechanisms of GA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury remain unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Here we investigated the potential roles and mechanisms of GA in hypoxia/reoxygenation induced by sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) in vitro and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression. (springer.com)
  • Zhao E, Amir M, Lin Y, Czaja MJ (2014) Stathmin mediates hepatocyte resistance to death from oxidative stress by down regulating JNK. (springer.com)
  • Previous reports have suggested that modulation of MsrA in mice and mammalian cell culture can affect the accumulation of oxidized proteins and may regulate resistance to oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first demonstration of the role of the Hog1-mediated MAP kinase pathway in resistance to oxidative stress in pathogenic fungi, and it allows us to propose a molecular model for the oxidative stress response in C . albicans . (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of SLC7A11 resulted in increased resistance to oxidative stress and decreased chemosensitivity to temozolomide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An attempt has been made to investigate the biochemical basis for high resistance of D. discoideum cell death induced by different oxidants. (ias.ac.in)
  • The human DIMINUTO/DWARF1 homolog seladin-1 confers resistance to Alzheimer's disease-associated neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Physiologically, inhibition of the sodium-potassium pump generally causes diarrhea, as it prevents water reabsorption from the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that degeneration of the distal nerve stump after a nerve crush is greatly delayed when there is increased potassium channel activity (by overexpression of two different potassium channels, Kir2.1 and dORKΔ-C) or decreased voltage-gated sodium channel activity (using mutations in the para sodium channel). (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the effect of altering voltage-gated sodium and potassium channel activity, recordings made after nerve crush demonstrated that the distal stump does not fire action potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • The patients were treated with supportive measures including gastric lavage with diluted potassium permanganate, coconut oil and sodium-bicarbonate. (coconutoil.com)
  • This study analyzed the effects of oxidative stress and DHA uptake on neuronal cell death in vitro. (springer.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining that the subject has had a TBI event and is at risk of neuronal cell death, wherein the TBI event is selected from the group consisting of whiplash, a blast wave impact, and blunt force trauma. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein the haloalkylamine reduces the occurrence of neuronal cell death in the subject. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. A method of reducing the occurrence of neuronal cell death in the central nervous system of a subject at risk thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a haloalkylamine in an amount sufficient to reduce neuronal cell death in the central nervous system of the subject. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 further comprising determining that the subject has had a transient hypoxic and/or ischemic condition and is at risk of neuronal cell death caused by the condition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This study suggests beneficial effects of sodium sulfide in preventing lung injury during mechanical ventilation. (asahq.org)
  • We demonstrate that PARP-1 inhibition attenuates ATP and NAD + depletion and decreases EC death via a VEGFR2-mediated prosurvival pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apoptotic cell death in isolated islets was also assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. (nih.gov)
  • After this, histone-associated DNA fragments were quantified by elisa to evaluate apoptotic cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Exogenous oxidative insult causes an elevation in the intracellular ROS level [ 9 , 10 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Fourthly, the relevance of factors that may interact with a subjects' response to exogenous oxidative stress will be discussed. (ersjournals.com)
  • GTE treatment restored RPE function and integrity as well as reduced photoreceptor cell death and disorganization. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the mitochondria or death receptor apoptotic pathways activated in the immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) of one-day-old male Hy-line chickens exposed to arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ), which were fed on diets supplemented with 0, 0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg BW of As 2 O 3 for 30, 60 and 90 days. (oncotarget.com)
  • Prior research has demonstrated that three nutrients-sodium, omega-3 fatty acids, and lycopene-can alter these pathologic pathways. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recent research has identified oxidative stress as one potential feature underlying the toxic effect of air pollutants, which trigger a number of redox sensitive signalling pathways, such as those of inflammatory response and cytokine production 2 - 5 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Protection by sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) of pancreatic islets from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • A ) Skin-derived fibroblasts from MsrA −/− mice are more sensitive to cell death caused by paraquat (PQ), hydrogen peroxide (PX), t -butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBH), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). (nih.gov)
  • Cell death was only observed when such compounds were added simultaneously, most probably due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by ascorbate-driven menadione redox cycling. (ac.be)
  • Unexpectedly, we found that in addition to TG2, TG1 gene expression level is significantly induced following stroke in vivo or due to oxidative stress in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • This description is more functional and applies to both in vitro and in vivo, so cell death subroutines are now described by a series of precise, measurable, biochemical features. (wikipedia.org)
  • since the pro inflammatory cytokines have shown to decrease the expression of the sodium-vitamin C transporter-2 (SVCT2) while glucocorticoids increase the SVCT2 expression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diclofenac sodium (as well as diclofenac) is a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with pronounced analgesic and antipyretic efficacy. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, BF significantly induced protein synthesis and mRNA expression of oxidative and inflammatory mediators after 4 and 24 h, including Nrf-2, COX-2, mPGES-1, and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ascorbic acid (AA), the reduced form of vitamin C, is incorporated into neurons via the sodium ascorbate co-transporter SVCT2. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that DHA promotes the death of stressed neurons and that astrocytes are essential for the antioxidative defense of neurons. (springer.com)
  • Accordingly, molecular deletion of TG2 alone is insufficient to protect Mus musculus neurons from oxidative death. (jneurosci.org)
  • they also protect neurons downstream of pathological ERK activation when added well after the onset of the death stimulus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since degeneration, dysfunction, and death of retinal neurons are demonstrated in the pathogenesis of AMD, neuroprotective strategies could serve as a possible way to treat AMD. (intechopen.com)
  • Researchers led by D. James Surmeier at Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, investigated what makes dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) selectively vulnerable to cell death. (alzforum.org)
  • This study aims to determine the protective effect of GTE against the sodium iodate-induced RPE degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
  • Salt stress-induced cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulate. (degruyter.com)
  • This work investigated whether inhibition of TH signaling protects photoreceptors in mice after oxidative stress challenge. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results demonstrated the therapeutic effect and the possible mechanism for GTE against sodium iodate-induced RPE changes. (arvojournals.org)
  • First, the relevance of oxidative stress as a common mechanism for effects of ambient air pollutants will be summarised. (ersjournals.com)
  • Lysosome-mediated cell death is associated with degradation of Bax sequestering 14-3-3 proteins, cleavage of the Box activator Bid, and translocation of Box to mitochondria, all of which were cathepsin D-dependent. (diva-portal.org)
  • Any of the liver-produced steroid acids, such as taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid, that appear in the bile as sodium salts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It also protects keratinocytes against cell death, while stimulating the growth of fibroblasts. (truthinaging.com)
  • Lack of methionine sulfoxide reductase A in mice increases sensitivity to oxidative stress but does not diminish life span. (nih.gov)
  • To analyse the current evidence on the management of severe traumatic brain injury and the clinical outcome achieved with the use of hypertonic sodium lactate. (elsevier.es)
  • There is substantial evidence that air pollution exposure results in increased oxidative stress and that dietary supplementation may play a modulating role on the acute effect of air pollutants. (ersjournals.com)
  • More specifically, the present invention is directed to pharmaceutical compositions and methods of reducing the occurrence of nerounal cell death in the central nervous system, such as, reducing the occurrence brain cell death in the hippocampus and/or the cortex. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, unifying schemes by which these cross-linking or polyaminating enzymes participate broadly in neuronal death have yet to be presented. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings indicate that heme promotes intracellular L . infantum survival via activation of neutrophil function and oxidative stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, intravenous sodium sulfide reduced pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and edema. (asahq.org)