The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
An enzyme that removes THYMINE and URACIL bases mispaired with GUANINE through hydrolysis of their N-glycosidic bond. These mispaired nucleotides generally occur through the hydrolytic DEAMINATION of 5-METHYLCYTOSINE to thymine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An octameric enzyme belonging to the superfamily of amino acid dehydrogenases. Leucine dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-LEUCINE, to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (2-ketoisocaproate) and AMMONIA, with the corresponding reduction of the cofactor NAD+.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.

Influence of 1-[(E)-2-(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)diaz-1-enyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid and diphenyliodonium chloride on ruminal protein metabolism and ruminal microorganisms. (1/339)

The effects of 1-[(E)-2-(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)diaz-1-enyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxy lic acid (LY29) and diphenyliodonium chloride (DIC) on the degradation of protein to ammonia were determined in a mixed rumen microbial population taken from sheep on a grass hay-concentrate diet. Both compounds decreased NH3 production by inhibiting deamination of amino acids. LY29, but not DIC, inhibited growth of the high-activity ammonia-producing species, Clostridium aminophilum and Clostridium sticklandii.  (+info)

Effect of the ratio between essential and nonessential amino acids in the diet on utilization of nitrogen and amino acids by growing pigs. (2/339)

In 36 growing pigs (30 to 60 kg), N balance and amino acid (AA) composition of weight gain were measured to evaluate the interactive effect of the ratio between N from essential amino acids (EAA(N)) to nonessential amino acids (NEAA(N)) and total N level (T(N)) in the diet on N retention and utilization of N, EAA(N), NEAA(N), and AA. Nine diets composed from ordinary feedstuffs and supplemented with crystalline AA were used (three EAA(N):NEAA(N) ratios of 38:62, 50:50, and 62:38 at three T(N) levels of 18.8, 22.9, and 30.0 g/kg). Pigs were fed restrictedly, at a level of 2.8 x energy for maintenance. In all diets, EAA (including arginine) supply was according to or slightly above the recommended ratios to lysine. Measurements were done in four blocks of nine pigs each. In a concomitant slaughter experiment, the AA composition of deposited body protein was determined to estimate AA utilization. The effects of T(N) and EAA(N):NEAA(N) and their interaction for N retention and utilization were significant. Nitrogen retention increased with higher T(N) in the diet. Increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 improved N retention only at the two lower T(N) levels. Increasing EAA(N): NEAA(N) above 50:50 failed to improve N retention significantly at any of the three T(N) levels. Lowering T(N) improved the utilization of total and digested N and of EAA(N) and NEAA(N). The increase in EAA(N): NEAA(N) consistently resulted in a lower utilization of EAA(N), but this was compensated by a higher utilization of NEAA(N). The utilization of T(N) was improved by increasing EAA(N):NEAA(N) from 38:62 to 50:50 at the two lower T(N) levels and was relatively unaffected by EAA(N):NEAA(N) at the highest T(N). However, a lower utilization of N was observed at a ratio of 62:38 at a T(N) level of 22.9 g/kg. The effects were similar for utilization of individual EAA and NEAA. Utilization of alanine, aspartic acid, and glycine was close to or >100% at the highest EAA(N):NEAA(N), which was expected because all of these AA are synthesized in pigs. Also, the utilization of arginine was >100% in most of the treatments, which confirms the semiessential character of this AA for maintenance. We concluded that the required ratio of EAA(N):NEAA(N) for optimal N retention and utilization is approximately 50:50. The EAA(N):NEAA(N) is more important at lower dietary protein levels. This study indicates that EAA(N): NEAA(N) can be increased up to 70:30 without lowering the utilization of N. Thus, deaminated EAA(N) was efficiently utilized for the synthesis of NEAA(N).  (+info)

Nitric oxide-induced damage to mtDNA and its subsequent repair. (3/339)

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have recently been associated with a variety of human diseases. One potential DNA-damaging agent to which cells are continually exposed that could be responsible for some of these mutations is nitric oxide (NO). To date, little information has been forthcoming concerning the damage caused by this gas to mtDNA. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate damage to mtDNA induced by NO and to evaluate its subsequent repair. Normal human fibroblasts were exposed to NO produced by the rapid decomposition of 1-propanamine, 3-(2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-1-propylhydrazino) (PAPA NONOate) and the resultant damage to mtDNA was determined by quantitative Southern blot analysis. This gas was found to cause damage to mtDNA that was alkali-sensitive. Treatment of the DNA with uracil-DNA glycosylase or 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase failed to reveal additional damage, indicating that most of the lesions produced were caused by the deamination of guanine to xanthine. Studies using ligation-mediated PCR supported this finding. When a 200 bp sequence of mtDNA from cells exposed to NO was analyzed, guanine was found to be the predominantly damaged base. However, there also was damage to specific adenines. No lesions were observed at pyrimidine sites. The nucleotide pattern of damage induced by NO was different from that produced by either a reactive oxygen species generator or the methylating chemical, methylnitrosourea. Most of the lesions produced by NO were repaired rapidly. However, there appeared to be a subset of lesions which were repaired either slowly or not at all by the mitochondria.  (+info)

AMP deamination and purine exchange in human skeletal muscle during and after intense exercise. (4/339)

1. The present study examined the regulation of human skeletal muscle AMP deamination during intense exercise and quantified muscle accumulation and release of purines during and after intense exercise. 2. Seven healthy males performed knee extensor exercise at 64.3 W (range: 50-70 W) to exhaustion (234 s; 191-259 s). In addition, on two separate days the subjects performed exercise at the same intensity for 30 s and 80 % of exhaustion time (mean, 186 s; range, 153-207 s), respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m.v. lateralis before and after each of the exercise bouts. For the exhaustive bout femoral arterio-venous concentration differences and blood flow were also determined. 3. During the first 30 s of exercise there was no change in muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia (NH3), although estimated free ADP and AMP increased 5- and 45-fold, respectively, during this period. After 186 s and at exhaustion muscle ATP had decreased (P < 0.05) by 15 and 19 %, respectively, muscle IMP was elevated (P < 0. 05) from 0.20 to 3.65 and 5.67 mmol (kg dry weight)-1, respectively, and muscle NH3 had increased (P < 0.05) from 0.47 to 2.55 and 2.33 mmol (kg d.w.)-1, respectively. The concentration of H+ did not change during the first 30 s of exercise, but increased (P < 0.05) to 245.9 nmol l-1 (pH 6.61) after 186 s and to 374.5 nmol l-1 (pH 6. 43) at exhaustion. 4. Muscle inosine and hypoxanthine did not change during exercise. In the first 10 min after exercise the muscle IMP concentration decreased (P < 0.05) by 2.96 mmol (kg d.w.)-1 of which inosine and hypoxanthine formation could account for 30 %. The total release of inosine and hypoxanthine during exercise and 90 min of recovery amounted to 1.07 mmol corresponding to 46 % of the net ATP decrease during exercise or 9 % of ATP at rest. 5. The present data suggest that AMP deamination is inhibited during the initial phase of intense exercise, probably due to accumulation of orthophosphate, and that lowered pH is an important positive modulator of AMP deaminase in contracting human skeletal muscle in vivo. Furthermore, formation and release of purines occurs mainly after intense exercise and leads to a considerable loss of nucleotides.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and acid protection in vitro but is not essential for colonization of mice or for urease activity. (5/339)

Arginase of the Helicobacter pylori urea cycle hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. H. pylori urease hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which neutralizes acid. Both enzymes are involved in H. pylori nitrogen metabolism. The roles of arginase in the physiology of H. pylori were investigated in vitro and in vivo, since arginase in H. pylori is metabolically upstream of urease and urease is known to be required for colonization of animal models by the bacterium. The H. pylori gene hp1399, which is orthologous to the Bacillus subtilis rocF gene encoding arginase, was cloned, and isogenic allelic exchange mutants of three H. pylori strains were made by using two different constructs: 236-2 and rocF::aphA3. In contrast to wild-type (WT) strains, all rocF mutants were devoid of arginase activity and had diminished serine dehydratase activity, an enzyme activity which generates ammonium. Compared with WT strain 26695 of H. pylori, the rocF::aphA3 mutant was approximately 1, 000-fold more sensitive to acid exposure. The acid sensitivity of the rocF::aphA3 mutant was not reversed by the addition of L-arginine, in contrast to the WT, and yielded a approximately 10, 000-fold difference in viability. Urease activity was similar in both strains and both survived acid exposure equally well when exogenous urea was added, indicating that rocF is not required for urease activity in vitro. Finally, H. pylori mouse-adapted strain SS1 and the 236-2 rocF isogenic mutant colonized mice equally well: 8 of 9 versus 9 of 11 mice, respectively. However, the rocF::aphA3 mutant of strain SS1 had moderately reduced colonization (4 of 10 mice). The geometric mean levels of H. pylori recovered from these mice (in log(10) CFU) were 6.1, 5.5, and 4.1, respectively. Thus, H. pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and is crucial for acid protection in vitro but is not essential for in vivo colonization of mice or for urease activity.  (+info)

UV filter compounds in human lenses: the origin of 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside. (6/339)

PURPOSE: To investigate UV filter synthesis in the human lens, in particular the biosynthetic origin of the second most abundant UV filter compound, 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside. METHODS: Human lenses were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after separate incubation with 3H-tryptophan (3H-Trp), beta-benzoylacrylic acid, D,L-alpha-amino-beta-benzoylpropionic acid, or D,L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-D-glucoside. The effect of pH on the model compound D,L-alpha-amino-beta-benzoylpropionic acid and D,L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-D-glucoside was also investigated. RESULTS: UV filters were not detected in fetal lenses, despite a 5-month postnatal lens displaying measurable levels of UV filters. In adults no radiolabel was incorporated into 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside after 3H-Trp incubations. Beta-benzoylacrylic acid was readily reduced in lenses. D,L-alpha-amino-beta-benzoylpropionic acid and D,L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-D-glucoside slowly deaminated at physiological pH and were converted to beta-benzoylpropionic acid and 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside, respectively, after lens incubations. CONCLUSIONS: UV filter biosynthesis appears to be activated at or near birth. Compounds containing the kynurenine side chain slowly deaminate, and in the lens, the newly formed double bond is rapidly reduced. These findings suggest that 4-(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside is derived from L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-beta-D-glucoside through this deamination-reduction process. The slowness of the deamination presumably accounts for the absence of incorporation of radiolabel from 3H-Trp into 4(2-amino-3-hydroxyphenyl)4-oxobutanoic acid O-beta-D-glucoside.  (+info)

Characterization of human lens major intrinsic protein structure. (7/339)

PURPOSE: To determine the primary covalent structure of human lens major intrinsic protein (MIP) in lenses of varying age. METHODS: MIP was isolated from single human lenses of various ages (7- 86 years) by homogenization of the lenses, followed by centrifugation and urea washes of the membranes. Proteins present in the membrane preparation were reduced, alkylated, and cleaved by CNBr. Peptide fragments were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the primary structures of the peptides were determined by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. RESULTS: Complete coverage of the human MIP sequence was observed in the form of CNBr fragments. In addition, peptide structures resulting from in vivo heterogeneous N- and C-terminal cleavage were characterized. The amount of intact MIP decreased with lens age; however, the pattern of truncation did not change from 7 to 86 years. The major site of phosphorylation was identified as serine 235. Asparagine residues 246 and 259 were completely deamidated by age 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: The major structural modifications of human lens MIP have been determined. Human MIP is heterogeneously modified in lenses ranging in age from 7 to 86 years of age by N- and C-terminal truncation, phosphorylation, and deamidation, resulting in decreased levels of native intact MIP with age.  (+info)

Effect of UV-A light on the chaperone-like properties of young and old lens alpha-crystallin. (8/339)

PURPOSE: To study the damaging effect of UV-A irradiation on the chaperone-like properties of alpha-crystallin and the subsequent recovery process of young and old bovine lenses. METHODS: Young and old bovine lenses were kept in organ culture. After 24 hours of incubation they were irradiated with UV-A at 365 nm, and optical quality measurements were performed during the experiments (192 hours). alpha-Crystallin and alpha1-, alphaA2-, alphaB1-, and alphaB2-crystallin subunits were analyzed, separated by gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography, respectively, after different culture times. Protein patterns were obtained after two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Chaperone-like activity was determined on the basis of insulin B-chain and betaL-crystallin aggregation assays. Aggregation of alpha-crystallin was analyzed, tryptophan fluorescence measurements were performed, and alpha-crystallin mRNA levels were determined. RESULTS: The water-soluble alpha-crystallin obtained from old lenses compared with young lenses after UV irradiation had decreased chaperone activity, a higher molecular weight, and increased loss of tryptophan fluorescence. Moreover, alpha-crystallin mRNA virtually disappeared, whereas extra spots on the 2-D protein pattern appeared, possibly because of deamidation. CONCLUSIONS: alpha-Crystallin obtained from old lenses is more affected by irradiation than alpha-crystallin derived from young lenses. Moreover, it appeared that alphaB-crystallin from UV-treated old lenses compared with control lenses was less susceptible to UV-A than alphaA-crystallin. It may well be that alphaB-crystallin protects alphaA-crystallin in vivo.  (+info)

To address the physiological significance of AID phosphorylation at Ser38, analysis of a mouse model (in which AIDS38A is expressed at physiological levels utilizing its endogenous control elements) was required. Two recent studies reported the generation and analysis of mice expressing only the AIDS38A mutant protein, which occurred at levels quite comparable with those of wild-type mAID expression in activated B-cells, from their endogenous AID alleles [45,51]. In addition, one of these studies also demonstrated that the AIDS38A protein expressed from the endogenous AID allele failed to associate with RPA in vivo [51]. Both studies found that mice homozygous for the AIDS38A (AIDS38A/S38A) mutation have quite severe CSR defects, demonstrating clearly that the apparently normal levels of CSR reported for this mutant form of AID by others [49] probably resulted from overexpression of the mutant protein as proposed in [47].. Activation of AIDS38A/S38A B-cells with αCD40 and IL-4 (interleukin 4) ...
Deoxyuridine (dU) is a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside, and a derivative of the nucleoside uridine, with the only difference being that, in dU, a hydrogen (-H) group is substituted for uridine s OH group located at the 2 -position of the ribose. dU is generated in cellular DNA as a deamination product of dC (deoxycytidine), with the deamination process catalyzed by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) (1). AID is a B cell-specific gene that is necessary for antibody gene diversification via class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (2, 3). The dC-to-dU conversion(s) by AID occurs in the IgG locus, with various gene diversification pathways arising from the different DNA repair mechanisms used by B-cells to repair the dU lesion (1).. dC-to-dU conversion via cytidine deamination is also implicated in innate immunity to retroviruses. Here deamination of dC is mediated by the enzyme APOBEC3G, which is present in T cells, acting on the first (minus) strand cDNA of ...
Transitions of cytosine to thymine in CpG dinucleotides are the most frequent type of mutations observed in cancer. This increased mutability is commonly explained by the presence of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its spontaneous hydrolytic deamination into thymine. Here, we describe observations that question whether spontaneous deamination alone causes the elevated mutagenicity of 5mC. Tumours with somatic mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes or in the proofreading domain of DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) exhibit more 5mC to T transitions than would be expected, given the kinetics of hydrolytic deamination. This enrichment is asymmetrical around replication origins with a preference for the leading strand template, in particular in methylated cytosines flanked by guanines (GCG). Notably, GCG to GTG mutations also exhibit strand asymmetry in mismatch-repair and Pol ε wild-type tumours. Together, these findings suggest that mis-incorporation of A opposite 5mC during replication of the leading strand might be
It has been argued that no engineer would have used cytosine as part of the genetic material because of its predisposition for deamination. But its exactly this predisposition that might cause an engineer of evolution to include it. Life itself appears to have been designed to minimize errors. The universal nature of the proof-reading/repair machinery,…
It is easily picked up because uracil is not a natural base in DNA. It is found normally in RNA, and it is quite possible that RNA evolved first in the earliest life on earth, and when DNA took over the role it has today of storing genetic information thymine was substituted in place of uracil so that the deamination process could be detected and repaired. In other words, if uracil was a natural base in DNA, there would be no way for the proof-reading machinery to detect that a base change occurred. Pretty ingenious of nature, dont you think ...
Normal and cancer cells express more diversity in proteins than can be accounted for by the predicted number of expressed genomic DNA sequence. Expansion of the genomically encoded expressed sequences through alternative processing of RNA, such as mRNA editing, is a logical hypothesis for how protein diversity and variations seen as tissue-specific and regulated expression of proteins can be achieved. The specific focus of the research is to identify and characterize novel mammalian mRNA editing systems that employ a zinc-dependent deamination mechanism for the post-transcriptional conversion of cytidine to uridine at select sites within mRNAs. Computational modeling has suggested a family of mammalian enzymes known as Cytidine Deaminases Active on RNA or CDARs as responsible for C to U editing of mRNAs ...
Background Putative nucleoside deaminase. May catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine or some similar substrate and play a role in purine metabolism. Description ADAL Polyclonal Antibody. Unconjugated. Raised in...
Looking for online definition of deamination in the Medical Dictionary? deamination explanation free. What is deamination? Meaning of deamination medical term. What does deamination mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - NEIL1 Binding to DNA Containing 2-Fluorothymidine Glycol Stereoisomers and the Effect of Editing. AU - Onizuka, Kazumitsu. AU - Yeo, Jongchan. AU - David, Sheila S.. AU - Beal, Peter A.. PY - 2012/6/18. Y1 - 2012/6/18. N2 - Thymine glycol (Tg), one of the oxidized bases formed in DNA by reactive oxygen species, is repaired by the DNA glycosylases such as NEIL1, NTH1 and Endo III. In our recent studies, we showed that NEIL1s catalytic efficiency and lesion specificity are regulated by an RNA-editing adenosine deamination reaction. In this study, we synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides containing 2-fluorothymidine glycol with either ribo or arabino configuration and investigated the binding of these modified DNAs with the unedited and edited forms of human NEIL1 along with E. coli Endo III. For the two forms of hNEIL1, binding affinities to FTg-containing DNA were similar indicating that the editing effect is more subtle than to simply alter substrate affinity. While the ...
Model A in Fig. 1 represents the currently accepted structure of pneumococcal LTA based on the study by Fischers group (3, 14). However, model A predicts results that are inconsistent with our actual MS results obtained with LTA from various pneumococcal isolates. Model B, which differs from model A only in where the repeating unit biosynthesis begins, does predict results that are consistent with our new MS results, which were obtained following HF hydrolysis and deamination reactions. Model B is also consistent with the previous data reported by Fischers group. For instance, when these investigators studied LTA after HF hydrolysis, they found the molecular fragments labeled B1, B2, C1, and C2 in Fig. 3B. Their study did not detect the molecular fragments labeled A1 and A2, which represent an incomplete repeating unit. This can also be readily explained because, following the hydrolysis step, Fischers group purified the intact repeating units before conducting their mass spectrometry studies ...
Mike seems to have avoided addressing the real issues and instead focused on some minor issues. First of all Mike objects to me stating that his approach and Pooles approach led to the same conclusion. Mike correctly points out that I confused Pooles paper with the papers in which the link between cytosine deamination and increase hydrophobicity was made. While I thank Mike for correcting my minor error he seems to have ignored the real issue namely that he used methodological naturalism to explain the tendency of cytosine deamination to incrase hydrophobicity. In fact from the moment he defined the instance of front loading his approach is indistinguishable from methodological naturalism. Neiter Mike nor others may have explained or shown how cytosine became incorporated but both work from the assumption that it was. Mike suggests that his approach allowed him to address the claim that an engineer would have replaced cytosine but nothing in his approach supports this argument. All he has ...
1BW9: Phenylalanine dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus sp. M4: high-resolution X-ray analyses of inhibitory ternary complexes reveal key features in the oxidative deamination mechanism.
1. Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance AJ, et al. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature. 2005;433(7024):430-3. Epub 2005/01/28. doi: 10.1038/nature03238 15674295.. 2. Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, et al. DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell. 2003;113(6):803-9. Epub 2003/06/18. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00423-9 12809610.. 3. Mangeat B, Turelli P, Caron G, Friedli M, Perrin L, Trono D. Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts. Nature. 2003;424(6944):99-103. Epub 2003/06/17. doi: 10.1038/nature01709 12808466.. 4. Suspene R, Aynaud MM, Koch S, Pasdeloup D, Labetoulle M, Gaertner B, et al. Genetic editing of herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein-Barr herpesvirus genomes by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in culture and in vivo. J Virol. 2011;85(15):7594-602. Epub 2011/06/03. doi: ...
Ancient DNA is typically highly degraded with appreciable cytosine deamination, and contamination with present-day DNA often complicates the identification of endogenous molecules. Together, these factors impede accurate assembly of the endogenous ancient mitochondrial genome. We present schmutzi, an iterative approach to jointly estimate present-day human contamination in ancient human DNA datasets and reconstruct the endogenous mitochondrial genome. By using sequence deamination patterns and fragment length distributions, schmutzi accurately reconstructs the endogenous mitochondrial genome sequence even when contamination exceeds 50 %. Given sufficient coverage, schmutzi also produces reliable estimates of contamination across a range of contamination rates. Availability: https://bioinf.eva.mpg.de/schmutzi/ license:GPLv3.
Cells with DNA repair defects have increased genomic instability and are more likely to acquire secondary mutations that bring about cellular transformation. We describe the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutations involving several tumor suppressor genes in the rectal carcinoma of a 13-year-old girl harboring biallelic, germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2. Apart from microsatellite instability, the tumor DNA contained a number of C:G→T:A or G:C→A:T transitions in CpG dinucleotides, which often result through spontaneous deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine. Four DNA glycosylases, UNG2, SMUG1, MBD4 and TDG, are involved in the repair of these deamination events. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in TDG, which was associated with TDG protein loss in the tumor. The CpGs mutated in this patients tumor are generally methylated in normal colonic mucosa. Thus, it is highly likely that loss of TDG contributed to the supermutator phenotype and that most of ...
As aforementioned, APOBEC3G behaves in a highly processive way in that it is able to scan and jump around the transcripts to find the deamination motifs. The researchers decided to run an assay that could aid in discerning how the different Vif variants cause this decrease in APOBEC3G processivity. The assay consisted of adding a complementary DNA oligonucleotide in between the two CCC motifs. This new partially double stranded DNA segment is unable to bind with APOBEC3G, and thus the sliding characteristic in scanning is inhibited. However, since APOBEC3G can disassociate and reassociate, microscopic jumping, it can transverse the blocking. The results showed that this was the case, although the processivity factor of APOBEC3G decreased with the double stranded DNA segment, it was still able to deaminate both 5 and 3 motifs due to this jumping. When VifHBX2 was added, the processivity factor dropped from 4.5 to 1.1 and almost no double deamination events were seen. Thus the researchers ...
Kinetic analysis of CDAHyor- and CDAHuman-catalyzed deamination of natural nucleosides and nucleoside analogues Deamination of different concentrations of Cyd (
Статья: Fungal L-lysine α-oxidase (1.4.3.14) (LO) from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai presents an oxidoreductase with a firmly attached coenzyme - FAD. This stable enzyme catalyzes an oxidative deamination of L-lysine yielding hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and α-keto acid. LO exhibits antitumor activity ...
Converted from rat to human using ortholog information, originally from KEGG. Originally edited by Sebastien Burel. This pathway describes the degradation of alanine and aspartate. Alanine is broken down by oxidative deamination, the inverse reaction of the reductive amination biosynthesis, catalyzed by the same enzymes. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal ...
The data obtained from the ADA Assay was not consistent with previous findings, so new solutions were prepared with the following concentrations. These concentrations are within the ideal range of concentrations for deamination of adenosine by ADA, according to literature ...
Human semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is a homodimeric copper-containing monoamine oxidase that occurs in both a membrane-bound and a soluble form. SSAO is also known as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). A truncated soluble form of human SSAO (comprising residues 29-763) was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and purified to homogeneity. Tetragonal crystals were obtained and a data set extending to 2.5 A was collected. The crystals are merohedrally twinned and the estimation of the twinning fraction was complicated by pseudo-symmetry and the anisotropic character of the crystals. Using a recently developed method for twinning detection that is insensitive to phenomena such as anisotropy or pseudo-symmetry [Padilla & Yeates (2003), Acta Cryst. D59, 1124-1130], the twinning fraction was estimated to be 0.3. The structure was eventually solved by molecular replacement in space group P4(3).. ...
Indole As we have discussed in class, bacteria can catabolize many different organic substances. Some bacteria possess the enzyme tryptophanase, which converts the amino acid tryptophan to pyruvate and indole through a deamination reaction. The pyruvate, then, can be used in fermentation or respiration reactions. Production of indole is used as a test to differentiate tryptophanase positive and tryptophanase negative organisms. We will test E. coli and S. typhimurium for the presence of tryptophanase. Add several colonies of bacteria to a tube containing 1mL of indole broth (0.03% tryptophan, 0.1% peptone, and 0.5% dipotassium phosphate). Incubate at 37 degrees C for 2 hours. Squeeze an indole reagent dropper to break the glass ampule inside the plastic tube. Invert the dropper and add the contents to the bacterial culture. If indole is present, it will react with the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde present in the reagent to produce a red ring at the surface of the broth. This reaction should occur ...
PubMed journal article: Distribution and accumulation of caffeine in rat tissues and its inhibition on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Involvement of cerebrovascular semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia.: Fibrillary tangles and s
10 Feb 2016. Mutations are the replacement of DNA bases known as Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T) with other bases.. When mutations such as C to T or G to A are found within a specific DNA sequence, this is known as a mutation signature.. These mutation signatures are like spelling mistakes that carry signs of the agents that caused the mutations.. Ultraviolet light, tobacco smoke and other cancer-causing agents leave behind such signatures in the DNA of tumours.. Recently, a new mutation signature found in cancer cells was suspected to have been created by a family of enzymes found in human cells called the APOBEC3 family.. The study, Strand-biased Cytosine deamination at the Replication Fork causes Cytosine to Thymine Mutations in Escherichia coli, led by Ashok Bhagwat, Ph.D., professor of chemistry in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Wayne State University, was recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. In addition to ...
The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the physiological function of the encoded proteins. The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well as the cytidine and adenosine deaminases acting on pre-mRNAs (CDARs and ADARs), belong to a superfamily of RNA-dependent deaminases. This superfamily might have evolved from an ancient cytidine deaminase. This article reviews the reactions catalysed by these enzymes and discusses their evolutionary relationships.. ...
Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. We have been interested in two types of deaminations and their relation to modifications of DNA bases. The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. The other relates to the deamination of amino groups in DNA bases. Both of these processes have important biological consequences. In this context, we have been studying decomposition pathways from the bottom up beginning with diazonium ions. We proposed a new bonding model and established crucial links between theory and experiment. Current studies of diazonium ions focus on the mechanisms of their SN chemistry and studies of the diazonium ions of DNA bases. To address questions as to the consequences of alkylation on DNA and RNA structure and properties, our initial studies have focused on studies of base pairing. Non-Synergistic Bonding & Thymine Dimerization. Our analysis of H-bonded Adenine-Thymine, A=T, suggests ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits cytosine deaminase activity (ortholog); enzyme activator activity (ortholog); mRNA 3-UTR AU-rich region binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cellular response to insulin stimulus (ortholog); defense response to virus (ortholog); DNA cytosine deamination (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH colon cancer (ortholog); Experimental Liver Cirrhosis (ortholog); familial hyperlipidemia (ortholog)
Decreased diameter of the hepatic arteries following closing of a portacaval shunt Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20-40 amino acids, are sildenafil 100mg required for a wide array of biological functions. Active demethylation in mouse zygotes involves cytosine deamination and base excision repair. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis was performed to test for differences between controls and OSA subgroups for testosterone, fatigue components and sleepiness. Cosmic voids refer sildenafil citrate 100mg to the large empty regions in the Universe with a very low number density of galaxies. To date, relapse risk can be female viagra pills predicted by leukocyte and platelet counts only. Rapamycin shows beneficial effects by reducing UUO-induced renal hypoxia, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Left-handedness: association with college major, familial sinistrality, allergies, and asthma.. Given that increased TNF-alpha ...
VSR recognises a TG mismatched base pair, generated after spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosines, and it creates a nick on a single strand by cleaving the phosphate backbone on the 5 side of the thymine.[1] Then DNA Polymerase I removes the T and some nucletides on the 3 strand and then resynthesises the patch.[2]. Additionally, GT mismatches can lead to C-to-T transition mutations if not repaired. VSR repairs the mismatches in favour of the G-containing strand. In Escherichia coli, this endonuclease nicks double-stranded DNA within the sequence CT(AT)GN or NT(AT)GG next to the thymidine residue, which is mismatched to 2-deoxyguanosine.[3] The incision is mismatch-dependent and strand specific.. ...
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Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C) to
ENDOD1 - ENDOD1 (untagged)-Human endonuclease domain containing 1 (ENDOD1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Berezov, T T., Activity of omega-amidase in human and animal malignant neoplasms. (russ.) (1966). Subject Strain Bibliography 1966. 266 ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of CTP from UTP with the concomitant deamination of glutamine to glutamate. This protein is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cytosine nucleotides, which play an important role in various metabolic processes and provide the precursors necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. Cancer cells that exhibit increased cell proliferation also exhibit an increased activity of this encoded protein. Thus, this protein is an attractive target for selective chemotherapy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013] ...
My work in grad school was on retroviruses, which have a viral RNA genome that they reverse transcribe into proviral DNA once theyre established in the cell, either integrated into the host genome, or floating in the nucleus as an episome; so the ways that RNA can act as a template for DNA are something I know well. We also worked on viral nucleotide metabolism (dUTPase) for infecting terminally differentiated cells, which is relevant here. Fully mature cells (not stem cells) accumulate deoxyuridine (dUTP) through the deamination of deoxycytodine, which can be incorporated into either DNA or RNA, but dUTP acts as a wobble base, producing non-Watson/Crick base pairing with G or A. Any retrovirus that infects fully mature cells has to have a strategy to deal with misincorporation of non-standard nucleotides. This work on nucleotide metabolism has implications for RNA World to DNA switchover. Some modern enzymes and ribozymes have no ability to discriminate between deoxyribose (DNA) and ribose ...
When fat is used as energy source, glycerol will be converted into PGAL and enter the glycolysis pathway. Fatty acid will also be changed into acetyl- CoA and enter the respiration pathway to be oxidated in mitochondria. Amino acid and protein can also function as energy sources which can be obtained from deamination process. The amino acid will enter respiration pathway with some of the following possibilities ...
Alpha L-Iduronidase (IDUA or EC 3.2.1.76) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018According to the recently published report Alpha L-Iduronidase (IDUA or EC 3.2.1.76) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018; Alpha L-Iduronidase (IDUA.
What is Nitrous acid? Nitrous acid is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution, in the gas phase and in the form of nitrite salts.
Affiliation (Current):兵庫医科大学,医学部,教授|大阪大学,医学系研究科,招へい教員, Research Field:Ophthalmology,Basic Section 56060:Ophthalmology-related,Ophthalmology, Keywords:加齢黄斑変性,酸化ストレス,網膜,脈絡膜,マクロファージ,脈絡膜新生血管,血管新生,網膜色素上皮,CTGF,MMP, # of Research Projects:14, # of Research Products:116, Ongoing Project:加齢黄斑変性発症リスクを有する中心性漿液性脈絡網膜症早期抽出法の検証
KONU: Bir gün dersten kaçıp çatıda otururken Shunpeinin en iyi arkadaşı ve aynı zamanda komşusu olan Fumi ona gay olabileceğini söyler. Yani şu ana kadar bana o gözle mi bakıyordun? diye korkmaya hazırlanan Shunpei, Fuminin bu itirafının kendisiyle bir ilgisi olmadığını anlayınca biraz hayrete düşer. Fumi zaten başka biriyle çıkmaya başlamıştır. Peki en yakın arkadaşının başkasıyla çıktığını öğrenen Shunpeinin tepkisi ne olacaktır ...
It has been shown that the combination of benzylamine or tyramine and low concentrations of vanadate markedly stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism that requires semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity and H2O2 formation. Here we have further analysed the insulin-like effects of the combination of SSAO substrates and vanadate and we have studied the signal-transduction pathway activated in rat adipocytes. We found that several SSAO substrates (benzylamine, tyramine, methylamine, n-decylamine, histamine, tryptamine or β-phenylethylamine), in combination with low concentrations of vanadate, stimulate glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes. Furthermore, SSAO substrates together with vanadate stimulated the recruitment of GLUT4 to the cell surface in isolated rat adipocytes. Benzylamine plus vanadate also stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Benzylamine or tyramine in combination with vanadate potently stimulated the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microbial aspartase and its activity on deamination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester. AU - Chung, Wonyoon. AU - Goo, Yang Mo. PY - 1988/6. Y1 - 1988/6. N2 - Examination of many microorganisms and soil isolates for the activity of aspartase proved that R. rubra, G. suboxydans, A. versicolor, P. purpurogenum, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, A. gigantus, A. unguis, A. parasiticus and a soil isolate(S-90) had high activity of aspartase. Comparision of the activity of the aspartase by cell free extracts of these micro-organisms with the activity of the enzyme catalyzing the deamination of aspartame by the same cell free extracts showed similar kinetic characteristics. The aspartase existing in the cell free extracts seemed to catalyze the deamination of aspartame, too.. AB - Examination of many microorganisms and soil isolates for the activity of aspartase proved that R. rubra, G. suboxydans, A. versicolor, P. purpurogenum, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa, A. gigantus, A. unguis, A. ...
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was discovered by Muramatsu et al. (7) as an APOBEC1 homolog with cytidine deaminase properties in stimulated B cell lines. Muramatsu et al. (8) showed that AID is necessary for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, because AID−/− B lymphocytes do not undergo class switch recombination and fail to accumulate mutations upon Ag stimulation. Mutations in the human AID gene causing lack of function underlie one type of hyper-IgM syndrome. In this syndrome, B cells fail to switch from IgM to other isotypes, and somatic hypermutation of the Ig V regions does not occur (9). This syndrome seemingly connects AID with Ig isotype class switch and somatic hypermutation. Arakawa et al. (10) demonstrated that AID is also required for Ig gene conversion in chicken B cell lines. Thus, AID participates in three different processes that contribute to the diversification of Abs: somatic hypermutation, isotype class switch recombination, and gene ...
2-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid (2AS) is degraded by Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 via a previously detected but unidentified intermediate. A mutant of strain O-1 was found to excrete this intermediate, which was isolated and identified by m.s., 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. as 3-sulphocatechol (3SC). Proteins from cell extracts of strain O-1 were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. A multicomponent oxygenase was observed to convert 1 mol each of NADH, O2 and 2AS into 1 mol each of 3SC, NH3 and NAD+. The enzyme presumably catalysed formation of the ring of a 2-amino-2,3-diol moiety, and elimination in the amino group led to a rearomatization. 3SC was further degraded via meta ring cleavage, which could be prevented by inactivation of the 3-sulphocatechol-2,3-dioxygenase (3SC23O) with 3-chlorocatechol. In Tris buffer, the separated 3SC23O catalysed the reaction of 1 mol each of 3SC and O2 involving a transient yellow intermediate, and release of 1 mol of sulphite and two organic products. The major ...
The APOBEC family members are involved in diverse biological functions. APOBEC3G restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus and retroelements by cytidine deamination on single-stranded DNA or by RNA binding. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal deaminase domain of APOBEC3G (APOBEC3G-CD2) purified from Escherichia coli. The APOBEC3G-CD2 structure has a five-stranded beta-sheet core that is common to all known deaminase structures and closely resembles the structure of another APOBEC protein, APOBEC2 (ref. 5). A comparison of APOBEC3G-CD2 with other deaminase structures shows a structural conservation of the active-site loops that are directly involved in substrate binding. In the X-ray structure, these APOBEC3G active-site loops form a continuous substrate groove around the active centre. The orientation of this putative substrate groove differs markedly (by 90 degrees) from the groove predicted by the NMR ...
Membrane-associated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is mainly present in the media of aorta and in adipose tissue. Recent works have reported that SSAO activation can stimulate glucose transport of fat cells and promote adipose conversion. In this study, the murine 3T3-L1 preadipose cell line was used to investigate SSAO regulation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a cytokine that is synthesized in fat cells and known to be involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance. SSAO mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity were decreased by TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, without any change of SSAO affinity for substrates or inhibitors. SSAO inhibition caused by TNF-α was spontaneously reversed along the time after TNF-α removal. The decrease in SSAO expression also occurred in white adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice treated with mTNF-α. Overall, we demonstrated that reduction in SSAO expression induced by the cytokine had marked repercussions on amine-stimulated ...
promoter differs between paraffin-fixed and fresh-frozen tissues of glioblastoma (Hamilton et al., 2011). On evaluating 38 patients with GC, LINE-1 was reportedly more hypermethylated in FFPE tissues than in paired fresh-frozen tissues (Song et al., 2016).. Since the patient tissues were dissected for different purposes, they were preserved in various forms and given different pre-treatments. For pathological examination, GC tissues were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin. In contrast, for genomic analysis, tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen without fixation following gastrectomy. Bisulfite conversion can be affected by formalin fixation, as sequence artifacts such as cytosine deamination can be caused by formaldehyde (Do and Dobrovic, 2015). Therefore, we screened the LINE-1 methylation patterns in each tissue type separately to determine whether LINE-1 can be used as a marker under all circumstances. In the current study, we used samples from different patient groups, ...
A phosphooligosaccharide has been proposed as a second messenger of insulin. It is believed to be structurally related to the carbohydrate moiety of phosphatidylinositol glycan anchors of many cell surface proteins. Herein we demonstrate that [32]phosphate in freshly isolated adipocytes and [3H]galactose in cultured hepatoma cells (H4IIE) labeled the same set of three different glycolipids. With all three, the radiolabel was made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol(glycan)-specific phospholipase C or D catalyzed hydrolysis. We isolated the three phospholipase C-released substances. One of them was susceptible to nitrous acid deamination, indicative of a hexosamine with a free amino group. This phosphooligosaccharide structure had an apparent molecular mass between tetra- and pentaglucose by gel filtration. By anion-exchange chromatography it was separated into two differently charged and interconvertible species. Adipocytes stimulated with insulin accumulated the nitrous acid sensitive ...
CpG islands are associated with genes, particularly housekeeping genes, in vertebrates. CpG islands are typically common near transcription start sites and may be associated with promoter regions. Normally a C (cytosine) base followed immediately by a G (guanine) base (a CpG) is rare in vertebrate DNA because the Cs in such an arrangement tend to be methylated. This methylation helps distinguish the newly synthesized DNA strand from the parent strand, which aids in the final stages of DNA proofreading after duplication. However, over evolutionary time, methylated Cs tend to turn into Ts because of spontaneous deamination. The result is that CpGs are relatively rare unless there is selective pressure to keep them or a region is not methylated for some other reason, perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. CpG islands are regions where CpGs are present at significantly higher levels than is typical for the genome as a whole.. The unmasked version of the track displays potential ...
CpG islands are associated with genes, particularly housekeeping genes, in vertebrates. CpG islands are typically common near transcription start sites and may be associated with promoter regions. Normally a C (cytosine) base followed immediately by a G (guanine) base (a CpG) is rare in vertebrate DNA because the Cs in such an arrangement tend to be methylated. This methylation helps distinguish the newly synthesized DNA strand from the parent strand, which aids in the final stages of DNA proofreading after duplication. However, over evolutionary time, methylated Cs tend to turn into Ts because of spontaneous deamination. The result is that CpGs are relatively rare unless there is selective pressure to keep them or a region is not methylated for some other reason, perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. CpG islands are regions where CpGs are present at significantly higher levels than is typical for the genome as a whole.. The unmasked version of the track displays potential ...
Celandine works differently than the rosary, it primarily affects protein metabolism. In the intestine, proteins are digested into amino acids that partially undergo decarboxylation and deamination processes, resulting in a reduced amount of absorbed amino acids and thus a deterioration of the protein balance.. The products of these processes also adversely affect the entire body. Drinking an infusion of celandine inhibits the processes of deamination and decarboxylation in the large intestine, thanks to which more amino acids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the amino acid balance and consequently the protein balance are improved.. A larger amount of amino acids is involved in the formation of muscle proteins. Thanks to the beneficial effect of celandine on the digestion of proteins and reduction of the secretion of harmful substances - ketones, amines and hydrogen sulfide, celandine has a very positive effect on well-being, muscle function, liver, and also has a positive effect ...
This gene encodes a member of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases, which convert cytidine to uridine. Other AID/APOBEC family members are involved in mRNA editing, somatic hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, and innate immunity to retroviral infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The generation of viral mutants in vitro was demonstrated by treatment of the isolated RNA of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by nitrous acid. This agent causes deaminations converting cytosine into uracil, and adenine into hypoxanthine. Our assay for mutagenesis was the production of local lesions on a tobacco variety on which the untreated strain produces systemic infections only. A variety of different mutants are generated in this way. Quantitative analysis of the kinetics of mutagenesis leads to the conclusion that alteration of a single out of the 6000 nucleotides of the viral RNA is sufficient for causing a mutation ...
This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for pre-mRNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunit B by site-specific deamination of adenosines. Studies in rat found that this enzyme acted on its own pre-mRNA molecules to convert an AA dinucleotide to an AI …
The research focus of our group is on structural biochemistry. We employ a combination of X-ray crystallographic and biochemical techniques to develop insights into various cellular pathways. In particular, we employ structural information to understand mechanism of catalysis of enzymes involved in select biosynthetic pathways. Our major research areas include study of the mechanism of catalytic coupling and channeling of unstable intermediates in purine metabolism. We also employ a combination of sequence and structural information to decipher structure-activity and evolutionary relationships of enzymes involved in nucleobase deamination. In addition, our laboratory studies proteins involved in antibiotic production and resistance pathways in various streptomyces species. Together these studies facilitate in identification and design of novel drug targets and aid in rationally engineering an enzyme with therapeutic applications.. ...
establish the free one of the provisions in & within the College of Arts and Sciences. For different 30-second appliances, deny the dox Deamination to evaluate the individual leiomyosarcoma. How can my faculty be activated?
The depurination of DNA as the first step of the Epitect Bisulfite kit (cat. no. 59104) workflow is a chemical reaction, theres no problem at all using the DNA directly after enzymatic reaction. ...
Creative Biolabs has established a platform predict and assess deamidation of antibody therapeutics as part of manufacturability assessment.
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Deamination. In cpDNA, there are several A → G deamination gradients. DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[74] ... Therefore, gradients in deamination indicate that replication forks were most likely present and the direction that they ... When replication forks form, the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. ...
Oxidative deamination is the first step to breaking down the amino acids so that they can be converted to sugars. The process ... "Oxidative Deamination". chemistry.elmhurst.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-25. "GLYCOLYSIS AND THE KREBS CYCLE". homepage.smc.edu. ... Transamination leads to the same end result as deamination: the remaining acid will undergo either glycolysis or the TCA cycle ... Eventually, this product will also proceed into oxidative deamination to once again produce alpha-ketoglutarate, an alpha-keto ...
A Stereospecific Deamination". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88 (6): 1335-1336. doi:10.1021/ja00958a056. ISSN 0002- ...
METZLER DE, SNELL EE (1952). "Deamination of serine. II. D-Serine dehydrase, a vitamin B6 enzyme from Escherichia coli". J. ...
The predicted deamination reaction is driven by a direct nucleophilic attack on position 4 of the cytidine pyrimidine ring by ... The deamination activity ultimately results in G→A hypermutations at "hot spots" of the proviral DNA. Such hypermutation ... Water is needed as a source of both a proton and hydroxyl group donor (Figure 2). The deamination (and resulting oxidation) at ... APOBEC3G belongs to the family of cytidine deaminases that catalyze the deamination of cytidine to uridine in the single ...
There is no deamination step. Instead, the demethylation of the N-methyl group on sarcosine occurs directly. The reduced FADH− ...
ISBN 978-1-4292-7635-1. Umbarger HE, Brown B (January 1957). "Threonine deamination in Escherichia coli. II. Evidence for two L ... the threonine deamination capabilities of the enzyme go unchecked. This degrades threonine before the herbivore can absorb it, ...
2. Substitutive deamination of arylamines by alkyl nitrites and copper(II) halides. A direct and remarkably efficient ... M. P. Doyle, B. Siegfried and J. F. Dellaria (1977). "Alkyl nitrite-metal halide deamination reactions. ...
Deamination of Guanine is not mutagenic. Nitrous acid-induced mutations also are induced to mutate back to wild-type using ... It can cause deamination of the amino groups of Adenine, Guanine and Cytosine. Adenine is deaminated to hypoxanthine, which ... not used as xanthine is a deamination product) However, correct DNA structure can form even when the bases are not paired via ...
Umbarger, H. E.; Brown, B. (1957). "Threonine deamination in Escherichia coli II. Evidence for two L-threonine deaminases". ...
Xanthine formed from deamination of guanine. (Thymidine products following deamination of 5-methylcytosine are more difficult ... Jayanta Chaudhuri & Frederick W. Alt (2004). "Class-switch recombination: interplay of transcription, DNA deamination and DNA ... the most common ones being deamination, oxidation, and alkylation. These modifications can affect the ability of the base to ... Uracil inappropriately incorporated in DNA or formed by deamination of cytosine In addition to base lesions, the downstream ...
Ammonia poisoning Deamination Chris M. Wood; R.S. Munger; D.P. Toews (1989). "Ammonia, urea, and H+ distribution and the ...
I. The enzymatic deamination of deoxycytidine 5'-phosphate and of 5-methyldeoxycytidine 5-methyldeoxycytidine 5'-phosphate". ... Scarano E, Bonaduce L (December 1960). "The enzymatic deamination of 6-aminopyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides. II. Purification ... Deoxycytidine monophosphate Deoxyuridine monophosphate Scarano E (March 1960). "The enzymatic deamination of 6-aminopyrimidine ...
Similarly, deamination of cytosine results in uracil. In biological systems, nucleic acids contain information which is used by ... both of them through deamination (replacement of the amine-group with a carbonyl-group). Hypoxanthine is produced from adenine ...
Mulder, L. C. F.; Harari, A.; Simon, V. (2008-04-07). "Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance". Proceedings of the ...
Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, Neuberger MS, Malim MH (Jun 2003). "DNA deamination ... Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Harris RS, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Malim MH, Neuberger MS (Jul 2003). "DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody ...
Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, Neuberger MS, Malim MH (Jun 2003). "DNA deamination ... Harris RS, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Malim MH, Neuberger MS (Jul 2003). "DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody ... "Entrez Gene: PSME4 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 4". Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel ...
A1's deamination of the cytosine base yields uracil, which creates a stop codon in the mRNA. A1 has been linked with both ... Hydrolytic deamination of the cytosine amine group then occurs, catalyzed by the proton transfer from the nearby glutamic acid ... A1 modifies the cytosine base at position 6666 on the ApoB mRNA strand through a deamination. An A1 dimer first binds to ACF, ... The antiviral properties of A1 extend to both DNA and RNA due to its deamination function, which can hinder DNA replication and ...
... s catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. Oxygen is used to remove an amine group (plus the adjacent ... Garrick NA, Murphy DL (1980). "Species differences in the deamination of dopamine and other substrates for monoamine oxidase in ...
Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, Neuberger MS, Malim MH (June 2003). "DNA deamination ... Harris RS, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Malim MH, Neuberger MS (July 2003). "DNA deamination: not just a trigger for antibody ... "Enhancing the Catalytic Deamination Activity of APOBEC3C Is Insufficient to Inhibit Vif-Deficient HIV-1". Journal of Molecular ... "Single-strand specificity of APOBEC3G accounts for minus-strand deamination of the HIV genome". Nature Structural & Molecular ...
The initial step is deamination via an aminotransferase. The second step is catalyzed by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like ... 4-HPP is produced from a deamination via an aminotransferase. The genetic basis of these two genes is clustered (i.e., adjacent ...
Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, Neuberger MS, Malim MH (2003). "DNA deamination mediates ... Goff SP (2003). "Death by deamination: a novel host restriction system for HIV-1". Cell. 114 (3): 281-3. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ...
G deamination gradients. DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded. When replication forks form ... the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. Therefore, gradients in deamination ... Deamination occurs when an amino group is lost and is a mutation that often results in base changes. When adenine is deaminated ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA. ...
Another method is the deamination of 5-aminotetrazole, which can be commercially obtained or prepared in turn from ... Henry, Ronald A.; Finnegan, William G. (1954-01-01). "An Improved Procedure for the Deamination of 5-Aminotetrazole". Journal ...
Transitions can be caused by oxidative deamination and tautomerization. Although there are twice as many possible transversions ... 5-Methylcytosine is more prone to transition than unmethylated cytosine, due to spontaneous deamination. This mechanism is ...
While spontaneous deamination of cytosine forms uracil, which is recognized and removed by DNA repair enzymes, deamination of 5 ... The implications of deamination on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, on the other hand, remains less understood. The NH2 group can be ... In addition, active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could ... 5-methylcytosine is resistant to deamination by bisulfite treatment, which deaminates cytosine residues. This property is often ...
Active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could have both ... The implications of deamination on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, on the other hand, remains less understood. Cytosine has not been ... However, it is inherently unstable, and can change into uracil (spontaneous deamination). This can lead to a point mutation if ... The difference in rates of deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine (to uracil and thymine) forms the basis of bisulfite ...
PAL catalyzes this reaction by a non-oxidative deamination. This deamination relies on the MIO prosthetic group of PAL. PAL ... The biosynthesis of cinnamaldehyde begins with deamination of L-phenylalanine into cinnamic acid by the action of phenylalanine ...
Because of its resemblance to guanine, the spontaneous deamination of adenine can lead to an error in DNA transcription/ ... Hypoxanthine is also a spontaneous deamination product of adenine. ...
Spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine converts it to thymine. This results in a T:G mismatch. Repair mechanisms then ... spontaneous deamination of unmethylated C residues gives rise to U residues, a change that is quickly recognized and repaired ... to facilitate the removal of uracils generated by the spontaneous deamination of cytosine. DNA methylation as well as many of ...
... acids for energy production is deamination, the splitting off of ammonia from the amino-acid molecule. The remainder is ... Other articles where Deamination is discussed: excretion: Products of excretion: … ... acids for energy production is deamination, the splitting off of ammonia from the amino-acid molecule. The remainder is ... ": { "url": "/science/deamination", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/deamination", "title": "Deamination", " ...
Deamination of guanine results in the formation of xanthine. Xanthine, however, still pairs with cytosine. Deamination of ... this spontaneous deamination is corrected for by the removal of uracil (product of cytosine deamination and not part of DNA) by ... Deamination is the removal of an amino group from a molecule. Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are called deaminases. In the ... Spontaneous deamination is the hydrolysis reaction of cytosine into uracil, releasing ammonia in the process. This can occur in ...
Oxidative deamination is a form of deamination that generates α-keto acids and other oxidized products from amine-containing ... Another enzyme responsible for oxidative deamination is monoamine oxidase, which catalyzes the deamination of monoamines via ... Oxidative deamination is an important step in the catabolism of amino acids, generating a more metabolizable form of the amino ... Oxidative deamination is stereospecific, meaning it contains different stereoisomers as reactants and products; this process is ...
The deamination of AFL is shown in red. The pathway for menaquinone biosynthesis in E. coli is shown in blue. ... Deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes.. Goble AM1, Toro R, Li X, ... Acel0264 catalyzes the deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine to futalosine and has been characterized in this work. UbiE ( ... The deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine is part of an alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway that involves the ...
... Curr Biol. 2004 Aug 10;14(15):1392-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub. ... This implies that MLV may have evolved to avoid deamination by mouse APOBEC3. Overall, our findings show that although APOBEC ... through cytidine deamination. Three of these, rat APOBEC1, mouse APOBEC3, and human APOBEC3B, are able to inhibit HIV ...
Cytidine deamination by AID may also require cofactors. AID cofactors may determine whether cytidine deamination gives rise to ... Although cytidine deamination has clear benefits, it might well have biological costs. Uncontrolled cytidine deamination might ... Because cytidine deamination of nucleic acids generates mutations that are potentially tumorigenic, cytidine deamination must ... The mechanism of cytidine deamination. Cytidine deamination by APOBEC1 begins with activation of zinc-bound water in the active ...
Two enzymes of unknown function from the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered to catalyze the deamination of N-6- ... Enzymatic Deamination of the Epigenetic Base N-6-methyladenine J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Feb 23;133(7):2080-3. doi: 10.1021/ja110157u ... The enzyme from Bacillus halodurans, Bh0637, catalyzes the deamination of N-6-methyladenine with a k(cat) of 185 s(-1) and a k( ... Two enzymes of unknown function from the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered to catalyze the deamination of N-6- ...
The DNA Deamination Model of Somatic Antibody Diversification. Klaus Rajewsky. J Immunol March 1, 2015, 194 (5) 2041-2042; DOI ... The DNA Deamination Model of Somatic Antibody Diversification Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The ... More importantly, DNA deamination by AID and other members of the APOBEC family has emerged as a mechanism operating beyond the ... Cytidine deamination of retroviral DNA by diverse APOBEC proteins. Curr. Biol. 14: 1392-1396. ...
Spermine and spermidine always produced a diminution in agmatine deamination. In this work, we have also demonstrated that ...
Multiple Step Synthesis Step V Deamination. Multiple Step Synthesis Step V Deamination of 4-bromo-2-chloro-6. ... DMACC , Chemistry Department , Chemical Safety Info , Multiple Step Synthesis Step V Deamination of 4-bromo-2-chloro-6 ... Multiple Step Synthesis Step V Deamination of 4-bromo-2-chloro-6. MSDS. Type. ... Multiple Step Synthesis Step V Deamination of 4-bromo-2-chloro-6. ...
A vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination shift in myocardial sympathetic nerves in Parkinsons disease. Authors. *. ... We devised, validated in VMAT2-Lo mice, and applied 5 neurochemical indices of the sequestration-deamination shift- ... Whether PD entails myocardial norepinephrine (NE) depletion and a sequestration-deamination shift have been unknown. We ... and in this subgroup all five indices of a sequestration-deamination shift were increased compared to controls (p , 0.001 for ...
ENZYMATIC DEAMINATION AND VASODEPRESSOR EFFECTS OF ADENOSINE ANALOGS. Donald A. Clarke, John Davoll, Frederick S. Philips and ... ENZYMATIC DEAMINATION AND VASODEPRESSOR EFFECTS OF ADENOSINE ANALOGS. Donald A. Clarke, John Davoll, Frederick S. Philips and ... ENZYMATIC DEAMINATION AND VASODEPRESSOR EFFECTS OF ADENOSINE ANALOGS. Donald A. Clarke, John Davoll, Frederick S. Philips and ... ENZYMATIC DEAMINATION AND VASODEPRESSOR EFFECTS OF ADENOSINE ANALOGS Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
The transcription elongation complex directs activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated DNA deamination. Besmer E, Market E ...
The relationship between glutamate deamination and gluconeogenesis in kidney. R T Bogusky, L M Lowenstein, T T Aoki ... The relationship between glutamate deamination and gluconeogenesis in kidney Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Deamination increased fivefold in HP rats compared to NP rats. In the latter, all deaminated AA were oxidized. In HP rats, the ... Energy metabolism, dietary AA deamination and oxidation and their transfer to plasma glucose were measured kinetically for 4 h ... oxidation rate was slower than deamination, so that half of the deaminated AA was non-oxidized within 4 h. Non-oxidized carbon ... Deamination increased fivefold in HP rats compared to NP rats. In the latter, all deaminated AA were oxidized. In HP rats, the ...
An adenosine-to-inosine tRNA-editing enzyme that can perform C-to-U deamination of DNA. Rubio MA, Pastar I, Gaston KW, Ragone ...
The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ... The EGFR T790M Mutation Is Acquired through AICDA-Mediated Deamination of 5-Methylcytosine following TKI Treatment in Lung ...
AID-mediated deamination of C residues at S and V regions in vivo co-opts the activities of the BER and MMR pathways [28]. The ... Regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase DNA deamination activity in B-cells by Ser38 phosphorylation. Uttiya Basu, ... Likewise, the AGCT repeat region was the predominant site of deamination by mAID-RPA in the context of an in vitro ... 2004) Class-switch recombination: interplay of transcription, DNA deamination and DNA repair. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:541-552. ...
Deamination and Transamination class notes flashcards from jade kleeschulte ... 1: Physiology: Deamination and Transamination class notes Flashcards Preview Vet Prep , 1: Physiology: Deamination and ...
... argued that no engineer would have used cytosine as part of the genetic material because of its predisposition for deamination ... This entry was posted in cytosine deamination, genetic code and tagged cytosine deamination, DNA, genetic code. Bookmark the ... 1b shows same sequence experiencing measured rates of deamination. G deamination events were assumed equivalent to A. ... and thus experiences no deamination, we can see that the simple process of deamination would strongly favor cytosine as a ...
Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 with subsequent meta ring ... Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 with subsequent meta ring ... Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 with subsequent meta ring ... Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 with subsequent meta ring ...
Gerber, AP and Keller, W (2001) RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries. Trends Biochem Sci ... The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the ... Adenosine Deaminase, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Cytidine Deaminase, Deamination, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid ...
Potential artifacts in the measurement of DNA deamination. Authors: Lim, K.S.. Huang, S.H. Jenner, A. Wang, H. Tang, S.Y. ... Although these two deamination products are often measured by GC-MS analysis, the procedure of acid hydrolysis to release DNA ... Attack on DNA by some reactive nitrogen species results in deamination of adenine and guanine, leading to the formation of ... In this study, we demonstrated the artifactual formation of these two deamination products during acid hydrolysis and hence ...
... deamination explanation free. What is deamination? Meaning of deamination medical term. What does deamination mean? ... Looking for online definition of deamination in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to deamination: transamination, Oxidative deamination deamination. [de-am″ĭ-na´shun] removal of the amino group, -NH2, ... deamination. /de·am·i·na·tion/ (de-am″ĭ-na´shun) removal of the amino group, -NH2, from a compound.. deamination. [dē′aminā′ ...
Oxidative deamination of different amines in the placenta in spontaneous abortions and premature labor]. by N I Miskevich et ... Oxidative deamination of different amines in the placenta in spontaneous abortions and premature labor].. *. N I Miskevich, E I ...
Deamination. In cpDNA, there are several A → G deamination gradients. DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[74] ... Therefore, gradients in deamination indicate that replication forks were most likely present and the direction that they ... When replication forks form, the strand not being copied is single stranded, and thus at risk for A → G deamination. ...
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"Deamination" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Deamination" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Deamination" by people in Profiles. ...
Nitrous Acid Deamination.. The GlcN-inositol linkage in the core GPI oligosaccharide of AGPs (200 μg) was cleaved by treatment ...
Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. We have been interested in two types of deaminations and their ... The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. The other ... Research areas: Theoretical and physical organic chemistry; deamination reactions; phosphorus chemistry; topological molecular ... relates to the deamination of amino groups in DNA bases. Both of these processes have important biological consequences. In ...
  • Oxidative deamination is a form of deamination that generates α-keto acids and other oxidized products from amine-containing compounds, and occurs primarily in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative deamination is an important step in the catabolism of amino acids, generating a more metabolizable form of the amino acid, and also generating ammonia as a toxic byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the oxidative deamination occurring in cells involves the amino acid glutamate, which can be oxidatively deaminated by the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), using NAD or NADP as a coenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this manner, an amino acid can transfer its amine group to glutamate, after which GDH can then liberate ammonia via oxidative deamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another enzyme responsible for oxidative deamination is monoamine oxidase, which catalyzes the deamination of monoamines via addition of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Parkinson's disease (PD), profound putamen dopamine (DA) depletion reflects denervation and a shift from vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination of cytoplasmic DA in residual terminals. (wiley.com)
  • We found that the majority (70%) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have profound (98%) myocardial norepinephrine depletion, because of both cardiac sympathetic denervation and a shift from vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination of cytoplasmic catecholamines in the residual nerves. (wiley.com)
  • When an NH2 group is replaced by an oxygen atom a ketone is formed and the process is described as oxidative deamination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metabolism of 2C-E appears to have several pathways, although the main ones appear to be via hepatic oxidative deamination and/or O-demethylation (4-6). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oxidative deamination of different amines in the placenta in spontaneous abortions and premature labor]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Desmination occurs largely through the oxidative deamination of glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase, yielding ammonia. (conservapedia.com)
  • Oxidative deamination is the first step to breaking down the amino acids so that they can be converted to sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14. "Oxidative Deamination of Aromatic 1,4-Imines. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Spontaneous deamination is the hydrolysis reaction of cytosine into uracil, releasing ammonia in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA, this spontaneous deamination is corrected for by the removal of uracil (product of cytosine deamination and not part of DNA) by uracil-DNA glycosylase, generating an abasic (AP) site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementary Figure 1 - Deamination of Cytosine or 5-methylcytosine to Uracil or Thymine respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yet despite this design logic, there is the interesting fact that cytosine is especially prone to deamination, where the removal of its exocyclic amino group converts it into uracil (a base normally found in RNA). (wordpress.com)
  • It is found normally in RNA, and it is quite possible that RNA evolved first in the earliest life on earth, and when DNA took over the role it has today of storing genetic information thymine was substituted in place of uracil so that the deamination process could be detected and repaired. (blogspot.com)
  • Uracil in DNA arises by spontaneous deamination of cytosine to generate pro-mutagenic U:G mispairs. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, a spontaneous deamination of cytosine to uracil in DNA occurs at a rate of about 100 bases per cell per day ( Figure 5-47 ). (nih.gov)
  • Mostly cytosine to uracil (~ 1 deamination yr -1 kb -1 for ssDNA and ~0.005 yr -1 kb -1 for dsDNA). (neb.com)
  • Consistent with this observation, the immunoglobulin ( Igh ) gene deamination as measured by uracil accumulation occurs primarily in early G1 after chromosomes decondense. (rupress.org)
  • The bottom line is that spontaneous deamination of cytosine can lead to a base substitution known as a transition, where C is replaced by T (and G is replaced by A on the other strand of DNA). (wordpress.com)
  • Two enzymes of unknown function from the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered to catalyze the deamination of N-6-methyladenine to hypoxanthine and methyl amine. (nih.gov)
  • acids for energy production is deamination, the splitting off of ammonia from the amino-acid molecule. (britannica.com)
  • Ammonia is toxic to the human system, and enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules (which is not considered a deamination process) in the urea cycle, which also takes place in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine results in thymine and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Base moieties in DNA are spontaneously threatened by naturally occurring chemical reactions such as deamination, hydrolysis and oxidation. (elsevier.com)
  • What is Deamination and Transamination? (brainscape.com)
  • In transamination and deamination, AAs can be converted into what? (brainscape.com)
  • PLP is the active coenzyme product of the vitamin B6 pathway and is essential in many biochemical reactions, including decarboxylation, transamination, deamination , racemization and trans-sulfuration reactions associated primarily with amino acid synthesis [12]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transamination does not result in any net deamination. (conservapedia.com)
  • Deamination of guanine results in the formation of xanthine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that guanine deaminates at rates similar to adenine, and thymine lacks an exocyclic base, and thus experiences no deamination, we can see that the simple process of deamination would strongly favor cytosine as a target (figure 1). (wordpress.com)
  • Cytosine Catalysis of Nitrosative Guanine Deamination and Interstrand " by Rainer Glaser, Hong Wu et al. (mst.edu)
  • Effects are discussed of the anisotropic DNA environment on nitrosative guanine deamination based on results of an ab initio study of the aggregate 3 formed by guaninediazonium ion 1 and cytosine 2 . (mst.edu)
  • While 1 can be a highly reactive intermediate in reactions of the "free nucleobase" (or its nucleoside and nucleotide), the cyanoimine 10 emerges as the key intermediate in nitrosative guanine deamination in ds-DNA and ds-oligonucleotides. (mst.edu)
  • Cytosine Catalysis of Nitrosative Guanine Deamination and Interstrand Cross-Link Formation," Journal of the American Chemical Society , vol. 127, no. 20, pp. 7346-7358, American Chemical Society (ACS), May 2005. (mst.edu)
  • Nitrosative Guanine Deamination: Ab Initio Study of Deglycation of N-P" by Sundeep Rayat, Zhengyu Wu et al. (mst.edu)
  • 5-Cyanoimino-4-oxomethylene-4,5-dihydroimidazoles (1) (R at N1) have been discussed as possible intermediates in nitrosative guanine deamination, which are formed by dediazoniation and deprotonation of guaninediazonium ion. (mst.edu)
  • Nitrosative Guanine Deamination: Ab Initio Study of Deglycation of N-Protonated 5-Cyanoimino-4-oxomethylene-4,5-dihydroimidazoles," Chemical Research in Toxicology , vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1157-1169, American Chemical Society (ACS), Aug 2004. (mst.edu)
  • Mutation profile of over 4500 SARS-CoV-2 isolations reveals prevalent cytosine-to-uridine deamination on viral RNAs. (bvsalud.org)
  • They are likely to be caused by the cytosine -to- uridine deamination system in hosts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, we investigated the effect of curcumin on the expression of multiple editing components of apoB mRNA cytidine deamination to uridine (C-to-U) editosome. (bvsalud.org)
  • The encoded protein forms a homotetramer that catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of cytidine and deoxycytidine to uridine and deoxyuridine, respectively. (genecards.org)
  • A known result of cytosine methylation is the increase of C-to-T transition mutations through the process of deamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a step toward comprehensive models for amino acid reactivity, this study provides a detailed description of the organic reaction kinetics and mechanisms for deamination of amine functional groups at acidic hydrothermal conditions, which favors their protonated aminium forms. (elsevier.com)
  • The deamination mechanisms were investigated by determining the reaction kinetics of ring-substituted BAH + and α-CH 3 -BAH + derivatives, which provided information on the nature of charge buildup in the transition state. (elsevier.com)
  • The host defense properties of cytidine deamination require two distinct but homologous cytidine deaminases-activation-induced cytidine deaminase and apolipoprotein B-editing cytidine deaminase, subunit 3G. (jimmunol.org)
  • Addgene: The transcription elongation complex directs activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated DNA deamination. (addgene.org)
  • Energy metabolism, dietary AA deamination and oxidation and their transfer to plasma glucose were measured kinetically for 4 h in the catheterized rats. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In HP rats, the oxidation rate was slower than deamination, so that half of the deaminated AA was non-oxidized within 4 h. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. (missouri.edu)
  • Uncontrolled cytidine deamination might generate misfolded polypeptides, dominant-negative proteins, or mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and thus contribute to tumor formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • We might expect such mutations to be quite common, as the rate constant for cytosine deamination at 37 degree C in single stranded DNA translates into a half-life for any specific cytosine of about 200 years. (wordpress.com)
  • The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination-independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. (genecards.org)
  • The enzyme from Bacillus halodurans, Bh0637, catalyzes the deamination of N-6-methyladenine with a k(cat) of 185 s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.5 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). (nih.gov)
  • Addgene: An adenosine-to-inosine tRNA-editing enzyme that can perform C-to-U deamination of DNA. (addgene.org)
  • Comparision of the activity of the aspartase by cell free extracts of these micro-organisms with the activity of the enzyme catalyzing the deamination of aspartame by the same cell free extracts showed similar kinetic characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • MATHEMATICAL The enzyme -methylaspartase catalyzes the deamination of -methylaspartate [V. Williams and J. Selb. (bartleby.com)
  • A single-stranded DNA molecule with 2 million bases will experience a single deamination event involving cytosine every 2.8 hours (at pH 7.4 and 37 degree C). In contrast, it would take 140 hours for an adenine to experience deamination. (wordpress.com)
  • Deamination of single-stranded DNA cytosine residues in aerobic nitric oxide solution at micromolar total NO exposures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such pre-treatment may alter the course of fermentation by two mechanisms-first, by rendering protein more available for degradative attack by micro organisms leading to escape of the by product of metabolic deamination and second, by effectively eliminating much of the heat-sensitive indigenous micro flora [19]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These skews reflect mainly those in protein coding sequences, which are driven by asymmetric mutation pressures during replication and transcription (notably asymmetric cytosine deamination) plus subsequent selection for preferred structures, signals, amino acid or codons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deamination of adenine results in the formation of hypoxanthine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bh0637 catalyzes the deamination of N-6-methyladenine 2 orders of magnitude faster than adenine. (nih.gov)
  • In turn, AICDA causes deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine at position c.2369 to generate the T790M mutation. (elsevier.com)
  • Pavlova I.V., Metabolism of certain amino acids and adenosine triphosphate deamination in the pulmonary tissue, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1961, vol: 7(1), 21-25. (msk.ru)
  • One way to appreciate this is to consider the mutagenic effects of deamination among the four nucleotides used by DNA. (wordpress.com)
  • The accumulation of MDA in the mitochondrial membranes was accompanied by a decrease in deamination of monoamines (tyramine or, especially, tryptamine) and by appearance of qualitatively new properties to deaminate histamine or cadaverine as well as adenylic acid. (msk.ru)
  • Storage-dependent hypoxanthine accumulation is ameliorated by hypoxia-induced decreases in purine deamination reaction rates. (haematologica.org)
  • Acel0264 catalyzes the deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine to futalosine and has been characterized in this work. (nih.gov)
  • These observed rates reinforce the notion that previously reported amino acid deamination rates may have resulted from catalysis mechanisms associated with certain reaction vessel materials (e.g. (elsevier.com)
  • The observation of two competing mechanisms for BAH + deamination/hydration implies that extrapolation of deamination rates to other temperatures is currently unreliable, since this is likely to be accompanied by a change in the predominant mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Depurination and deamination. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitors of initiated by free radicals lipid peroxidation (propylgallate, butyl hydroxytoluene) did not bind Fe2+ ions but prevented the alterations in deamination of nitrogenous compounds induced by the treatment of the fragments of mitochondrial membranes with Fe2+ ions. (msk.ru)
  • Garishvili T.G., Krivchenkova R.S., Gorkin V.Z., Deamination of nitrogenous compounds in mitochondrial membranes under stimulation of lipid peroxidation, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1975, vol: 21(5), 511-518. (msk.ru)
  • Time series experiments yield hydrothermal deamination rates for model aminum compounds benzylaminium (BAH + ) and α-methylbenzylaminium (α-CH 3 -BAH + ), buffered at pH 3.3 at 250 °C and 40 bar (P sat ). (elsevier.com)
  • Cytidine deamination of nucleic acids underlies diversification of Ig genes and inhibition of retroviral infection, and thus, it would appear to be vital to host defense. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chung, W & Goo, YM 1988, ' Microbial aspartase and its activity on deamination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester ', Archives of pharmacal research , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139-144. (elsevier.com)
  • Cytidine deamination was discovered as a mechanism of editing mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes (RNA editing) ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Figure 1: Deamination of adenosine to inosine by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) proteins. (nature.com)
  • Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (biochemj.org)
  • Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. (missouri.edu)
  • Low molecular weight chitooligosaccharide with one 2,5-anhydro-D-mannofuranose unit at the reducing end (COSamf) was prepared by nitrous deamination of fully N -deacetylated chitosan. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the cell cycle-controlled breakdown and reassembly of the nuclear membrane and the restoration of transcription after mitosis constitute an essential time window for AID-induced deamination, and provide a novel DNA damage mechanism restricted to early G1. (rupress.org)
  • This is probably due to the mechanism of methylation-deamination of cytosine. (els.net)
  • In the human body, deamination takes place primarily in the liver, however it can also occur in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in global DNA methylation might be associated with an increased spontaneous mutation rate: Methylated cytosines are more prone to deamination than unmethylated cytosines, which increases the likelihood of C [right arrow] T transitions (Ehrlich et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1b shows same sequence experiencing measured rates of deamination. (wordpress.com)
  • Formalin treatment and storage introduce cytosine deamination , which leads to DNA sequence changes and potentially wrong data interpretation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deamination" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the physiological function of the encoded proteins. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Because DNA undergoes deamination over time, endogenous fragments are likely to carry deaminated cytosines (represented as T's in a blue frame ), particularly near the ends of the DNA fragments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • selection of hypermutable (mutator) increased risk for deamination [email protected] alleles based on alterations in DNA because of the production of reactive repair genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine is part of an alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway that involves the formation of futalosine. (nih.gov)
  • Y-axis is normalized to cytosine deamination events per 2.8 hours in ssDNA at 37 degree C and pH 7.4. (wordpress.com)