Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Balneology: Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (HYDROTHERAPY).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Climatotherapy: Relocating a patient to a CLIMATE more suitable for health or for management of a health condition.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Health ResortsPulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).IsraelAttitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Posthumous Conception: Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Arsanilic Acid: An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Columbiformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of PIGEONS; DOVES; and an extinct family that includes dodos.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Seroma: Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Animals, ZooGerm Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.New YorkWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.GeeseRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Legal Guardians: A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Dimensional Measurement Accuracy: The closeness of a determined value of a physical dimension to the actual value.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U2 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U2 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the branch point, which associates with a heat- and RNAase-sensitive factor in an early step of splicing.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Mice, Inbred C57BLBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DEAD Box Protein 20: A multifunctional protein that is both a DEAD-box RNA helicase and a component of the SMN protein complex.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
  • Plant extracts in the wrapping of this mummy at the Egyptian Museum in Turin show that it is the oldest-known embalmed body. (acs.org)
  • A team of chemists and Egyptologists has now carried out the first chemical analysis of embalming compounds from an intact prehistoric mummy, kept at the Egyptian Museum in Turin . (acs.org)
  • Having identified very similar embalming recipes in our previous research on prehistoric burials, this latest study provides both the first evidence for the wider geographical use of these balms and the first ever unequivocal scientific evidence for the use of embalming on an intact, prehistoric Egyptian mummy," Buckley said . (sciencealert.com)
  • Because of the blackened skin bitumen was once thought to be used extensively in ancient Egyptian embalming procedures. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The science and theology of embalming continued to evolve over the years, so there is no single Egyptian ritual. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Sometimes the mortician would display The Duke in the glass front window, as evidence of the superior quality of the embalming done at Noland-Brown. (ncpedia.org)
  • Here are mortician tips and creepy stories from the funeral directors of Reddit about what goes into making the dead look alive. (ranker.com)
  • The image of the ghoulish mortician was perhaps embalmed best by Jessica Mitford, whose 1963 book The American Way of Death portrayed them as monsters, exploiting the grieving process for their own personal gain. (sfweekly.com)
  • In a paper published in 2014, they explained that substances on mummy wrappings from prehistory were consistent with embalming agents . (sciencealert.com)
  • More commonly they were embalmed in a mixture of sand and asphalt, and buried in vases, or canopi , placed near the mummy, the abdomen being filled with chips and sawdust of cedar and a small quantity of natron. (wikisource.org)
  • Compared to conventional aldehydes having an odd number of backbone atoms, the even-numbered dialdehydes are approximately as effective in terms of decontaminant, fixative, preservative and embalming properties, yet they are substantially safer to people, animals, and plants, and the environment. (google.es)
  • In particular, the researchers detected mercury, which has been found in other medieval burials and was probably used as an embalming agent. (livescience.com)
  • Autopsy -《Dead as Fxxk》[MP3! (verycd.com)
  • [ 4 ] For example, the Prophet Muhammad stated that "to break the bone of a dead person is like breaking the bone of a living person," ( Sunan of Abu Dawood) which has been extensively interpreted in the fields of autopsy and organ transplantation from the very literal (eg, the decedent being able to still feel pain) to the more figurative. (medscape.com)
  • Imagine the admiration and accolades you'll receive at the next party you attend when you casually announce that your new hobby is embalming corpses! (bluelips.com)
  • The latest efforts in this field were conducted by researchers at the University of Derby, who tested the efficiency of Pharaonic embalming materials in fighting bacteria in some human corpses. (aawsat.com)
  • Thomas Holmes, a surgeon trained at Columbia University in the 1840s, introduced embalming as a way to forestall the inevitable deterioration of corpses-a procedure that gave families the opportunity to pay for having their loved ones' remains shipped home. (pbs.org)
  • Mummies of humans and other animals have been found throughout the world, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, and as cultural artifacts to preserve the dead. (thefullwiki.org)
  • To keep pressure on Assad, the Trump administration is trying to preserve the cadaver state, keeping Syria dead and dismembered until Assad steps down from power. (com.pk)
  • A group of dialdehydes is disclosed having an even number of atoms in the shortest backbone chain connecting the two aldehyde groups which are useful as decontaminants, fixatives, preservatives, and embalming agents. (google.es)
  • These photographs, from the beginning of the practice until now, are special mementos that hold deep meaning for mourners through visually "embalming" the dead. (blogspot.com)
  • Undertakers are advised to wear clean clothes to a funeral (I guess the living should smell better than the dead), not to drink whiskey before the service (enough of the mourners will be doing that), and on how to keep different fraternities attending the rites in the deceased's home from getting into fist fights. (bluelips.com)
  • Last Thursday, before a wake that drew hundreds, before a funeral crowd spilled into the street, before a family grieved a beloved father, brother and son, begging questions about why a promising 26-year-old man's life was suddenly stopped by a police bullet, Randy Blackwell embalmed his friend Derek Walker. (indyweek.com)
  • Bear these words in mind, as I tell you about a new, ghoulish (the day after Halloween linkage) way of disposing of the dead. (religionnews.com)
  • This is likely what Matron Brannan has in mind when she hopes to hustle the angry Davis brothers out of the dead room, though there is no evidence that Mansion House employed an embalmer. (pbs.org)
  • Spiritualism is a loosely organized religion based primarily on a belief in the ability to communicate with spirits of the dead. (blogspot.com)
  • I attended a seminar on selling paw-printed urns to bereaved pet owners, airbrushed rouge on a "dead" person and saw a group of drunken morticians dance the conga and the electric slide. (metrotimes.com)
  • The ancient mound-building Hopewell societies of the Upper Midwest, by contrast, placed the dead in lavishly furnished tombs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If someone dies while travelling, they will likely end up at a local hospital where they will be pronounced dead by a doctor or medical examiner , who will then fill out the appropriate paperwork. (lifehacker.com.au)
  • In an effort to learn more about the health of those 400-year-old hearts, Mokrane and a team of scientists cleaned the organs and removed the embalming material so that they could scan the hearts using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). (livescience.com)
  • Timing the release of their research with Hallowe'en - a time when people's minds naturally turn to the subject of dead things - Holden and McDonald-Madden point out that one's efforts to improve the Earth should not end just because you do. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The team's analysis suggests that long before the founding of what was arguably the world's first nation-state, the people who lived there shared common cultural practices and imported embalming ingredients from distant lands (J. Archaeol. (acs.org)
  • Could dead people help save endangered species? (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Well, because for some people, reverence for the environment seems to take precedence over reverence for the dead. (religionnews.com)
  • In this blog post, Schultz describes how the handling of the dead, on a scale unimaginable to most people today, presented challenges to Civil War medical staff and army administrators alike. (pbs.org)
  • If anyone is interested or would like any further information for everyday embalming or for medical purposes please give Patricia a call at EEP Embalming products who produce this fantastic product for the funeral industry. (goodfuneralguide.co.uk)