Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Ovum Transport: Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyEstrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Flurogestone Acetate: A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.ShrewsPituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Uterine Inversion: A complication of OBSTETRIC LABOR in which the corpus of the UTERUS is forced completely or partially through the UTERINE CERVIX. This can occur during the late stages of labor and is associated with IMMEDIATE POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.
Gestation period is about 266 days in humans. While in the uterus, the baby first endures a very brief zygote stage, then the ... for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.[7 ... Only 1 in 14 million of the ejaculated sperm will reach the Fallopian tube. The egg simultaneously moves through the Fallopian ... When the fetus is developed enough to survive outside of the uterus, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel ...
... covers the time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.[38] In a 28‑day cycle with a 14‑day luteal phase, ... The developing embryo takes about three days to reach the uterus and another three days to implant into the endometrium.[81] It ... After about a day, an unfertilized egg will disintegrate or dissolve in the fallopian tube.[81] ... The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women ...
... covers the time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation. In a 28‑day cycle with a 14‑day luteal phase, this ... The developing embryo takes about three days to reach the uterus and another three days to implant into the endometrium. It has ... After about a day, an unfertilized egg will disintegrate or dissolve in the fallopian tube. Fertilization by a spermatozoon, ... The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women ...
Ovulation happens roughly every 14 days. This is when the mature egg is released into the oviduct(or fallopian tube) ready for ... If the woman does not become pregnant during this time, the egg and the lining of the uterus come out of the woman's body ... Until around day 22, estrogen levels increase a little. However, after day 22, the corpus luteum stops making progesterone, and ... Ovulation happens if there is both a rise in estrogen and a peak in LH at the end of the follicular stage. The rising levels of ...
... and to the fallopian tubes, where they wait for ovulation.[medical citation needed] In addition, basal body temperature may ... Two or three days before LH levels begin to increase,[unreliable medical source?] usually by day seven of the cycle, one (or ... These high estrogen levels initiate the formation of a new layer of endometrium in the uterus, histologically identified as the ... Estrogen levels will continue to increase for several days (on average, six days, but this varies widely). ...
After entering the fallopian tube, the oocyte is pushed along by cilia, beginning its journey toward the uterus. By this time, ... The few days surrounding ovulation (from approximately days 10 to 18 of a 28-day cycle), constitute the most fertile phase. The ... During the luteal (post-ovulatory) phase, the secondary oocyte will travel through the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If ... Many females experience heightened sexual desire in the several days immediately before ovulation. One study concluded that ...
Among social Hymenoptera, honeybee queens mate only on mating flights, in a short period lasting some days; a queen may mate ... The capacitated spermatozoon and the oocyte meet and interact in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Rheotaxis, thermotaixs and ... The zygote divides to form a blastocyst and, upon entering the uterus, implants in the endometrium, beginning pregnancy. ... In such animals as rabbits, coitus induces ovulation by stimulating the release of the pituitary hormone gonadotropin; this ...
... while females may undergo a number of tests including an ovulation analysis, x-ray of fallopian tubes and uterus, and ... is also provided by fertility clinics these days. The Centers for Disease Control requires outcome data be reported to the ... Treatment may include ovulation induction, surgical interventions, artificial insemination, such as intrauterine insemination ( ...
The embryo spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube. It starts out as a single cell zygote and then divides ... When semen is released into the vagina, the spermatozoa travel through the cervix and body of the uterus and into the Fallopian ... In most successful pregnancies, the embryo implants 8 to 10 days after ovulation. The embryo, the extra-embryonic membranes, ... day 13 of fertilization). Gestational age: 4 weeks and 0 days until 4 weeks and 6 days old. 29-35 days from last menstruation. ...
After ovulation, the egg cell is captured by the Fallopian tube, after traveling down the Fallopian tube to the uterus, ... This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the ... The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which ... The Fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus. On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ...
This positive feedback loop causes LH to spike sharply, and it is this spike that causes ovulation. Following ovulation, LH ... The oocyte will now travel down one of the fallopian tubes to eventually be discharged through menstruation in the case that it ... By the end of the follicular(or proliferative) phase of the thirteenth day of the menstrual cycle, the cumulus oophorus layer ... a steroidiogenic cluster of cells that maintains the endometrium of the uterus by the secretion of large amounts of ...
... since oocyte retrieval of the mature egg from the fallopian tube or uterus is much harder than from the ovarian follicle. The ... and required fewer days of gonadotrophin stimulation (10 days versus 14 days) compared to GnRH agonist protocol. Using GnRH ... 2009 Ovulation Problems and Infertility: Treatment of ovulation problems with Clomid and other fertility drugs. Advanced ... For women predicted to have a poor response, there may not be any benefit to start at a higher FSH dosage than 150 IU per day. ...
After about five days the new embryo enters the uterine cavity and on about the sixth day implants on the wall of the uterus. ... Just prior to ovulation the primary oocyte completes meiosis I to form the first polar body and a secondary oocyte which is ... Occasionally the embryo implants into the Fallopian tube instead of the uterus, creating an ectopic pregnancy, commonly known ... Fallopian tube cancer, which typically arises from the epithelial lining of the Fallopian tube, has historically been ...
Hysterosalpingography involve the inspection of the fallopian tubes and uterus, by the injection of a radiocontrast agent, to ... "Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two studies with imperfect measures of ovulation". Human Reproduction ... Ovulation prediction kits are usually antibody tests for luteinising hormone, which peaks in urine around the time of ovulation ... and bicornate uterus. It involves the insertion of an endoscope to produce images of the inside of the uterus. Laparoscopy is ...
Cancer of the uterus is always a concern, specifically when the bleeding occurs after menopause. Other types of cancer include ... Menstruation occurs typically monthly, lasts 3-7 days, and involves up to 80 ml blood. Bleeding in excess of this norm in a ... This may occur during ovulation or as a result of endometriosis. If the pregnancy test is positive, consider pregnancy related ... Cancers of the vagina or fallopian tubes are rare causes of hemorrhage. Uterine fibroids represent a common, benign condition ...
After ovulation, the egg cell is captured by the Fallopian tube, after traveling down the Fallopian tube to the uterus, ... This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the ... Fallopian tubeEdit. Main article: Fallopian tube. The Fallopian tubes are two tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus. ... UterusEdit. Main article: Uterus. The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ. The uterus provides mechanical ...
... while females may undergo a number of tests including an ovulation analysis, x-ray of fallopian tubes and uterus, and ... is also provided by fertility clinics these days. ...
Continuous ovulation for a long time means more repair of the ovary by dividing cells, which can acquire mutations in each ... These tumors are believed to start in the cells covering the ovaries, though some may form at the Fallopian tubes. Less common ... Higher caffeine intake and consumption of more than two cups of tea a day have both been associated with lower ovarian cancer ... Tubal ligation is protective because carcinogens are unable to reach the ovary and fimbriae via the vagina, uterus, and ...
They also cause the uterus and fallopian tubes to produce a fluid that contains white blood cells, copper ions, enzymes, and ... Ovulation is not affected, and the IUD is not an abortifacient.58-60 It is currently believed that the mechanism of action for ... Advantages of the copper IUD include its ability to provide emergency contraception up to five days after unprotected sex. It ... It is held in place by a suture (knot) to the fundus of the uterus. It is mainly available in China, Europe, and Germany, ...
The capacitated spermatozoon and the oocyte meet and interact in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Rheotaxis, thermotaixs and ... The zygote divides to form a blastocyst and, upon entering the uterus, implants in the endometrium, beginning pregnancy. ... The sperm and ovum unite through fertilisation, creating a zygote that (over the course of 8-9 days) implants in the uterine ... In such animals as rabbits, coitus induces ovulation by stimulating the release of the pituitary hormone gonadotropin; this ...
These are ways that the fallopian tubes are cut or clipped so that eggs cannot go down them to the uterus. (The fallopian tube ... Billings ovulation method; Creighton model fertility care; two-day method; mucus-only method; basal body temperature method; ... This is where an object is put in the woman's uterus (womb, where the fetus grows when she is pregnant). This object is called ... Copper IUDs can also be used as a day-after method to prevent pregnancy after the woman and man already had sex. ...
While the oocyte (later the zygote if fertilization occurs) traverses the Fallopian tube into the uterus, the corpus luteum ... It is the remains of the ovarian follicle that has released a mature ovum during a previous ovulation. It is colored as a ... If the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum stops secreting progesterone and decays (after approximately 10 days in humans ... of the uterus and providing an area rich in blood vessels in which the zygote(s) can develop. From this point on, the corpus ...
These two layers occur only in endometrium lining the cavity of the uterus, not in the lining of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes ... However, once ovulation occurs, the ovary (specifically the corpus luteum) will produce much larger amounts of progesterone. ... In humans, the cycle of building and shedding the endometrial lining lasts an average of 28 days. The endometrium develops at ... The uterus and its tissues are not sterile. The first studies of flora colonizing the human endometrium were published in 2015 ...
"Uterus transplants: My sister gave me her womb". Retrieved 10 July 2016. Sultan, C.; Biason-Lauber, A.; Philibert, P. (2009). " ... At least one ovary is intact, if not both, and ovulation usually occurs. Typically, the vagina is shortened and intercourse may ... Female reproductive organs, such as the cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and much of the vagina, are hence affected. An ... creating a vagina approximately 7 cm deep in 7 days, although it can be more than this. Another approach is the use of an ...
IVF could be performed by collecting the contents from a woman's fallopian tubes or uterus after natural ovulation, mixing it ... Day to Day, National Public Radio. 21 January 2009. *^ de La Rochebrochard E, Quelen C, Peikrishvili R, Guibert J, Bouyer J ( ... After the fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2-6 days, it is implanted in the same or another woman's uterus ... Ectopic pregnancy may also occur if a fertilised egg develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes and requires ...
... is typically classified based on whether or not the division extends to the external cervical os. Bicornuate uteri with a division above the os are called bicornuate unicollis and those with a divided os are called bicornuate bicollis.[2] There is a continuous range of the degree and location of the fusion of the paramesonephric ducts, and existence of a spectrum, rather than a fixed number of types corresponding to strict medical definitions. Two processes that occur during the embryonic development of the paramesonephric ducts - fusion and reabsorption - can be affected to different degrees.[3] There is also a hybrid bicornuate uterus: External fundal depressions of variable depths associated with a septate uterus can be seen by laparoscopy, indicating the coexistence of the two anomalies. These cases are candidates for hysteroscopic metroplasty under appropriate sonographic and/or laparoscopic monitoring.[4] An obstructed bicornuate uterus showing ...
The uterus is part the female reproductive system. Other structures and organs that are part of the reproduction system are the vagina, ovaries and fallopian tubes.[3] The uterus has four main parts. The fundus is the upper part of the uterus. It has a rounded shape. Another part of the uterus is the body. The uterotubal angles are the parts connected to the Fallopian tubes. The bottom part of the uterus is the cervix.[4] The uterus has three layers. The outer layer is called the perimetrium.[5] It is a thin layer that surrounds the outside of the uterus. The perimetrium is made of tissue made of epithelial cells. The middle layer is the myometrium. Most of the uterus is made up of the myometrium.[6] The layer on the inside is the endometrium. The endometrium is made of secretory, ciliated, and basal cells.[4] The uterus is ...
... is an obstetrical complication whereby a growing retroverted uterus becomes wedged into the pelvis after the first trimester of pregnancy. A number of situations may interfere with the natural process that would antevert a retroverted uterus during pregnancy. Such situations include pelvic adhesions, endometriosis, uterine malformations, leiomyomata, and pelvic tumors. When the uterus is tilted backwards, it is considered to be retroverted; this situation is common and regarded a normal variation. It has been estimated that about 15% of pregnancies begin in a retroverted uterus. Normally, during the first trimester, the growing uterus changes spontaneously to an anteverted position, thus allowing expansion of the enlarging uterus into the abdomen. The cervix is then inferior to the body of the uterus. Thus, the presence of an early pregnancy in a retroverted uterus is ...
... are two colored annotated sketches by Leonardo da Vinci made in 1510-1512/13. The studies correctly depict the human fetus in its proper position inside the dissected uterus. Da Vinci depicted the uterus with one chamber, in contrast to theories that the uterus had multiple chambers which many believed divided fetuses into separate compartments in the case of twins. Da Vinci also correctly drew the uterine artery and the vascular system of the cervix and vagina. Da Vinci studied human embryology with the help of anatomist Marcantonio della Torre and saw the fetus within a cadaver. The first study, measuring 30.5×22 cm, shows the fetus in a breech position inside a dissected uterus. Da Vinci mistakenly depicted the cotyledons in the vascular walls of the human uterus that he had previously found in a cow uterus. The other study, measuring 30.3×22 cm, shows female external genitalia, the supposed ...
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions. The myometrium is located between the endometrium (the inner layer of the uterine wall), and the serosa or perimetrium (the outer uterine layer). Myometrium has 3 layers: outer longitudinal smooth muscles, middle crisscrossing (figure of eight) muscle fibres, and inner circular fibres. Middle crisscross fibres act as living ligature during involution of the uterus and prevent blood loss. The inner one-third of the myometrium (termed the junctional or sub-endometrial layer) appears to be derived from the Müllerian duct, while the outer, more predominant layer of the myometrium appears to originate from non-Müllerian tissue, and is the major contractile tissue during parturition and abortion. The junctional layer appears to function like a circular muscle ...
Inside the thick part of the uterus are blood vessels and other nutrients that a baby will need to grow. If an ovum in the uterus gets fertilized, it sticks to the wall of the uterus and starts to grow. However, if the ovum is not fertilized, it does not stick. The uterus then gets rid of the ovum and the extra tissue by releasing it from the body. The tissue and blood flows out of the uterus through the vagina. This is called menstruation or having a period. The bleeding normally lasts about 3-5 days, though some girls may bleed longer or have a bit of bleeding between periods.[1] The uterus then starts preparing for another ovum. For most girls, the time between their periods is about one month. For about 2 years after menstruation starts, the time between periods is not always the same.[2] Some girls may skip a month, or have 2 periods close to each other. It is also ...
The uterine microbiome is the commensal, nonpathogenic, bacteria, viruses, yeasts/fungi present in a healthy uterus, amniotic fluid and endometrium and the specific environment which they inhabit. It has been only recently confirmed that the uterus and its tissues are not sterile. Due to improved 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, detection of bacteria that are present in low numbers is possible. Using this procedure that allows the detection of bacteria that cannot be cultured outside the body, studies of microbiota present in the uterus are expected to increase. Bacteria, viruses and one genus of yeasts are a normal part of the uterus before and during pregnancy. The uterus has been found to possess its own characteristic microbiome that differs significantly from the vaginal microbiome. Despite its close spatial connection with the vagina, the microbiome of the uterus more closely resembles the ...
... , also called uterine massage, is a technique used to reduce bleeding and cramping of the uterus after childbirth or after an abortion. As the uterus returns to its nonpregnant size, its muscles contract strongly, which can cause pain. Fundal massage can be performed with one hand over the pubic bone, firmly massaging the uterine fundus (the top of the uterus), or with the addition of one hand in the vagina compressing the two uterine arteries. Routine use of fundal massage can prevent postpartum or post-abortion hemorrhage and can reduce pain; it may also reduce the need for uterotonics, medications that cause the uterus to contract. It is used to treat uterine atony, a condition where the uterus lacks muscle tone and is soft to the touch instead of firm.[1][2][3][4][5] ...
The female reproductive system likewise contains two main divisions: the vagina and the Ovum. The ovum meets with sperm cell, a sperm may penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it with the help of certain hydrolytic enzymes present in the acrosome. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When the fetus is developed enough to survive outside of the uterus, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel it through the birth canal, which is the vagina. The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the spermatozoon and are normally formed within the ovaries of the female fetus before its birth. They are mostly fixed in location within the ovary until their transit to the uterus, and contain nutrients for the later zygote ...
... is the surgical removal of the uterus. It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and other surrounding structures. Usually performed by a gynecologist, hysterectomy may be total (removing the body, fundus, and cervix of the uterus; often called "complete") or partial (removal of the uterine body while leaving the cervix intact; also called "supracervical"). It is the most commonly performed gynecological surgical procedure. In 2003, over 600,000 hysterectomies were performed in the United States alone, of which over 90% were performed for benign conditions. Such rates being highest in the industrialized world has led to the major controversy that hysterectomies are being largely performed for unwarranted and unnecessary reasons. Removal of the uterus renders the patient unable to bear children (as does removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes) and has surgical risks as well as long-term effects, ...
In the female the paramesonephric ducts persist and undergo further development. The portions which lie in the genital cord[citation needed] fuse to form the uterus and vagina. This fusion of the paramesonephric ducts begins in the third month, and the septum formed by their fused medial walls disappears from below upward. The parts outside this cord remain separate, and each forms the corresponding Fallopian tube. The ostium of the fallopian tube remains from the anterior extremity of the original tubular invagination from the abdominal cavity. About the fifth month a ring-like constriction marks the position of the cervix of the uterus, and after the sixth month the walls of the uterus begin to thicken. For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the lower end of the uterus and marks the future vaginal fornix. At about the ...
In the female the paramesonephric ducts persist and undergo further development. The portions which lie in the genital cord[citation needed] fuse to form the uterus and vagina. This fusion of the paramesonephric ducts begins in the third month, and the septum formed by their fused medial walls disappears from below upward. The parts outside this cord remain separate, and each forms the corresponding Fallopian tube. The ostium of the fallopian tube remains from the anterior extremity of the original tubular invagination from the abdominal cavity. About the fifth month a ring-like constriction marks the position of the cervix of the uterus, and after the sixth month the walls of the uterus begin to thicken. For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. A ring-like outgrowth of this epithelium occurs at the lower end of the uterus and marks the future vaginal fornix. At about the ...
Ženské gonády - vaječníky (lat. ovaria) sú uložené pri bočnej stene malej panvy. Na pravej strane má vaječník blízky vzťah k červovitému prívesku slepého čreva. Začiatky vajíčkovodov (lat. tubae uterinae) obopínajú vaječníky. Vajíčkovody sú dlhé približne 15 cm a vyúsťujú do rohov maternice (lat. uterus). Sliznica maternice (lat. endometrium) prekonáva cyklické zmeny (pozri menštruačný cyklus). Maternica má tvar hrušky, svojou užšou časťou vyúsťuje do pošvy (lat. vagina). Hranicu medzi vonkajšími a vnútornými pohlavnými orgánmi tvorí panenská blana (lat. hymen). ...
The average menstrual cycle is 28 days.. After its released, your egg travels down your fallopian tube toward your uterus. If ... About 2 weeks later, the egg thats most mature is released from your ovary - this is called ovulation. Ovulation may happen ... The fertilized egg moves down your fallopian tube and divides into more and more cells. It reaches your uterus about 3-4 days ... The dividing cells then form a ball that floats around in the uterus for about 2-3 days. ...
If the egg is fertilized, it usually implants itself in the uterus within five days of being released. ... The egg resides in the follicle up until ovulation, when the follicle bursts. The egg is released into the fallopian tubes to ... A: Find an ovulation calendar online, such as the one offered by BabyHopes.com. It calculates and shows the most fertile days ... Before ovulation, one follicle is picked for ovulation, which is called recruitment. ...
... When you are ready to start your family, you ... As the egg makes its journey through the fallopian tube and to the uterus. If it is unfertilized, the egg is absorbed into the ... Therefore the best days to get pregnant are the days surrounding ovulation. ... You should track your cycle for a few months to see if you have a regular 28 day cycle. If you do not, you should consider ...
Ampulla of fallopian tube. -occurs within 1 day after ovulation 42 How long after fertilization does implantation within uterus ... Luteal phase = Secretory phase phase between ovulation and menstruation = constant 14 days. ... oligomenorrhea: >35 days. -polymenorrhea ,21 days. -metrorrhagia = frequent but irregular menstruation. -menometrorrhagia = ... no uterus or uterine tubes. -no sexual hair. -develops testes (see 2 lumps in labia majora; must be removed to prevent cancer) ...
6. Lack of ovulation. Ovulation is the release of a mature egg into the fallopian tube. This event typically happens around day ... Estrogen helps to stabilize the lining in the uterus. It may shed irregularly if youre on a method thats low in this hormone ... Spotting at the time of your period, which is around 10 to 14 days after ovulation, may be caused by implantation in early ... You may get a positive result as early as four or five days before an expected period. To avoid a false negative, its wise to ...
Learn about ovulation calendars, diet, and other factors that can increase your odds of getting pregnant. ... From the 2nd to 14th day of the cycle, these same hormones cause the lining of the uterus to thicken and prepare for ... After release, the egg travels into the Fallopian tube and toward the uterus. Eggs can live about 12 to 24 hours after release ... What Happens During Ovulation. Ovulation, or the release of an egg, usually occurs between the 11th and 21st day of the cycle. ...
This is the time when the egg is released from the ovary during ovulation and travels down the fallopian tube where ... This cycle lasts from the first day of menstrual bleeding to the day before bleeding begins the following month. The length of ... If fertilized by a sperm, the egg makes its way to the uterus for implantation. ... Following ovulation, an egg can stay alive and viable in a womans fallopian tube for 24 hours. ...
... monitoring to assess if and when ovulation is occurring; a radiological test to look at the health of her uterus and fallopian ... These include learning how to better time lovemaking (often using an ovulation kit), taking a five-day course of inexpensive ... Luckily, within days of quitting smoking, your body begins to repair the damage - and in time your fertility rate improves. ... Excessive levels generally means more than 500 mg per day (theres about 100mg in one 5 oz cup). Since some of the fancy ...
... safe days where you can not get pregnant. ... uses ovulation predictors and calendars to design a calendar ... this is called ovulation). Your egg is in your fallopian tube for about 12-24 hours. Sperm can hang out in your uterus and ... the 5 days before you ovulate, and the day you ovulate. You can also get pregnant a day or 2 after ovulation, but its less ... The days near ovulation are your fertile days - when youre most likely to get pregnant. So people use FAMs to prevent ...
Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. If it is left untreated it can ... Simple Methods to Determine Your Fertile Days More and more couples today, turn to easy methods of calculating the womans ... fertile days either to abstain from intercourse to prevent a pregnancy or to ensure intercourse on those days to increase ... Category: Ovulation Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ...
Egg transport begins at ovulation and ends once the egg reaches the uterus. Following ovulation, the fimbriated, or finger-like ... Once the sperm have entered the uterus, contractions propel the sperm upward into the fallopian tubes. The first sperm enter ... Over the course of the next seven days, the human embryo undergoes multiple cell divisions in a process called mitosis. At the ... Ovulation Induction Ovulation induction uses hormonal therapy to stimulate egg development and release, or ovulation, the goal ...
Lodges in the uterus, "implantation," 5-7 days after ovulation (in Fallopian tube prior to this). Now female is considered ... In humans, cilia are found only in the Fallopian tubes and respiratory tract.. Prokaryotes: flagella are made of a single ... However, levels rise rapidly just before ovulation (bursting of the follicle) causing a dramatic increase in LH secretion - " ... The remaining portion of the follicle left behind after the egg is released during ovulation. Secretes estradiol and ...
... ovulation days vary, at 39 weeks pregnant how often should baby move quotes ... The egg travels down a fallopian tube, one of the two tubes that connect your ovaries to your uterus.. If fertilization doesnt ... Ovulation days vary,chances of pregnancy just after ovulation kit,information on pregnancy stages app,pregnancy hormones 2nd ... Your cycle may be longer or shorter, so an online ovulation calculator may help you identify the likely day. Tracking Ovulation ...
Gestation period is about 266 days in humans. While in the uterus, the baby first endures a very brief zygote stage, then the ... for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.[7 ... Only 1 in 14 million of the ejaculated sperm will reach the Fallopian tube. The egg simultaneously moves through the Fallopian ... When the fetus is developed enough to survive outside of the uterus, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel ...
... from which spermatozoa are slowly released into the uterus and up to the fallopian tubes over a period of several days. ... If they were not lucky enough to pass through the fallopian tube at exactly the moment of ovulation (or within twelve hours of ... How Do the Egg and the Sperm Reach the Fallopian Tube? The journey of the egg, or ovum, through the fallopian tube and finally ... They lie outside of the uterus and fallopian tubes. When an egg is extruded every month from the surface of one of the ovaries ...
Fallopian tube. The tube through which the egg passes after its release from the ovary on its way to the uterus. It is also ... About 14 days after menstruation started the new egg is mature and leaves the ovary (a process known as ovulation). The egg ... It usually lasts about 28 days. Unlike in most other mammals, the lining of the uterus is lost along with some blood between ... This is caused by the breakdown of the lining of the uterus (womb) and is part of the cycle of events called the menstrual ...
At about day 14 of an average 28-day cycle, the egg leaves the ovary (ovulation). The egg travels through one of the fallopian ... In the first half of the menstrual cycle, levels of the hormone estrogen rise, making the lining of the uterus thicken. This ... The average menstrual cycle lasts 28 days - counting from the first day of one period to the first day of the next period. ... Most periods last from three to five days, but anywhere from two to seven days is normal. ...
... take a look at this and determine what the earliest date and the latest date your egg can implant in the lining of your uterus ... There is a lot of debate about how soon implantation can happen after ovulation. So we are going to ... From there it travels down the fallopian tube towards your uterus. When it arrives in the uterus it starts to attach itself to ... DPO meaning Days Past Ovulation. After the egg implants inside your uterus your body then begins to release a pregnancy hormone ...
After entering the fallopian tube, the oocyte is pushed along by cilia, beginning its journey toward the uterus. By this time, ... The few days surrounding ovulation (from approximately days 10 to 18 of a 28-day cycle), constitute the most fertile phase. The ... During the luteal (post-ovulatory) phase, the secondary oocyte will travel through the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If ... Many females experience heightened sexual desire in the several days immediately before ovulation. One study concluded that ...
... and change the lining of the fallopian tubes and uterus. To be most effective, these pills must be taken every day at the same ... ovulation does not occur (without an egg, sperm cannot fertilize). *the lining of the uterus thins (in case a woman did ovulate ... First Day of Period Start: Start your pills on the first day of your period. Continue to take one pill every day at the same ... This day is called the Patch Change Day (e.g., if you apply your first patch on a Monday, all of your patches should be applied ...
The most common reason for female infertility includes damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, problems with ovulation or problems ... It is recommended to undergo a female fertility blood test on day three. This analyzes your reproductive hormones on cycle day ...
The egg takes several days to travel down the fallopian tube into the uterus. After it is in the uterus, a fertilized egg ... This is called ovulation. The egg then enters the nearby fallopian tube that leads to the uterus. ... Fertilization usually takes place in a fallopian tube that links an ovary to the uterus. If the fertilized egg successfully ... HealthLink BC, your provincial health line, is as close as your phone or the web any time of the day or night, every day of the ...
... and it may occur every month and last from a few hours to days. ... Painful ovulation (mittelschmerz) occurs in about 20% of women ... An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that most commonly develops in the Fallopian tube instead of the uterus. This might be the ... The pain of ovulation lasts anywhere from a few hours to 2-3 days. ... Painful Ovulation - Home Remedies What home remedies have you found helpful in treating your painful ovulation? ...
During ovulation, a single, mature egg is released from the ovarian follicle. During the course of a monthly cycle, the largest ... Once released, the egg then has the potential to become fertilized over the next day or so. After this, the egg will begin to ... If the egg does indeed become fertilized and implant successfully in the uterus, a woman becomes pregnant. If the egg is not ... of the eggs is released into the fallopian tube. ... and what exactly it is that happens during ovulation.. ...
The egg travels into the Fallopian tube, where fertilization can take place. The egg can survive for about 12 to 24 hours after ... The lining of the uterus approaches its thickest and is ready to receive a fertilized egg. ... The brain assesses information such as temperature and day length to determine when to send the signal. At ovulation time, the ... Ovulation: Primate vs. Non-primate. In all mammals except primates (humans are primates), fully-developed eggs sit in the ...
  • The spindle apparatus of the second meiotic division appears at the time of ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you track your monthly cycle, you can get closer to pinpointing the time of ovulation. (modernmom.com)
  • The mucus tends to become thinner and more watery around the time of ovulation. (mydr.com.au)
  • Your body temperature should rise slightly around the time of ovulation. (mydr.com.au)
  • The odds of a young fertile couple conceiving by having sexual intercourse around the time of ovulation are approximately one in five every month. (cyh.com)