Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A clinical study in which participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.

Archive of mass spectral data files on recordable CD-ROMs and creation and maintenance of a searchable computerized database. (1/10211)

A database containing names of mass spectral data files generated in a forensic toxicology laboratory and two Microsoft Visual Basic programs to maintain and search this database is described. The data files (approximately 0.5 KB/each) were collected from six mass spectrometers during routine casework. Data files were archived on 650 MB (74 min) recordable CD-ROMs. Each recordable CD-ROM was given a unique name, and its list of data file names was placed into the database. The present manuscript describes the use of search and maintenance programs for searching and routine upkeep of the database and creation of CD-ROMs for archiving of data files.  (+info)

Mining SNPs from EST databases. (2/10211)

There is considerable interest in the discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to enable the analysis of the potential relationships between human genotype and phenotype. Here we present a strategy that permits the rapid discovery of SNPs from publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. From a set of ESTs derived from 19 different cDNA libraries, we assembled 300,000 distinct sequences and identified 850 mismatches from contiguous EST data sets (candidate SNP sites), without de novo sequencing. Through a polymerase-mediated, single-base, primer extension technique, Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), we confirmed the presence of a subset of these candidate SNP sites and have estimated the allele frequencies in three human populations with different ethnic origins. Altogether, our approach provides a basis for rapid and efficient regional and genome-wide SNP discovery using data assembled from sequences from different libraries of cDNAs.  (+info)

An effective approach for analyzing "prefinished" genomic sequence data. (3/10211)

Ongoing efforts to sequence the human genome are already generating large amounts of data, with substantial increases anticipated over the next few years. In most cases, a shotgun sequencing strategy is being used, which rapidly yields most of the primary sequence in incompletely assembled sequence contigs ("prefinished" sequence) and more slowly produces the final, completely assembled sequence ("finished" sequence). Thus, in general, prefinished sequence is produced in excess of finished sequence, and this trend is certain to continue and even accelerate over the next few years. Even at a prefinished stage, genomic sequence represents a rich source of important biological information that is of great interest to many investigators. However, analyzing such data is a challenging and daunting task, both because of its sheer volume and because it can change on a day-by-day basis. To facilitate the discovery and characterization of genes and other important elements within prefinished sequence, we have developed an analytical strategy and system that uses readily available software tools in new combinations. Implementation of this strategy for the analysis of prefinished sequence data from human chromosome 7 has demonstrated that this is a convenient, inexpensive, and extensible solution to the problem of analyzing the large amounts of preliminary data being produced by large-scale sequencing efforts. Our approach is accessible to any investigator who wishes to assimilate additional information about particular sequence data en route to developing richer annotations of a finished sequence.  (+info)

The Genexpress IMAGE knowledge base of the human brain transcriptome: a prototype integrated resource for functional and computational genomics. (4/10211)

Expression profiles of 5058 human gene transcripts represented by an array of 7451 clones from the first IMAGE Consortium cDNA library from infant brain have been collected by semiquantitative hybridization of the array with complex probes derived by reverse transcription of mRNA from brain and five other human tissues. Twenty-one percent of the clones corresponded to transcripts that could be classified in general categories of low, moderate, or high abundance. These expression profiles were integrated with cDNA clone and sequence clustering and gene mapping information from an upgraded version of the Genexpress Index. For seven gene transcripts found to be transcribed preferentially or specifically in brain, the expression profiles were confirmed by Northern blot analyses of mRNA from eight adult and four fetal tissues, and 15 distinct regions of brain. In four instances, further documentation of the sites of expression was obtained by in situ hybridization of rat-brain tissue sections. A systematic effort was undertaken to further integrate available cytogenetic, genetic, physical, and genic map informations through radiation-hybrid mapping to provide a unique validated map location for each of these genes in relation to the disease map. The resulting Genexpress IMAGE Knowledge Base is illustrated by five examples presented in the printed article with additional data available on a dedicated Web site at the address http://idefix.upr420.vjf.cnrs.fr/EXPR++ +/ welcome.html.  (+info)

Renal failure predisposes patients to adverse outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. VA Cooperative Study #5. (5/10211)

BACKGROUND: More than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are done annually in the United States. Some data indicate that 10 to 20% of patients who are undergoing a CABG procedure have a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg/dl. There are few data on the impact of a mild increase in serum creatinine concentration on CABG outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a Veterans Affairs database obtained prospectively from 1992 through 1996 at 14 of 43 centers performing heart surgery. We compared the outcome after CABG in patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl (median 1.1 mg/dl, N = 3271) to patients with a baseline serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl (median 1.7, N = 631). RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl had a higher 30-day mortality (7% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation (15% vs. 8%, P = 0.001), stroke (7% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), renal failure requiring dialysis at discharge (3% vs. 1%, P < 0.001), and bleeding complications (8% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) than patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl had significantly lower (P < 0.02) 30-day mortality and postoperative bleeding and ventilatory complications than patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl when controlling for all other variables. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that mild renal failure is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome after CABG.  (+info)

Complete exon-intron organization of the mouse fibulin-1 gene and its comparison with the human fibulin-1 gene. (6/10211)

Fibulin-1 is a 90 kDa calcium-binding protein present in the extracellular matrix and in the blood. Two major variants, C and D, differ in their C-termini as well as the ability to bind the basement membrane protein nidogen. Here we characterized genomic clones encoding the mouse fibulin-1 gene, which contains 18 exons spanning at least 75 kb of DNA. The two variants are generated by alternative splicing of exons in the 3' end. By searching the database we identified most of the exons encoding the human fibulin-1 gene and showed that its exon-intron organization is similar to that of the mouse gene.  (+info)

Estimation of the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments in proteins using circular dichroism spectroscopy. (7/10211)

A simple approach to estimate the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments from protein circular dichroism spectra is described. The alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations in globular protein structures, assigned by DSSP and STRIDE algorithms, were divided into regular and distorted fractions by considering a certain number of terminal residues in a given alpha-helix or beta-strand segment to be distorted. The resulting secondary structure fractions for 29 reference proteins were used in the analyses of circular dichroism spectra by the SELCON method. From the performance indices of the analyses, we determined that, on an average, four residues per alpha-helix and two residues per beta-strand may be considered distorted in proteins. The number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments and their average length in a given protein were estimated from the fraction of distorted alpha-helix and beta-strand conformations determined from the analysis of circular dichroism spectra. The statistical test for the reference protein set shows the high reliability of such a classification of protein secondary structure. The method was used to analyze the circular dichroism spectra of four additional proteins and the predicted structural characteristics agree with the crystal structure data.  (+info)

A novel clan of zinc metallopeptidases with possible intramembrane cleavage properties. (8/10211)

Computer-based database searching and protein multiple sequence alignment has identified a novel clan of zinc metallopeptidases, which, by phylogenetic analysis, has been shown to contain six subfamilies. The family is characterized by four common transmembrane segments and three conserved sequence motifs. The combination of topology analysis and motif identification has detected three potential Zn2+ coordinating residues. Only two of the sequences of this novel zinc metallopeptidase clan possess any functional annotation, one of which is able to cleave its substrate within a cytosol/transmembrane segment junction. A number of observations suggest that the remaining members of this novel clan may also cleave their substrates within transmembrane segments.  (+info)

There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.

Some common examples of diseases include:

1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): This is a condition where stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that can cause pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can become inflamed and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
6. Constipation: This is a common condition where the stool is hard and difficult to pass, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as poor diet, dehydration, or certain medications.
7. Diabetes: This is a chronic condition that affects how the body regulates blood sugar levels, which can also affect the digestive system and cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
9. Lipidosis: This is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Sarcoidosis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs in the body, including the digestive system, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other conditions that can cause abdominal pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe abdominal pain, it's important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:

1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.

The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs

The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.

Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.

Prevention strategies for LBP include:

* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.

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Erickson, Hal (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Law Shows: Factual and Fictional Series About Judges, Lawyers and the ... "Awards for William Woolfolk". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved October 5, 2013. ...
... aggregating factual data into "databases" which may be covered by "database rights" or "database directives" (e.g. Directive on ... It may be unclear whether the factual data embedded in full text are part of the copyright. While the human abstraction of ... The abbreviation FAIR/O data is sometimes used to indicate that the dataset or database in question complies with the ... DBLP, which is owned by a non-profit organization Dagstuhl, offers its database of scientific publications from computer ...
... the IMDb online database states "2005" as the factual year of their renaming.) Golden Globe nomination and the Screen Actors ... Stage: Angel on My Shoulder 1980 "A Streetcar Named Desire (1992)". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. ibdb.com. ... "The Glass Menagerie (2005)". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. ibdb.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012. Portman, ... ": "Jessica Lange - Research & Preservation - Resources & Databases - Academy Awards Database". Academy Award. AMPAS. oscars. ...
An O-DB data base stored data element values and an IAM-DB database contained a data protection catalogue that stored so-called ... Yet, he argues, "The court's treatment of these apparent factual similarities could not have been more different." In Enfish, " ... A logical model is a system for a computer database that explains how the various elements of information in the database are ... The patents describe this as the "self-referential" property of the database. In a standard, conventional relational database, ...
"RTÉ Television - Programmes - Factual - Gioddaíup". RTÉ.ie. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 1 May ... "Dumha Locha/Doolough". Placenames Database of Ireland. Government of Ireland - Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. ...
Searching CD-ROM databases for non-English speaking users. New Library World (MCB Pub. London), 1995, (pp. 24-27.) Ali, S. ... Information on CD-ROM: a directory 2: Factual databanks and full-text files. Information Management (Mansell, Pub. London), Vol ... CD-ROM databases as an alternative means to online information: the experience of a university library in developing countries ... CD-ROM databases as an alternative means to online information: the experience of a university library in developing countries ...
This guide is sometimes referred to as the first best attempt to list factual information beyond the superhero comics. It was ... "The Grand Comic-Book Database" to "The Grand Comics Database". The Grand Comics Database is a volunteer organization of ... The Grand Comics Database (GCD) is an Internet-based project to build a database of comic book information through user ... A group of editors then vets each entry before the information is added to the database. The database currently has comic books ...
A customer database is a knowledge repository of customer information and insights - or electronic explicit knowledge. A ... The effective knowledge repositories include factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive techniques. The key features of ...
Factual: Applied Semantics Co-Founder Launches A Repository For Open Data All Things D - Catching Up With Factual CEO Gil Elbaz ... After graduation, Elbaz worked as a database engineer in Silicon Valley for seven years. In 1998, Elbaz and his Caltech ... sits on Factual's Board of Advisors. As of Q1 2018, Factual employs over 150 people, provides services to numerous users and ... Factual launched in October 2009. Elbaz self-funded the company for a little while, then in 2009 he raised over US$27 million ...
... substantial factual basis." While highlighting the essays on sea serpents, the extinction of the megafauna, the "strange story ... The Fringe of the Unknown title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database "L. Sprague de Camp. The Fringe of the ...
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards Database James G. Stewart at the AMPAS Awards Database[permanent dead link] ... 1988 BAFTA Award Nomination for Best Factual Series Music for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann (1992) Directed by Joshua Waletzky. ... "James G. Stewart: Post-Production Pioneer" Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards Database "The 15th Academy Awards ...
The Cinegy database allows for video material to be viewed on a BBC desktop computer. In 2012, a new programme archive database ... From 1992, the BBC Northern Ireland Archive used Strix to catalogue factual, sport, current affairs, entertainment programmes ... the Sports Library database took over cataloguing sport until 2008 when sport was taken over by the Digital Library database. ... This database contains the BBC's TV and Radio listings from 1923 to the present day. The data is taken from two sources: ...
It offers online databases, print and electronic books and magazines, children's programs, computer lab, DVDs, CDs, and ... From the convenience of home, library patrons have access to a wealth of authoritative factual information that is not freely ... The library system offers many information services to home users via the Internet such as electronic databases and ... branch when the library began offering a web-based catalog of its holdings and online reference databases. With help from the ...
Winnan, Judith (2 July 2008). "BBC Wales signs new Executive Editor, Factual and Music" (Press release). BBC. Retrieved 24 ... "Helen Richards". BFI Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Retrieved 24 March 2016. Hancox, Lewis (16 January 2013). " ... "My Transsexual Summer [08/11/2011] (2011)". BFI Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Retrieved 22 March 2016. "My ... "My Transsexual Summer [22/11/2011] (2011)". BFI Film & TV Database. British Film Institute. Retrieved 22 March 2016. "My ...
As well as the availability of satellite imagery, online public domain factual databases such as the CIA World Factbook have ... who in 1962 envisioned the creation of a Geoscope that would be a giant globe connected by computers to various databases. This ...
The perpetrator was aware of factual circumstances that established the existence of an armed conflict. Commentaries on ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, International Criminal Law Database & Commentary, p. footnotes: 29, 82, 107 ... International Criminal Law Database & Commentary, archived from the original on 9 May 2013, retrieved 1 April 2018) Elements ...
Canada's Awards Database. Glassman, Marc (April 16, 2007). "Hot Docs back and bigger than ever". Playback. Toronto. Marc ... Lees, Nicola (2010). Greenlit: Developing factual/reality TV ideas from concept to pitch. London: Methuen Drama/Bloomsbury. ...
There isn't any factual evidence to prove anything. As with most music history, it isn't certain. ... It is noted that about ... "UK Top 40 Hit Database". everyHit.com. Retrieved 25 August 2012. "Perfume Interview" (in Japanese). bounce.com. 7 February 2008 ...
Over 32 million records of factual data, such as physical properties (boiling/melting points, refractive indexes, etc.), ... The SPRESI data collection is one of the largest databases for organic chemistry worldwide. The database covers the scientific ... Alternatively the complete set or subsets of the database can be acquired as raw data in SDF/RDF chemical file format. Roth, ... The SPRESI database contains information on organic substances, including coverage of reactions, structures and properties. ...
Materials databases (MDBs) are powerful tools to address these problems. The development of factual materials databases began ... A materials database is a database used to store experimental, computational, standards, or design data for materials in such a ... A few web-enabled materials databases exist at present on the market. Materials information for CAD/CAM, Philip Sargent, 1991, ... for example containing standards data on metallic alloys and plastics or more complex database applications needed for design ...
Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from July 2015, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced ... NoSQL databases NoSQL databases are another type of database which can run in the cloud. NoSQL databases are built to service ... A cloud database is a database that typically runs on a cloud computing platform and access to the database is provided as-a- ... Database services consist of a database-manager component, which controls the underlying database instances using a service API ...
... or factual people parodied by the two, including, but not limited to, Adolf Hitler, historical Roman generals, Napoleon's ... Great Directors Critical Database Hans-Ulrich Obrist's Interview with Alexander Kluge Kluge-Müller interviews via Cornell ... Alexander Kluge at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (CS1 German-language sources (de), All articles with dead external ...
ATS-P processes available information from these databases to develop a risk assessment for each traveler. The risk assessment ... Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2011, Politics of the United States, Borders of the United States, ... database. ISIS serves to detect intrusion, aid in agent dispatching, and estimating attempts of illegal entry. "Fact Sheet: ...
Descriptive information is factual data that is being recorded. Factual data includes time and date, the state of the physical ... An online database of Charles Darwin's field notes (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Currently, nature phone apps and digital citizen science databases (like eBird) are changing the form and frequency of field ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2011, Wikipedia articles ... "The Jews of Poland". Beit Hatfutsot Open Databases Project, The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Simon Dubnow, ...
The Third Circuit remanded the case to the District Court to consider the factual basis for Schuchardt's allegations more ... the national e-mail database. The case is currently pending in the United States District Court for the Western District of ... which contends that the United States is unlawfully collecting and searching the national e-mail database. That lawsuit is ... Binney alleges that the United States government is both collecting and unlawfully searching the national e-mail database. The ...
However, there is no public access to the project database. Something the project representatives confirmed in Namibian press, ... on the factual issues of the basic income Archived 3 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Ronald Blaschke The basic income ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Articles with ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD010619. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010619.pub2. PMC 8078588. PMID 25061914. Lee, Su ...
When the diary, crammed with precise, factual information, began to circulate among his friends they quickly realised that here ... "Maundrell, Henry (1691-1693) (CCEd Person ID 1530)". The Clergy of the Church of England Database 1540-1835. Retrieved 2 ... at last was one of the first factual accounts of the antiquities of the Middle East. Its impact was such that he was persuaded ...
The Cloister Library - Killing Ground Killing Ground title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (Articles with ... a study of the Cybermen both as a concept and a factual possibility and used with Banks's permission. Wolverson, E.G. "Killing ...
... genealogy and automotive repair databases, and downloadable E-books and E-audio books, in addition to a shared catalog of ... Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2022, Articles with short description, Short description is ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles ... only four cases were found from three large databases. In a study by Tarvonen et al. (2019), it was demonstrated that the ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD006066. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6464257. PMID ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 (5): CD006066. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub3. PMC 6464257. PMID 28157275. ...
He also discovered that several of these essays were full of factual errors; the College Board does not claim to grade for ... Retrieved January 24, 2006, from College Board Preparation Database. Honawar, Vaishali; Klein, Alyson (August 30, 2006). "ACT ... factual accuracy. Perelman, along with the National Council of Teachers of English, also criticized the 25-minute writing ...
They had also stolen a database that listed Jews who lived in Venezuela. In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. ... as proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual. In 2004, the official ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2020, All articles with ... Marrow-Stem Kale - Plants for a Future database PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea (leaf cabbage) (Webarchive template wayback ...
CS1: long volume value, All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2009 ... "Soldiers and Sailors Database - The Civil War (U.S. National Park Service)". Itd.nps.gov. September 19, 2015. Archived from the ... Slave Ships and the Middle Passage at Encyclopedia Virginia The Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American slave trade databases at ... CS1 German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2016, CS1: Julian-Gregorian ...
Histone variants of H2B can be explored using "HistoneDB with Variants" database. Histone H2B is modified by a combination of ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles ... needing factual verification from September 2016, Proteins, DNA-binding proteins). ...
The site categorises mistakes into nine different areas: continuity, factual errors, mistakes that reveal the film-making ... Online film databases, Internet properties established in 1996). ...
"Academy Awards Database". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved ... an entertaining and factual look at the legend of Christopher Columbus. "It belongs to a period when hemispheric unity was a ... "Great American Documents". Grammy Search Database. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2017. "4th ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Citizen Kane". Grammy Search Database. Archived from the original on ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2011, All articles with ... "EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database". Université catholique de Louvain. "Millions in Hurricane Irene insurance claims in The ... Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2011, CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, Articles with dead ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2012, All articles with dead ... John Gunning was convicted of acquiring private subscriber information from British Telecom's database. Most of the evidence ... finally be entered into a computer database. Ten people were assigned the task. Yates himself did not look at the evidence ... looking for details of personal information kept on unregistered computer databases. The operation uncovered numerous invoices ...
ISBN 978-0-7864-8628-1. (All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September ... The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (7): CD009903. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009903.pub3. PMC 6543952. PMID 31150100. ... who have had the surgical procedure report their improvements on social media websites such as structured patient databases and ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Webarchive template ... According to the World Database on Protected Areas, 37% of Belize's land territory falls under some form of official protection ...
... database (Alexandria, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, ongoing). "In memory of John-Eric Holmes". Leber ... beginning with an early short story published in 1951 and factual articles on neurology for the science fiction magazine ... article by John Martin John Eric Holmes at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (All articles with dead external links, ...
Anime News Network [online database] The Big Cartoon DataBase [online database] Abel, Richard (2005). Encyclopedia of Early ... ISBN 978-0-7864-2099-5. -- (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Law Shows: Factual and Fictional Series About Judges, Lawyers and ... Studio System by Gracenote [online entertainment database] Variety Insight [online entertainment database] Shields, Brian, and ... TV Database - British cinema Box Office India - Indian cinema Christian Film Database - Christian cinema Ciné-Ressources - ...
All pages needing factual verification, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2018, 1947-1948 civil war in ... doi:10.1525/jps.2008.38.1.66.. Database: ProQuest (Accessed June 30, 2015) Ilan Pappe (2007). The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine ... 24 (4). Retrieved June 30, 2015.. Database: Academic OneFile Muhammad Hallaj (Autumn 2008). "Recollections of the Nakba through ...
Clergy Database. Rev. Matthew Robinson was also rector of Coveney (Rev. Conyers Middleton's parish) 1791-1804. Elizabeth ... semi-factual novel Watership Down. At this point the enclosed track ends at the Newbury (Wash Common)/Sandleford parish ...
It was a treasure-trove of then-new factual information on its subject, some of which retains value even today. Unfortunately, ... The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 10 March 2021. Waddell's ...
Connection at IMDb The French Connection at the TCM Movie Database The French Connection at the Internet Movie Cars Database ... factual reprise of one of the biggest narcotics hauls in New York police history that only the skeleton remains, but producer ...
Background: Maternal mortality is an indication of the health status of women in the society. Aims: To investigate the maternal mortality ratio, causes of maternal mortality, and related risk factors among Iranian women ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Databases, Factual ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Databases, Factual Publication Year 2012 ... Databases as Topic. Databases, Factual. Health Services Research -- methods. Information Services. Quality Improvement. Humans ... Databases, Factual. Disclosure. Fires -- statistics & numerical data. Guideline Adherence. Guidelines as Topic. Operating Rooms ... Databases, Factual. Federal Government. Government Regulation. Health Care Reform -- economics. Health Insurance Exchanges -- ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Databases, Factual ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Databases, Factual Publication Year 2005 ... 1. Evaluation of databases for drug risk adjustment: final report Author(s): NORC (Organization), author. Publication: Bethesda ...
Factual databases provide substantive content in the form of, e.g., guidelines for diagnosis and treatment; compendia of ... Box VII-1. Some Core Sources: Bibliographic and Factual Databases for HTA. Among the most commonly used are the following: ... Some of the most commonly used bibliographic and factual databases in HTA are listed in Box VII-1. Many additional ... Box VII-2. Additional Sources: Bibliographic and Factual Databases for HTA. The variety of additional generic and more specific ...
Online Database IRIS GIFT HINARI PubMed Global Health Library AFRO (AIM) EMRO (IMEMR) PAHO (LILACS) SEARO (IMSEAR) WIPRO (WPRIM ... WHOTERM : terminology database management system, version 1.0, for PCs running MS-DOS, users manual. by World Health ... Database of funding sources for research in environmental epidemiology. by World Health Organization. Office of Global and ... Compiling data for food composition data bases / William M. Rand ... [et al.] by Rand, William M , United Nations University. ...
Databases, Factual * Female * Geriatric Assessment * Health Services for the Aged / statistics & numerical data* ...
Databases, Factual [‎2]‎. dc.subject.mesh [‎1]‎. Death [‎2]‎. Death, Sudden [‎1]‎. ...
Databases, Factual * Influenza Vaccines * Registries * Surveillance * Vaccination Additional Document Info volume * 29 ...
significant technical or factual complexity. •. issues of significance or high sensitivity, or. •. a precedential ATO view is ...
Databases, Factual. Medical Informatics. Molecular Sequence Data. Software. Broad Subject Term(s):. Computational Biology. ...
Databases, Factual. Models, Biological. Population Surveillance--methods. Publication Types: Congress. Webcast Download. ...
The TEHIP program currently encompasses 16 databases offering a wide range of toxicology and environmental health information ... TEHIP FACTUAL DATABASES. Ten of the 16 TEHIP databases are factual databases and range from presenting original experimental ... A companion database to TRI is TRIFACTS, a factual database with information on the health effects, ecological effects, safety ... The common feature of factual databases is their presentation of factual data (Table 2.3); however, this information can vary ...
Databases, Factual [‎1]‎. DDT [‎1]‎. Death Certificates [‎2]‎. Decision Support Techniques [‎2]‎. ...
Databases, Factual. 9. 2022. 7895. 0.280. Why? Graft Rejection. 2. 2018. 4396. 0.270. Why? ...
HHS, PHS, and CDC assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content ... Databases. * Research articles downloadable database *The CDC Database of COVID-19 Research Articles is now a part of the WHO ... WHO COVID-19 research article databaseexternal icon *This database is compiled by the WHO and searches multiple databases. It ... The CDC Database of COVID-19 Research Articles is now a part of the WHO COVID-19 databaseexternal icon. Our search results are ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Recent trends in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms: analysis of a nationwide inpatient database. Andaluz N, Zuccarello M. ... Recent trends in the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: analysis of a nationwide inpatient database Norberto ... Recent trends in the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: analysis of a nationwide inpatient database Norberto ...
... structure and other database resources to promote the efficient retrieval of information and the discovery of novel ... Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... database value, author) by sequence (BLAST or e-PCR against multiple sequence databases), or by map coordinates. By computing ... 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D5-12. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl1031. Epub 2006 Dec 14. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007. PMID: 17170002 Free PMC ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... General Practice Research Database) and two claims databases (UnitedHealthcare, HMO Research Network). ... Only Database B had ADEs during long-term doxycycline with 3 ADEs or 0.9(0.2-2.6) ADEs/100,000 pds. For most events, the ... Zeng S, Zhang Z, Bai Y, Sun Y, Xu C. Zeng S, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 21;2(2):CD012305. doi: 10.1002/ ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... The literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE (via PUBMED) and SCOPUS databases following Preferred Reporting Items for ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... CellMiner Cross-Database (CellMinerCDB) version 1.2: Exploration of patient-derived cancer cell line pharmacogenomics. Luna A, ... CellMinerCDB: NCATS Is a Web-Based Portal Integrating Public Cancer Cell Line Databases for Pharmacogenomic Explorations ... Curation of cell lines and drug names enables cross-database (CDB) analyses. Comparison of the datasets is made possible by the ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the National PPM Tuberculosis Control Project in Korea: the Korean PPM Monitoring Database ... Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the National PPM Tuberculosis Control Project in Korea: the Korean PPM Monitoring Database ... Methods: The Korean PPM monitoring database includes data from patients registered at PPM hospitals throughout the country. ...
MeSH Terms: Animal Testing Alternatives*; Animals; Computational Biology/methods*; Databases, Factual*; Dermatitis, Allergic ...
Databases, Factual Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Methods: Public funding data were collected from the proprietor companys financial filings, grant databases, review of ...
Categories: Databases, Factual Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Refdesk: good for answering factual questions InfoPlease: good quick fact database Statistical Abstract of the United States: ... US Census Data HowStuffWorks: this is great when you want to know how to build a toaster or something Internet Movie Database: ...
Many factual questions can be answered directly using data from the museum database. One of our research questions is how well ... In CHIM, structured knowledge from museum databases on the one hand and language models trained on large data sets on the other ...
It may contain factual errors. See Talk:Batman, The (2022) for current discussions. Content is subject to change. ... From Internet Movie Firearms Database - Guns in Movies, TV and Video Games ...
keywords = "Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems, Databases, Factual, Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions, ... Electronic databases (1996-2011) were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PHARM-Line, and supplementary searching of ... Electronic databases (1996-2011) were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PHARM-Line, and supplementary searching of ... Electronic databases (1996-2011) were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PHARM-Line, and supplementary searching of ...
Factual databases (5) * Discipline based portals and link collections (4) * Research projects (4) ...
  • As always, we thank you for using our products and services, for suggesting improvements and for promoting the use of our databases and interfaces in your hospitals, medical centers, and companies. (nih.gov)
  • In CHIM, structured knowledge from museum databases on the one hand and language models trained on large data sets on the other hand are used for this purpose. (dfki.de)
  • Many factual questions can be answered directly using data from the museum database. (dfki.de)
  • The database contains data from both governmental and private research funding bodies - 11 in total. (vr.se)
  • Many of you may have heard that NLM is planning to expand PubMed with data from other NLM databases. (nih.gov)
  • I am comfortable with both using factual data based on research and presenting my own personal opinions in my writing. (freelancer.com)
  • This measurement gives factual data. (brighthub.com)
  • The Open Data Commons Attribution License is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Database subject only to the attribution requirements set out in Section 4. (physionet.org)
  • Sometimes the contents of a database, or the database itself, can be covered by other rights not addressed here (such as private contracts, trademark over the name, or privacy rights / data protection rights over information in the contents), and so you are advised that you may have to consult other documents or clear other rights before doing activities not covered by this License. (physionet.org)
  • For example, the contents of the Database could be factual data or works such as images, audiovisual material, text, or sounds. (physionet.org)
  • The Index Section creates and maintains the MEDLINE® database, coordinates data entry, indexing, and commentary contracts. (nih.gov)
  • These reports are based on the data obtained from the PRAT database. (nih.gov)
  • The most widely used of these resources for HTA are the large bibliographic databases, particularly MEDLINE, produced by NLM, and Embase, produced by Elsevier. (nih.gov)
  • On June 26, 1997, NLM announced that its MEDLINE database of more than 9 million references to articles published in 3800 biomedical journals may be accessed free of charge on the World Wide Web via PubMed and Internet Grateful Med. (nih.gov)
  • The biomedical literature is a tremendously rich information source, and the collection of abstracts in the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database summarizes that literature comprehensively. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, we report a system, EDGAR (Extraction of Drugs, Genes and Relations), designed to extract factual information from the MEDLINE database on the relationships between genes, drugs and cells. (nih.gov)
  • Among the major categories, bibliographic databases have indexed citations (or "records") for journal articles and other publications. (nih.gov)
  • The MEDLARS Management Section (MMS) provides access to bibliographic databases and publications through its overall development and management activities. (nih.gov)
  • 1999]. Our goal in this work is to extract factual assertions, in the form of first order predicate calculus statements, about the relationships between genes and drugs in cancer therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Database Right" - Means rights resulting from the Chapter III ("sui generis") rights in the Database Directive (as amended and as transposed by member states), which includes the Extraction and Re-utilisation of the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents, as well as any similar rights available in the relevant jurisdiction under Section 10.4. (physionet.org)
  • Approaches to the extraction of factual assertions from biomedical text vary widely. (nih.gov)
  • Academic libraries acquire e-books and manage a variety of e-book collections from a number of distributors, aggregators and publishers using their rich experience of negotiations from the earlier phase of working with e-journals and databases of full-text articles as well as other digital resources. (informationr.net)
  • The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references. (nih.gov)
  • These reviews are made available via the Cochrane Library, which also includes certain databases and registers produced by the Cochrane Collaboration as well as some produced by other organizations. (nih.gov)
  • The Database of Abstracts of Reviews and Dissemination (DARE) and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) are produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) at the University of York. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) produces chemistry-related databases, covering more than 9,500 journals and patents from 50 national and international patent offices with unrivaled currency. (piug.org)
  • Species 2000 is a "federation" of database organisations working closely with users, taxonomists and sponsoring agencies. (vifabio.de)
  • Please note that it has stopped updating as of October 9, 2020 and all new articles are now being integrated into the WHO COVID-19 database external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • The research projects in the database are classified by subject according to Statistics Sweden's classification standard from 2011. (vr.se)
  • Regardless of whether you are searching in the library catalogue, a subject-specific database or a search engine: the key to finding relevant literature is the search terms that you use. (reutlingen-university.de)
  • Some subject databases even offer a standardised key word index. (reutlingen-university.de)
  • The IP.com Prior Art Database is a unique database dedicated to the publication of technical disclosure documents. (piug.org)
  • The participating databases are widely distributed throughout the world and currently number 40. (vifabio.de)
  • With BizInt Smart Charts for Patents you can create reports from patent and literature databases on STN, Dialog, Questel*Orbit, MicroPatent and Delphion - and distribute HTML reports with automatically generated links to full patents. (piug.org)
  • Today, the database known as CLAIMS® represents the largest, most reliable, text-searchable, computerized collection of U.S. patents in the world. (piug.org)
  • Below are selected databases and journals to help researchers find scholarly articles about COVID-19 (2019 Novel Coronavirus). (cdc.gov)
  • Our search results are now being sent to the WHO COVID-19 Database external icon to make it easier for them to be searched, downloaded, and used by researchers worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Swecris is a national database, where you can see how the participating research funding bodies have distributed their funds to researchers in Sweden. (vr.se)
  • This database will be useful for engineers, researchers, and scientists to create new techniques to modernize and maximize operational efficiency of solar power harnessing. (brighthub.com)
  • ATSDR should immediately get access to the OREIS database, confirm these findings, and release this information to the public. (cdc.gov)
  • Database" - A collection of material (the Contents) arranged in a systematic or methodical way and individually accessible by electronic or other means offered under the terms of this License. (physionet.org)
  • Licensor" - Means the Person that offers the Database under the terms of this License. (physionet.org)
  • This study's objective was to estimate risks of severe ADEs associated with long-term ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, and amoxicillin exposure using three large databases: one electronic medical record (General Practice Research Database) and two claims databases (UnitedHealthcare, HMO Research Network). (nih.gov)
  • The PRAT program administrator maintains a database of fellows for application management, tracking, and reporting purposes. (nih.gov)
  • The existing global species databases presently account for some 40% of the total known species, so substantial investment in new databases will be needed for full coverage of all taxa to be achieved. (vifabio.de)
  • Derivative Database" - Means a database based upon the Database, and includes any translation, adaptation, arrangement, modification, or any other alteration of the Database or of a Substantial part of the Contents. (physionet.org)
  • This includes, but is not limited to, Extracting or Re-utilising the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents in a new Database. (opendatacommons.org)
  • The National Information Center on Health Services Research & Health Care Technology (NICHSR) of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides an extensive, organized set of the many, evolving databases, publications, outreach and training, and other information resources for HTA. (nih.gov)
  • This database is compiled by the National Library of Medicine from COVID-19 articles in PubMed. (cdc.gov)
  • As academic libraries were the main buyers of scholarly monographs that rarely appeared as entirely commercial products, the stress on library budgets from the acquisition of other electronic resources (e-journals, databases, e-textbooks) disrupts the existing business model of monograph production severely ( Svensson and Eriksson, 2013 ), so new ways for their distribution are sought (see www.knowledgeunlatched.org or www.oapen.org ). (informationr.net)
  • Hello, I'm Sheldon Kotzin and along with the other persons on the panel, I represent the National Library of Medicine staff who index, develop databases and their interfaces, and provide access and user support to these databases. (nih.gov)
  • The video "Searching Databases" from Yavapai College Library shows how you can use an advanced search to find more specific results. (reutlingen-university.de)
  • Databases can contain a wide variety of types of content (images, audiovisual material, and sounds all in the same database, for example), and so this license only governs the rights over the Database, and not the contents of the Database individually. (physionet.org)
  • While program directors perform periodic analyses of database content to assess PRAT fellows' career outcomes, no external evaluation of the program has ever been conducted. (nih.gov)
  • This statement cannot be supported by publicly available information from both DOE itself (documented in the OREIS database, the technical information that supports the DOE ORR's own ASER (Annual Site Environmental Report), and scientific reports of fish tissue content available from the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority). (cdc.gov)
  • It may contain factual errors. (imfdb.org)
  • However, Atira said in its statement that there were 'many factual errors' in a draft version of the report viewed by the non-profit's staff, which were not corrected in the final report. (yahoo.com)
  • ADE hospitalizations during long-term exposure were not observed in Database A. ADEs during long-term amoxicillin were seen only in Database C with 5 ADEs or 1.2(0.4-2.7) ADEs/100,000 pds exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Across the hundreds of publicly available electronic databases of potential relevance to HTA are various general types. (nih.gov)
  • Wistat : women's indicators and statistics database (version 3) : users' guide and reference manual. (who.int)
  • WHOTERM : terminology database management system, version 1.0, for PCs running MS-DOS, user's manual. (who.int)
  • The last version of the CDC COVID-19 database will be archived and remain available on this website. (cdc.gov)
  • At our exhibition stand learn about improved STN patent databases, including IPC version 8 (IPC 2006) changes, new features of the reloaded Derwent World Patent Index file, and new EPO Register Legal Status in our EP full-text file. (piug.org)
  • A plain language summary of the Open Database License is available as well as a plain text version . (opendatacommons.org)
  • The CDC Database of COVID-19 Research Articles is now a part of the WHO COVID-19 database external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • It does this primarily through MEDLARS® (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System), the Library's computer-based system for storing and retrieving bibliographic and factual information, and the printed products derived from this system, such as International Nursing Index, Index to Dental Literature, and others. (nih.gov)
  • WHOTERM : terminology database management system, thesaurus. (who.int)
  • Each database covers all known species in the group, using a consistent taxonomic system. (vifabio.de)
  • High levels of these specific radionuclides have been earmarked in the OREIS (Oak Ridge Environmental Information System) database for decades. (cdc.gov)
  • Referral databases provide information about organizations, services and other information sources. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, there are certain specialized or more focused databases in such areas as ongoing clinical trials and their results (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • The database is specifically designed for scientists. (piug.org)
  • Collective Database" - Means this Database in unmodified form as part of a collection of independent databases in themselves that together are assembled into a collective whole. (physionet.org)
  • Patent Chemistry Database is a structure-, reaction- and text-searchable database of patent information from chemistry and life science patent publications (World, U.S., and European) since 1976. (piug.org)
  • 1998] to extract factual assertions from text. (nih.gov)
  • Some databases and journals are accessible only to those with a CDC user id and password. (cdc.gov)
  • Personal identity numbers, ORCID ID and email addresses are included in the database for quality reasons, and are not openly accessible. (vr.se)
  • Tip: It is always worth looking in the help function of the respective databases to find out which tricks work best for that database, for example which wildcards can be used. (reutlingen-university.de)
  • Conveying does not include interaction with a user through a computer network, or creating and Using a Produced Work, where no transfer of a copy of the Database or a Derivative Database occurs. (physionet.org)
  • A work that constitutes a Collective Database will not be considered a Derivative Database. (opendatacommons.org)
  • Members of Reutlingen University can log into our VPN to access our e-books, electronic journals and licensed databases when off-campus. (reutlingen-university.de)
  • This is being achieved by bringing together an array of global species databases covering each of the major groups of organisms. (vifabio.de)
  • Our BizInt Smart Charts software helps you create, customize, and distribute tabular reports from patent and drug pipeline databases. (piug.org)
  • The Open Database License (ODbL) is a license agreement intended to allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Database while maintaining this same freedom for others. (opendatacommons.org)
  • Finally, the ODbL is also an agreement in contract for users of this Database to act in certain ways in return for accessing this Database. (opendatacommons.org)
  • Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, as amended or succeeded. (physionet.org)
  • The database covers the years from 2007 and onwards. (vr.se)
  • Contents" - The contents of this Database, which includes the information, independent works, or other material collected into the Database. (physionet.org)