Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
'Mining' in medical terminology is not a commonly used term, but it can refer to the process of extracting or excavating minerals or other resources from the earth, which can have health impacts such as respiratory diseases and hearing loss among workers in the mining industry.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
'Coal mining' is not a medical term, but it refers to the process of extracting coal from the ground by mechanical or manual means.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Computer-based systems that enable management to interrogate the computer on an ad hoc basis for various kinds of information in the organization, which predict the effect of potential decisions.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Data mining of the GAW14 simulated data using rough set theory and tree-based methods. (1/1202)

Rough set theory and decision trees are data mining methods used for dealing with vagueness and uncertainty. They have been utilized to unearth hidden patterns in complicated datasets collected for industrial processes. The Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data were generated using a system that implemented multiple correlations among four consequential layers of genetic data (disease-related loci, endophenotypes, phenotypes, and one disease trait). When information of one layer was blocked and uncertainty was created in the correlations among these layers, the correlation between the first and last layers (susceptibility genes and the disease trait in this case), was not easily directly detected. In this study, we proposed a two-stage process that applied rough set theory and decision trees to identify genes susceptible to the disease trait. During the first stage, based on phenotypes of subjects and their parents, decision trees were built to predict trait values. Phenotypes retained in the decision trees were then advanced to the second stage, where rough set theory was applied to discover the minimal subsets of genes associated with the disease trait. For comparison, decision trees were also constructed to map susceptible genes during the second stage. Our results showed that the decision trees of the first stage had accuracy rates of about 99% in predicting the disease trait. The decision trees and rough set theory failed to identify the true disease-related loci.  (+info)

Wind data mining by Kohonen Neural Networks. (2/1202)

Time series of Circulation Weather Type (CWT), including daily averaged wind direction and vorticity, are self-classified by similarity using Kohonen Neural Networks (KNN). It is shown that KNN is able to map by similarity all 7300 five-day CWT sequences during the period of 1975-94, in London, United Kingdom. It gives, as a first result, the most probable wind sequences preceding each one of the 27 CWT Lamb classes in that period. Inversely, as a second result, the observed diffuse correlation between both five-day CWT sequences and the CWT of the 6(th) day, in the long 20-year period, can be generalized to predict the last from the previous CWT sequence in a different test period, like 1995, as both time series are similar. Although the average prediction error is comparable to that obtained by forecasting standard methods, the KNN approach gives complementary results, as they depend only on an objective classification of observed CWT data, without any model assumption. The 27 CWT of the Lamb Catalogue were coded with binary three-dimensional vectors, pointing to faces, edges and vertex of a "wind-cube," so that similar CWT vectors were close.  (+info)

Integrating protein-protein interactions and text mining for protein function prediction. (3/1202)

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Rapid identification of PAX2/5/8 direct downstream targets in the otic vesicle by combinatorial use of bioinformatics tools. (4/1202)

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Collaborative text-annotation resource for disease-centered relation extraction from biomedical text. (5/1202)

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Text-mining approach to evaluate terms for ontology development. (6/1202)

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Figure mining for biomedical research. (7/1202)

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PubMed-EX: a web browser extension to enhance PubMed search with text mining features. (8/1202)

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Data mining, in the context of health informatics and medical research, refers to the process of discovering patterns, correlations, and insights within large sets of patient or clinical data. It involves the use of advanced analytical techniques such as machine learning algorithms, statistical models, and artificial intelligence to identify and extract useful information from complex datasets.

The goal of data mining in healthcare is to support evidence-based decision making, improve patient outcomes, and optimize resource utilization. Applications of data mining in healthcare include predicting disease outbreaks, identifying high-risk patients, personalizing treatment plans, improving clinical workflows, and detecting fraud and abuse in healthcare systems.

Data mining can be performed on various types of healthcare data, including electronic health records (EHRs), medical claims databases, genomic data, imaging data, and sensor data from wearable devices. However, it is important to ensure that data mining techniques are used ethically and responsibly, with appropriate safeguards in place to protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "mining" is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. It is most commonly associated with the extraction of minerals from the earth in the field of geology and mining engineering. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is a fossil fuel that is formed from the accumulation and decomposition of plants over millions of years. It is primarily used as a source of energy for electricity generation, as well as for heating and industrial processes.

There are two main types of coal mining: surface mining and underground mining. Surface mining involves removing the soil and rock above the coal seam to access the coal, while underground mining involves sinking shafts and tunnels into the earth to reach the coal. Both methods have their own set of benefits and challenges, and the choice of which method to use depends on various factors such as the depth and location of the coal seam, the geology of the area, and environmental concerns.

Coal mining can be a dangerous occupation, with risks including accidents, explosions, and exposure to harmful dust and gases. As a result, it is essential that coal miners receive proper training and equipment to minimize these risks and ensure their safety. Additionally, coal mining has significant environmental impacts, including deforestation, habitat destruction, and water pollution, which must be carefully managed to minimize harm.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

A decision tree is a graphical representation of possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. It is a predictive modeling tool commonly used in statistics, data mining, and machine learning. In the medical field, decision trees can be used for clinical decision-making and predicting patient outcomes based on various factors such as symptoms, test results, or demographic information.

In a decision tree, each internal node represents a feature or attribute, and each branch represents a possible value or outcome of that feature. The leaves of the tree represent the final decisions or predictions. Decision trees are constructed by recursively partitioning the data into subsets based on the most significant attributes until a stopping criterion is met.

Decision trees can be used for both classification and regression tasks, making them versatile tools in medical research and practice. They can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, identify high-risk patients, and develop personalized treatment plans. However, it's important to note that decision trees are only as good as the data they are trained on, and their accuracy may be affected by biases or limitations in the data.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) in the context of management refer to computerized systems that help managers and decision-makers make informed decisions by providing data, models, and analytical tools. DSSs are designed to augment human judgment and expertise by providing access to relevant information, identifying patterns and trends, and simulating different scenarios.

DSSs in management can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Data analysis: DSSs can analyze large datasets to identify trends, correlations, and other insights that can inform decision-making. This can include data visualization tools, statistical models, and machine learning algorithms.
2. Modeling and simulation: DSSs can help managers simulate different scenarios and model the potential outcomes of various decisions. This can include financial modeling, risk analysis, and what-if scenario planning.
3. Collaboration and communication: DSSs can facilitate collaboration and communication among team members, stakeholders, and other decision-makers. This can include features like shared workspaces, discussion forums, and document management systems.
4. Knowledge management: DSSs can help managers capture, organize, and share knowledge and expertise across the organization. This can include features like expert systems, ontologies, and semantic networks.

DSSs in management are typically used to support semi-structured and unstructured decision-making processes, where there is no clear-cut solution or where the problem requires a high degree of expertise and judgment. They are designed to be flexible, adaptable, and user-friendly, allowing managers to customize their use to fit their specific needs and preferences.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Natural Language Processing" (NLP) is actually a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It involves developing algorithms and software to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a valuable way.

In a medical context, NLP can be used to analyze electronic health records, clinical notes, and other forms of medical documentation to extract meaningful information, support clinical decision-making, and improve patient care. For example, NLP can help identify patients at risk for certain conditions, monitor treatment responses, and detect adverse drug events.

However, NLP is not a medical term or concept itself, so it doesn't have a specific medical definition.

PubMed is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical literature search engine and database maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It provides access to life sciences literature, including journal articles in medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, and preclinical sciences.

PubMed contains more than 30 million citations and abstracts from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Many of the citations include links to full-text articles on publishers' websites or through NCBI's DocSumo service. Researchers, healthcare professionals, students, and the general public use PubMed to find relevant and reliable information in the biomedical literature for research, education, and patient care purposes.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Computer graphics is the field of study and practice related to creating images and visual content using computer technology. It involves various techniques, algorithms, and tools for generating, manipulating, and rendering digital images and models. These can include 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, visualization, and image processing. Computer graphics is used in a wide range of applications, including video games, movies, scientific simulations, medical imaging, architectural design, and data visualization.

A protein database is a type of biological database that contains information about proteins and their structures, functions, sequences, and interactions with other molecules. These databases can include experimentally determined data, such as protein sequences derived from DNA sequencing or mass spectrometry, as well as predicted data based on computational methods.

Some examples of protein databases include:

1. UniProtKB: a comprehensive protein database that provides information about protein sequences, functions, and structures, as well as literature references and links to other resources.
2. PDB (Protein Data Bank): a database of three-dimensional protein structures determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
3. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): a web-based tool that allows users to compare a query protein sequence against a protein database to identify similar sequences and potential functional relationships.
4. InterPro: a database of protein families, domains, and functional sites that provides information about protein function based on sequence analysis and other data.
5. STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins): a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions, including physical and functional associations.

Protein databases are essential tools in proteomics research, enabling researchers to study protein function, evolution, and interaction networks on a large scale.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

Automated Pattern Recognition in a medical context refers to the use of computer algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques to identify, classify, and analyze specific patterns or trends in medical data. This can include recognizing visual patterns in medical images, such as X-rays or MRIs, or identifying patterns in large datasets of physiological measurements or electronic health records.

The goal of automated pattern recognition is to assist healthcare professionals in making more accurate diagnoses, monitoring disease progression, and developing personalized treatment plans. By automating the process of pattern recognition, it can help reduce human error, increase efficiency, and improve patient outcomes.

Examples of automated pattern recognition in medicine include using machine learning algorithms to identify early signs of diabetic retinopathy in eye scans or detecting abnormal heart rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs). These techniques can also be used to predict patient risk based on patterns in their medical history, such as identifying patients who are at high risk for readmission to the hospital.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short, single-pass DNA sequences that are derived from cDNA libraries. They represent a quick and cost-effective method for large-scale sequencing of gene transcripts and provide an unbiased view of the genes being actively expressed in a particular tissue or developmental stage. ESTs can be used to identify and study new genes, to analyze patterns of gene expression, and to develop molecular markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Systems Integration" is not a medical term per se. It is a term more commonly used in the fields of engineering, computer science, and information technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Systems Integration refers to the process of combining different sub-systems or components into a single, cohesive system to allow seamless communication and data exchange between them. This integration aims to improve efficiency, performance, and overall functionality by unifying various standalone systems into an interconnected network that behaves as a unified whole.

In the context of healthcare, systems integration can be applied to merge different electronic health record (EHR) systems, medical devices, or other healthcare technologies to create a comprehensive, interoperable healthcare information system. This facilitates better care coordination, data sharing, and decision-making among healthcare providers, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction.

Hospital administrators are healthcare professionals who manage and oversee the operations, resources, and services of a hospital or healthcare facility. They play a crucial role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly, efficiently, and cost-effectively while maintaining high-quality patient care and safety standards.

Their responsibilities typically include:

1. Developing and implementing policies, procedures, and strategic plans for the hospital.
2. Managing the hospital's budget, finances, and resources, including human resources, equipment, and supplies.
3. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards.
4. Overseeing the quality of patient care and safety programs.
5. Developing and maintaining relationships with medical staff, community partners, and other stakeholders.
6. Managing risk management and emergency preparedness plans.
7. Providing leadership, direction, and support to hospital staff.
8. Representing the hospital in negotiations with insurance companies, government agencies, and other external entities.

Hospital administrators may have varying levels of responsibility, ranging from managing a single department or unit within a hospital to overseeing an entire healthcare system. They typically hold advanced degrees in healthcare administration, public health, business administration, or a related field, and may also be certified by professional organizations such as the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE).

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Reporting Systems are spontaneous reporting systems used for monitoring the safety of authorized medicines in clinical practice. These systems collect and manage reports of suspected adverse drug reactions from healthcare professionals, patients, and pharmaceutical companies. The primary objective of ADR reporting systems is to identify new risks or previously unrecognized risks associated with the use of a medication, monitor the frequency and severity of known adverse effects, and contribute to post-marketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance activities.

Healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, are encouraged to voluntarily report any suspected adverse drug reactions they encounter during their practice. In some countries, patients can also directly report any suspected adverse reactions they experience after taking a medication. Pharmaceutical companies are obligated to submit reports of adverse events identified through their own pharmacovigilance activities or from post-marketing surveillance studies.

The data collected through ADR reporting systems are analyzed to identify signals, which are defined as new, changing, or unknown safety concerns related to a medicine or vaccine. Signals are further investigated and evaluated for causality and clinical significance. If a signal is confirmed, regulatory actions may be taken, such as updating the product label, issuing safety communications, or restricting the use of the medication.

Examples of ADR reporting systems include the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) EudraVigilance, and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

Medline is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical bibliographic database, which is a component of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)'s PubMed system. It contains citations and abstracts from scientific literature in the fields of life sciences, biomedicine, and clinical medicine, with a focus on articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Medline covers a wide range of topics, including research articles, reviews, clinical trials, and case reports. The database is updated daily and provides access to over 26 million references from the years 1946 to the present. It's an essential resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and students in the biomedical field.

Protein sequence analysis is the systematic examination and interpretation of the amino acid sequence of a protein to understand its structure, function, evolutionary relationships, and other biological properties. It involves various computational methods and tools to analyze the primary structure of proteins, which is the linear arrangement of amino acids along the polypeptide chain.

Protein sequence analysis can provide insights into several aspects, such as:

1. Identification of functional domains, motifs, or sites within a protein that may be responsible for its specific biochemical activities.
2. Comparison of homologous sequences from different organisms to infer evolutionary relationships and determine the degree of similarity or divergence among them.
3. Prediction of secondary and tertiary structures based on patterns of amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, and charge distribution.
4. Detection of post-translational modifications that may influence protein function, localization, or stability.
5. Identification of protease cleavage sites, signal peptides, or other sequence features that play a role in protein processing and targeting.

Some common techniques used in protein sequence analysis include:

1. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA): A method to align multiple protein sequences to identify conserved regions, gaps, and variations.
2. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): A widely-used tool for comparing a query protein sequence against a database of known sequences to find similarities and infer function or evolutionary relationships.
3. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Statistical models used to describe the probability distribution of amino acid sequences in protein families, allowing for more sensitive detection of remote homologs.
4. Protein structure prediction: Methods that use various computational approaches to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence.
5. Phylogenetic analysis: The construction and interpretation of evolutionary trees (phylogenies) based on aligned protein sequences, which can provide insights into the historical relationships among organisms or proteins.

I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding. Programming languages are a field of study in computer science and are not related to medicine. They are used to create computer programs, through the composition of symbols and words. Some popular programming languages include Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript. If you have any questions about programming or computer science, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

A bibliographic database is a type of database that contains records of publications, such as books, articles, and conference proceedings. These records typically include bibliographic information, such as the title, author, publication date, and source of the publication. Some bibliographic databases also include abstracts or summaries of the publications, and many provide links to the full text of the publications if they are available online.

Bibliographic databases are used in a variety of fields, including academia, medicine, and industry, to locate relevant publications on a particular topic. They can be searched using keywords, author names, and other criteria. Some bibliographic databases are general, covering a wide range of topics, while others are specialized and focus on a specific subject area.

In the medical field, bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed are widely used to search for articles related to biomedical research, clinical practice, and public health. These databases contain records of articles from thousands of biomedical journals and can be searched using keywords, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, and other criteria.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

A nucleic acid database is a type of biological database that contains sequence, structure, and functional information about nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. These databases are used in various fields of biology, including genomics, molecular biology, and bioinformatics, to store, search, and analyze nucleic acid data.

Some common types of nucleic acid databases include:

1. Nucleotide sequence databases: These databases contain the primary nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA molecules from various organisms. Examples include GenBank, EMBL-Bank, and DDBJ.
2. Structure databases: These databases contain three-dimensional structures of nucleic acids determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Examples include the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB).
3. Functional databases: These databases contain information about the functions of nucleic acids, such as their roles in gene regulation, transcription, and translation. Examples include the Gene Ontology (GO) database and the RegulonDB.
4. Genome databases: These databases contain genomic data for various organisms, including whole-genome sequences, gene annotations, and genetic variations. Examples include the Human Genome Database (HGD) and the Ensembl Genome Browser.
5. Comparative databases: These databases allow for the comparison of nucleic acid sequences or structures across different species or conditions. Examples include the Comparative RNA Web (CRW) Site and the Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM) system.

Nucleic acid databases are essential resources for researchers to study the structure, function, and evolution of nucleic acids, as well as to develop new tools and methods for analyzing and interpreting nucleic acid data.

Drug repositioning, also known as drug repurposing or therapeutic switching, refers to the process of discovering new uses for approved or investigational drugs that are outside the scope of their original medical indication. This strategy leverages existing knowledge about a drug's safety, efficacy, and pharmacological properties to expedite development and reduce costs compared to de novo drug discovery. By finding new therapeutic applications for existing drugs, drug repositioning can provide faster and more cost-effective treatment options for various diseases, including neglected and rare disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hypermedia" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hypermedia is a general term used in information technology and computing to describe a non-linear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, text, and hyperlinks. It allows users to navigate through the information in a flexible, non-sequential manner by clicking on hyperlinks that connect related pieces of information.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

A controlled vocabulary in a medical context refers to a specific set of standardized terms and phrases that are used in clinical documentation and communication. These vocabularies are often created and maintained by professional organizations or governmental bodies to ensure consistency, accuracy, and interoperability in the sharing and retrieval of health information.

Controlled vocabularies can include terminologies such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), and RxNorm, among others. By using a controlled vocabulary, healthcare providers can more easily share and analyze health data, support clinical decision-making, and facilitate accurate coding and billing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "knowledge bases" is a general term that refers to structured collections of knowledge in a specific field or area, and it is not a medical term with a defined meaning in the medical field. Knowledge bases can be found in many fields, including medicine, and they typically take the form of databases or repositories of information that are used to store, organize, and retrieve knowledge. In the medical field, knowledge bases might include information about diseases, treatments, medications, and other medical topics. They can be used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to access accurate and reliable information.

A Computerized Medical Record System (CMRS) is a digital version of a patient's paper chart. It contains all of the patient's medical history from multiple providers and can be shared securely between healthcare professionals. A CMRS includes a range of data such as demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data, and radiology reports. The system facilitates the storage, retrieval, and exchange of this information in an efficient manner, and can also provide decision support, alerts, reminders, and tools for performing data analysis and creating reports. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by providing accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive information about patients at the point of care.

Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. It encompasses the monitoring and regulation of medicines throughout their lifecycle, including pre-marketing (clinical trials) and post-marketing phases (surveillance in the general population). The primary goal of pharmacovigilance is to ensure that the benefits of a medicine outweigh its risks, thereby protecting public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "search engine" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of information technology and refers to a software system or application that searches for items in a database, on the World Wide Web, or within an intranet and returns relevant results based on specific keywords or phrases input by the user. Examples of popular search engines include Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

If you have any medical questions or concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)

Where:

* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

I must clarify that there is no specific medical definition for "Software Design." Software design is a term used in the field of software engineering and development, which includes the creation of detailed plans, schemas, and models that describe how a software system or application should be constructed and implemented. This process involves various activities such as defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, data structures, and algorithms required to build the software system.

However, in the context of medical software or healthcare applications, software design would still refer to the planning and structuring of the software system but with a focus on addressing specific needs and challenges within the medical domain. This might include considerations for data privacy and security, regulatory compliance (such as HIPAA or GDPR), integration with existing health IT systems, user experience (UX) design for healthcare professionals and patients, and evidence-based decision support features.

Medical Informatics, also known as Healthcare Informatics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the systematic processing and analysis of data, information, and knowledge in healthcare and biomedicine. It involves the development and application of theories, methods, and tools to create, acquire, store, retrieve, share, use, and reuse health-related data and knowledge for clinical, educational, research, and administrative purposes. Medical Informatics encompasses various areas such as bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, and translational bioinformatics. It aims to improve healthcare delivery, patient outcomes, and biomedical research through the effective use of information technology and data management strategies.

Proteomics is the large-scale study and analysis of proteins, including their structures, functions, interactions, modifications, and abundance, in a given cell, tissue, or organism. It involves the identification and quantification of all expressed proteins in a biological sample, as well as the characterization of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and functional pathways. Proteomics can provide valuable insights into various biological processes, diseases, and drug responses, and has applications in basic research, biomedicine, and clinical diagnostics. The field combines various techniques from molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and bioinformatics to study proteins at a systems level.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

Automatic Data Processing (ADP) is not a medical term, but a general business term that refers to the use of computers and software to automate and streamline administrative tasks and processes. In a medical context, ADP may be used in healthcare settings to manage electronic health records (EHRs), billing and coding, insurance claims processing, and other data-intensive tasks.

The goal of using ADP in healthcare is to improve efficiency, accuracy, and timeliness of administrative processes, while reducing costs and errors associated with manual data entry and management. By automating these tasks, healthcare providers can focus more on patient care and less on paperwork, ultimately improving the quality of care delivered to patients.

Molecular sequence annotation is the process of identifying and describing the characteristics, functional elements, and relevant information of a DNA, RNA, or protein sequence at the molecular level. This process involves marking the location and function of various features such as genes, regulatory regions, coding and non-coding sequences, intron-exon boundaries, promoters, introns, untranslated regions (UTRs), binding sites for proteins or other molecules, and post-translational modifications in a given molecular sequence.

The annotation can be manual, where experts curate and analyze the data to predict features based on biological knowledge and experimental evidence. Alternatively, computational methods using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms can be employed for automated annotation. These tools often rely on comparative analysis, pattern recognition, and machine learning techniques to identify conserved sequence patterns, motifs, or domains that are associated with specific functions.

The annotated molecular sequences serve as valuable resources in genomic and proteomic studies, contributing to the understanding of gene function, evolutionary relationships, disease associations, and biotechnological applications.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like you are asking for a medical definition of "Information Management." It is important to note that "Information Management" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in many fields, including healthcare. Here's a possible definition of Information Management in the context of healthcare:

Information Management (in healthcare) refers to the systematic processes and practices used to collect, store, distribute, retrieve, and dispose of health information in an accurate, confidential, timely, and efficient manner. It involves the use of technology, policies, procedures, and personnel to ensure that health information is accessible, secure, and used appropriately for patient care, research, quality improvement, and other purposes. Effective Information Management is critical for ensuring high-quality healthcare, improving patient outcomes, and complying with legal and regulatory requirements related to privacy and security of health information.

The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced or present in an organism, system, organ, or cell at a certain time under specific conditions. It is a dynamic collection of protein species that changes over time, responding to various internal and external stimuli such as disease, stress, or environmental factors. The study of the proteome, known as proteomics, involves the identification and quantification of these protein components and their post-translational modifications, providing valuable insights into biological processes, functional pathways, and disease mechanisms.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Systems Biology is a multidisciplinary approach to studying biological systems that involves the integration of various scientific disciplines such as biology, mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. It aims to understand how biological components, including genes, proteins, metabolites, cells, and organs, interact with each other within the context of the whole system. This approach emphasizes the emergent properties of biological systems that cannot be explained by studying individual components alone. Systems biology often involves the use of computational models to simulate and predict the behavior of complex biological systems and to design experiments for testing hypotheses about their functioning. The ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how biological systems function, with applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering.

Protein interaction mapping is a research approach used to identify and characterize the physical interactions between different proteins within a cell or organism. This process often involves the use of high-throughput experimental techniques, such as yeast two-hybrid screening, mass spectrometry-based approaches, or protein fragment complementation assays, to detect and quantify the binding affinities of protein pairs. The resulting data is then used to construct a protein interaction network, which can provide insights into functional relationships between proteins, help elucidate cellular pathways, and inform our understanding of biological processes in health and disease.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Support Vector Machines (SVM) is not a medical term, but a concept in machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence. SVM is used in various fields including medicine for data analysis and pattern recognition. Here's a brief explanation of SVM:

Support Vector Machines is a supervised learning algorithm which analyzes data and recognizes patterns, used for classification and regression analysis. The goal of SVM is to find the optimal boundary or hyperplane that separates data into different classes with the maximum margin. This margin is the distance between the hyperplane and the nearest data points, also known as support vectors. By finding this optimal boundary, SVM can effectively classify new data points.

In the context of medical research, SVM has been used for various applications such as:

* Classifying medical images (e.g., distinguishing between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues)
* Predicting patient outcomes based on clinical or genetic data
* Identifying biomarkers associated with diseases
* Analyzing electronic health records to predict disease risk or treatment response

Therefore, while SVM is not a medical term per se, it is an important tool in the field of medical informatics and bioinformatics.

Decision Support Systems (DSS), Clinical are interactive computer-based information systems that help health care professionals and patients make informed clinical decisions. These systems use patient-specific data and clinical knowledge to generate patient-centered recommendations. They are designed to augment the decision-making abilities of clinicians, providing evidence-based suggestions while allowing for the integration of professional expertise, patient preferences, and values. Clinical DSS can support various aspects of healthcare delivery, including diagnosis, treatment planning, resource allocation, and quality improvement. They may incorporate a range of technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics, to facilitate the processing and interpretation of complex clinical information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Drug discovery is the process of identifying new chemical entities or biological agents that have the potential to be used as therapeutic or preventive treatments for diseases. This process involves several stages, including target identification, lead identification, hit-to-lead optimization, lead optimization, preclinical development, and clinical trials.

Target identification is the initial stage of drug discovery, where researchers identify a specific molecular target, such as a protein or gene, that plays a key role in the disease process. Lead identification involves screening large libraries of chemical compounds or natural products to find those that interact with the target molecule and have potential therapeutic activity.

Hit-to-lead optimization is the stage where researchers optimize the chemical structure of the lead compound to improve its potency, selectivity, and safety profile. Lead optimization involves further refinement of the compound's structure to create a preclinical development candidate. Preclinical development includes studies in vitro (in test tubes or petri dishes) and in vivo (in animals) to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the drug candidate.

Clinical trials are conducted in human volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the drug candidate in treating the disease. If the drug is found to be safe and effective in clinical trials, it may be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients.

Overall, drug discovery is a complex and time-consuming process that requires significant resources, expertise, and collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and industry partners.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is not a medical term, but a statistical technique that is used in various fields including bioinformatics and medicine. It is a method used to identify patterns in high-dimensional data by reducing the dimensionality of the data while retaining most of the variation in the dataset.

In medical or biological research, PCA may be used to analyze large datasets such as gene expression data or medical imaging data. By applying PCA, researchers can identify the principal components, which are linear combinations of the original variables that explain the maximum amount of variance in the data. These principal components can then be used for further analysis, visualization, and interpretation of the data.

PCA is a widely used technique in data analysis and has applications in various fields such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and medical imaging. It helps researchers to identify patterns and relationships in complex datasets, which can lead to new insights and discoveries in medical research.

A human genome is the complete set of genetic information contained within the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of most human cells. It includes all of the genes, which are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins, as well as non-coding regions of DNA that regulate gene expression and provide structural support to the chromosomes.

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and is estimated to contain around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003 as part of the Human Genome Project, which has had a profound impact on our understanding of human biology, disease, and evolution.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) are complex systems of molecular interactions that regulate the expression of genes within an organism. These networks consist of various types of regulatory elements, including transcription factors, enhancers, promoters, and silencers, which work together to control when, where, and to what extent a gene is expressed.

In GRNs, transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of target genes, either activating or repressing their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular signals that modulate the activity of transcription factors, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions.

The structure and behavior of GRNs can be represented as a network of nodes (genes) and edges (regulatory interactions), with the strength and directionality of these interactions determined by the specific molecular mechanisms involved. Understanding the organization and dynamics of GRNs is crucial for elucidating the underlying causes of various biological processes, including development, differentiation, homeostasis, and disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

An Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient's medical history that is stored and maintained electronically rather than on paper. It contains comprehensive information about a patient's health status, including their medical history, medications, allergies, test results, immunization records, and other relevant health information. EHRs can be shared among authorized healthcare providers, which enables better coordination of care, improved patient safety, and more efficient delivery of healthcare services.

EHRs are designed to provide real-time, patient-centered records that make it easier for healthcare providers to access up-to-date and accurate information about their patients. They can also help reduce errors, prevent duplicative tests and procedures, and improve communication among healthcare providers. EHRs may include features such as clinical decision support tools, which can alert healthcare providers to potential drug interactions or other health risks based on a patient's medical history.

EHRs are subject to various regulations and standards to ensure the privacy and security of patients' health information. In the United States, for example, EHRs must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, which sets national standards for the protection of personal health information.

Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions refer to any unintended or harmful outcome that occurs during the use of a medication. These reactions can be mild or severe and may include predictable, known responses (side effects) as well as unexpected, idiosyncratic reactions (adverse effects). Side effects are typically related to the pharmacologic properties of the drug and occur at therapeutic doses, while adverse reactions may result from allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, overdoses, or interactions with other medications or substances.

Side effects are often dose-dependent and can be managed by adjusting the dose, frequency, or route of administration. Adverse reactions, on the other hand, may require discontinuation of the medication or treatment with antidotes or supportive care. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for any signs of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions and to take appropriate action when necessary.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "workflow" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in many fields, including healthcare, to describe a series of steps or tasks that are necessary to complete a process or task. In the context of healthcare, workflows often refer to the processes and procedures involved in delivering care to patients.

A medical definition of "workflow" might be:

The sequence of tasks or activities involved in providing clinical care to patients, including assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, intervention, monitoring, and follow-up. Workflows may involve multiple healthcare providers, such as physicians, nurses, therapists, and other staff members, and may be supported by technology, such as electronic health records (EHRs) or other clinical information systems. Effective workflow design is critical to ensuring safe, timely, and efficient care delivery.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

In the context of medicine, classification refers to the process of categorizing or organizing diseases, disorders, injuries, or other health conditions based on their characteristics, symptoms, causes, or other factors. This helps healthcare professionals to understand, diagnose, and treat various medical conditions more effectively.

There are several well-known classification systems in medicine, such as:

1. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), it is used worldwide for mortality and morbidity statistics, reimbursement systems, and automated decision support in health care. This system includes codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.
2. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - published by the American Psychiatric Association, it provides a standardized classification system for mental health disorders to improve communication between mental health professionals, facilitate research, and guide treatment.
3. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) - developed by the WHO, this system focuses on an individual's functioning and disability rather than solely on their medical condition. It covers body functions and structures, activities, and participation, as well as environmental and personal factors that influence a person's life.
4. The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors - created by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), it is used to describe the anatomical extent of cancer, including the size of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and distant metastasis (M).

These classification systems help medical professionals communicate more effectively about patients' conditions, make informed treatment decisions, and track disease trends over time.

The transcriptome refers to the complete set of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and other non-coding RNAs, that are present in a cell or a population of cells at a given point in time. It reflects the genetic activity and provides information about which genes are being actively transcribed and to what extent. The transcriptome can vary under different conditions, such as during development, in response to environmental stimuli, or in various diseases, making it an important area of study in molecular biology and personalized medicine.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

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"Higginsville Gold Operations (HGO)". Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved 3 April 2022. Official website MINEDEX website: ... Mining continued until early 2000, with ore being milled at the Chalice Gold Mine. The mine was then owned in parts by the St ... The Higginsville Gold Mine is a gold mine located near Higginsville, 45 km north of Norseman, Western Australia. The mine has ... Gold mines in Western Australia, Surface mines in Australia, Underground mines in Australia, Shire of Coolgardie, Pages using ...
mining in MOROCCO reserves. "Artillery Peak Project". Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved January 1, 2023. "Artillery Peak Mine". ... The Artillery Peak mine is a mine located in the western United States, about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Alamo Lake in Mohave ... Alternate names are Artillery Mountain Mine and Hanna Mine. Manganese Reserves and Resources of the World. Washington DC: ... Manganese mines in the United States, Geography of Mohave County, Arizona, All stub articles, West Coast of Arizona geography ...
"Kanowna Belle Mine (Kalgoorlie Operation)". Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved 8 April 2022. "2019 Annual Report". www.nsrltd.com ... which consist of the South Kalgoorlie Gold Mine and the Kanowna Belle mine. The Kundana Gold Mine and the East Kundana Joint ... Gold mines in Western Australia, Surface mines in Australia, Underground mines in Australia, City of Kalgoorlie-Boulder, ... which consist of the South Kalgoorlie Gold Mine, purchased in 2018, the Kanowna Belle Gold Mine, the Kundana Gold Mine and the ...
"Wiluna Mining (Matilda-Wiluna) Operation". miningdataonline.com. Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved 19 April 2022. "Blackham ... The Wiluna Gold Mine is an inactive gold mine in Western Australia near the town of Wiluna. The mine was active from 1984 until ... Mining at the Wiluna Gold Mine recommenced in mid-2016 from sources at both the Wiluna and the former Matilda mine, with the ... Mining resumed in 2016 and Blackham was renamed to Wiluna Mining Corporation in 2020. In July 2022, the Wiluna Mining ...
"Paulsens Mine". Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved 8 April 2022. Louthean, Ross (ed.). The Australian Mines Handbook: 2003-2004 ... placing the mine into care and maintenance. The Paulsens mine has 140 employees. Ore is mined in underground operations along ... Intrepid sold the mine to Northern Star Resources in July 2010 for A$40 million. In June 2022 the mine was sold to Black Cat ... The Paulsens Gold Mine is a gold mine located 105 km south of Pannawonica, Western Australia, within the pastoral lease of the ...
"Halfmile Mine". Mining Data Solutions. MDO Data Online. "Halfmile Mine, New Brunswick". Mining-technology.com. Verdict Media ... Heath Steele Mines Wedge Mine Chester Mine Key Anacon Mine Austin Brook Iron Mine Murray Brook Mine CNE Mine Caribou zinc mine ... "Operations - Stratmat". Trevali Mining. Retrieved 11 March 2023. "Operations - Halfmile Mine". Trevali Mining. Retrieved 11 ... The Bathurst Mining Camp was the location of an iron mine, for a time ending early in the 20th century. The Northern New ...
"Agnew Mine". Mining Data Solutions. Retrieved 31 March 2022. "Reviewed results For the year ended 31 December 2022" (PDF). Gold ... the others being the Granny Smith Gold Mine, St Ives Gold Mine and the Gruyere Gold Mine. Ore is mined at Agnew in the under ... The Agnew Gold Mine, formerly the Emu Mine, is a gold mine located 3 km (1.9 mi) west of Agnew, Western Australia. It is owned ... Western Mining (WMC) acquired the mining tenements in the early 1980s, opening an open cut mine and process plant there in 1986 ...
"Major Mines & Projects - Mount Polley Mine". Mining Data Online. Retrieved 2020-08-07. "Imperial Metals acquires 100 per cent ... List of copper mines List of copper mines in Canada List of gold mines in Canada Gibraltar Mine New Afton mine Coleman Mine ... Copper mines in British Columbia, Gold mines in British Columbia, Silver mining in Canada, Mining in British Columbia, Economy ... The Mount Polley Mining Corporation has stated that it intends to re-open the mine as the price of gold makes mining operations ...
  • But its foundation comprises three intertwined scientific disciplines: statistics (the numeric study of data relationships), artificial intelligence (human-like intelligence displayed by software and/or machines) and machine learning (algorithms that can learn from data to make predictions). (sas.com)
  • Data mining software from SAS uses proven, cutting-edge algorithms designed to help you solve the biggest challenges. (sas.com)
  • An example of data mining within artificial intelligence includes things like search engine algorithms and recommendation systems. (tibco.com)
  • Data models use established algorithms to mine the data over which they are built. (tibco.com)
  • Part IV reviews the algorithms employed in data mining. (freetechbooks.com)
  • The course will provide the opportunity for students to learn state-of-the-art data mining and deep learning algorithms and tools. (uis.no)
  • Be able to apply data mining algorithms using R. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Learn how to build a wide range of statistical models and algorithms to explore data, find important features, describe relationships, and use resulting model to predict outcomes. (jmp.com)
  • Data Mining and Analysis: Fundamental Concepts and Algorithms, free PDF download (draft) , by Mohammed Zaki and Wagner Meira Jr. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Evaluation and Modeling- The transformed data must then be structured into a predictive model using algorithms that perform deep statistical analysis to uncover repetitions, patterns, and other connections. (datamation.com)
  • For VL, spatial data mining models were developed by integrating Machine Learning algorithms into a GIS-based modeling approach. (lu.se)
  • These patterns can then be seen as a kind of summary of the input data, and may be used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn more about data mining techniques in Data Mining From A to Z , a paper that shows how organizations can use predictive analytics and data mining to reveal new insights from data. (sas.com)
  • Explore how data mining - as well as predictive modeling and real-time analytics - are used in oil and gas operations. (sas.com)
  • Several data mining forms are predictive in nature. (tibco.com)
  • In other cases, predictive data mining can result in the generation of rules. (tibco.com)
  • ODM is an in-database data mining and predictive analytics engine that allows you to build and use advanced predictive analytic models on data that can be accessed through your Oracle data infrastructure. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Learn how to subset data into a training, validation, and test set to more accurately evaluate a model's predictive performance and avoid overfitting. (jmp.com)
  • It is a great honour for us to present our next workshop: "AI accelerator an Introduction to Data Mining and Predictive Analytics", run by Dr Frederic Stahl, lecturer in Reading. (bcs.org)
  • Here I use Data Mining and Data Science interchangeably - see my presentation Analytics Industry Overview , where I look at evolution and popularity of different terms like Statistics, Knowledge Discovery, Data Mining, Predictive Analytics, Data Science, and Big Data. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Data mining is the cornerstone for predictive analysis and informed business decision-making-done right, it can turn massive volumes of data into actionable intelligence. (datamation.com)
  • Often the more general terms (large scale) data analysis and analytics-or, when referring to actual methods, artificial intelligence and machine learning-are more appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data mining is a cornerstone of analytics , helping you develop the models that can uncover connections within millions or billions of records. (sas.com)
  • Data mining is at the heart of analytics efforts across a variety of industries and disciplines. (sas.com)
  • Join the fast-growing field of statistics and data analytics. (cmich.edu)
  • designed with a user interface in mind for big data analytics and machine learning over Hadoop. (kdnuggets.com)
  • The module provides an introduction to data analytics and data mining. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Also, don't forget to subscribe to KDnuggets News bi-weekly email and follow @kdnuggets - voted Top Big Data Twitter - for latest news on Analytics, Big Data, Data Mining, and Data Science. (kdnuggets.com)
  • You can start by watching some of the many free webinars and webcasts on latest topics in Analytics, Big Data, Data Mining, and Data Science. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Finally, consider getting Certificates in Data Mining, and Data Science or advanced degrees, such as MS in Data Science - see KDnuggets directory for Education in Analytics, Data Mining, and Data Science . (kdnuggets.com)
  • Learn more about data analytics . (datamation.com)
  • Though data mining is an ambiguous term, most definitions include the idea of dealing with very large data sets and enabling exploratory data analysis, says Simon Lin , manager, Bioinformatics Core Facility, Duke University. (the-scientist.com)
  • JMP is an all in-memory solution, focused on exploratory data analysis and visualization. (kdnuggets.com)
  • I describe examples of what I consider to be real text data mining efforts and briefly outline our recent ideas about how to pursue exploratory data analysis over text. (berkeley.edu)
  • Meanwhile, British privacy regulators are seeking a warrant to search the offices of the U.K.-based Cambridge Analytica as both US and European lawmakers demand an explanation of how the consulting firm gained access to the data. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Compared with four popular data stream mining approaches on the datasets with different concept drifts, the experimental results show that MAE achieves high and stable predicting accuracy, especially for the applications with recurring or complex concept drifts. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead, data mining applications tend to be (semi)automated discovery of trends and patterns across very large datasets, usually for the purposes of decision making [ Fayyad and Uthurusamy1999 , Fayyad1997 ]. (berkeley.edu)
  • As noted above, the goal of data mining is to discover or derive new information from data, finding patterns across datasets, and/or separating signal from noise. (berkeley.edu)
  • Mining of Massive Datasets Book , by A. Rajaraman, J. Ullman. (kdnuggets.com)
  • This thesis explores the use of data mining and AI-tailored frameworks for extracting public health evidence from large health datasets. (lu.se)
  • Data mining is the process of finding anomalies, patterns and correlations within large data sets to predict outcomes. (sas.com)
  • TIBCO empowers its customers to connect, unify, and confidently predict business outcomes, solving the world's most complex data-driven challenges. (tibco.com)
  • In 2013, HIPAA was expanded to allow hospital fundraisers to access privileged health information, including demographic, health insurance, treating clinician, and data on outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • It also is a buzzword and is frequently applied to any form of large-scale data or information processing (collection, extraction, warehousing, analysis, and statistics) as well as any application of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence (e.g., machine learning) and business intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data mining techniques are to make machine learning (ML) models that enable artificial intelligence (AI) applications. (tibco.com)
  • Data Mining techniques intersect methods from artificial intelligence, statistics and machine learning. (bcs.org)
  • The book Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java (which covers mostly machine learning material) was originally to be named Practical Machine Learning, and the term data mining was only added for marketing reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get full access to Data Mining Techniques and 60K+ other titles, with a free 10-day trial of O'Reilly. (oreilly.com)
  • Get Data Mining Techniques now with the O'Reilly learning platform. (oreilly.com)
  • Companies have used data mining techniques to price products more effectively across business lines and find new ways to offer competitive products to their existing customer base. (sas.com)
  • Data mining helps in answering those questions that cannot be handled by basic query and reporting techniques . (tibco.com)
  • Learn both basic and advanced data mining techniques. (cmich.edu)
  • Today, this multi-disciplinary effort continues to deliver new techniques and tools for the analysis of very large collections of data. (freetechbooks.com)
  • It also serves well as a textbook for an applications and techniques course on data mining. (freetechbooks.com)
  • The encyclopedic overview covers many tools and techniques deployed within data mining, ranging from decision tree induction and association rules, to multivariate adaptive regression splines and patient rule induction methods. (freetechbooks.com)
  • Using advanced data valuation techniques to connect brands with highly targeted audiences, Interclick powers successful online advertising campaigns. (blogspot.com)
  • In this paper, classification method is considered, it focuses on a survey on various classification techniques that are most commonly used in data mining. (techrepublic.com)
  • The purpose of this course is for students to gain knowledge and practical experience of data mining and deep learning techniques. (uis.no)
  • Identify the theoretical and practical issues behind various data mining and deep learning techniques. (uis.no)
  • Being able to list and describe strengths, limitations and trade-offs among various data mining techniques and choose the appropriate techniques for solving data science problems for various applications. (uis.no)
  • It will combine practical work using R and SQL with an introduction to some of the theory behind standard data mining techniques. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Learn techniques to analyze and extract meaning from unstructered text data and find association among items. (jmp.com)
  • This tutorial provides an introduction in the Knowledge Discover from Data (KDD) process and gives and overview of various kinds of data mining techniques. (bcs.org)
  • Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques , by Ian Witten, Eibe Frank, and Mark Hall, from the authors of Weka, and using Weka extensively in examples. (kdnuggets.com)
  • It consists of both openly solicited and invited chapters, written by international researchers and leading experts on the application of data mining techniques in e-learning systems.The main purpose of this book is to show the current state of this research area. (ebooks.com)
  • It includes an introduction to e-learning systems, data mining and the interaction between areas, as well as several case studies and experiences of applying data mining techniques in e-learning systems. (ebooks.com)
  • This article looks at six of the most common data mining techniques and how they are driving business strategies in a digitized world. (datamation.com)
  • Reduction- To narrow the data set and eliminate obviously irrelevant information, techniques such as dimensionality and numerosity reduction are used to pare it down and ensure a focus on pertinent information while preserving its fundamental integrity. (datamation.com)
  • For example, AES (advanced encryption standard) and Triple-DES (data encryption standard) symmetric ciphers often use cipher -block chaining techniques to strengthen overall security by feeding the output of encrypting one block of data into the next encryption operation, etc., making cryptanalysis more difficult. (technewsworld.com)
  • Using advanced data mining techniques, we found that individuals with higher BMI and diabetes had a higher burden of symptoms during the initial COVID-19 infection and a prolonged duration of long-COVID symptoms. (lu.se)
  • Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the raw analysis step, it also involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actual data mining task is the semi-automatic or automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract previously unknown, interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster analysis), unusual records (anomaly detection), and dependencies (association rule mining, sequential pattern mining). (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between data analysis and data mining is that data analysis is used to test models and hypotheses on the dataset, e.g., analyzing the effectiveness of a marketing campaign, regardless of the amount of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early methods of identifying patterns in data include Bayes' theorem (1700s) and regression analysis (1800s). (wikipedia.org)
  • the process of exploration an analysis, by automatic or semi-automatic means, of large quantities of data in order to discover meaningful patterns and rules. (slideshare.net)
  • Over the last decade, advances in processing power and speed have enabled us to move beyond manual, tedious and time-consuming practices to quick, easy and automated data analysis. (sas.com)
  • Data mining is the exploration and analysis of data in order to uncover patterns or rules that are meaningful. (tibco.com)
  • While much data analysis and modelling relies on a foundation of statistics, the challenge is to not lose the reader in the statistical details. (freetechbooks.com)
  • Examples include social media mining, web log analysis, spam categorization, and network stream monitor. (hindawi.com)
  • Understand how to present results from a complex data analysis to a non-expert. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This will cover the extraction of data from a database, preliminary analysis including plotting to support a better understanding of the underlying features and preprocessing. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Underlying statistical ideas needed for data mining, including maximum likelihood estimation, linear & logistic regression, principal components analysis and measures of similarity/dissimilarity. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • One problem is that the data may be sensitive, and its owner may refuse to give it for analysis in plaintext. (iacr.org)
  • There are many data mining tools for different tasks, but it is best to learn using a data mining suite which supports the entire process of data analysis. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Visualization is an essential part of any data analysis - learn how to use Microsoft Excel (good for many simpler tasks), R graphics , (especially ggplot2 ), and also Tableau - an excellent package for visualization. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Cleaning- Because erroneous or inconsistent data can introduce inaccuracies and complexities to subsequent analysis, a rigorous data cleaning process will ensure there are no anomalies. (datamation.com)
  • Conversely, decrypting too little data may fail to reveal the proper context of the information and lead to flawed analysis. (technewsworld.com)
  • This is the first time that a gene -level feature has been transformed into an interaction/edge-level for scRNA-seq data analysis based on relative expression orderings. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can then be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then developed an open-access database, allowing researchers to build and evaluate cancer survival prediction models based on the data. (mdanderson.org)
  • By combining molecular data and clinical variables, Liang observed a better prediction of cancer prognosis in three of the four cancers: kidney, ovarian and lung. (mdanderson.org)
  • Generally, the goal of the data mining is either classification or prediction. (dummies.com)
  • Data mining is a technological means of pulling valuable information from raw data by looking for patterns and correlations. (datamation.com)
  • The primary objective of data mining is to separate the signal from the noise in raw data sets by looking for patterns and correlations and retrieving useful information. (datamation.com)
  • Data exploration - How many variables? (slideshare.net)
  • Perfectly designed to store and manage mining and exploration data such as extraction data, recovery, sales, work safety issues, inspections, samples, bore holes, etc. advangeo® mining & exploration data is the perfect backbone for national statistics and reports, which are the base for knowledge based mining sector development. (esri.com)
  • Traditional classification methods are devoted to static environment where the whole training data is available to a learning system. (hindawi.com)
  • Classification is a data mining technique based on machine learning which is used to classify each item in a set of data into a set of predefined classes or groups. (techrepublic.com)
  • The course will prepare the students with a deep knowledge of technologies and be able to prepare large-scale data for data mining (pre-processing), feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and use a number of data mining and deep learning methods for classification, regression and clustering tasks that can help to extract actionable knowledge. (uis.no)
  • In classification, the idea is to sort data into groups. (dummies.com)
  • The training data consists of observations (called attributes) and an outcome variable (binary in the case of a classification model) - in this case, the stayers or the flight risks. (dummies.com)
  • The classification technique serves this purpose and segments data into different classes based on similarities, making it easier to extract meaningful insights and identify patterns. (datamation.com)
  • The term data mining appeared around 1990 in the database community, with generally positive connotations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: Data of 90,951 children living around 81 mining sites in 23 countries in SSA were analysed for child mortality indicators, and 79,962 children from 59 mining areas in 18 SSA countries were analysed for diarrhoea, cough, and anthropometric indicators. (lu.se)
  • Data mining is a practical skill you can apply any time you need to collect, analyze and generate insights from large sets of information. (cmich.edu)
  • In Paper I, we used data mining and natural language processing to analyze the characteristics of genomic research on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) from the GWAS Catalog (2005 to 2022). (lu.se)
  • Thus, the DRM can be used to find changes in gene interactions among different cell types, which may open up a new way to analyze scRNA-seq data from an interaction perspective. (bvsalud.org)
  • O'Hagan explains that EBS Data Mine uses actual transactional data. (wallstreetandtech.com)
  • The association rules technique can identify fraudulent activities and unusual purchase patterns by analyzing transactional data to detect any irregular spending behavior. (datamation.com)
  • Data mining is the process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal of extracting information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transforming the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The related terms data dredging, data fishing, and data snooping refer to the use of data mining methods to sample parts of a larger population data set that are (or may be) too small for reliable statistical inferences to be made about the validity of any patterns discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods can, however, be used in creating new hypotheses to test against the larger data populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • has in-depth knowledge of the scientific or art theory of the subject area and methods to gain insight from large data collections. (uis.no)
  • In the last years, researchers have begun to investigate various data mining methods to help teachers improve e-learning systems. (ebooks.com)
  • These methods allow them to discover new knowledge based on students usage data.Following this line, one of the most promising areas is the application of knowledge extraction. (ebooks.com)
  • More precise and comparable data about the risk of poliomyelitis could be obtained in future surveys by incorporating a standard case definition, by using house- to- house case- finding methods in representative community- based samples, by analyzing and presenting rates in more clearly defined ways, and by selecting stable populations for study. (who.int)
  • has advanced knowledge in the field and specialized in the theory and practice of data preparation, selection and mining. (uis.no)
  • Also pictured is a G-Bike, the vehicle of choice for team members to get around outside our data centers. (slideshare.net)
  • Welcome to the future - data centers are starting to look at abandoned limestone mines as potential locations to expand their computing power. (inhabitat.com)
  • Aggregate Research reports that security and cost-effectiveness are primary goals for data centers - and unlike standard locations in urban centers, mines offer plenty in the way of both: they're immune to extreme weather, and have consistent temperatures in the mid 50F range, along with consistent humidity. (inhabitat.com)
  • Old mines also often have lakes or aquifers in their lower reaches which can provide an economical and eco-friendly way to keep servers cool - a key consideration for data centers. (inhabitat.com)
  • According to Paul Geista, the major hurdle in getting underground data centers up and running is installing all the fiber optic Internet connections required to make them a reality. (inhabitat.com)
  • Data centers could one day move underground. (inhabitat.com)
  • Abandoned mines could be future homes for data centers. (inhabitat.com)
  • Furthermore, mining text may not necessarily compromise data security, considering that the result of data mining may simply be an aggregation - or the rules that govern an inference engine or a neural network - rather than the details of the text itself. (technewsworld.com)
  • This book is made freely available, but is copyrighted, in the hope that it serves as a useful resource for Data Miners. (freetechbooks.com)
  • In the 1960s, statisticians and economists used terms like data fishing or data dredging to refer to what they considered the bad practice of analyzing data without an a-priori hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, by using a general purpose data mining software in combination with our own software, which parametrizes the search, we can find the combinations of binding sites that occur in the upstream regions more frequently than would be expected on the basis of the frequency of individual sites. (aaai.org)
  • Every time you search for something online, swipe your credit card or pull up directions on your cell phone, that action creates a little module of data about you. (marketplace.org)
  • It's increasingly important in today's digital world, where nearly every interaction-a click, swipe, a purchase, a search-generates a constellation of data. (datamation.com)
  • By identifying network usage patterns, the association rules approach to data mining can search through consumer call behavior and social media to identify trends, groups, and segments, and to detect customer communication preferences. (datamation.com)
  • The groups of four files contain data for coal operators, coal contractors, metal/nonmetal operators, and metal/nonmetal contractors. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 2011 address/employment closeout file, Mine IDs 3601527 and 3304321 reported coal employment and production, along with stone employment. (cdc.gov)
  • In previous calendar years both of these mines were listed as coal mining operations. (cdc.gov)
  • When counting mines, the duplicate records for coal need to be excluded and both mines should be considered stone operations since that was their status at the end of 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • The raw data closeout files posted by MSHA for 2013 differ slightly from the dynamic data MSHA used to generate their "Mine Injury and Worktime Reports for Coal and Metal/Nonmetal. (cdc.gov)
  • Alternate technologies applicable to proximity detection on mobile machines in underground coal mines. (cdc.gov)
  • There have been about 42 fatalities in underground coal mines between 1984 and 2015 where the victim was struck , pinned, or run over by a mobile machine (MM) such as a shuttle car, scoop, or battery hauler. (cdc.gov)
  • Combining several classifiers on sequential chunks of training instances is a popular strategy for data stream mining with concept drifts. (hindawi.com)
  • Existing rudimentary approaches to accessing encrypted data include separating the decipherment and mining operations into sequential stages. (technewsworld.com)
  • British MP Damian Collins is calling on Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg to explain how tens of millions of Facebook user profiles ended up in the hands of a data mining consultancy. (abc.net.au)
  • Facebook allowed the Obama campaign to access the personal data of users during the 2012 campaign because they supported the Democratic candidate according to a high ranking staffer. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Facebook said on Monday it had hired forensic auditors from the firm Stroz Friedberg to investigate and determine whether Cambridge Analytical still had the data. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • EBS, a provider of transactional spot FX market data, launched EBS Data Mine, certified data of all currencies traded on EBS Spot since January 1997. (wallstreetandtech.com)
  • BDO's 2020 vision for the mining industry centered firmly upon the impact of this technological change. (bdo.com)
  • Be able to carry out an independent, limited research or development project under supervision and in accordance with current research ethics standards which involves preparing data mining pipelines, evaluation, and tune parameters for various data mining models and deep learning using state-of-the-art tools. (uis.no)
  • Data mining involves exploring and analyzing large amounts of data to find patterns for big data. (dummies.com)
  • It turns out that ``mining'' is not a very good metaphor for what people in the field actually do. (berkeley.edu)
  • If data mining really followed this metaphor, it would mean that people were discovering new factoids within their inventory databases. (berkeley.edu)
  • Part of what I wish to argue here is that in the case of text, it can be interesting to take the mining-for-nuggets metaphor seriously. (berkeley.edu)
  • We can apply a service-provision metaphor to text data mining by defining the service as either (a) the simple access to the data (fig. 1), or (b) the mining operation itself, which is conducted by the owner on behalf of the mining interest or "consumer" (fig. 2). (technewsworld.com)
  • Representation- The extracted insights are rendered accessible using visualization tools and reports to draw conclusions and make the data actionable. (datamation.com)
  • With each edition of the PLANADVISER Data Mine, we dig for the most actionable findings in the latest retirement plan industry research. (planadviser.com)
  • Currently, the terms data mining and knowledge discovery are used interchangeably. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different approaches to data mining, and which one is used will depend upon the specific requirements of each project. (datamation.com)
  • Digestible overviews of key terms and concepts relevant to using social media data in quantitative research. (sagepub.com)
  • As a convenience, NIOSH has converted the MSHA data to SPSS (includes labels and coding information) and Microsoft Access (includes labels only) formats. (cdc.gov)
  • Because these data have been obtained from sources outside of NIOSH, they are provided on an "as-is" basis. (cdc.gov)
  • Beginning with the 2006 data, fatalities determined to be chargeable after the MSHA data files were closed out are added to the data files maintained by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH is not able to control the accuracy, timeliness, or completeness of this information and, therefore, should not be held responsible for data obtained from other organizations. (cdc.gov)
  • This dataset forms a preliminary list of known sites and is understood to be incomplete and therefore should not be taken as an accurate representation of the extent of mine workings on the ground. (data.gov.uk)
  • Site type: Mine (to differentiate between trials, openworks etc) Form: Broad condition of the site. (data.gov.uk)
  • It is important to differentiate between text data mining and information access (or information retrieval, as it is more widely known). (berkeley.edu)
  • You can be a data hero by extracting valuable insights from data sets. (cmich.edu)
  • Data is given to the input node, and by a system of trial and error, the algorithm adjusts the weights until it meets a certain stopping criteria. (dummies.com)
  • The algorithm is run over the training data and comes up with a tree that can be read like a series of rules. (dummies.com)
  • This result suggests that for large data sets, called big data, the CART algorithm might give better results than the CTREE algorithm. (bvsalud.org)
  • The term "data mining" is a misnomer because the goal is the extraction of patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data, not the extraction (mining) of data itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manual extraction of patterns from data has occurred for centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explore our one-year graduate certificate program in data mining. (cmich.edu)
  • It releases this data in text format five times each calendar year (four quarterly releases and one final, closeout release). (cdc.gov)
  • Processing text data, analysing word frequency (tf-idf), bag of words, with option to cover topic modelling (LDA - Latent Dirichlet Allocation). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. (berkeley.edu)
  • Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it with information access or have not made use of text directly to discover heretofore unknown information. (berkeley.edu)
  • In this paper I will first define data mining, information access, and corpus-based computational linguistics, and then discuss the relationship of these to text data mining. (berkeley.edu)
  • The nascent field of text data mining (TDM) has the peculiar distinction of having a name and a fair amount of hype but as yet almost no practitioners. (berkeley.edu)
  • Text mining - or text data mining - is about comprehending natural language and extracting high quality information from it. (technewsworld.com)
  • It should be noted that when text is encrypted, the strength of the encryption might depend on the amount of data being encrypted at one time. (technewsworld.com)
  • The desired result of encryption is a large mass of bits that provide no contextual reference for the underlying plaintext, which poses a challenge to text data mining. (technewsworld.com)
  • It may seem strange to contemplate allowing encrypted text to be mined at all. (technewsworld.com)
  • However, text that is valuable for mining isn't necessarily public information. (technewsworld.com)
  • Therefore, what remains is to develop both text mining strategies and protocols that efficiently engage streams of encrypted text for data mining without violating security policy. (technewsworld.com)
  • However, recently new applications require that the learning systems work in dynamic environments, where data comes continuously with high speed as data streams [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These data streams are often characterized by huge volumes of instances, rapid arrival rate, and drifting concept. (hindawi.com)
  • These files contain cumulative closeout data from 1983 to present. (cdc.gov)
  • The closeout data files on this page may differ slightly from the dynamic data MSHA uses to generate published reports such as the Mine Injury and Worktime, Quarterly (MIWQ) final edition. (cdc.gov)
  • There are other data sellers of historical data, but that is pulled together from various sources, and it's a difference between indicative data verses transactional," he contends. (wallstreetandtech.com)
  • 1. Basic Concepts of Data Mining 2. (slideshare.net)
  • Part III introduces the basic concepts and processes in data mining, with a focus on preparing for modelling within data mining. (freetechbooks.com)
  • Here this book deals with the concepts that will be found in data mining, providing a solid grounding for understanding the many issues and ideas around data mining, serving as the foundation for that which follows. (freetechbooks.com)
  • As one of the first of its kind, this book presents an introduction to e-learning systems, data mining concepts and the interaction between both areas. (ebooks.com)
  • Data mining helps educators access student data, predict achievement levels and pinpoint students or groups of students in need of extra attention. (sas.com)
  • Also in 2007, the Maine legislature passed the Maine Prescription Restraint Law, which established a state-sponsored opt-out process for physicians, physician assistants and nurse practitioners to prevent access to practitioner specific prescribing data. (lexology.com)
  • Should Australian political parties use data mining to access voter information? (abc.net.au)
  • Clearly, data mining operations must access the plain expression of meaning, or plaintext, in order to mine it for useful information. (technewsworld.com)
  • Telecom, media and technology companies can use analytic models to make sense of mountains of customers data, helping them predict customer behavior and offer highly targeted and relevant campaigns. (sas.com)
  • Valuable insights are often tucked away in data. (cmich.edu)
  • Professionals that can take raw numbers and data and mine valuable insights are in high demand. (cmich.edu)
  • The research presented in this thesis demonstrates the potential of these tools for automating and simplifying the data mining process, and for providing valuable insights into various public health issues. (lu.se)
  • Why is data mining important? (sas.com)
  • So why is data mining important? (sas.com)
  • Prescription data mining is an important marketing tool for pharmaceutical companies. (lexology.com)
  • Data Mining is one but important step in the process for discovering knowledge from large amounts of data. (bcs.org)
  • The editors of this work should be congratulated on bringing together such an important set of applications for data mining in e-learning systems.COMPUTING REVIEWSThe development of e-learning systems, particularly web-based education systems, has increased exponentially in recent years. (ebooks.com)
  • Neither the data collection, data preparation, nor result interpretation and reporting is part of the data mining step, although they do belong to the overall KDD process as additional steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • (the general) Data mining process Interpretation Data mining Preprocessing KNOWLEDGE Selection Target data Patterns Preprocessed DATA data warehouse of somewhat domain (Marketing, Finance, Manufacturing, etc. (slideshare.net)
  • The process of digging through data to discover hidden connections and predict future trends has a long history. (sas.com)
  • Scoring is the process of applying any model to new data and assessing the appropriateness of fit. (tibco.com)
  • The purpose of the Incident Reporting and Response Procedures Policy from TechRepublic Premium is to establish a clear and efficient process for employees to report security breaches, device loss, or data exposure incidents involving personal devices used for work purposes. (techrepublic.com)
  • Understanding- This sets the stage for the rest of the process by outlining the business requirements, determining the quality and structure of the data, and identifying the problem that needs to be solved. (datamation.com)
  • In the data mining process, data is sorted and classified based on different attributes. (datamation.com)
  • researchers consequently turned to data mining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerging from the database community in the late 1980's the discipline of data mining grew quickly to encompass researchers from Machine Learning , High Performance Computing , Visualisation , and Statistics , recognising the growing opportunity to add value to data. (freetechbooks.com)
  • In contrast, data mining uses machine learning and statistical models to uncover clandestine or hidden patterns in a large volume of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes referred to as 'knowledge discovery in databases,' the term 'data mining' wasn't coined until the 1990s. (sas.com)
  • I suspect this has happened because people assume TDM is a natural extension of the slightly less nascent field of data mining (DM), also known as knowledge discovery in databases [ Fayyad and Uthurusamy1999 ], and information archeology [ Brachman et al.1993 ]. (berkeley.edu)
  • Collecting data is just the beginning, then someone needs to make sense of it. (marketplace.org)
  • Collecting data. (who.int)
  • An article detailing his findings, "Assessing the Clinical Utility of Cancer Genomic and Proteomic Data across Tumor Types," is published in the June online version of the journal Nature Biotechnology. (mdanderson.org)
  • Without clean data, or clean enough data, your data science is worthless. (tdan.com)
  • Mining implies extracting precious nuggets of ore from otherwise worthless rock. (berkeley.edu)
  • The more complex the data sets collected, the more potential there is to uncover relevant insights. (sas.com)
  • Pollen, weather, and other data about the environment can now be combined with the human biomarkers to uncover and minimize the allergic response among the myriad of examples. (darkdaily.com)
  • Learn essentials for working with and analyzing big data, skills much in demand in industries and organizations around the world. (cmich.edu)
  • If successful, in a couple of years, people might be able to earn a "basic income" from selling their private health data to pharmaceutical companies, medical laboratories, research organizations, the federal government, and more. (darkdaily.com)