**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Plant Bark**: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis**: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Gene Expression Profiling**: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Sequence Analysis, DNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

**Polymerase Chain Reaction**: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Observer Variation**: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Radiology**: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Diagnostic Errors**: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Equipment Design**: Methods of creating machines and devices.

**Maps as Topic**: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Developmental Disabilities**: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Toxaphene**: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

**Arthritis, Psoriatic**: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.

**Arthritis, Rheumatoid**: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.

**Arthritis**

**Methotrexate**: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.

**Arthritis, Juvenile**: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.

**Arthritis, Experimental**: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.

**Wetlands**: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.

**Lakes**: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.

**Psychology, Applied**: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.

**Orthodontic Appliance Design**: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.

**Fresh Water**: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.

**Decision Making**: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.

**Research**: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

**Forensic Genetics**: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.

**Genetics, Population**: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

**Criminology**: The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.

**Forensic Medicine**: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.

**Forensic Anthropology**: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)

**Y Chromosome**: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.

**National Institutes of Health (U.S.)**: An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.

**Climatic Processes**: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.

**Hydrology**: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.

**Cyclonic Storms**: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.

**Uncertainty**: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Tidal Volume**: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.

## A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (1/9497)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes. (+info)## A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (2/9497)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries. (+info)## Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization. (3/9497)

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible. (+info)## Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach. (4/9497)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses. (+info)## Quantitative study of the variability of hepatic iron concentrations. (5/9497)

BACKGROUND: The hepatic iron concentration (HIC) is widely used in clinical practice and in research; however, data on the variability of HIC among biopsy sites are limited. One aim of the present study was to determine the variability of HIC within both healthy and cirrhotic livers. METHODS: Using colorimetric methods, we determined HIC in multiple large (microtome) and small (biopsy-sized) paraffin-embedded samples in 11 resected livers with end-stage cirrhosis. HIC was also measured in multiple fresh samples taken within 5 mm of each other ("local" samples) and taken at sites 3-5 cm apart ("remote" samples) from six livers with end-stage cirrhosis and two healthy autopsy livers. RESULTS: The within-organ SD of HIC was 13-1553 microg/g (CV, 3.6-55%) for microtome samples and 60-2851 microg/g (CV, 15-73%) for biopsy-sized samples. High variability of HIC was associated with mild to moderate iron overload, because the HIC SD increased with increasing mean HIC (P <0.002). Livers with mean HIC >1000 microg/g exhibited significant biological variability in HIC between sites separated by 3-5 cm (remote sites; P <0.05). The SD was larger for biopsy-sized samples than for microtome samples (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Ideally, multiple hepatic sites would be sampled to obtain a representative mean HIC. (+info)## A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (6/9497)

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. (+info)## Wavelet transform to quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes. (7/9497)

Heart rate variability is a recognized parameter for assessing autonomous nervous system activity. Fourier transform, the most commonly used method to analyze variability, does not offer an easy assessment of its dynamics because of limitations inherent in its stationary hypothesis. Conversely, wavelet transform allows analysis of nonstationary signals. We compared the respective yields of Fourier and wavelet transforms in analyzing heart rate variability during dynamic changes in autonomous nervous system balance induced by atropine and propranolol. Fourier and wavelet transforms were applied to sequences of heart rate intervals in six subjects receiving increasing doses of atropine and propranolol. At the lowest doses of atropine administered, heart rate variability increased, followed by a progressive decrease with higher doses. With the first dose of propranolol, there was a significant increase in heart rate variability, which progressively disappeared after the last dose. Wavelet transform gave significantly better quantitative analysis of heart rate variability than did Fourier transform during autonomous nervous system adaptations induced by both agents and provided novel temporally localized information. (+info)## Excess of high activity monoamine oxidase A gene promoter alleles in female patients with panic disorder. (8/9497)

A genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of panic disorder has been demonstrated by clinical genetic studies. Molecular genetic studies have focused on candidate genes suggested by the molecular mechanisms implied in the action of drugs utilized for therapy or in challenge tests. One class of drugs effective in the treatment of panic disorder is represented by monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Therefore, the monoamine oxidase A gene on chromosome X is a prime candidate gene. In the present study we investigated a novel repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene for association with panic disorder in two independent samples (German sample, n = 80; Italian sample, n = 129). Two alleles (3 and 4 repeats) were most common and constituted >97% of the observed alleles. Functional characterization in a luciferase assay demonstrated that the longer alleles (3a, 4 and 5) were more active than allele 3. Among females of both the German and the Italian samples of panic disorder patients (combined, n = 209) the longer alleles (3a, 4 and 5) were significantly more frequent than among females of the corresponding control samples (combined, n = 190, chi2 = 10.27, df = 1, P = 0.001). Together with the observation that inhibition of monoamine oxidase A is clinically effective in the treatment of panic disorder these findings suggest that increased monoamine oxidase A activity is a risk factor for panic disorder in female patients. (+info)###### Identifying Unusual Observations in Ridge Regression Linear Model Using Box-Cox Power Transformation Technique

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InferenceAnalysesHypothesisMethodsAnalysis and interpretation of dataConfidence intervalsRegressionMultivariateAnalyticalActuarial SciencesEmpiricalMethodologicalLaboratoryConclusionsAcquisitionBiological dataAppropriate statisticalMethodologyAnalytics2017CollectionExploratoryMathematicalInterpretDichotomous dataResults of statistical analysisSPSSPracticeConceptsBayesianProbabilityConductResearchSamplesEpidemiologicComputeCritical revisionPredictiveRange of statisticalCommonlyStudyParametersResearchersTechniquesDescriptorEmphasisAssessmentMeasurementPresenting DataSubjectsQualitativePracticalMedianTestsClinical2000OrdinalExperimental dataReporting

###### Inference6

- Bootstrapping: a nonparametric approach to statistical inference. (psu.edu)
- Tools for Statistical Inference, Methods for the Exploration of Posterior Distributions and Likelihood Functions. (psu.edu)
- Unzfiing Political Methodology: The Likelihood Theory of Statistical Inference. (psu.edu)
- Statistical inference makes it possible for us to state, given a sample size (100) and a population size (10,000), how often false hypotheses will be accepted and how often true hypotheses are rejected. (encyclopedia.com)
- This course helps students to develop a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations of different approaches to inference and to appreciate some of the ongoing arguments among the adherents of the different philosophies regarding statistical inference. (bc.edu)
- sampling problems basic to statistical inference. (nyu.edu)

###### Analyses7

- The Revised National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Neuropathology Form-Available Data and New Analyses. (rush.edu)
- The evaluation of potential biases introduced at this step is challenging for metatranscriptomic samples, where data analyses are complex, for example because of the lack of reference genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Biostatistics Group assists researchers with all sizes and types of projects, from simple data analyses to large, multi-center clinical trials. (ucdavis.edu)
- Aspirants who want to become Business Data Visualization analysts /experts and build a strong SAS programming foundation to manipulate data, perform queries and analyses, and generate reports. (sas.com)
- Hand in of analyses done in SPSS, plus interpretation of results. (uib.no)
- The Master of Science in Applied Statistics and Psychometrics meets the need for quantitative specialists to conduct statistical analyses, design quantitative research studies, and develop measurement scales for educational, social, behavioral, and health science research projects. (bc.edu)
- The data are displayed without statistical analyses for the viewers interpretation. (slideshare.net)

###### Hypothesis2

- This course builds on ESE 301 (Engineering Probability), and introduces students to the basic methods of statistical estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression. (upenn.edu)
- The resultant data go through multi-step downstream processes including (4) statistical data analysis such as principal component analysis, (5) data interpretation such as pathway analysis, (6) generation of testable hypothesis and construction of the model representing the biological phenomenon, and (7) experimental validation of hypothesis and building models. (frontiersin.org)

###### Methods20

- ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269-4:2010 provides detailed descriptions of sound statistical testing procedures and graphical data analysis methods for detecting outliers in data obtained from measurement processes. (asq.org)
- Standardization in the application of statistical methods, including generation, collection (planning and design), analysis, presentation and interpretation of data. (iso.org)
- ISO Council, by Council Resolution 12 / 1959 and Council Resolution 26 / 1961 has entrusted ISO / TC 69 with the function of advisor to all ISO technical committees in matters concerning the application of statistical methods in standardization. (iso.org)
- To this end, the transportation community can adopt, adapt, and participate in the development and application of standard methods for data-collection, -processing, and -distribution. (usgs.gov)
- Multivariate statistical methods (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) were used to assess the data collection. (edu.pl)
- Highlighting advances that have lent to the topic's distinct, coherent methodology over the past decade, Log-Linear Modeling: Concepts, Interpretation, and Application provides an essential, introductory treatment of the subject, featuring many new and advanced log-linear methods, models, and applications. (wiley.com)
- He has published twenty books and over 350 journal articles on statistical methods, categorical data analysis, and human development. (wiley.com)
- cDNA and library preparation methods may affect the outcome and interpretation of metatranscriptomic data. (biomedcentral.com)
- He is co-author of Statistical Methods for Reliability Data (Wiley, 1998) and of numerous publications in the engineering and statistical literature and has won many awards for his research. (wiley.com)
- STATISTICAL SLEUTH is an innovative treatment of general statistical methods, taking full advantage of the computer, both as a computational and an analytical tool. (booktopia.com.au)
- Formal statistical methods for engineering applications. (upenn.edu)
- Methods for formulating problems in statistical terms. (upenn.edu)
- This is a continuation of Introduction to Methodology, focussing on planning quantitative research, and the methods of analysis of quantitative data. (uib.no)
- The resultant data are then subjected to multi-step downstream processes, including (4) Statistical data analysis approaches such as principal component analysis (PCA) and (5) Data interpretation using methods such as pathway analysis, which facilitate (6) The generation of testable hypotheses and the construction of models that best represent the biological phenomenon (the second half of the cycle in Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- 1) Data collection - Data is often collected from what we call samples (the subjects for a statistical study) and samples are selected properly through what we call sampling methods. (teach-nology.com)
- With the exception of sodium, this validation study demonstrates Meal-Q and MiniMeal-Q to be useful methods for ranking micronutrient and fiber intake in epidemiological studies with Web-based data collection. (jmir.org)
- In the 1990s she started (together with her team) so called grade data analysis, a science of applying copula and rank methods to problems of correspondence and cluster analysis together with outlier detection. (wikipedia.org)
- Classic methods fail if the input data contain strong outliers, and interpretation of their results should be different for different distribution types. (wikipedia.org)
- Grade Models and Methods for Data Analysis with Applications for the Analysis of Data Populations. (wikipedia.org)
- Grade exploratory methods applied to some medical data sets. (wikipedia.org)

###### Analysis and interpretation of data1

- Analysis and interpretation of data: Khoo, Smith. (medscape.com)

###### Confidence intervals1

- We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data (with 95% confidence intervals). (nih.gov)

###### Regression1

- Each team is expected to formulate a problem of interest, gather relevant data pertaining to the problem, and analyze this data using multiple regression techniques. (upenn.edu)

###### Multivariate1

- The intelligent data analysis on the clinical parameter dataset has shown that when a complex system is considered as a multivariate one, the information about the system substantially increases. (edu.pl)

###### Analytical2

- For researchers seeking more extensive services, please look at our Analytical Services such as fee-for-service projects or collaborative research opportunities with faculty and/or graduate students in the Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences. (uwo.ca)
- JOB DESCRIPTION : Utilize their analytical, statistical , and programming skills to collect, analyze, and interpret large data sets. (freelancer.com)

###### Actuarial Sciences1

- If you have any questions regarding other Introductory Statistics courses not listed here, please contact the Department of Statistical & Actuarial Sciences. (uwo.ca)

###### Empirical4

- The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. (nih.gov)
- To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. (nih.gov)
- It also serves as an excellent reference for applied researchers in virtually any area of study, from medicine and statistics to the social sciences, who analyze empirical data in their everyday work. (wiley.com)
- Graduates holding a master's degree in quantitative psychology may analyze empirical data obtained from scientific research and/or conduct scientific research on psychometrics or statistical phenomena. (mtsu.edu)

###### Methodological2

- Think before measuring : methodological innovations for the collection and analysis of statistical data / Jean-Luc Dubois. (who.int)
- In addition to People Statistical Notes that evaluate methodological the substantial decrease in fertility during this period, all issues pertaining to summary measures. (cdc.gov)

###### Laboratory2

- Zhou, Guangquan 05 Fast Electronics Laboratory Director: Professor Wang, Yanfang The laboratory mainly focuses on high-speed data acquisition and real-time signal processing. (caltech.edu)
- Students will gain laboratory experience in administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests. (bc.edu)

###### Conclusions9

- You may have heard the saying "You can prove anything with statistics," which implies that statistical analysis cannot to be trusted, that the conclusions that can be drawn from it are so vague and ambiguous that they are meaningless. (encyclopedia.com)
- Only two papers (including 120 device studies) reported separate data for devices and we did not find a difference between drug and device studies on the association between sponsorship and conclusions (test for interaction, P = 0.23). (nih.gov)
- 1. Drawing Statistical Conclusions. (booktopia.com.au)
- Data interpretation depends on the type of conclusions sought. (teach-nology.com)
- Inferential statistics concerns itself with deriving conclusions beyond the given data. (teach-nology.com)
- Inferential statistics is used, given the data from the sample, to make conclusions about the general population where the sample comes from. (teach-nology.com)
- Furthermore, there should be extra sensitivity in selecting respondents and organizing survey results so that the conclusions derived from statistical analysis will be as impartial as possible. (teach-nology.com)
- Due to the scope of the project, comprising the range of topics addressed, the diversity of data and sources employed, and the many types of conclusions and comments advanced, The Skeptical Environmentalist does not fit easily into a particular scientific discipline or methodology. (wikipedia.org)
- However, The Skeptical Environmentalist is methodologically eclectic and cross-disciplinary, combining interpretation of data with assessments of the media and human behavior, evaluations of scientific theories, and other approaches, to arrive at its various conclusions. (wikipedia.org)

###### Acquisition6

- Acquisition of data: Smith, Buchanan. (medscape.com)
- The lab will include a module on computer aided data acquisition. (unm.edu)
- 1) Sample preparation, (2) Data acquisition, and (3) Data pre-processing (the first half of the cycle in Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The processes include (1) sample preparation, (2) data acquisition, and (3) data pre-processing. (frontiersin.org)
- Technical procedures, acquisition of data. (scielo.br)
- Acquisition of data, critical revision. (scielo.br)

###### Biological data1

- For an extensive discussion of the statistical analysis of biological data, the reader may refer to a multitude of books and articles. (springer.com)

###### Appropriate statistical2

- and interpreting runoff data using appropriate statistical techniques. (usgs.gov)
- Planning for appropriate sampling and study designs and the choice of appropriate statistical methodology (e.g. (uwo.ca)

###### Methodology4

- Review and analysis of the metadata collected for the National Highway Runoff Data and Methodology Synthesis indicates that much of the available data is not suf?ciently documented for inclusion in a technically defensible regional or national data set. (usgs.gov)
- Consistent with the APA training model, students take courses in each of the core domains of psychology: biological, cognitive/affective, and social aspects of behavior, history and systems of psychology, psychological measurement, research methodology, and techniques of data analysis. (bc.edu)
- Federally funded and nonprofit agencies have set rigorous expectations in research methodology and data analysis for the studies they fund. (bc.edu)
- Assessment using SCROM methodology and Psychometric analysis for statistical results. (freelancer.com)

###### Analytics3

- This course teaches how to explore data, build reports & queries using SAS Visual Analytics. (sas.com)
- He has conducted mentoring workshops in the area of Business Forecasting, Predictive Modeling, Big Data Analytics, Operations Research & Design of Experiments with leading corporations in the area of banking, retail, manufacturing & agriculture. (sas.com)
- He is responsible for building the analytics group at the small, rapidly growing biotech company in Marietta, Ga. The coursework, faculty, and student interactions at MTSU provided a strong foundation that enabled Tucker to have many early career successes in the healthcare field, particularly in using data for complex decision-making, he says. (mtsu.edu)

###### 20173

- Spatial distribution of unadjusted death rate per 100,000 population of deaths from gun violence across the contiguous United States, by state, in 2017 in 2 data sets: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging OnLine Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) database (1) (panel 1a) and the Gun Violence Archive (GVA) (2) (panel 1b). (cdc.gov)
- Cluster maps of the spatial dependency of gun violence mortality rates across the contiguous United States, by state, in 2017 in 2 data sets: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging OnLine Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) database (1) (panel 2a) and the Gun Violence Archive (GVA) (2) (panel 2b). (cdc.gov)
- Through this project, we analyzed spatial similarities in 2017 between the CDC WONDER and GVA data sets for the contiguous United States. (cdc.gov)

###### Collection8

- Applicants are expected to manage data generated through sample collection and submit to EPA. (epa.gov)
- For comparison, we used the GVA, an independent data collection and research group that collects data on gun violence deaths and injuries from law enforcement, media, and commercial sources with the goal of providing near real-time gun violence data (2). (cdc.gov)
- It is necessary to establish systematic data-quality objectives, an integrated quality system, and standard protocols for sample collection, processing, analysis, documentation, and publication to ensure that resources expended to meet environmental research needs are used ef?ciently and effectively. (usgs.gov)
- Integration of Federal, State, and local regulatory, data-collection, and research programs within a system to facilitate information transfer will provide an economy of scale by making research results available to the entire research community. (usgs.gov)
- I believe that this meeting is an important step for forest data collection in the Pacific. (fao.org)
- I note from the agenda that there will be presentations from the countries on the status and level of their data collection and papers on specific topics presented by the different resource persons. (fao.org)
- I believe this workshop is important to the overall management of the region s forests, is timely, and will go far in addressing the region s data collection problems. (fao.org)
- Many think that data collection is as simple as asking the respondents a few questions about a survey. (teach-nology.com)

###### Exploratory1

- 1978. Exploratory analysis of disease prevalence data from survival/sacrifice experiments. (springer.com)

###### Mathematical4

- Statistical simulation uses the logic of survey sampling to approximate complicated mathematical calculations. (psu.edu)
- Statistical analysis uses inductive reasoning and the mathematical principles of probability to assess the reliability of a particular experimental test. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mathematical techniques have been devised to allow measurement of the reliability (or fallibility) of the estimate to be determined from the data (the sample, or "N") without reference to the original population. (encyclopedia.com)
- Over the past decades, a number of databases involving information related to mass spectra, compound names and structures, statistical/mathematical models and metabolic pathways, and metabolite profile data have been developed. (frontiersin.org)

###### Interpret1

- Applicants are expected to interpret data through statistical analysis and report findings to EPA, publish in peer-reviewed venues and contribute to annual GLCWMP technical reports. (epa.gov)

###### Dichotomous data1

- thus dichotomous data involves the construction of classifications as well as the classification of items. (wikipedia.org)

###### Results of statistical analysis2

- Statistical analysis can be reliable and the results of statistical analysis can be trusted if the proper conditions are established. (encyclopedia.com)
- he or she is concerned about the results of statistical analysis. (teach-nology.com)

###### SPSS2

- I have some data here that need to be done via spss . (freelancer.com)
- I have learned not only the mathematics and conceptual ideas behind a number of advanced statistical techniques but I have also gained experience with writing syntax in the statistical programs, SAS, SPSS, and R," Freund says. (mtsu.edu)

###### Practice3

- The focus is also on practice in oral presentations, discussion and written interpretations of primary literature. (bowdoin.edu)
- That is far from actual statistical practice. (teach-nology.com)
- We know that very few students today go to work in state and local health agencies and, in the absence of accurate data that would track where our graduates go to work, SPH need to train emerging health professionals to practice in every imaginable worksite. (nap.edu)

###### Concepts3

- The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting. (nih.gov)
- Students will apply concepts of error analysis and use computer software for interpretation of experimental data. (unm.edu)
- Includes measurement concepts essential to test interpretation, and experience in evaluating strengths, weaknesses, and biases of various testing instruments. (bc.edu)

###### Bayesian1

- Bayesian Data Analysis. (psu.edu)

###### Probability1

- Topics included in this Field Guide are basic probability theory, random processes, random fields, and random data analysis. (spie.org)

###### Conduct2

- I would like to emphasize that FAO sees the conduct of this exercise as a partnership, where forest data from the countries are reviewed, checked for accuracy and completeness, and verified. (fao.org)
- I want to study this subject - how should I conduct the study and conduct my statistical analysis to address my research question? (uwo.ca)

###### Research14

- Statistical operations : analysis of health research data / Robert P. Hirsch, Richard K. Riegelman. (who.int)
- The most commonly used source for research on gun-related deaths is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging OnLine Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) database, which compiles data from death certificates (1). (cdc.gov)
- Results of the metadata-review process indicate that few reports document enough of the information and data necessary to establish the quality or representativeness of research results. (usgs.gov)
- Her research focuses on extending generalized latent variable modeling to the study of clustered, repeated measures longitudinal data. (wiley.com)
- As attached to the China Center of IUE Satellite Data, the Center seeks to promote significant advances and research in these fields. (caltech.edu)
- Conducting the statistical analysis for a research project. (uwo.ca)
- The R software ecosystem is currently the most widely used platform for advanced, data-analytic research across all disciplines. (warwick.ac.uk)
- To give participants an opportunity to introduce, discuss with fellow participants and experts, and solve, specific data-analytic issues arising in their own research. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Reproducibility is a key challenge for data-intensive research, and this course will provide useful tools and techniques to help ensure that research results are robust and replicable by others. (warwick.ac.uk)
- This course provides fundamental tools and understanding for data-based research. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Skills in data analysis, and especially in R , are highly marketable outside academia (for example in business and government, all the way to journalism) as well as in academic research. (warwick.ac.uk)
- The AUA understands that statistical analysis is a key component of health care research, which is why it offers comprehensive professional data analysis to urologists and urology practices, other researchers and government and industry groups. (auanet.org)
- The quantitative psychology master's program aims to prepare students for applied and research careers as statisticians, psychometricians, data analysts, and quantitative psychologists in education, business, government, and other organizations. (mtsu.edu)
- He has stated that he began his research as an attempt to counter what he saw as anti-ecological arguments by Julian Lincoln Simon in an article in Wired, but changed his mind after starting to analyze data. (wikipedia.org)

###### Samples6

- As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. (nih.gov)
- This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. (nih.gov)
- Remember that most statistical studies use samples instead of entire populations. (teach-nology.com)
- survival curves with respect to summarizing time-to-event data for samples of data. (coursera.org)
- Estimate a Kaplan-Meier by hand for small samples of data. (coursera.org)
- especially with larger samples of data. (coursera.org)

###### Epidemiologic1

- Statistical analysis of epidemiologic data / Steve Selvin. (who.int)

###### Compute2

- 5. Compute the data for the missing periods k = n+1, n+2. (fao.org)
- It is easy to compute and allows for a straightforward way to deal with missing data. (wikipedia.org)

###### Critical revision1

###### Predictive1

- Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. (nih.gov)

###### Range of statistical1

- Covers a range of statistical topics. (sas.com)

###### Commonly3

- And finally, they wanted to generate more sophisticated interpretations of DNA STR profiles (the characterizations found in CODIS) than are commonly used. (ojp.gov)
- They also investigated the mathematics of commonly used statistical calculations and the effects of further complications, such as the presence of family members in DNA sample mixtures. (ojp.gov)
- Although CDC WONDER is the most commonly used source for data on gun violence, concerns have been voiced around the validity of cause-of-death reporting on death certificates (5,6). (cdc.gov)

###### Study6

- Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study. (rush.edu)
- Applicants must specify in their application the process by which additional coastal wetland sites/studies will be identified and incorporated into the monitoring program while not comprising overall study objectives and data quality. (epa.gov)
- The current study focuses on CVD risk factors using nationally representative data to determine prevalence of biological CVD risk factors (prehypertension/hypertension, borderline-high/high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and prediabetes/diabetes) by weight status (normal weight, overweight, obese) and their trends among US adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. (aappublications.org)
- Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18-69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. (mdpi.com)
- The 126-item MiniMeal-Q, developed after the validation study, was evaluated in a simulated validation by using truncated Meal-Q data. (jmir.org)
- The challenge with these data is that the time to the outcome is fully observed on some subjects, but not on those who do not have the outcome during their tenure in the study. (coursera.org)

###### Parameters4

- Cluster analysis and principal components analysis were applied on the above 21 biochemical parameters data. (edu.pl)
- The main goal is to identify the data set structure, finding groups of similarity among the clinical parameters or among the patients. (edu.pl)
- An effort is made to connect the role of kinetic parameters for acetaldehyde metabolism with biochemical, ethanol kinetic and anthropometric data in parallel. (edu.pl)
- Another nice feature of the KZ filter is that the two parameters have clear interpretation so that it can be easily adopted by specialists in different areas. (wikipedia.org)

###### Researchers2

- Statistical Intervals: A Guide for Practitioners and Researchers, Second Edition is an up-to-date working guide and reference for all who analyze data, allowing them to quantify the uncertainty in their results using statistical intervals. (wiley.com)
- This intensive course will bring together early-career researchers (including PhD students) from across Warwick who wish to learn about key principles of modern Data Science, and details of their application in R . (warwick.ac.uk)

###### Techniques5

- Application of techniques for data model integration (DMI) are increasingly used in many fields of science, finance, economics, etc. (marinespecies.org)
- Most mail surveys, mall surveys, political telephone polls, and other similar data gathering techniques generally do not meet the proper conditions for a random, unbiased sample, so their results cannot to be trusted. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Data Analysis Boot Camp equips candidates with the knowledge, techniques and models to transform data into usable insights for making business decisions. (eventbrite.com)
- These tools include graphic presentation techniques and simplified models to transform the results of data analysis into digestible, easy-to-understand insights and usable recommendations. (eventbrite.com)
- This includes data mining skills, advanced modelling techniques, business visualizations which conveys information in a universal manner and make it simple to share ideas with others. (sas.com)

###### Descriptor1

- Data Interpretation, Statistical" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)

###### Emphasis2

- Emphasis will be placed on the interpretation of the results. (sas.com)
- The emphasis is on practical applications of these tools, including the analysis of a variety of real-world data sets using standard statistical software. (upenn.edu)

###### Assessment3

- An assessment of the quality of data on age at first union, first birth, and first sexual intercourse for phase II of the Demographic and Health Surveys program / Anastasia J. Gage. (who.int)
- With appropriate data and information, proper assessment can be made of the status of the different forest resources, and more importantly, enable right management decisions and practices to be made and applied. (fao.org)
- She used real-world national data during her Discovery Education Assessment internship. (mtsu.edu)

###### Measurement2

- ISO/TR 14468:2010 assesses a measurement process where the characteristic(s) being measured is (are) in the form of attribute data (including nominal and ordinal data). (asq.org)
- The nominal level is the lowest measurement level used from a statistical point of view. (wikipedia.org)

###### Presenting Data1

- Presenting Data' course by covering more general presentation skills. (jiscmail.ac.uk)

###### Subjects1

- Time-to-event data comes primarily from prospective cohort studies with subjects who haven to had the outcome of interest at their time of enrollment. (coursera.org)

###### Qualitative2

- Qualitative data analysis : an expanded sourcebook / Matthew B. Miles, A. Michael Huberman. (who.int)
- Nominal scales were often called qualitative scales, and measurements made on qualitative scales were called qualitative data. (wikipedia.org)

###### Practical1

- Practical analysis and interpretation of engineering data. (upenn.edu)

###### Median1

- On the other hand, the median , i.e. the middle-ranked item, makes no sense for the nominal type of data since ranking is meaningless for the nominal type. (wikipedia.org)

###### Tests4

- and the associated statistical tests. (cdc.gov)
- The book begins with basic coverage of categorical data, and goes on to describe the basics of hierarchical log-linear models as well as decomposing effects in cross-classifications and goodness-of-fit tests. (wiley.com)
- In the Statistical Test Suite, there are 15 tests were taken from NIST SP 800-22.pdf. (freelancer.com)
- Parametric statistical tests are derived from distribution assumptions. (wikipedia.org)

###### Clinical4

- Heo M, Kim N, Rinke ML, Wylie-Rosett J. Sample size determinations for stepped-wedge clinical trials from a three-level data hierarchy perspective. (rush.edu)
- Limited valid data are available regarding the association of fructose-induced symptoms, fructose malabsorption, and clinical symptoms. (springer.com)
- Some recent data projects include evaluating and analyzing the geographic distribution of physicians, determinants of hospital charges, AUA Annual Meeting attendance, member satisfaction surveys, membership trends and clinical studies on conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB), BPH, and hypogonadism. (auanet.org)
- Despite these observational data, no large controlled clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between the age of stored RBCs and clinical outcomes. (pnas.org)

###### 20001

- In 'The American Statistician' (February 2000, Vol. 54, No. 1), George Cobb commented, 'What is new and different about Ramsey and Schafer's book, what makes it a 'larger contribution,' is that it gives much more prominence to modeling and interpretation of the sort that goes beyond the routine patterns. (booktopia.com.au)

###### Ordinal1

- The ordinal type allows for rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) by which data can be sorted, but still does not allow for relative degree of difference between them. (wikipedia.org)

###### Experimental data1

- Many of the topics discussed in this chapter pertain to experimental data in general, but the context of their use and examples given are in the field of toxicology. (springer.com)

###### Reporting1

- Ten papers reported on sponsorship and effect size, but could not be pooled due to differences in their reporting of data. (nih.gov)