A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family Pasteuriaceae. It is transmitted via soil or waterborne SPORES.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
GENETIC PROCESSES involved in establishing immunity.
Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Metschnikowiaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Its antifungal activity is used to inhibit postharvest decay of fruit.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
The physical measurements of a body.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.

Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. (1/365)

We analyzed changes in bacterioplankton morphology and composition during enhanced protozoan grazing by image analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization with group-specific rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Enclosure experiments were conducted in a small, fishless freshwater pond which was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The removal of metazooplankton enhanced protozoan grazing pressure and triggered a microbial succession from fast-growing small bacteria to larger grazing-resistant morphotypes. These were mainly different types of filamentous bacteria which correlated in biomass with the population development of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). Small bacterial rods and cocci, which showed increased proportion after removal of Daphnia and doubling times of 6 to 11 h, belonged nearly exclusively to the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. The majority of this newly produced bacterial biomass was rapidly consumed by HNF. In contrast, the proportion of bacteria belonging to the gamma and alpha subdivisions of the Proteobacteria increased throughout the experiment. The alpha subdivision consisted mainly of rods that were 3 to 6 microm in length, which probably exceeded the size range of bacteria edible by protozoa. Initially, these organisms accounted for less than 1% of total bacteria, but after 72 h they became the predominant group of the bacterial assemblage. Other types of grazing-resistant, filamentous bacteria were also found within the beta subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. We conclude that the predation regimen is a major structuring force for the bacterial community composition in this system. Protozoan grazing resulted in shifts of the morphological as well as the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblage. Grazing-resistant filamentous bacteria can develop within different phylogenetic groups of bacteria, and formerly underepresented taxa might become a dominant group when protozoan predation is the major selective pressure.  (+info)

Heterogeneity and differential expression under hypoxia of two-domain hemoglobin chains in the water flea, Daphnia magna. (2/365)

Hemoglobin (Hb) purified from the water flea, Daphnia magna, reared under hypoxia was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Hb was shown to be composed of six major subunit chain species (designated as DHbA to DHbF). The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of DHbA, DHbB, DHbC, and DHbF are different from one another, indicating that at least four Hb genes are present in D. magna. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of DHbD and DHbE are the same as those of DHbA and DHbB, respectively. The six Hb chains were also found in the animal reared under normoxia in small amounts and with altered composition; the extent of decrease under normoxia was higher in the amounts of DHbC, DHbD, and DHbF than those of others. These results indicate that the Hb genes are differentially regulated by the ambient oxygen concentration. Four Hb genes constituting a cluster in the order, dhb4, dhb3, dhb1, and dhb2, were found on the chromosome of D. magna. The complete nucleotide sequences of the dhb1, dhb2, and dhb3 genes and their cDNAs showed that the genes have a seven-exon, six-intron structure. The structure consists of an intron separating an exon encoding a secretory signal sequence, two large repeated regions of a three-exon, two-intron structure that encode each a domain containing a heme-binding site, and an intron bridging the two repeated regions. The deduced amino acid sequences of the gene products showed higher than 79% identity to one another and showed unique features conserved in D. magna Hb chains. The analysis also suggested that DHbB (or DHbE), DHbF, and DHbC are encoded by the dhb1, dhb2, and dhb3 genes, respectively.  (+info)

Model ecosystem evaluation of the environmental impacts of the veterinary drugs phenothiazine, sulfamethazine, clopidol, and diethylstilbestrol. (3/365)

Four veterinary drugs of dissimilar chemical structures were evaluated for environmental stability and penchant for bioaccumulation. The techniques used were (1) a model aquatic ecosystem (3 days) and (2) a model feedlot ecosystem (33 days) in which the drugs were introduced via the excreta of chicks or mice. The model feedlot ecosystem was supported by metabolism cage studies to determine the amount and the form of the drug excreted by the chicks or mice. Considerable quantities of all the drugs were excreted intact or as environmentally short-lived conjugates. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Clopidol were the most persistent molecules, but only DES bioaccumulated to any appreciable degree. Phenothiazine was very biodegradable; sulfamethazine was relatively biodegradable and only accumulated in the organisms to very low levels. Data from the aquatic model ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation between the partition coefficients of the drugs and their accumulation in the fish.  (+info)

Daphnia pulex didomain hemoglobin: structure and evolution of polymeric hemoglobins and their coding genes. (4/365)

The high-molecular-weight extracellular hemoglobin of Daphnia pulex is composed of at least three different didomain globin chains. The primary structure of one of these chains was determined at the protein and cDNA levels. Each globin domain of the polypeptide chain displays the standard structural characteristics. The first domain is preceded by a 30-residue extension containing an 18-residue unprecedented threonine-rich segment and a 12-residue preA segment which is homologous to the preA segments of other nonvertebrate globin chains. Both domains are linked together by a preA' segment, which is homologous to other preA segments and lacks the threonine-rich segment. Dimerization of the globin chains by the formation of a disulphide bridge linking the unique cysteines near the amino-termini results in a covalent, vertebrate-like tetradomain structure. The flexible amino-terminal extension most likely facilitates dimerization. The gene coding for this globin chain is interrupted by six small introns. Each domain displays two intradomain introns at the conserved positions B12.2 and G7.0. A precoding intron occurs at position preA(-27.0) and a bridge intron at occurs preA'(-13.2). We propose a crossover event as the most likely mechanism for duplication. Arthropod globin trees reflect the added effects of gene diversification, gene duplication, and species evolution. The position of monodomain intracellular globins in the tree suggests that they resemble the ancestral globin more than the derived didomain extracellular globins do.  (+info)

Genetic differentiation among Oregon lake populations of the Daphnia pulex species complex. (5/365)

Gene flow among invertebrate populations inhabiting bodies of nonflowing freshwater such as ponds or lakes must at some stage involve transport across habitat unsuitable for adult stages. Consequently the potential for interpopulational differentiation is high in these species, yet empirical studies of lake populations of Cladocerans such as Daphnia have failed to reveal high levels of genetic distinctiveness among populations and have led to much speculation about how these populations exchange genes and remain cohesive evolutionary units. In this study we surveyed 42 Oregon lake populations of Daphnia from the D. pulex species complex for genetic variation within the mitochondrial DNA control region. We have used this data to test the relative abilities of various ecological factors to explain the observed patterns in genetic differentiation among lakes. Despite limited genetic variation detected among our samples--11 very similar RFLP-defined mtDNA genotypes from 388 individuals--analyses of nucleotide variance using analogs to Wright's F statistics indicate that when multilake populations are defined in terms of the river drainage basin to which they belong, strong and significant amounts of among-population genetic variation can be detected at this locus (F(ST) estimates between 0.5 and 0.6). In contrast, we fail to detect consistent significant among-population variation when populations are defined on the basis of regional physical geography, bird migratory flyways, or lake trophic status. The manner in which the data are compiled, that is, whether RFLPs or nucleotide sequences are used, has little effect on the overall conclusions, yet it is clear that nucleotide sequence data would lower the standard errors of F(ST) estimates. We propose that periodic widescale flooding during the late Pleistocene may be an important mechanism to homogenize genetic differences among lake Daphnia continent-wide south of the southern-most extent of Pleistocene glaciation.  (+info)

Avoiding the cost of males in obligately asexual Daphnia pulex (Leydig). (6/365)

Asexual organisms are thought to gain an advantage by avoiding the cost of producing males. In the cladoceran Daphnia pulex (Leydig), male production is determined by the environment and is independent of the origin of the asexual obligate parthenogens from the sexual cyclical parthenogens. If there is a cost to producing males, successful obligate parthenogens should have reduced or eliminated male production. Field and laboratory observations showed that obligate parthenogens have much-reduced male production compared to cyclical parthenogens. Although the reduction or elimination of males in the obligate parthenogens suggests that the cost of males is avoided, the coexistence of sexual and asexual forms of D. pulex may be partially explained by cyclical parthenogens compensating for the cost of males by having greater fecundity. In addition, the absence of a mating constraint for the obligate parthenogens may favour an increased allocation to asexual diapausing eggs earlier in the season compared to the cyclical parthenogens which require mating with males to produce sexual diapausing eggs. No difference in the production of diapausing eggs was observed, probably because males were abundant in populations of cyclical parthenogens and do not appear to limit the production of sexual diapausing eggs. D. pulex is a useful system for determining the ecological consequences of abandoning sexual reproduction and explaining the coexistence of sexual and asexual forms of a species.  (+info)

Molecular systematics of European Hyalodaphnia: the role of contemporary hybridization in ancient species. (7/365)

We examined phylogenetic relationships among Daphnia using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S), cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear DNA sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacer representing 1612 base positions. Phylogenetic analyses using several species of the three main Daphnia subgenera, Ctenodaphnia, Hyalodaphnia and Daphnia, revealed that the Hyalodaphnia are a monophyletic sister group of the Daphnia. Most Hyalodaphnia species occur on one continent, whereas only three are found in North America and Europe. Endemicity of species is associated with variation in thermal tolerance and habitat differentiation. Although many species of the Hyalodaphnia are known to hybridize in nature, mtDNA divergence is relatively high ca. 9%) compared to other hybridizing arthropods (ca. 3%). Reproductive isolation in Daphnia seems to evolve significantly slower than genetic isolation. We related these findings to what is known about the ecology and genetics of Daphnia in order to better understand the evolutionary diversification of lineages. The relationship of these data to phylogenetic patterns is discussed in the context of speciation processes in Daphnia.  (+info)

Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (8/365)

The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water was determined in the cohabitation experiment and in challenge experiments at 3 different water temperatures. The experiments showed that skin and skin mucus abrasion dramatically enhanced the invasion of F. psychrophilum into the affected fish in bath and cohabitation challenges. Disruption of the skin is discussed as an important invasion route for F. psychrophilum into the fish. The shedding rate of F. psychrophilum by infected fish was associated with water temperature and the mortality of the infected fish. High numbers of F. psychrophilum cells were released into the water by dead rainbow trout during a long time period compared to the numbers of cells shed by live fish. The results emphasise the importance of removing dead and moribund fish from rearing tanks in order to diminish the infection pressure against uninfected fish in commercial fish farms. In immunohistochemical examinations of organs and tissues of orally infected fish, F. psychrophilum cells were detected in only 1 fish out of 31 studied. Mortality of the orally challenged fish was not observed in the experiment.  (+info)

474. Bianchini, A. and Wood, C.M. (2008) Sodium uptake in different life stages of crustaceans: The water flea Daphnia magna Strauss. J. Exp. Biol. 211 pp: 539-547. (PDF). ...
Grand Isle, VT - The Lake Champlain Basin Aquatic Invasive Species Rapid Response Task Force has determined that eradication of spiny water flea in Lake Champlain is not technically feasible. Spread prevention measures should be implemented as soon as possible.. The Rapid Response Task Force reviewed the technical feasibility of preventing the spiny water flea from spreading from Lake Champlain to other inland water bodies. There are no known methods to eradicate spiny water flea once they have been detected in a water body. Initial sampling has confirmed its presence at multiple lake stations in the Main Lake segment of Lake Champlain. In 2012, spiny water flea was discovered in both the Champlain Canal and Lake George. Spiny water fleas have been detected in the southern Adirondacks in Great Sacandaga Lake (2008), Peck Lake (2009), and Stewarts Bridge Reservoir and Sacandaga Lake (2010). This summer they were detected in Lakes Piseco and Pleasant (2014). It is unknown how the spiny water flea ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/17951, ,dcterms:abstract xml:lang=eng,Small filter-feeding zooplankton organisms like the cladoceran Daphnia spp. are key members of freshwater food webs. Although several interactions between Daphnia and bacteria have been investigated, the importance of the microbial communities inside Daphnia guts has been studied only poorly so far. In the present study, we characterised the bacterial community composition inside the digestive tract of a laboratory-reared clonal culture of Daphnia magna using 16S rRNA gene libraries and ...
The ubiquitous, freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex provides a model system for both human health research and monitoring ecosystem integrity. It is the first crustacean to have a well annotated, reference genome assembly that revealed an unusually high gene count highlighted by a large gene orphanage,-i.e., previously uncharacterized genes. Daphnia are capable of either clonal or sexual reproduction, making them ideally suited for genetic manipulation, but the establishment of gene manipulation techniques is needed to accurately define gene functions. Although previous investigations developed an RNA interference (RNAi) system for one congener D. magna, these methods are not appropriate for D. pulex because of the smaller size of their early embryos. In these studies, we develop RNAi techniques for D. pulex by first determining the optimum culture conditions of their isolated embryos and then applying these conditions to the development of microinjection techniques and proof-of-principle RNAi
A study was performed to assess the effects of a chronic exposure to test item NOPOL on the reproduction of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The method followed was designed to be compliant with the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 211, Daphnia magna, Reproduction Test, referenced as Method C.20 of Commission Regulation No. 440/2008. Based on the results of an acute toxicity test on D. magna (LPL Project D12 -002; 48h-EC50= 28.8 mg.L-1) and on QSAR predictions (iSafeRat: 21d-NOEC = 1.17 mg.L-1), daphnids were exposed to an aqueous solution of the test item at the required nominal test concentrations of 0.5, 1.2, 2.7, 6.4 and 15 mg test item.L-1and to an untreated control for a total period of 21 days in closed vessels. Each treatment group consisted of 10 replicates each of one Daphnia magna (one individual per replicate). The test media was renewed three times a week and the daphnids were fed five days a week. Effects on reproductive performance were investigated by ...
Data on the population dynamics of five Daphnia species, viz. D. galeata mendotae, D. obtusa, D. pulicaria, D. pulex and D. magna, were collected from the literature. The experiments with constant food input were re-analysed for the oscillatory behaviour of the populations. Some populations appear to stabilize, whereas others continue to fluctuate. Some fluctuations are apparently caused by external factors. A decline to far below the average population size is always followed by a large population overshoot. Even populations that tend to stabilize do so by way of a series of damped oscillations. The oscillation period depends on, among other things, the Daphnia species, and increases with its size. Sometimes the same feeding regime leads to an equal or greater population size for a larger Daphnia species. This suggests that the chosen food species was not equally suitable for the two Daphnia species. No effect of crowding on the population size of Daphnia is found.
Water flea eye. Polarised light micrograph of the eye of a Sida crystallina water flea. Water fleas (order Cladocera) are small crustaceans, commonly found in fresh water. They are filter feeders that ingest algae, protozoa or organic matter, and are a constituent of plankton. Magnification: x400 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C028/9152
There is considerable interest in the pathways by which carbon and growth-limiting elemental and biochemical nutrients are supplied to upper trophic levels. Fatty acids and sterols are among the most important molecules transferred across the plant-animal interface of food webs. In lake ecosystems, in addition to phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial organic matter are potential trophic resources for zooplankton, especially in those receiving high terrestrial organic matter inputs. We therefore tested carbon, nitrogen, and fatty acid assimilation by the crustacean Daphnia magna when consuming these resources. We fed Daphnia with monospecific diets of high-quality (Cryptomonas marssonii) and intermediate-quality (Chlamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus gracilis) phytoplankton species, two heterotrophic bacterial strains, and particles from the globally dispersed riparian grass, Phragmites australis, representing terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC). We also fed Daphnia with various mixed ...
Though only occurring rarely, synergistic interactions between chemicals in mixtures have long been a point of focus. Most studies analyzing synergistic interactions used unrealistically high chemical concentrations. The aim of the present study is to determine the threshold concentration below which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test using passive dosing for constant chemical exposure concentrations, and a 14-day test. Synergy was ...
Microcrustacean emergence from the dry sediments is an important colonization pathway that allows these microfauna to recover and repopulate temporary aquatic habitats after months or years of dryness. Viable microcrustacean propagules in sediments of three different temporary aquatic habitats - rainpools located within the rarely flooded portions, frequently flooded floodplains and rarely flooded floodplains - were assessed experimentally by flooding the soils. Three major groups of microcrustaceans - cladocerans, copepods and ostracods - emerged from the sediments. Species richness and mean total numbers of emerged microcrustaceans per sample varied across the studied temporary aquatic habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, p , 0.05). Both species richness and mean total number of emerged microcrustacean per sample were lowest in sediments of rarely flooded floodplains. The highest species richness of microcrustaceans emerged from the treatments with soils of the frequently flooded floodplains. The mean ...
During their aquatic life cycle, nanoparticles are subject to environmentally driven surface modifications (e.g. agglomeration or coating) associated with aging. Although the ecotoxicological potential of nanoparticles might be affected by these processes, only limited information about the potential impact of aging is available. In this context, the present study investigated acute (96 h) and chronic (21 d) implications of systematically aged titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2; ~90 nm) on the standard test species Daphnia magna by following the respective test guidelines. The nTiO2 were aged for 0, 1, 3 and 6 d in media with varying ionic strengths (Milli-Q water: approx. 0.00 mmol/L and ASTM: 9.25 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of natural organic matter (NOM). Irrespective of the other parameters, aging in Milli-Q did not change the acute toxicity relative to an unaged control. In contrast, 6 d aged nTiO2 in ASTM without NOM caused a fourfold decreased acute toxicity. Relative to the 0 d aged
Predation is a primary force driving adaptation in prey. When predatory threats are fluctuating in natural environments, inducible defences may evolve in prey organisms. For example, behavioural adaptations reduce the chance of predator encounter and life-history changes increase survival chances under size selective predation [1]. Prominent examples of inducible defences are the various defensive morphological traits observed in the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia. Several Daphnia species display spectacular morphological defences [2,3] including crowns of thorns [4], spines [5], crests [6] and helmets [7-9]. All these defensive strategies are induced via predator-specific chemical cues known as kairomones. The chemical perception of kairomones initiates a series of internal physiological reactions including neuronal signal integration [10] and subsequent conversion into endocrine agents [11-13]. These substances in turn modulate developmental changes, which result in the growth of a ...
(YouTube link) Aint science wonderful? Here is a video of the microscopic water flea performing a little musical ditty. -via Improbable Research, where youll find an additional video of a water flea playing with a toy....
Daphnia pulex (Water flea) is the first fully sequenced crustacean genome. The crustaceans and insects have diverged from a common ancestor. It is a model organism for studying the molecular makeup for coping with the environmental challenges. In the complete proteome, there are 30,550 putative proteins. However, about 10,000 of them have no known homologues. Currently, the UniProtoKB reports on 95% of the Daphnias proteins as putative and uncharacterized proteins. We have applied ProtoNet, an unsupervised hierarchical protein clustering method that covers about 10 million sequences, for automatic annotation of the Daphnias proteome. 98.7% (26,625) of the Daphnia full-length proteins were successfully mapped to 13,880 ProtoNet stable clusters, and only 1.3% remained unmapped. We compared the properties of the Daphnias protein families with those of the mouse and the fruitfly proteomes. Functional annotations were successfully assigned for 86% of the proteins. Most proteins (61%) were mapped to only
Daphnia (Daphnia pulex) is the most common freshwater species known to tropical fish keeping enthusiasts as Water Fleas, Moina, or Water Bugs.
Free Online Library: Embryotoxicity of the Alkylphenol Degradation Product 4-Nonylphenol to the Crustacean Daphnia magna. by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues
Persistence OECD guideline 301F: The results showed that propofol is not biodegradable, with ,5% biodegradation after 28 days. However, ,91% removal of propofol from the aqueous phase was observed, which was noted at the time as being possibly due to adsorption to the solid phase.. ISO Guideline 11734: The results showed that propofol was not biodegradable under the anaerobic conditions of the test, although a degree of elimination was observed.. The medicine is potentially persistent.. Bioaccumulation: Log P = 3.9 (at pH 8). BCF 28 D = 27 (at 2 μg/L) and 28 D = 26 (at 0.2 μg/L).. Toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive crustacean (Daphnia magna) NOEC chronic toxicity 230 microg/L. ...
Microbial polysaccharides, due to their unique physiochemical properties, have found application in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmacy and medicine. In the environment, microbes can use polysaccharides to alleviate the adverse effects of heavy metals in their close proximity. This adaptive property shows interesting potential for bioremediation. Herein, the effects of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) levan, produced by the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NS032 and pullulan, produced by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans CH-1 in the presence of copper (Cu2+) have been investigated for the first time on antioxidant enzyme activity, respiration and Cu2+ bioaccumulation of Daphnia magna as well as the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri. Both EPS decreased toxicity of Cu2+ in the acute test with D. magna. The activity of catalase (CAT) was significantly diminished after acute exposure to Cu2+ in comparison to treatments with Cu2+ and EPS, while in the prolonged acute exposure the CAT activ...ity did ...
This Iowan eighth-grader turned her love of nature into a long-term study of water pollution. Shes continuing to investigate the mysterious growths that have formed on her Daphnia magna.
BACKGROUND: Shotgun sequences of DNA extracts from whole organisms allow a comprehensive assessment of possible symbionts. The current project makes use of four shotgun datasets from three species of the planktonic freshwater crustaceans Daphnia: one dataset from clones of D. pulex and D. pulicaria and two datasets from one clone of D. magna. We analyzed these datasets with three aims: First, we search for bacterial symbionts, which are present in all three species. Second, we search for evidence for Cyanobacteria and plastids, which had been suggested to occur as symbionts in a related Daphnia species. Third, we compare the metacommunities revealed by two different 454 pyrosequencing methods (GS 20 and GS FLX). RESULTS: In all datasets we found evidence for a large number of bacteria belonging to diverse taxa. The vast majority of these were Proteobacteria. Of those, most sequences were assigned to different genera of the Betaproteobacteria family Comamonadaceae. Other taxa represented in all ...
Introduction. The effect of caffeine on heart rate Aim: To investigate the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia (water fleas). Introduction: Plants produce caffeine as an insecticide. Cocoa in South America, coffee in Africa and tea in Asia have all been used for hundreds of years to produce pick me up drinks containing caffeine. These days, caffeine is also used as a flavour enhancer in a wide range of cola and other soft drinks. ...read more. Middle. This can lead to heart and circulation problems. Daphnia are small, planktonic crustaceans commonly called water fleas because of their saltatory swimming style (although fleas are insects and thus only very distantly related). They live in various aquatic environments ranging from acidic swamps to freshwater lakes, ponds, streams and rivers. Hypothesis: Caffeine will increase the heart rate of the Daphnia (water fleas). Equipment needed: * Culture of Daphnia (water fleas) * Cavity slides * Dropping pipettes * Distilled water and pond ...
We reconstructed the genetic structure of a planktonic crustacean Daphnia longispina living in high mountain lakes and ponds in the Pyrenees to investigate whether it was shaped by persistent founder effects originating shortly after the last glacial maximum or by ongoing dispersal and effective migration (gene flow). We found that the genetic structure can largely be explained by a single colonization event following gradual deglaciation of the Pyrenees c. 10-15 000 years ago. Nuclear genetic diversity declined steeply from southeast to northwest, suggestive of serial colonization of available habitats with advancing deglaciation. The spatial genetic structure suggests that founder effects were major determinants of the present-day diversity, both at the catchment level and at the level of individual water bodies, further supporting extremely low effective migration rates. This study reveals a prime example of a founder effect that is both long-lasting and maintained at small spatial scales. ...
To study on a spatial scale the composition of Daphnia populations we surveyed Daphnia populations north and south of the Swiss Alps. We found that Lakes North of the Alps were invaded with one species (D. galeata) and hypothesize that lakes south of the Alps were invaded with D. longispina. A first life history experiment shows some evidence for this hypothesis. Further, testing of this hypothesis needs to come from sediment cores from lakes from the south side of the alps. I will present recent data about these studies.. 10.06.2013. Urban Friberg - Genetics of sexual dimorphism. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden. Abstract: Evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD) is a paradox. On the one hand it shouldbe constrained, because it is restricted to occur only through geneexpression and because it relies on gene expression having a sex-specificgenetic architecture. On the other hand SD is common and SD traits are amongthose that evolve the fastest. How is this possible? Is ...
Sample gene map views of Daphnia pulex Genes 2010, including Hemoglobin cluster, Rhodopsin, Chorion peroxidase and galactosyltransferase gene clusters ...
Evolutionary dynamics of hosts and their parasites are complex processes. In order to study these processes on genotype level, reliable molecular tools have to be developed. The goal of this thesis was to develop such tools for freshwater crustaceans - Daphnia longispina species complex and its parasites. On one hand, from the host side - an interspecific hybridization plays an important role. For tracing community dynamics and reticulate evolution in such a hybrid species complex, long-term comparative studies of natural populations are necessary. In order to conduct such a study, it is essential to access historical samples. These samples are usually suffering from low DNA quality due to the preservation chemical such as formaldehyde or denaturated ethanol, therefore traditional genotyping through length-based markers (such as microsatellites or allozymes) proved to be insufficient. For circumventing these issues, SNP- based markers were developed. Based on transcriptome data of one species ...
Acute Toxicity Evaluation to Daphnia magna of Disease Resistant(OsCK1) Rice - Daphnia magna;Disease resistant transgenic rice;Risk assessment;
The common evergreen dwarf shrub Empetrum hormaphroditum has influence on the functioning of boreal terrestrial ecosystems in northern Sweden. The negative effects of E. hermaphroditum are partly attributed to the production of the dihydrostilbene, batatasin-III, which is released from leaves and litter by rain and snowmelt. In this study, we investigated whether batatasin-III is carried by runoff into streams and lakes during the snowmelt period and whether it is also potentially hazardous to aquatic fauna. Sampling of water from streams and a lake for which the surrounding terrestrial vegetation is dominated by E. hermaphroditum was done during the snowmelt period in May 1993 and in 1998, and analyzed for batatasin-III. Using 24- and 48-hr standard toxicity tests, we analyzed toxicity to brown trout (Salmo trutta) alevins and juvenile water fleas (Daphnia magna). Toxicity (proportion of dead individuals) to trout was tested at pH 6.5 and compared with that of a phenol within a range of ...
James Tour, lead researcher on the study, said: This work shows that whole organisms, such as small worms and water fleas, can be killed by nanomachines that get into them. This is not only single-cell death, but also the entire organism, which causes thousands of cells to die. . In a subsequent test, the researchers shifted the target to a larger animal, the mouse. They smeared a local mixture containing micromachines on the skin of mice, and once activated, the drill bits caused skin damage and ulcers. While this doesnt sound good for poor animals, the researchers say the test shows how nanodrills will eventually be used in beneficial ways. They can be used on human skin to penetrate melanoma, kill parasites such as worms or fight eczema and other skin diseases.. The idea is that nanodrills can be trained to target only certain cells so that they dont harm healthy human cells.. The study was published in the journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces.. ...
Earthworms and tiny water fleas could help deliver clean water to billions of people in remote areas of the world by eating up sewage and other pollution.
From York University - quite possibly the most poorly written science by press release Ive seen this year. The leaps of may are profound, and the footbal team analogy is designed to elicit sympathy. I suppose if Daphnia populations were collapsing in lakes due to lack of helmets and shoulder pads, wed see a collapse…
I love listening to live blues music. One of my favorite venues is the Canyon Club in Agoura Hills, CA, about an hour and a half drive from my house. Discovering the Canyon Club, one of the premier hot spots for the blues in Southern California, has afforded me the pleasure of seeing legends like Johnny Winter, John Mayall (the father of the British blues), and Charlie Musselwhite play.. In the realm of biology, a team of researchers has recently discovered hot spots in the genome of the water flea Daphnia pulex. Unfortunately for evolutionary biologists, this finding is forcing them to change their tune about the origin of introns (regions of noncoding DNA within genes). At the same time it has creationists and intelligent design proponents making joyful sounds. Thats because this discovery helps provide an explanation from a creation perspective for genome features considered junk DNA, supposedly the most compelling evidence for biological evolution.. According to evolutionary biologists, ...
We show that the stable (C, N, O) isotopic composition of the water flea Daphnia pulicaria is strongly related to that of its diet (C, N) and the water they live in (O). We also show that the stable isotopic composition of the sheaths of Daphnia resting eggs (ephippia) is indicative of the isotopic composition of Daphnia that produced them. This implies that stable isotope ratios of fossil Daphnia ephippia can provide information on past ecological and climatic developments in and around lakes ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [David J Civitello, Rachel M Penczykowski, Aimee N Smith, Marta S Shocket, Meghan A Duffy, Spencer R Hall].
The dual role of recombination in TE proliferation has generated great interest in the effects of sexual versus asexual reproduction on TE loads in the genome over time (Arkhipova & Meselson 2000; Wright & Finnegan 2001; Dolgin & Charlesworth 2006). Sex can facilitate the spread of a new TE throughout a population, but it also provides a mechanism through which new copies can be lost. Thus, sex can lead to an accelerated rate of increase and decrease in TEs over time relative to asexuals, and also impact the distribution of TEs among individuals within a population where sex has been lost (Schaack et al. in press). We surveyed six families of transposable elements in populations of D. pulex, which reproduce either with or without sex and find that both the number and distribution of TEs differ between cyclical parthenogens and obligate asexuals, despite the fact that obligately asexual populations in this species are thought to be relatively young (Lynch et al. 2008). Even though purging ...
Background The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulexproduces female offspring by parthenogenesis under favorable conditions, but in response to various unfavorable external stimuli, it produces male...
THE efficacy of natural selection may be severely reduced in asexual compared to sexual organisms due to the absence of recombination and segregation (Fisher 1930; Barton and Charlesworth 1998; Otto and Lenormand 2002; Agrawal 2006). Consequently, asexual populations may adapt more slowly to changing environments (Peck 1994; Orr 2000; Roze and Barton 2006) and suffer from an increased genetic load (Muller 1964; Crow and Kimura 1970; Pamilo et al. 1987; Kondrashov 1988; Charlesworth 1994). Both of these factors may contribute to the rarity of obligate asexuality in eukaryotes (Bell 1982), despite its immediate advantages over sexual reproduction (Maynard Smith 1978). The main reason for the decreased efficiency of selection in asexual organisms is that due to the complete linkage of their genomes, selection cannot operate on different mutations independently (the Hill-Robertson effect, Hill and Robertson 1966). Thus, deleterious mutations anywhere in the genome reduce the effective population ...
This study was performed to assess the acute toxicity of Cedrol, Cedarwood Texas oil distilled on Daphnia magna, and was conducted in accordance with OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 202. A full test was performed based on the results of a preceding range-finding test. Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) of Cedrol, Cedarwood Texas oil distilled were prepared and used as test concentrations. Twenty daphnids per group (5 per replicate, quadruplicate) were exposed to an untreated control and to WAFs prepared at loading rates of 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/L under static conditions. The total exposure period was 48 hours and samples for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyses were taken at the start and at the end of the test. Due to the potential volatile nature of the test item, the exposure was performed in airtight closed vessels with headspace reduced to minimum. The measured TOC concentrations increased with the loading rate at the three lowest loading rates the start. At the higher ...
Lipidomics, an under-utilised and rapidly developing field aims to identify the full complement of hydrophobic constituents in a cell, tissue or organism. Lipid peroxidation, a major consequence of oxidative stress, represents a mechanistically illuminating marker for numerous toxicants. Lipidomics offers the ideal technique to acquire a greater level of mechanistic detail compared to currently utilised methodologies. Here, I present a study into lipid peroxidation from simple in vitro models to complex in vivo systems utilising mass spectrometric techniques. Initially, oxidised products from a systematic range of phospholipids were induced and comprehensively annotated to allow the development of OxyLipidBlast. This is the first tool facilitating the identification of oxidised lipids and provides utility to numerous fields. Secondly I present the first annotated lipidome of the keystone ecotoxicological species Daphnia magna and the first annotated lipidome of algal species Chlamydomonas ...
Every day we are exposed to carcinogens, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). High levels of ultraviolet radiation are known to cause DNA damage. One of the most common forms of UVR-induced damage, the pyrimidine dimer, is repaired by an enzymatic reaction powered by visible light. We wanted to find out if there is variation in the level of UVR-induced DNA damage induced in two different clones of Daphnia magna, a model organism for ecotoxicology. One clone was derived from a mid-latitude deep reservoir, where escape from UVR is possible via vertical migration. The second clone was from a high-latitude shallow rock pool, where D. magna are exposed to high levels of UVR. Pregnant mothers from each clone line were subjected to ecologically relevant levels of UVR in the lab. Immediately afterwards, we extracted the embryos, suspended the cells in agarose, and performed a comet assay, which allows for quantification of DNA damage within individual cells. The slides were viewed under a fluorescent
The primary objective of the test is to assess the effect of chemicals on the rate of reproduction of Daphnia magna. The concentrations used in the study are based on the results of an acute immobilisation test. The duration of the study is 21 days and the number of offspring produced, together with adult and juvenile survival, is reported. A semi-static system is recommended and the frequency of test media renewal depends on the stability of the substance. The study is started with juveniles which are female and start to produce live young by parthenogenesis after about 7 days.. Juvenile production is compared to that of the controls to determine the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and the no effect concentration (NOEC) in addition of the EC50. Other adverse effects are recorded such as abnormal development of juveniles in the brood pouch (white eggs). Shedding of un-hatched eggs, presence of male Daphnia, ephippial eggs and differences in the size of adults at the end of the test ...
WALSER, B. and HAAG, C. R. (2012), Strong intraspecific variation in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia magna: the effects of population turnover and population size. Molecular Ecology, 21: 851-861. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05416.x ...
Cry-toxin genes originating from Bacillus thuringiensis are inserted into genetically modified (GM) plants, often called Bt-plants, to provide insect resistance to pests. Significant amounts of Bt-plant residues, and thus Cry-toxins, will be shed to soil and aquatic environments. We exposed Daphnia magna to purified Cry1Ab and Cry2Aa toxins for the full life-span of the animals. We used single toxins in different doses and combinations of toxins and Roundup, another potential stressor on the rise in agricultural ecosystems. Animals exposed to 4.5 mg/L (ppm) of Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa and the combination of both showed markedly higher mortality, smaller body size and very low juvenile production compared to controls. Animals exposed to 0.75 mg/L also showed a tendency towards increased mortality but with increased early fecundity compared to the controls. Roundup stimulated animals to strong early reproductive output at the cost of later rapid mortality. We conclude that i) purified Cry-toxins in high ...
Yang, Y.; May, L.; Gunn, I.D.M.; Huang, X.; Liu, J.. 1999 Comparative studies on effects of predation by fish on Daphnia in Lake Donghu (China) and Loch Leven (Scotland). In: Ecosystem Approaches for Fisheries Management. American Fisheries Society, 265-281. (Alaska Sea Grant Report, 1). Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Zeis et al. (2004) recently reported that hemoglobin concentration in daphnids increased with increasing temperature. Mitchell (2001) noted a low incidence of sexually ambiguous offspring when daphnids were reared at 30°C. Elevated temperature may prove to be an environmental signal that stimulates both hemoglobin induction and male sex determination through the common signaling pathway. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory support this premise. However, elevated temperature may stimulate different signaling pathways, resulting in multiple outcomes. For example, oxygen saturation decreases with increasing water temperature, which may stimulate hemoglobin production via the hypoxia signaling pathway. Increased temperature may also adversely impact the uptake or assimilation of nutrients resulting in male production via the terpenoid signaling pathway.. The minimum components to the putative terpenoid signaling pathway described in this study would consist of the hormone (i.e. methyl ...
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By John K. Colbourne, Michael E. Pfrender, Donald Gilbert, W. Kelley Thomas, Abraham Tucker, Todd H. Oakley, Shinichi Tokishita, Andrea Aerts, Georg J. Arnold, Malay Kumar Basu, Darren J. Bauer, Carla E. Cáceres, Liran Carmel, Claudio Casola, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, John C. Detter, Qunfeng Dong, Serge Dusheyko, Brian D. Eads, Thomas Fröhlich, Kerry A. Geiler-Samerotte, Daniel Gerlach, Phil Hatcher, Sanjuro Jogdeo, Jeroen Krijgsveld, Evgenia V. Kriventseva, Dietmar Kültz, Christian Laforsch, Erika Lindquist, Jacqueline Lopez, J. Robert Manak, Jean Muller, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Rupali P. Patwardhan, Samuel Pitluck, Ellen J. Pritham, Andreas Rechtsteiner, Mina Rho, Igor B. Rogozin, Onur Sakarya, Asaf Salamov, Sarah Schaack, Harris Shapiro, Yasuhiro Shiga, Courtney Skalitzky, Zachary Smith, Alexander Souvorov, Way Sung, Zuojian Tang, Dai Tsuchiya, Hank Tu, Harmjan Vos, Mei Wang, Yuri I. Wolf, Hideo Yamagata, Takuji Yamada, Yuzhen Ye, Joseph R. Shaw, Justen Andrews, Teresa J. Crease, Haixu Tang, Susan M. ...
The last ten years have witnessed increasing interest in host-pathogen interactions involving invertebrate hosts. The invertebrate innate immune system is now relatively well characterised, but in a limited range of genetic model organisms and under a limited number of conditions. Immune systems have been little studied under real-world scenarios of environmental variation and parasitism. Thus, we have investigated expression of candidate innate immune system genes in the water flea Daphnia, a model organism for ecological genetics, and whose capacity for clonal reproduction facilitates an exceptionally rigorous control of exposure dose or the study of responses at many time points. A unique characteristic of the particular Daphnia clones and pathogen strain combinations used presently is that they have been shown to be involved in specific host-pathogen coevolutionary interactions in the wild. We choose five genes, which are strong candidates to be involved in Daphnia-pathogen interactions, ...
Daphnia species are normally r-selected, meaning that they invest in early reproduction and so have short lifespans. An individual Daphnia life-span depends on factors such as temperature and the abundance of predators, but can be 13-14 months in some cold, oligotrophic fish-free lakes.[9] In typical conditions, however, the life cycle is much shorter, not usually exceeding 5-6 months.[9]. Daphnia are typically filter feeders, ingesting mainly unicellular algae and various sorts of organic detritus including protists and bacteria[3][10] Beating of the legs produces a constant current through the carapace which brings such material into the digestive tract. The trapped food particles are formed into a food bolus which then moves down the digestive tract until voided through the anus located on the ventral surface of the terminal appendage.[10] The second and third pair of legs are used in the organisms filter feeding, ensuring large unabsorbable particles are kept out, while the other sets of ...
Food quality is highly dynamic within lake ecosystems and varies spatially and temporally over the growing season. Consumers may need to continuously adjust their metabolism in response to this variation in dietary nutrient content. However, the rate of metabolic responses to changes in food nutrient content has received little direct study. Here, we examine responses in two metabolic phosphorus (P) pools, ribonucleic acids (RNA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) along with body mass and body P content in Daphnia magna exposed to chronic and acute dietary P-limitation. First, we examined food quality effects on animals consuming different food carbon (C):P quality over a 14 day period. Then, we raised daphnids on one food quality for 4 days, switched them to contrasting dietary treatments, and measured changes in their metabolic responses at shorter time-scales (over 48 h). Animal P, RNA, and ATP content all changed through ontogeny with adults containing relatively less of these pools with increasing
Daphnia are tiny crustaceans, closely related to a shrimp. They are often called water fleas. They are small, but not microscopic. They can be seen with the naked eye, but you will need a dissecting microscope to view the beating heart. Daphnia can be purchased from any of the companies that sell lab supplies and equipment. Since Daphnia are arthropods, they demonstrate the three major arthropod characteristics: exoskeleton, jointed appendages, and segmented body. The exoskeleton is clear, allowing the student to easily view the heart. Daphnia are ectotherms and their body temperature changes with the surrounding environment. This further means that there is a direct relationship between the internal body activities and the external temperature of the water in which it lives ...

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