Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Ethisterone: 17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Sterculiaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Consumer Product SafetyHerb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Angioedemas, Hereditary: Inherited disorders that are characterized by subcutaneous and submucosal EDEMA in the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT and GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Erythema Multiforme: A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Forsythia: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.

Effects of 3 month therapy with danazol after laparoscopic surgery for stage III/IV endometriosis: a randomized study. (1/116)

The effect of treatment with danazol was evaluated with respect to expectant management after laparoscopic conservative surgery. All patients conservatively operated at laparoscopy for stage III-IV endometriosis from July 1994 to October 1996 were requested to enter the study. Patients who underwent surgery for recurrent endometriosis were excluded from the study, as well as patients who had taken hormonal therapies before laparoscopy. Informed consent was obtained from 77 women who were randomized after surgery to treatment with danazol 600 mg daily for 3 months (n = 36) or to expectant management (n = 41). All patients were regularly followed up every 6 months for evaluation of fertility, recurrence of pain symptoms and disease. During the follow-up, six (55%) of the 11 infertile women allocated to danazol and eight (50%) of the 16 given no treatment became pregnant (not significant). Moderate/severe pelvic pain recurred during follow-up in seven (23%) of the 31 women with pelvic pain allocated to the danazol group and nine (31%) of the 29 allocated to no treatment; the respective cumulative pain recurrence rates at 12 months were 26 and 34% (log rank test, not significant). Three women (8.3%) treated with danazol and six (15%) who received no treatment had disease recurrence as demonstrated by gynaecological examination and/or pelvic ultrasonography (not significant). Our results do not demonstrate a significant advantage of 3 month danazol therapy after laparoscopic surgery for stage III-IV endometriosis with respect to postoperative expectant management.  (+info)

Low-dose danazol after combined surgical and medical therapy reduces the incidence of pelvic pain in women with moderate and severe endometriosis. (2/116)

The most effective therapy for endometriosis is a matter for debate. The aim of the present randomized study was to evaluate the efficacy of low doses of danazol on recurrence of pelvic pain in patients with moderate or severe endometriosis, who had undergone laparoscopic surgery and 6 months of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy. After surgery, 28 patients with moderate or severe endometriosis underwent therapy for 6 months with GnRHa i. m. every 4 weeks. They were then randomized into two groups: group A (14 subjects) was treated with 100 mg/day danazol for 6 months; group B (14 subjects, control) did not receive any type of therapy. After 12 months of treatment, group A had a significantly (P < 0.01) lower pain score than group B. There was no significant difference between the groups in oestrogen concentrations, bone mineral density or side-effects. The results suggest that low-dose danazol therapy reduces recurrence of pelvic pain in patients with moderate or severe endometriosis, treated surgically, and has few or no metabolic side-effects.  (+info)

Danazol treatment of idiopathic myelofibrosis with severe anemia. (3/116)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe anemia is an important problem in patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis (IM). When other therapeutic measures are unsuccessful or not applicable, 40-50% favorable responses are obtained with androgen therapy. Oxymetholone is the drug usually employed, but good results have also been reported with danazol, although the experience is limited to a few patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of danazol on the anemia of IM. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven out of 22 consecutive IM patients were eligible for danazol treatment because of severe anemia not treatable with (four cases) or refractory to (three cases) other therapies. Danazol (600-800 mg/day) was given orally for six months and thereafter progressively tapered to the minimum effective dose in responding patients or discontinued in non-responders. Complete response was considered cessation of transfusion requirements with normalization of hemoglobin (Hb) values; partial response was defined as a > 30% reduction in transfusional needs or an increase > 10 g/L in the Hb. The effect on platelet counts was also analyzed. RESULTS: One patient splenectomized three years earlier achieved a complete response and three a partial response, giving an overall response rate of 57 %. A significant increase in platelet counts was also observed in three responders. The responses were first seen between three and six months after the start of treatment, which was usually well tolerated. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Danazol, given at an appropriate dosage for a sufficient time, is an effective treatment for a substantial proportion of IM patients with severe anemia without marked splenomegaly or who have been previously splenectomized.  (+info)

Is endometrial pre-treatment of value in improving the outcome of transcervical resection of the endometrium? (4/116)

The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the use of medical pre-treatment of the endometrium improves the outcome of transcervical resection of the endometrium with regards to long-term operative outcome, histological findings and patient satisfaction. A prospective randomized trial comparing three endometrial pre-treatment agents (danazol, medroxyprogesterone acetate or nafarelin) with no pre-treatment was conducted. The main outcome measures were: (i) thickness of the endometrium and myometrium resected; (ii) histological stage of the endometrium at the time of operation; (iii) the presence or absence of menses and (iv) patient satisfaction 1 year post-operatively. Of the three pre-treatments studied, danazol produced a lower median endometrial thickness than the control, showed the greatest ability to induce atrophy of the endometrial glands and stroma (not statistically significant) and produced the highest rate of amenorrhoea (not different to the control). Danazol and nafarelin produced significantly lower median endometrial thickness than no pre-treatment. There were, however, no significant differences in the rates of amenorrhoea in any of the pre-treatment groups compared with that in the control group. No improvement in clinical outcome or patient satisfaction is conferred by the use of medical pre-treatments if transcervical resection of the endometrium is performed in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Immunosuppressive therapy using antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, and danazol with or without human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in children with acquired aplastic anemia. (5/116)

A prospective multicenter trial of 119 children 1 to 18 years of age with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia (AA) was conducted, comparing treatment using antithymocyte globulin (ATG), cyclosporine (CyA), and danazol (DAN) with or without rhG-CSF (400 microg/m(2), day on days 1-90). All children with very severe AA received rhG-CSF (VSAA group, n = 50). The other children were randomized to receive ATG, CyA, DAN, and rhG-CSF (G-CSF+ group, n = 35) or ATG, CyA, and DAN without rhG-CSF (G-CSF- group, n = 34). After 6 months, the hematologic response rate was 71%, 55%, and 77% in the VSAA group, G-CSF+ group, and G-CSF- group, respectively. There was no difference in the incidence of febrile episodes and documented infections between the G-CSF+ and G-CSF- groups. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was attempted in 22 patients in whom initial immunosuppressive therapy (IST; n = 18) failed or in whom a relapse occurred after an initial response (n = 4). Nineteen of the 22 patients are alive and well after a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 3 to 66 months) since BMT. The probability of survival at 4 years was 83% +/- 7% in the VSAA group, 91% +/- 5% in the G-CSF+ group, and 93% +/- 6% in the G-CSF- group. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developed in one patient in each of the three groups; the overall risk for MDS/AML was 3% +/- 2% at 4 years. Because the results of IST were encouraging, it is suggested that children with AA receive IST as first-line therapy if there is no human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donor.  (+info)

The possible anti-inflammatory role of circulating human leukocyte antigen levels in women with endometriosis after treatment with danazol and leuprorelin acetate depot. (6/116)

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is defined as an inflammatory condition of the female reproductive tract, a state often associated with infertility and miscarriage. Many exogenously administered factors (treatments) control the disease via as yet unknown pathways. Possible candidate molecules involved in these mechanisms could be the serum-soluble human leukocyte antigens (sHIA) that have been detected in a variety of human body fluids and that are associated with several diseases. AIMS: We here examine how danazol and leuprorelin acetate depot treatments exert their anti-inflammatory action. It is plausible that subtle alterations mediated by these treatments and in relation to sHLA may explain the pathophysiology of endometriosis and provide insights towards new therapeutic protocols. METHODS: Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using specific monoclonal antibodies, determined serum-soluble class-I and class-II HLA levels. ELISA readings from treated women were compared with normal healthy subjects. RESULTS: Serum-soluble class-I and class-II HLA levels are statistically significantly lower (P < 0.001) in women with endometriosis than in the control groups. However, danazol but not leuprorelin acetate depot administration augments soluble HLA class I and class II (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) to normal levels during the treatment period, an increase that may account for the anti-inflammatory effect and the remission observed. CONCLUSIONS: It is shown that one of the underlying causes of endometriosis may be the lack of both circulating class-I and class-II antigen levels. Danazol administration acts via an induced release of these antigens, whose presence correlates with the degree of the inflammatory alleviation obtained. We thus provide evidence that the inflammatory state of the disease appears to be associated with soluble HLA levels because, 3 months after ceasing therapy, the circulating antigens in the serum return to the same levels that correspond to the pathological condition.  (+info)

Danazol and limb-threatening arterial thrombosis: two case reports. (7/116)

Danazol is a synthetic androgenic steroid used clinically for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders. Although there is no extensive evidence that androgens are thrombogenic in humans, there are case reports of cerebral, coronary, and peripheral arterial thrombosis in young male athletes abusing anabolic-androgenic steroids. There are also two reported cases of arterial and venous thrombotic events attributed to danazol therapy. We report two additional cases of limb-threatening arterial thrombosis in patients undergoing danazol therapy, and suggest the possibility that danazol may be an independent risk factor for arterial thrombosis.  (+info)

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for Evans syndrome. (8/116)

Evans syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by combined autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Standard treatments consist of transfusions, corticosteroids, splenectomy, IVIG, anabolic steroids, vincristine, alkylating agents, or cyclosporine. In a patient with refractory disease, an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) resulted in complete clinical and serologic remission for more than 30 months. Allogeneic HSCT may be the only current curative therapy for Evans syndrome but may also be complicated by significant toxicities.  (+info)

  • In the treatment of hereditary angioedema, danazol at effective doses prevents attacks of the disease characterized by episodic edema of the abdominal viscera, extremities, face, and airway which may be disabling and, if the airway is involved, fatal. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, danazol corrects partially or completely the primary biochemical abnormality of hereditary angioedema by increasing the levels of the deficient C1 esterase inhibitor (C1EI). (nih.gov)
  • Danazol has a complex mechanism of action , and is characterized as a weak androgen and anabolic steroid , a weak progestogen , a weak antigonadotropin , a weak steroidogenesis inhibitor , and a functional antiestrogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • As an androgen, danazol is described as weak, being about 200-fold less potent than testosterone in bioassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that danazol derivative induces positive inotropic activity through of the activation androgen receptor. (scirp.org)
  • This medication cannot be used in patients with hypersensitivity to Danazol or its components, in pregnant and breastfeeding women, porphyria (activity of liver transaminases increases), liver or kidney failure, chronic heart failure, thromboembolism, androgen producing tumor, vaginal bleeding of unknown origin. (generic4all.com)
  • Danazol also has some effects in treating various breast conditions and works as a strong androgen which is similar to testosterone. (anabolika.de)
  • Another mechanism of action by which danazol may use to facilitate regression of endometriosis is by decreasing IgG, IgM, and IgA concentrations, as well as phospholipid and IgG isotope autoantibodies. (drugbank.ca)
  • In addition, to date the cellular site and mechanism of action of danazol at the cardiovascular level is very confusing. (scirp.org)
  • A dosage of 800 mg/day danazol was found to increase telomere length in patients with telomere diseases in a phase I/II clinical trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • For reference, circulating concentrations of danazol are in the range of 2 μM at a dosage of 600 mg/day in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now I have been put on Gonablock (Danazol) Tablets- 100 mg twice a day for 3 months to prevent recurrence of cysts. (ndtv.com)
  • Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking danazol may experience unwanted hair growth ( hirsutism ), acne , irreversible deepening of the voice , or adverse blood lipid profiles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Danazol, like most other androgenic drugs, has been linked with an increased risk of liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, the pituitary-suppressive action of danazol is reversible. (nih.gov)
  • Innovative genomic test for danazol personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response to danazol if it will or has been prescribed to treat your medical condition. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Although the affinity and efficacy of danazol itself at the PR are relatively low, ethisterone, one of the major metabolites of danazol, is described as a weak progestogen (and has been employed clinically as a progestogenic contraceptive), and this presumably balances the in vivo progestogenic activity of danazol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of danazol at the ER is considered to be minimal, although at very high concentrations the drug can act significantly as an ER agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption: After oral administration of a 400 mg dose to healthy male volunteers, peak plasma concentrations of danazol are reached between 2 and 8 hours, with a median T max value of 4 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse events are also recorded throughout the study, in order to compare the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin, acetylcysteine plus danazol with danazol monotherapy in patients with corticosteroid-resistant/relapsed ITP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although in contradiction with the above data, another study found that danazol weakly inhibited aromatase as well, with 44% inhibition at a concentration of 10 μM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Danazol is a medication that is commonly prescribed to women to prevent various pain in the pelvic region as well as infertility due to endometriosis. (anabolika.de)
  • As a result of the demand for danazol and its added benefits the expense for this medication is a little more than some of its competitors like clomid or Nolvadex . (anabolika.de)
  • Danazol decreases effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs by affecting metabolism of carbohydrates, increasing blood sugar levels Danazol inhibits metabolism of carbamazepine and increase its blood levels increases blood concentrations of cyclosporine and tacrolimus hereby increasing risk of nephrotoxicity. (generic4all.com)
  • This suppression is probably a combination of depressed hypothalamic-pituitary response to lowered estrogen production, the alteration of sex steroid metabolism, and interaction of danazol with sex hormone receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Recent evidence suggests a direct inhibitory effect at gonadal sites and a binding of danazol to receptors of gonadal steroids at target organs. (nih.gov)
  • Danazol can offer some greater benefits than a traditional estrogen blocker as it helps to boost LH hormones during post cycle therapy. (anabolika.de)
  • While there are several options available for estrogen blockers, the properties that danazol has as well as the extensive history in bodybuilding make it theoreticaly a great choice. (anabolika.de)
  • T here is scarce information about the effects of danazol and its derivatives at cardiovascular level. (scirp.org)
  • Danazol increases effects of anticoagulants of cumarine series and derivatives of indandione such as the risk of bleeding. (generic4all.com)
  • T he Lan gendorff technique was used to measure changes on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in an isolated rat heart model in the absence or presence of danazol and its derivative. (scirp.org)
  • Danazol is contraindicated during pregnancy because it has the potential to virilize female fetuses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Women taking danazol should practice effective contraception to prevent pregnancy if sexually active . (wikipedia.org)