Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Agnosia: Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.AxisHallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Font-specific priming following global amnesia and occipital lobe damage, Neuropsychology, 12(2), 183-192. Winocur, G., ... TBI varies according to impact of external forces, location of structural damage, and severity of damage ranging from mild to ... Retrograde episodic and semantic memory impairment correlates with side of temporal lobe damage, Journal of the International ... however there was no parahippocampal or entorhinal damage found. Individuals with focal brain damage have minimal RA. Isolated ...
... is most often associated with occipital or temporal lobe lesions, as well as occipital lobe epilepsy. This ... This mechanism may explain why polyopia extending into a patient's scotoma occurs following damage to primary visual cortex. ... Thus, polyopia can result from any kind of infarction to the occipital or temporal lobes, though the exact mechanism remains ... Though there is no clear cause of cerebral polyopia, many cases show associations with occipital or temporal lobe lesions. Most ...
Occipital lobe: Damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of vision.[17] ... The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing,[15] difficulty in language comprehension ( ... A person's personality may be altered due to the tumor damaging lobes of the brain. Since the frontal, temporal, and parietal ...
... as information exits the occipital lobe it follows two pathways. The dorsal stream ("where pathway") ends in the parietal lobe ... Damage to the parietal lobe is highly correlated with constructional apraxia since it is involved in drawing and copying. The ... There are qualitative differences between patients with left hemisphere damage, right hemisphere damage, and Alzheimer's ... it is most commonly associated with lesions in the parietal-occipital lobes. Constructional apraxia is common after right ...
A common area of damage associated with both disorders can be seen in the right occipital lobe. No current treatment is known ... It has been noted that this area of the occipital lobe may not be a processing center but rather a pathway that is a critical ... cerebral achromatopsia is the sudden onset of color vision loss following a severe head injury or damage to the occipital lobe ... Using the fMRI, researchers examined the areas of blood oxygenation in the occipital lobe as the subject viewed various color- ...
... through lesions is rare, because damage to the occipital lobe usually disturbs more than one visual function. ... While Goldestein and Gelb believed the patient had damaged the lateral and medial parts of the left occipital lobe, it was ... Patients with akinetopsia tend to have unilateral or bi-lateral damage to the V5. V1, also known as the primary visual cortex, ... later indicated that both occipital lobes were probably affected, due to the bilateral, concentric loss of his visual field. He ...
Damage causing agnosia usually occurs in either the occipital or parietal lobes of the brain. Although one modality may be ... One way in which impairment could occur was if there was damage to early perceptual processing or if there was damage to the ... Apperceptive visual agnosia is associated with damage to one hemisphere, specifically damage to the posterior sections of the ... The effect of damage to the superior temporal sulcus is consistent with several types of neurolinguistic deficiencies, and some ...
... results from bilateral lesions to the junction between the parietal and occipital lobes. These lesions could ... Parietal lesions damage the master map of locations, and as a result, a variety of deficits can occur, including ... Dorsal simultanagnosia results from bilateral lesions to the junction between the parietal and occipital lobes. Here, ... These two forms of simultanagnosia are associated with different symptoms as well as damage to separate areas of the brain. ...
The occipital lobe is typically most affected though the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes have shown involvement as well. ... MRI can aid in the detection of injured brain tissue; however, the severity and extent of the damage demonstrated by imaging ... Toxic leukoencephalopathy-related damage to central nervous system (CNS) white matter, typically of the periventricular nucleus ... Other toxins have been shown to extend damage to other structures of the brain, including the hippocampus, dorsal medulla, and ...
Kean also, in depth, explains the role of the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe through all these accounts. He writes that ... Damage to the parietal lobe causes the loss of the ability to locate objects in space. Infections and viruses like herpes may ... After this tale, Kean ties it in with the limbic system, the topic of the chapter, and the temporal lobe. In regards to the ... Of course, Spitzka found holes in his gray matter and extensive damage to the tissue that "nourished neurons". Later, it was ...
... , also known as visual anosognosia, is a rare symptom of brain damage occurring in the occipital lobe. ... An MRI of his brain proved that his right occipital lobe was ischemic. Similarly, a 56-year-old woman was admitted to the ... One hypothesis is that damage to the visual cortex results in the inability to communicate with the speech-language areas of ... Neurologist Macdonald Critchley describes it thus: The sudden development of bilateral occipital dysfunction is likely to ...
However, brain damage in proximity to the occipital lobe is largely correlated with the patterns of deficit seen in ... For example patient JB suffered extensive damage to the parietal-occipital areas to the left cerebral hemisphere leading to his ... Brain damage leads to apperceptive agnosia because there is damage to a particular semantic category.[citation needed] Another ... In addition the occipitoparietal pathway is sometimes damaged in apperceptive agnosia patients.[citation needed] Damage to this ...
... may be a product of ischemic damage to occipital lobe. Occlusions of the branches of the PCA that supply the thalamus can ... the occipital lobe, the inferomedial temporal lobe, a large portion of the thalamus, and the upper brainstem and midbrain. This ... Territory Lesions Contralateral homonymous hemianopsia cortical blindness with bilateral involvement of the occipital lobe ... Stroke syndromes: Posterior cerebral artery - unilateral occipital. [Internet]. [updated 1999 July; cited 2011 May 13]. ...
The autobiographical memory knowledge base is distributed through neural networks in the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes ... Confabulation can be a result of brain damage, but it can also be provoked by methods employed in memory exploration. ... Networks in the left frontal lobe in the dorsolateral cortex and bilaterally in the prefrontal cortex become active during ... Sensory and perceptual details of specific events are represented in posterior temporal and occipital networks, predominantly ...
Generally, this condition has been associated with damage or abnormalities in various brain areas (temporal, occipital, ... A T2-weighted brain MRI revealed an infarction in the right medial temporooccipital lobe including the parahippocampal gyrus ( ... parietal, and frontal lobes). The development of prosopometamorphopsia has been recorded to be a manifestation of epilepsy in ... "A Case of Prosopometamorphopsia Restricted to the Nose and Mouth with Right Medial Temporooccipital Lobe Infarction That ...
Those with damage to regions of the brain involved in visual processing, such as the occipital lobes, may develop amnesia. The ... The effect of temporal lobe damage on the reminiscence bump is highly variable as a function of age at the time of injury. This ... Individuals with this type of brain damage are not able to form new memories after the incident that caused the brain damage, ... but they still have access to memories that happened before the brain damage occurred. If the brain damage was present at the ...
Those patients with left hemisphere damage (LHD), in areas ranging from the frontal lobe to the occipital lobe, exhibited both ... During the processes of each of the languages, there was bilateral activation in the occipital lobes, in the temporal lobes ... The processing of sign language showed stronger activation in both occipital lobes, both posterior temporal lobes, and in the ... Those with damage in the Wernicke's area (left hemisphere) in the temporal lobe of the brain have problems comprehending signed ...
The visual difficulties in Bálint's syndrome are usually due to damage to the parieto-occipital lobes on both sides of the ... The parietal lobe is the middle area of the top part of the brain and the occipital lobe is the back part of the brain. (It ... This syndrome is caused by damage to the posterior superior watershed areas, also known as the parietal-occipital vascular ... Kim, Min-Shik; Robertson, Lynn C. (2001). "Implicit Representations of Space after Bilateral Parietal Lobe Damage". Journal of ...
BA39 encompasses the angular gyrus, lying near to the junction of temporal, occipital and parietal lobes. This area is also ... Damage to Brodmann area 39 plays a role in semantic aphasia. It was regarded by Alexander Luria as a part of the parietal- ... temporal-occipital area, which includes Brodmann area 40, Brodmann area 19, and Brodmann area 37. Brodmann area List of regions ...
This form of the disease involves symptoms that would be expected from damage to the parietal and occipital lobes: seizures ... located near the parietal lobe and occipital lobes of the brain. The cause of perinatal brain injuries includes: 1. cerebral ... Parietal-occipital lobe epilepsy, which is often synonymous with posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE), is the form of the disease ... For instance, seizures caused by epilepsy, due to the presence of ulegyria in the occipital lobe, can be controlled using ...
The optical reflex, on the other hand, is slower and is mediated by the visual cortex, which resides in the occipital lobe of ... Damage to the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the 5th cranial nerve results in absent corneal reflex when the affected eye is ...
In a healthy person, this stimulus will elicit a strong response over the primary visual cortex located in the occipital lobe, ... Physicians and neurologists will sometimes use a flashing visual checkerboard stimulus to test for any damage or trauma in the ...
... damage due to MDMA use causes lateral inhibition to diminish amongst orientation sensitive neurons in the occipital lobe. This ... Serotonin neurons are thought to reside in the occipital lobe, which is an area of the brain responsible for visual processing ... This effect is proposed to occur due to lateral inhibition to orientation sensitive neurons in the occipital lobe. Lateral ... 1990), and investigate how MDMA affects visual processing in the occipital lobe. The participants of the study were divided ...
Astereognosis can be caused by damage to the posterior association areas of the parietal, temporal, or occipital lobes, or the ... Stereognosis tests determine whether or not the parietal lobe of the brain is intact. Typically, these tests involved having ...
Anton syndrome is caused by damaging the occipital lobes bilaterally or from disrupting the pathway from the primary visual ... It is found in frontal lobe lesions, often along with Witzelsucht, particularly when the orbital surface is damaged. Recent ... It is seen in Frontal lobe disorders usually along with #Moria. Recent research has shown that it may also be seen in ... These include transection of the spinal cord, parietal lobe lesions (e.g. right middle cerebral artery thrombosis), anxiety, ...
The disorder is associated with bilateral damage to the parietal lobe, an area of the brain linked with spatial shifts of ... the subitizing and counting range activation occurs bilaterally in the occipital extrastriate cortex and superior parietal lobe ...
Although abnormal findings on MRI are almost always located only in the occipital and parietal lobe in most patients with non- ... Although the reversibility of vasogenic oedema in PRES is typical, early damage may also cause ischaemia [8]. PRES is usually ... MRI showed hypersignal intense lesions in the cortical and subcortical white matter in the occipital lobes, basal ganglia and ... MRI showed hypersignal intense lesions in the cortical and subcortical white matter in the occipital lobes, basal ganglia and ...
... namely the occipital and parietal lobes. It is now known that this description is more of a general rule, and those asymmetric ... endothelial damage with disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) causing fluid and protein transudation in the brain. The ... and reversible occipital parietal encephalopathy). PRES is now the accepted term but has been challenged recently based on the ... causing BBB damage and plasma leakage. In some cases the endothelial dysfunction together with hemodynamic factors may allow ...
Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In: Rabinstein A, Resnick SJ. Practical Neuroimaging in Stroke: A Case-Based Approach. ... After several cases demonstrated hyperperfusion predominantly in the medial occipital lobes, classified as medial occipital ... Medial Occipital Lobe Hyperperfusion Identified by Arterial Spin-Labeling: A Poor Prognostic Sign in Patients with Hypoxic- ... Medial occipital lobe hyperperfusion is a distinctive pattern that merits prospective investigation in a cohort of patients ...
Damage at border of temporal lobe and occipital lobe. 7.2. Similar to Wernickes aphasia. 7.3. Have good repetition skills. 7.3 ... Frontal lobe damage. 1.2. Non-fluent, expressive, motor aphasia. 1.3. Slowed, halting, speech; typically only 4 or 5 words in ... Temporal,sometimes parietal lobe damage. 6.2. Fluent, receptive, and sensory aphasia. 6.3. Spontaneous speech and utterences. ... Neurological damage to brain tissue due to closed- or open-head injury. 11.2.1. Caused by motor vehicle accident, fall, ...
Occipital lobe: Damage to this lobe may result in poor or loss of vision.[17] ... The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing,[15] difficulty in language comprehension ( ... A persons personality may be altered due to the tumor damaging lobes of the brain. Since the frontal, temporal, and parietal ...
Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe of the brain helps you to see different shapes and colors. If it is damaged, you can lose ... Temporal Lobe The temporal lobe of the brain helps you organize sensory input, read, and remember. It also allows you to hear ... Parietal Lobe The parietal lobe of the brain helps you recognize things like shapes and the spatial locations of objects and ...
... behind the parietal and temporal lobes. One of the most important parts of this lobe is the primary visual cortex, a region of ... The occipital lobe is located at the rear portion of the skull, ... Damage to the occipital lobe is likely to result in visual ... The occipital lobe is located at the rear portion of the skull, behind the parietal and temporal lobes. ... The occipital lobe contains different areas pertaining to visual communication. One area is where visual images of language are ...
Topics include developmental neuropsychology; cognitive deficits associated with frontal, parieto-occipital, and temporal lobes ... Integration of the literature on human brain damage with the evidence from animal research. ...
It is the smallest of the four lobes in the cerebral cortex and i... ... The occipital lobe is the center for visual processing in the human brain. ... The occipital lobe is not particularly vulnerable to injury due to its location at the back of the brain. Although, when damage ... Moreover, the occipital lobe is involved with the brains ability to recognize objects. The occipital lobe is not only ...
Characteristics of Temporal Lobe Understanding spoken words, sounds as well as memory and emotion. (Damage here means can still ... an unpleasant and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. ... Characteristics of Occipital Lobe Understanding Visual images and the meaning of written words ... Pain that arises from actual or threatened damage to non-neural tissue and is due to activation of nociceptors - can sense ...
A woman having common migraine attacks coincident with an asymmetrical bilateral occipital lobe infarction that spared the ... 10415369 - The immunosuppressants cyclosporin a and fk506 equally ameliorate brain damage due to 3.... 2144239 - Epileptic ... Occipital Lobe / blood supply*. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... A woman having common migraine attacks coincident with an asymmetrical bilateral occipital lobe infarction that spared the ...
C. Peña-Salazar, P. Cendrós, S. Escoté et al., "Capgras syndrome with left hemisphere neurological damage," The Journal of ... "Capgras" Delusions Involving Belongings, Not People, and Evolving Visual Hallucinations Associated with Occipital Lobe Seizures ... A. Ardila and M. Rosseli, "Temporal lobe involvement in capgras syndrome," International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 43, no. ...
Left temporal lobe damage ? Receptive aphasia (Wernikes). - cannot comprehend written or spoken language. - expresses ... Parietal lobe (non dominant side, usually R). - in charge of spatial organization ... cerebral lobe bleed w/ contralateral hemiparesis + eyes deviate away from hemiparesis - location? ... w/ motor aphasia if dominant lobe involved (Brocas, expressive aphasia). - maintained comprehension, but speech is stilted and ...
Occipital Lobe Functions & Caregiver Specialists , BrainAndSpinalCord.org: Legal Help for Brain Injury Survivors ... Located at the back of the brain, the occipital lobes are responsible for visual perception. Damage to them results in loss of ... Since occipital lobe damage causes marked deficits in visual perception and functioning, a patient might have to thoroughly ... As is the case with other traumatic brain injuries, damage to the occipital lobe most often occurs as a result of vehicle ...
Occipital lobe. Region in the back of the brain which processes visual information. Damage to this lobe can cause visual ... Temporal lobes. There are two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain, at about the level of the ears. These lobes allow ... Parietal lobe. One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. ... Parietal lobe, right Damage of this area can cause visuo-spatial deficits (e.g., the person may have difficulty finding their ...
Trama, damage to brain tissue causing swelling, shutting down higher centers. What is located inferior to occipital lobe?. ... The lobes of the brain are?. Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. Frontal lobe is located anterior to central sulcus and ... Occipital lobe is located where?. Posterior to parietal and superior to cerebellum ... What are some ex of LMN damage?. Polio, MD. LMN damage may result in what?. Flaccid paralysis, severe mm atrophy, decreased ...
If the occipital lobe becomes damaged, a person could become blind, even if his or her eyes continue to function normally ... The occipital lobe is located at the back of the head behind the parietal and temporal lobes. ... There are two parietal lobes, one on each side of the brain. The parietal lobes are located behind the frontal lobe towards the ... The cerebellum is located at the back of the head underneath the occipital and temporal lobes. The cerebellum creates automatic ...
To produce sight, the eyes capture information and send it through the optic nerve to be processed by the occipital lobe. ... The occipital lobe controls how a person perceives sight, so damage to this brain section can result in visual field cuts, and ... Occipital Lobe. Once the information passes from the optic nerve to the rest of the brain, it is sent to the occipital lobe, ... Each hemisphere has its own occipital lobe; therefore, each occipital lobe processes the information sent to that specific ...
... the occipital lobe is essential to our ability to drive safely. An undeveloped or damaged occipital lobe can lead to ... Nearly all visual and audible actions involve the parietal lobe.. Occipital Lobe:. The center of visual perception system, ... Temporal Lobe:. The section of the brain most responsible for memory skills and language recognition. An undeveloped or damaged ... Frontal Lobe:. The most important for driver functions, the frontal lobe monitors motor skills and emotional maturity. Lack of ...
Injuries to the Occipital Lobe:. *Epilepsy: Some seizures occur in the occipital lobe, and occipital lobe damage increases ... Injuries to the Parietal Lobe:. *Right parietal lobe damage can impede your ability to care for your body because it undermines ... Some people with temporal lobe damage struggle to plan or coordinate their actions. ... Exploring the lobes of cerebrum:. Phineas Gage - A railroad construction foreman that had an accident leading to extreme brain ...
The occipital lobe is typically most affected though the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes have shown involvement as well. ... MRI can aid in the detection of injured brain tissue; however, the severity and extent of the damage demonstrated by imaging ... Toxic leukoencephalopathy-related damage to central nervous system (CNS) white matter, typically of the periventricular nucleus ... Other toxins have been shown to extend damage to other structures of the brain, including the hippocampus, dorsal medulla, and ...
Font-specific priming following global amnesia and occipital lobe damage, Neuropsychology, 12(2), 183-192. Winocur, G., ... TBI varies according to impact of external forces, location of structural damage, and severity of damage ranging from mild to ... Retrograde episodic and semantic memory impairment correlates with side of temporal lobe damage, Journal of the International ... however there was no parahippocampal or entorhinal damage found. Individuals with focal brain damage have minimal RA. Isolated ...
Cerebral polyopia is most often associated with occipital or temporal lobe lesions, as well as occipital lobe epilepsy. This ... This mechanism may explain why polyopia extending into a patients scotoma occurs following damage to primary visual cortex. ... Thus, polyopia can result from any kind of infarction to the occipital or temporal lobes, though the exact mechanism remains ... Though there is no clear cause of cerebral polyopia, many cases show associations with occipital or temporal lobe lesions. Most ...
Those with damage to regions of the brain involved in visual processing, such as the occipital lobes, may develop amnesia. The ... The effect of temporal lobe damage on the reminiscence bump is highly variable as a function of age at the time of injury. This ... Brain damage[edit]. The impaired functioning of autobiographical memory due to damage or disease can have profound effects on ... Individuals with this type of brain damage are not able to form new memories after the incident that caused the brain damage, ...
The time course of retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration following occipital lobe damage in humans. Brain J Neurol. (2012) 135 ... TRD of retinal ganglion cells and their axons after occipital lobe damage involving the visual pathway is discussed to result ... In the cross-sectional part of a study with occipital lobe damage a pronounced peripapillary RNFL degeneration was detected in ... The effects of occipital damage of the visual pathway have been investigated in animal models. After removal of all or parts of ...
  • MRI showed hypersignal intense lesions in the cortical and subcortical white matter in the occipital lobes, basal ganglia and callosal splenium in both the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), but these lesions were not recognized in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Right parietal lobe damage can impede your ability to care for your body because it undermines your ability to notice or care for at least one side of the body. (ubc.ca)
  • There are very complex relationships between the lobes of the brain and between the right and left hemispheres. (deathtodiabetes.com)
  • These regions are found in the occipital and temporal lobes of both the right and left hemispheres, although the right side seems to be more active in face processing, according to neurologist Jason Barton, who runs the Human Vision and Eye Movement Laboratory at the University of British Columbia. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 24448186 Hemispherotomy is a surgical procedure performed for refractory epileptic seizures due to wide hemispheric damage. (jove.com)
  • Sensory nerve damage may cause numbness, paresthesia (tingling), shooting or burning pains, and hyperesthesia (painful sensitivity to stimuli). (britannica.com)
  • Also, generalized symmetrical sensory loss is not seen in spinal root damage. (britannica.com)
  • Loss of function in ascending sensory pathways results in the loss of superficial pain, temperature, crude light touch, and scratch sensations if the spinothalamic tract is damaged, but it will cause loss of joint position, vibration, and discriminative light-touch sensations if the dorsal columns are the site of injury. (britannica.com)
  • Among its many functions, the parietal lobe helps inter-pret sensory signals, especially visual ones. (the-scientist.com)
  • Although the brain is 80 percent developed at adolescence, new research indicates that brain signals essential for motor skills and emotional maturity are the last to extend to the brain's frontal lobe, which is responsible for many of the skills essential for driving. (gjel.com)
  • But to avoid damaging critical functions like speech and vision, surgeons have to see the brain's tangled web of connections. (gizmodo.com)
  • In the introduction to the book, author Eliezer J. Sternberg illustrates what can happen when the brain's processing centers are damaged. (the-scientist.com)
  • The mildest form of the syndrome is caused by damage to the brain's parietal and/or occipital lobe, causing a hand to unconsciously avoid contact with objects by "levitating" with its fingers extended. (damninteresting.com)
  • When damage occurs to the corpus callosum-the data link between the brain's two hemispheres-the non-dominant hand can develop what seems to be an independent sense of purpose, groping around its environment and manipulating the objects it finds. (damninteresting.com)
  • Eleven of 22 patients had prominent bilateral medial occipital lobe hyperperfusion, all of whom died before hospital discharge. (ajnr.org)
  • Medial occipital lobe hyperperfusion is a distinctive pattern that merits prospective investigation in a cohort of patients with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to determine its predictive ability in patients with a higher likelihood of survival. (ajnr.org)
  • azygos lobe ( lobe of azygos vein ) a small anomalous lobe situated at the apex of the right lung, produced when the azygos vein arches over the upper part of the lung instead of at the hilus and presses deeply into the lung tissue to form a fissure that isolates a medial part of the lung. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Damage to the brainstem threatens life, since so many of the control centres for many functions, including consciousness , respiration, and blood pressure , are situated there. (britannica.com)
  • Visual performance can be impaired through damage to cortical, brainstem, cranial nerve, or ocular structures. (edu.au)
  • His surgery requires removal of a cystic lesion at the pareito-occipital lobe of the brain . (placidway.com)
  • For example, say you were to show someone with a lesion in the right occipital lobe side-by-side photos of a single face whose features have been moved around slightly in one of the pictures (see images below). (sciencefriday.com)
  • In comparison, people who have a lesion in, say, the anterior temporal lobe-an area associated with memory, and considered an extended part of the face-processing network-are relatively better at distinguishing one face from another but tend to be worse at remembering faces they've seen before, according to Barton. (sciencefriday.com)
  • For example, injury to the cord at mid-thoracic levels spares the arms, which are innervated by fibres originating from higher segments, but it causes characteristic signs (abnormal posture, spastic tone, weakness, increased deep reflexes, and abnormal plantar reflexes) of damage to motor neurons originating below that level-as well as the loss of bladder and bowel control. (britannica.com)
  • These delicate neurons can suffer from electrochemical damage or problems with structural disruption. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • The brain stem is located underneath the temporal lobes and extended down to the spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The symptoms and signs of damage to the spinal roots are the same as for peripheral-nerve damage except that the area of involvement is restricted to the area supplied by the spinal roots rather than the nerves. (britannica.com)
  • Damage to sympathetic autonomic fibres that run in the cervical portions of the spinal cord may lead to drooping of the eyelid ( ptosis ) and a smaller pupil on the same side as the injury (Horner syndrome). (britannica.com)
  • Memory problems may not be an issue initially, if this area of the brain has not been damaged, although they may occur later on. (dementiauk.org)
  • Problems that may occur with damage to this lobe include difficulty in naming objects, difficulty with reading and/or writing, and spatial perception problems that can affect coordination. (lapublishing.com)
  • Brain plasticity has helped explain the recovery process of brain damage induced retrograde amnesia, where neuro-structures use different neural pathways to avoid the damaged areas while still performing their tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because elevated levels of GFAP reflect astroglial responses to even subtle forms of neural damage, our data indicate that increments in GFAP may provide independent, supporting evidence for the damage underlying dementia, even in the absence of other evidence of neuropathology such as the presence of NPs or NFTs. (cdc.gov)
  • Damage to different parts of this neural network can interrupt different aspects of the face-recognition process. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Monica was diagnosed with a life-threatening neural tube defect called an occipital encephalocele. (specialneedsfamilyfun.com)