Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).

An Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes mutant deficient in production of the pore-forming cytolysin pyolysin has reduced virulence. (1/1527)

Pyolysin (PLO), the hemolytic exotoxin expressed by Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, is a member of the thiol-activated cytolysin family of bacterial toxins. Insertional inactivation of the plo gene results in loss of expression of PLO with a concomitant loss in hemolytic activity. The plo mutant, PLO-1, has an approximately 1. 8-log10 reduction in the 50% infectious dose compared to that for wild-type A. pyogenes in a mouse intraperitoneal infection model. Studies involving cochallenge of wild-type and PLO-1 bacteria resulted in recovery of similar numbers of both strains, suggesting that PLO production is required for survival in vivo. Recombinant, His-tagged PLO (His-PLO) is cytotoxic for mouse peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Protection against challenge with A. pyogenes could be afforded by vaccination with formalin-inactivated His-PLO, suggesting that PLO is a host-protective antigen, as well as a virulence determinant.  (+info)

Identification of the minimal intracellular vacuolating domain of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin. (2/1527)

Helicobacter pylori secretes a cytotoxin (VacA) that induces the formation of large vacuoles originating from late endocytic vesicles in sensitive mammalian cells. Although evidence is accumulating that VacA is an A-B toxin, distinct A and B fragments have not been identified. To localize the putative catalytic A-fragment, we transfected HeLa cells with plasmids encoding truncated forms of VacA fused to green fluorescence protein. By analyzing truncated VacA fragments for intracellular vacuolating activity, we reduced the minimal functional domain to the amino-terminal 422 residues of VacA, which is less than one-half of the full-length protein (953 amino acids). VacA is frequently isolated as a proteolytically nicked protein of two fragments that remain noncovalently associated and retain vacuolating activity. Neither the amino-terminal 311 residue fragment (p33) nor the carboxyl-terminal 642 residue fragment (p70) of proteolytically nicked VacA are able to induce cellular vacuolation by themselves. However, co-transfection of HeLa cells with separate plasmids expressing both p33 and p70 resulted in vacuolated cells. Further analysis revealed that a minimal fragment comprising just residues 312-478 functionally complemented p33. Collectively, our results suggest a novel molecular architecture for VacA, with cytosolic localization of both fragments of nicked toxin required to mediate intracellular vacuolating activity.  (+info)

Design of highly specific cytotoxins by using trans-splicing ribozymes. (3/1527)

We have designed ribozymes based on a self-splicing group I intron that can trans-splice exon sequences into a chosen RNA target to create a functional chimeric mRNA and provide a highly specific trigger for gene expression. We have targeted ribozymes against the coat protein mRNA of a widespread plant pathogen, cucumber mosaic virus. The ribozymes were designed to trans-splice the coding sequence of the diphtheria toxin A chain in frame with the viral initiation codon of the target sequence. Diphtheria toxin A chain catalyzes the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor 2 and can cause the cessation of protein translation. In a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system, ribozyme expression was shown to specifically inhibit the growth of cells expressing the virus mRNA. A point mutation at the target splice site alleviated this ribozyme-mediated toxicity. Increasing the extent of base pairing between the ribozyme and target dramatically increased specific expression of the cytotoxin and reduced illegitimate toxicity in vivo. Trans-splicing ribozymes may provide a new class of agents for engineering virus resistance and therapeutic cytotoxins.  (+info)

Effect of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata on the ANS fluorescence responses in sensitive MDCK and resistant CHO cells. (4/1527)

The addition of CEL-III to sensitive MDCK cells preincubated with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. The increase in the ANS fluorescence caused by CEL-III was Ca2+-dependent and strongly inhibited by 0.1 M lactose, indicating that Ca2+-dependent binding of CEL-III to specific carbohydrate receptors on the plasma membrane is responsible for this phenomenon. In contrast, no significant effect of CEL-III on the ANS fluorescence was observed in CHO cells, which are highly resistant to CEL-III cytotoxicity. In MDCK cells, energy transfer from tryptophan residues to bound ANS molecules was observed in the presence of CEL-III, but not in CHO cells. Furthermore, the amount of ANS bound to MDCK cells increased as the concentration of CEL-III increased. Therefore, a simple interpretation is that the CEL-III-induced increase in ANS fluorescence is attributable to an increase of the hydrophobic region in the plasma membrane where ANS could bind. Immunoblotting analysis of proteins from cells treated with CEL-III indicated that CEL-III oligomers were irreversibly bound to the cells, and the amount of oligomer bound to MDCK cells was much greater than that bound to CHO cells under any conditions tested. The oligomerization may be accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobicity of CEL-III molecules, which in turn provides new ANS-binding sites. The difference in susceptibility of MDCK and CHO cells to CEL-III cytotoxicity may be due to a difference in oligomerization of bound CEL-III.  (+info)

Interactions of CcdB with DNA gyrase. Inactivation of Gyra, poisoning of the gyrase-DNA complex, and the antidote action of CcdA. (5/1527)

The F plasmid-carried bacterial toxin, the CcdB protein, is known to act on DNA gyrase in two different ways. CcdB poisons the gyrase-DNA complex, blocking the passage of polymerases and leading to double-strand breakage of the DNA. Alternatively, in cells that overexpress CcdB, the A subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrA) has been found as an inactive complex with CcdB. We have reconstituted the inactive GyrA-CcdB complex by denaturation and renaturation of the purified GyrA dimer in the presence of CcdB. This inactivating interaction involves the N-terminal domain of GyrA, because similar inactive complexes were formed by denaturing and renaturing N-terminal fragments of the GyrA protein in the presence of CcdB. Single amino acid mutations, both in GyrA and in CcdB, that prevent CcdB-induced DNA cleavage also prevent formation of the inactive complexes, indicating that some essential interaction sites of GyrA and of CcdB are common to both the poisoning and the inactivation processes. Whereas the lethal effect of CcdB is most probably due to poisoning of the gyrase-DNA complex, the inactivation pathway may prevent cell death through formation of a toxin-antitoxin-like complex between CcdB and newly translated GyrA subunits. Both poisoning and inactivation can be prevented and reversed in the presence of the F plasmid-encoded antidote, the CcdA protein. The products of treating the inactive GyrA-CcdB complex with CcdA are free GyrA and a CcdB-CcdA complex of approximately 44 kDa, which may correspond to a (CcdB)2(CcdA)2 heterotetramer.  (+info)

A novel cytotoxin from Clostridium difficile serogroup F is a functional hybrid between two other large clostridial cytotoxins. (6/1527)

The large clostridial cytotoxins (LCTs) constitute a group of high molecular weight clostridial cytotoxins that inactivate cellular small GTP-binding proteins. We demonstrate that a novel LCT (TcdB-1470) from Clostridium difficile strain 1470 is a functional hybrid between "reference" TcdB-10463 and Clostridium sordellii TcsL-1522. It bound to the same specific receptor as TcdB-10463 but glucosylated the same GTP-binding proteins as TcsL-1522. All three toxins had equal enzymatic potencies but were equally cytotoxic only when microinjected. When applied extracellularly TcdB-1470 and TcdB-10463 were considerably more potent cytotoxins than TcsL-1522. The small GTP-binding protein R-Ras was identified as a target for TcdB-1470 and also for TcsL-1522 but not for TcdB-10463. R-Ras is known to control integrin-extracellular matrix interactions from inside the cell. Its glucosylation may be a major determinant for the cell rounding and detachment induced by the two R-Ras-attacking toxins. In contrast, fibroblasts treated with TcdB-10463 were arborized and remained attached, with phosphotyrosine containing structures located at the cell-to-cell contacts and beta3-integrin remaining at the tips of cellular protrusions. These components were absent from cells treated with the R-Ras-inactivating toxins. The novel hybrid toxin will broaden the utility of the LCTs for clarifying the functions of several small GTPases, now including also R-Ras.  (+info)

Bacterial toxins and the Rho GTP-binding protein: what microbes teach us about cell regulation. (7/1527)

In the present review activities of two bacterial toxins, Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and Escherichia coli CNF1, both acting on the GTP-binding protein Rho are analyzed. Proteins belonging to the Rho family regulate the actin cytoskeleton and act as molecular switches in a number of signal transduction pathways. C3 and CNF1 have opposite effects on Rho thus representing useful tools for studies on cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis.  (+info)

Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by oxidized LDL in vascular smooth muscle cells: mediation via pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and association with oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity. (8/1527)

Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) have been shown to play a crucial role in atherosclerosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. The present study showed that oxLDL strongly evoked phosphorylation and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in concentration- and time-dependent manners, reaching the maximal activation at 100 microg/mL within 5 minutes. The results from immunofluorescence staining also revealed that p38 MAPK was activated by oxLDL in 5 minutes, and the activated p38 MAPK was translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus of VSMCs in 15 minutes. Activation of p38 MAPK by oxLDL was apparently not mediated by their classical scavenger receptors and was not affected by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, activation of p38 MAPK was effectively blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin and was significantly reduced by phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122. OxLDL also inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and increased inositol phosphate formation. More interestingly, inhibition of p38 MAPK by its specific inhibitor SB203580 significantly blocked oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity (increased leakage of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase to the culture medium, reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation, and attenuated mitochondrial metabolism of tetrazolium salt, (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-s ulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium), MTS) in VSMCs, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin also inhibited oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrated that oxLDL effectively activated p38 MAPK in VSMCs, which was likely mediated via pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, and the p38 activation was functionally associated with oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity in VSMCs.  (+info)

Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 (CNF2) produced by Escherichia coli strains isolated from intestinal and extraintestinal infections is a dermonecrotic toxin of 110 kDa. We cloned the CNF2 gene from a large plasmid carried by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a lamb with septicemia. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed a largely hydrophilic protein with two potential hydrophobic transmembrane domains. The N-terminal half of CNF2 showed striking homology (27% identity and 80% conserved residues) to the N-terminal portion of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Methylamine protection experiments and immunofluorescence studies suggested that CNF2 enters the cytosol of the target cell through an acidic compartment and induces the reorganization of actin into stress fibers. Since the formation of stress fibers in eukaryotic cells involves Rho proteins, we radiolabeled these small GTP-binding proteins from CNF2-treated and control cells with a Rho-specific ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1hq0.1. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF E.COLI CYTOTOXIC NECROTIZING FACTOR TYPE 1
Atherton, J.C., Cao, P., Peek Jr., R.M., Tummuru, M.K., Blaser, M.J. and Cover, T.L. (1995) Mosaicism in Vacuolating Cytotoxin Alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of Specific vacA Types with Cytotoxin Production and Peptic Ulceration. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 17771-17777.
Results A potentially important polymorphism was identified within an imperfect inverted repeat where an A was commonly replaced by a T at position -54. Strains possessing T at this position expressed higher cagA mRNA levels than those with an A (p=0.016). To test whether this was a direct determinant of cagA transcription level, a mutation was engineered at position −54 (T to A) in high transcription strain 83. This resulted in a 30% reduction in cagA transcript level when compared to an isogenic control strain without the change (p=0.073). In the complementary experiment, we engineered an A to T mutation in low transcription strain 126 and this led to a 20% increase in the level of cagA mRNA compared to its isogenic control (p=0.002). ...
Bell, R B. and Ivor, K L., The effects of a macrophage-derived cytotoxin on the growth and metabolism of target cells. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 826 ...
Principal Investigator:SUGAI Motoyuki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
Aarhus University. Bacteria that cause infectious diseases produce a number of cytotoxins, and an international research team has now found the mechanism behind one of these toxins. The new results could make it possible in the future to develop new treatment methods to impair the cytotoxic activity and thereby reduce the severity of infectious diseases.. In spite of the fact that the first antibiotics were discovered almost a century ago, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, encephalitis and meningitis are still serious diseases for humans in the twenty-first century. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are more than 8 million new cases of tuberculosis per year on a global scale, and that more than 300,000 of these are due to multidrug-resistant strains that are not only difficult to treat, but are also emerging rapidly in regions such as Eastern Europe.. Bacterial tolerance is not just due to resistance, but also to the formation of persistent cells that have gone ...
Glentham Life Sciences offers a wide range of Cytotoxins. Find catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
Targeted disruption of the plasma membrane is a ubiquitous form of attack used in all three domains of life. Many bacteria secrete pore-forming proteins during infection with broad implications for pathogenesis. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDC) are a family of pore-forming toxins expressed predominately by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The structure and assembly of some of these oligomeric toxins on the host membrane have been described, but how the targeted cell responds to intoxication by the CDCs is not as clearly understood. Many CDCs induce lysis of their target cell and can activate apoptotic cascades to promote cell death. However, the extent to which intoxication causes cell death is both CDC- and host cell-dependent, and at lower concentrations of toxin, survival of intoxicated host cells is well documented. Additionally, the effect of CDCs can be seen beyond the plasma membrane, and it is becoming increasingly clear that these toxins are potent regulators of signaling and
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), a class of gram-positive bacterial exotoxins, bind cholesterol in cell membranes and oligomerize to form pores. We observe that CDCs induce pores in dendritic cells (DC) as well as other cell types in a dose dependent manner, which allows the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Extracellular ATP can exert stimulatory effects on cells through engagement of surface purinergic receptors, several of which are expressed on DC, including P2X7, which upon ATP binding forms a pore in the plasma membrane. We show here that a mutant DC line selected for resistance to lytic CDC doses loses expression of the P2X7 receptor and also becomes insensitive to ATP-induced pore formation compared to wild type cells. A model is suggested where CDCs form pores in DC membranes, allowing the release of ATP that signals through P2X7 on DC. Chronic ATP stimulation of DC results in skewed DC maturation that favors type 2 immune responses. Thus, CDC-induced ATP ...
Epilepsy, one of the most common conditions affecting the brain, is characterized by neuroplasticity and brain cell energy defects. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Escherichia coli protein toxin cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) to counteract epileptiform phenomena in inbred DBA/2J mice, an animal model displaying genetic background with an high susceptibility to induced- and spontaneous seizures. Via modulation of the Rho GTPases, CNF1 regulates actin dynamics with a consequent increase in spine density and length in pyramidal neurons of rat visual cortex, and influences the mitochondrial homeostasis with remarkable changes in the mitochondrial network architecture. In addition, CNF1 improves cognitive performances and increases ATP brain content in mouse models of Rett syndrome and Alzheimers disease. The results herein reported show that a single dose of CNF1 induces a remarkable amelioration of the seizure phenotype, with a significant augmentation in neuroplasticity markers and
symplocamide A: a potent cytotoxin and chymotrypsin inhibitor from the marine Cyanobacterium Symploca sp.; structure in first source
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Glioblastomas are largely unresponsive to all available treatments and there is therefore an urgent need for novel therapeutics. Here we have probed the antineoplastic effects of a bacterial protein toxin, the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), in the syngenic GL261 glioma cell model. CNF1 produces a long-lasting activation of Rho GTPases, with consequent blockade of cytodieresis in proliferating cells and promotion of neuron health and plasticity. We have tested the antiproliferative effects of CNF1 on GL261 cells and human glioma cells obtained from surgical specimens. For the in vivo experiments, we injected GL261 cells into the adult mouse visual cortex, and five days later we administered either a single intracerebral dose of CNF1 or vehicle. To compare CNF1 with a canonical antitumoral drug, we infused temozolomide (TMZ) via minipumps for 1 week in an additional animal group. In culture, CNF1 was very effective in blocking proliferation of GL261 cells, leading them to multinucleation,
This application proposes studies to identify the mechanism by which the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is trafficked to mitochondria in host...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and nucleotide sequence of frpC, a second gene from Neisseria meningitidis encoding a protein similar to RTX cytotoxins. AU - Thompson, Stuart A.. AU - Wang, Lisa L.. AU - Sparling, P. Frederick. PY - 1993/7. Y1 - 1993/7. N2 - Neisseria meningitidis FAM20 has recently been shown to produce two Fe‐regulated proteins (FrpA and FrpC) related to the RTX family of cytotoxins. Here we report the cloning and DNA sequence of the locus containing the gene encoding the larger meningococcal RTX protein FrpC. FrpC was highly similar to FrpA throughout much of the predicted protein, with two main differences. Whereas the FrpA protein had 13 copies of the nine‐amino‐acid repeat units typical of RTX proteins, FrpC had 43 copies. The additional copies in FrpC apparently arose from a threefold tandem amplification of a 600bp DNA fragment encoding the repeats. In addition, the frpC gene lacked good promoter consensus sequences. An open reading frame (0RF1) of unknown function was ...
The vacuolating cytotoxin is encoded by a 3864 bp ORF in thevacA gene.22 The 137 kDa vacAgene product consists of three regions: a 33 amino acid amino-terminal signal peptide, a mature cytotoxin domain of approximately 87 kDa, and a carboxy-terminal 50 kDa segment which is cleaved from the molecule during transmembrane export.22 27 The recombinant protein described in this study predominantly covers the 87 kDa domain.. Previous studies indicated that the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces cellular vacuolation in a number of epithelial cell lines in vitro, is produced only by a subset of H pyloriisolates.11 13 Furthermore, several studies suggested that infection by cytotoxin positive strains was correlated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases.12 29 Figuraet al 29 reported that 67% of H pylori strains isolated from 24 patients with peptic ulcers produced cytotoxin, whereas only 30% of strains from 53 patients with chronic gastritis produced cytotoxin. Fox et al 12 reported that the ...
Objective: To study the effect of Aloe Extract C ( AE - C) in inducing cytotoxic factors in mice. Methods: Mice were injected with AE - C through abdominal cavity for 5 days, blood was taken for separating serum on the sixth day. Y99 , L929 and A549 tumor cell lines were used as target cells to assay cytotoxic factors activity of the serum. The lasting time of the activity, its sensitivity to temperature and the cytotoxic activity of different concentration of the serum were observed. Results: AE - C could induce the production of cytotoxic factors in BALB/C mice, compared with the control, there was a significant differences ( P 0. 01 ) . Cytotoxic activity reached the peak 24 hours after last injection of AE - C and began to drop 4 days later. The cytotoxic activity disappeared 5 days later. The cytotoxic acitivity was still obvious with 200 times dilution of the serum. Conclusions: AE - C can induce the production of cytotoxic factors in BALB/C mice.
Campylobater jejuni, a major foodborne diarrhoeal pathogen is reported to produce a number of cytotoxins of which only a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) has been characterised so far. One or more additional cytotoxins other than CDT, including a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell active, Vero cell inactive cytotoxin, may mediate inflammatory diarrhoea. Our objective was to develop a method to enrich and thus partially characterise this cytotoxin, as a pathway to the eventual identification and characterisation of the toxin. A number of biochemical methods including cation- and anion-exchange chromatography were evaluated to enrich the cytotoxin from a cell lysate of a known cytotoxin-producing C. jejuni, C31. The cytotoxin in crude lysate was initially prepared by size-exclusion desalting and then subjected to high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) ion-exchange fractionation. One pooled fraction (pool B) was cytotoxic for CHO cells equivalent to crude toxin (tissue culture infectivity dose 50
1.C.14 The Cytohemolysin (CHL) Family The CHL family consists of hemolytic cytotoxins from various species of Vibrio, Aeromonas and Listonella. The proteins act on a variety of target animal cells such as enterocytes and immune cells. During secretion of the V. cholerae cytolysin, the N-terminal 25 residue leader peptide is cleaved off yielding an extracellular 79 kDa procytolysin which must be proteolytically activated. Removal of an N-terminal 14 kDa fragment of the procytolysin followed by further proteolytic cleavage in the C-terminal region yields an active 50 kDa species which oligomerizes in the presence of cholesterol-sphingolipid-containing membranes to generate a transmembrane water-filled pore of about 1.5 nm diameter. The complex is probably a homoheptamer (Olson & Gonaux, 2005). This family is distantly related to the αHL family (#1.C.3) of heptameric toxins from Gram-positive bacteria. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC; 1.C.14.1.1) is an oligomerizing pore-forming toxin that is ...
A low-molecular-mass cytotoxin produced by Klebsiella oxytoca isolated previously from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic enterocolitis was purified, and its biological and chemical properties were elucidated. The toxin inhibited the syntheses of DNA and RNA by HEp-2 cells dose-dependently, whereas protein synthesis was only slightly inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive precursors. When synchronously cultured HEp-2 cells were examined in the presence of cytotoxin, inhibition of DNA synthesis occurred promptly within 5 h, but cell-rounding, the earliest visible morphological change, was not observed until 6 h after exposure. The intracellular levels of ATP decreased with an approximately similar time course. These results suggest that cytotoxicity toward HEp-2 cells is primarily due to the inhibitory effect of the cytotoxin on nucleic acid synthesis, possibly on DNA synthesis. Cell rounding and cell death were induced even in the absence of the cytotoxin after
Cytotoxic necrotizing factors from E. coli (CNF1, CNF2) and Yersinia (CNFy) share N-terminal sequence similarity with Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). This common N-terminal region harbors the receptor-binding and translocation domains that mediate uptake and delivery of the C-terminal catalytic cargo domains into the host cytosol. Subtle variations in the N-terminal ~500 amino acids of CNFs and PMT could allow for selective recognition of cellular receptors and thus, selective target cell specificity. Through studies with cellular inhibitors, we have identified an additional novel function for this region in modulating responses of these toxin proteins to changes in pH during intoxication and delivery of the catalytic cargo domain into the cytosol.
Dinner was interesting, and I dare say promising: in our very first trial run, we managed to make it seem normal that someone could sit at dinner, eat less than four bites of food, and repeatedly hold a barf bucket to her face while we conversed about school and the weather.. *. There will be trace amounts of cytotoxins in Sadies urine, feces, and vomit. We need to be sure to wash carefully using soap and flush twice after shes used the toilet. Soiled bed linens and clothes should be rinsed separately first, then washed normally with the rest of the laundry. We should avoid touching her etoposide capsules.. *. Unless Sadie is seriously ill (as opposed to just feeling like shit and throwing up at random times), we are clear to go on vacation. If youre going to FLSATUART no matter what, seems like doing so in a balmy beach breeze beats doing it at home in bed.. ...
Death metalowcy z Cytotoxin opublikowali w całości do odsłuchu nowy krążek Gammageddon. Album ukazał się pod skrzydłami wytwórni Unique Leader Records.
Cytokinetics is up $1.15 or 10% to $12.90 in a poor market environment. The only news is that the Company will be added to the S&P 600 small cap index. There is
Description. The project will be conducted in a highly stimulating, interdisciplinary and international environment in the department of Bacteriology of the Institut Pasteur, Paris. The successful candidate will start in 2018 the study of the interplay of bacterial toxins with the cellular ubiquitin and proteasome systems and consequences in infection. Funding for an additional 1 year will be dependent on the CV of the applicant and advancement of the project.. Post-translational modifications of proteins by ubiquitination are central reactions in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, quality control of the proteome and innate immune signaling in reaction to the attacks by pathogens, which frequently have acquired the ability to divert ubiquitin-mediated reactions to their advantage. It is therefore essential to define the interplay between bacterial virulence factors and ubiquitin-mediated cellular regulations. The study of the cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) from pathogenic ...
We purified a new cytolysin (HMgIII) from the sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica. HMgIII, which has a molecular mass of ~19 kDa, functions as both a cytolysin and a hemolysin. The full-length HMg III cDNA was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, using primers designed from its N-terminal amino acid sequence and an internal conserved region of two other sea anemone cytolysins: equinatoxin II (EqT II) and cytolysin III. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 633 bp, which encodes a protein of 211 amino acids. The nascent HMg III protein contained a prepropeptide of 34 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The mature HMg III has a predicted molecular mass of 19 kDa and a pI of 9.1, and shares 91%, 89%, 65% and 63% amino acid sequence similarity with cytolysin III, cytolysin ST I, tenebrosin-C and equinatoxin (EqT II), respectively. The predicted secondary structure of the mature HMg III comprises 16% α-helix, 23% extended strand and 60% random ...
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ICMAE2011: Nanocomputational Observation of Interaction of Two Cytotoxins and Nanobio Membrane: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study
Cytolysin refers to the substance secreted by microorganisms, plants or animals that is specifically toxic to individual cells, in many cases causing their dissolution through lysis. Cytolysins that have a specific action for certain cells are named accordingly. For instance, the cytolysins responsible for the destruction of red blood cells, thereby liberating hemoglobins, are named hemolysins, and so on. Cytolysins may be involved in immunity as well as in venoms. Hemolysin is also used by certain bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, to disrupt the phagosome membrane of macrophages and escape into the cytoplasm of the cell. The term Cytolysin or Cytolytic toxin was first introduced by Alan Bernheimer to describe membrane damaging toxins (MDTs) that have cytolytic effects to cells. The first kind of cytolytic toxin discovered have hemolytic effects on erythrocytes of certain sensitive species, such as Human. For this reason Hemolysin was first used to describe any MDTs. In the 1960s ...
Activation of Rho, Rac and Cdc42 controls actin polymerization during phagocytosis. Left, a general model for phagocytic signalling. Phagocytosis generally involves the receptor-mediated, GEF-dependent activation of one or more Rho GTP-binding proteins, which will activate-through downstream effectors-the Arp2/3 complex and actin polymerisation. Several bacterial pathogens have the capacity to produce toxins or bacterial effectors (shown in double-lined boxes) that activate or inhibit the function or one or more Rho proteins, thereby modulating actin polymerization and phagocytosis. Right, the main signalling pathways activated during phagocytosis in mammalian cells. Type I phagocytosis is characterized by the independent activation of Rac and Cdc42, whereas only Rho activity is required during type II phagocytosis. GEF, guanine nucleotide exchange factor; CNF1, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 Tir, translocated intimin receptor; Yop, Yersinia outer protein; FcγR, Fcγ receptor; AC, apoptotic cell; CR3,
Oral administration of VacA in mice caused several aspects of the histological lesions in epithelium of gastric mucosa, namely loss of gastric gland architecture including epithelial vacuolization, edema, erosion, necrosis, and exfoliation 24 h after inoculation (Fig. 1⇓B). The marked infiltrations of mast cells and mononuclear cells and a few eosinophils were observed 24 h after inoculation (Fig. 1⇓, D and F). The mast cells located in the mucosal layer had spindle shape and less granules (Fig. 1⇓, G and H). In contrast, the epithelium of gastric mucosa in control mice 24 h after inoculation of saline did not show any lesion, with rare mucosal mast cells (MMC) and no inflammatory cells (Fig. 1⇓, A, C, and E). Administration of BSA as a high protein control did not show any epithelial lesions nor histological changes, as were seen in VacA-treated mice (data not shown). These pathological changes were not observed 72 h after inoculation of VacA with no mononuclear cell and less mast cell ...
Aberrant protein folding and self-assembly underlie over 30 human diseases called amyloidoses, for which currently there is no cure. The diseases range from tissue-specific to systemic and from geneti
We identify cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) as a target for tumor-selective drug development in bladder cancer and describe the characterization of ICT2700, designed to be metabolized from a prodrug to a potent cytotoxin selectively by CYP1A1. Elevated CYP1A1 expression was demonstrated in human bladder cancer relative to normal human tissues. RT112 bladder cancer cells, endogenously expressing CYP1A1, were selectively chemosensitive to ICT2700, whereas EJ138 bladder cells which do not express CYP1A1 were significantly less responsive. Introduction of CYP1A1 into EJ138 cells resulted in 75-fold increased chemosensitivity to ICT2700 relative to wild-type EJ138. Negligible chemosensitivity was observed to ICT2700 in EJ138 cells expressing CYP1A2, or with exposure of EJ138 cells to CYP1B1 or CYP3A4 generated metabolites of ICT2700. Chemosensitivity to ICT2700 was also negated in EJ138-CYP1A1 cells by the CYP1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Furthermore, ICT2700 did not induce expression of the ...
Although protein-based drugs have shown success, they have been limited mostly to cytokines, growth factors, enzymes and monoclonal antibodies, all of which function primarily extracellularly.
Researchers at Harvard have programmed stem cells embedded in a tumor to deliver a toxic dose of cytotoxins, killing the cancer cells from the inside.
As a result of pre-natal or early post-natal exposure to a variety of agents (viruses, irradiation and cytotoxins) humans may develop microencephaly, characterized by reduction of brain size (Crome &...
Runkel, S (2014) Endogenous production and detoxification of a potent cytotoxin, nitric oxide, in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Doctoral thesis, University of East Anglia. ...
β-PFT sind in ihrer Proteinstruktur aus β-Faltblättern aufgebaut. α-Hämolysin[7] und Leukozidin S[8] sind strukturell verwandt, ebenso Aerolysin[9] und Clostridium ε-Toxin.[10] β-PFT sind Proteine, die als lösliche Monomere oder porenbildende Proteinkomplexe vorliegen. Der Kopf des heptameren α-Hämolysins ragt aus der Membran heraus, während der Stamm in der Lipiddoppelschicht der Membran liegt. Der Stamm besteht aus einem vierzehnsträngigen β-barrel, mit zwei Strängen aus jedem Monomer. Das Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin ist ebenfalls heptamer.[11] Das Staphylococcus aureus γ-Hämolysin bildet eine oktamere Pore aus sechzehn Strängen.[12] Das Panton-Valentine-Leukozidin S besitzt als Monomer eine ähnliche Form.[13] Die Bindung der Monomere aneinander und die Einfügung in die Membran erfolgt ähnlich wie bei den Zytolysinen durch Zusammenlagerung peripher an der Membran, gefolgt von einer Änderung der Proteinfaltung und der Einfügung des Stamms in die Membran anhand hydrophober ...
The RTX toxin superfamily is a group of cytolysins and cytotoxins produced by bacteria. There are over 1000 known members with a variety of functions. The RTX family is defined by two common features: characteristic repeats in the toxin protein sequences, and extracellular secretion by the type I secretion systems (T1SS). The name RTX (repeats in toxin) refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon. RTX proteins range from 40 to over 600 kDa in size and all contain C-terminally located glycine and aspartate-rich repeat sequences of nine amino acids. The repeats contain the common sequence structure [GGXGXDX[L/I/V/W/Y/F]X], (where X represents any amino acid), but the number of repeats varies within RTX protein family members. These consensus regions function as sites for Ca2+ binding, which facilitate folding of the RTX protein following export via an ATP-mediated type 1 ...
PG Colon Course - Rocco Ricciardi C. diff-27 sec https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15238490 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17638799 trend changes-2:24 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15116 Keyword(s): antibody response, bowel prep, C. diff colitis, CD, CDC, clinical severity score, CMS, community-acquired, cytotoxins, diarrhea, disease severity, donor stool, end ileostomy, enema, epidemic, Flagyl, fulminant pseudomembranous colitis, gastric acid-suppressive agents, hospital-acquired, IBD, immunoglobulins, lactate, laparoscopy, Malecot, Medicare reimbursement, mucous […] ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The idea is that in response to vaccination, the body generates antibodies only against those proteins - those will bind to the surface of the bacteria when someone coughs at you and prevent the bacteria from sticking to your respiratory tract. Everything that is not circled in red is NOT in the vaccine. There is no chance that some surface bits injected into your arm or leg cause an illness that requires loads of bacteria sticking to those tiny cilia in your respiratory tract. Furthermore, the vaccine also does not contain the tracheal cytotoxin, which the bacteria release and which paralyses those cilia and prevent them from clearing your airways, which is what causes the characteristic cough (,- click on that link - this is what pertussis sounds like ...
Fig. S1. The apoptotic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on human CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the indicated concentrations of CAPE (0-100 μM). The percentage of annexin-V+ and 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD)+ cells were measured by flow cytometry.. Fig. S2. The apoptotic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on stimulated human CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the absence or presence of CAPE (10 μM) with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (2 μg/ml) stimulation. The percentage of annexin-V+ and 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD)+ cells from four asthmatic patients were measured by flow cytometry.. Fig. S3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) inhibits interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-5 production by polarized T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells. Polarized helper T cells (106 cells/ml) were cultured for 48 h in the absence or presence of CAPE (10 μM) with soluble anti-CD3 and ...
In vivo and in vitro antıneoplastic actions of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE): therapeutic perspectives.. Akyol S1, Ozturk G, Ginis Z, Armutcu F, Yigitoglu MR, Akyol O.. Author information. Abstract. Cancer prevention and treatment strategies have attracted increasing interest. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis extract, specifically inhibits NF-κB at μM concentrations and shows ability to stop 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Previous studies have demonstrated that CAPE exhibits antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and, most improtantly, antineoplastic properties. The primary goal of the present review is to summarize and critically evaluate the current knowledge regarding the anticancer effect of CAPE in different cancer types.. PMID: 23659443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nuclear factor-κB and protein kinase B signalling pathways and induces caspase-3 expression in primary human CD4+ T cells. AU - Wang, L. C.. AU - Chu, K. H.. AU - Liang, Y. C.. AU - Lin, Y. L.. AU - Chiang, B. L.. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - Summary Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component in propolis, is known to have anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, the effects of CAPE on the functions of primary human CD4+ T cells were evaluated in vitro. CAPE significantly suppressed interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-5 production and proliferation of CD4+ T cells stimulated by soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in both healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. CAPE inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in T cells. CAPE also induced active caspase-3 ...
We found that micromolar concentrations of caffeic acid phenethyl ester blocked voltage-gated sodium channel activity in several invasive cell lines from different cancers, including breast (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468), colon (SW620) and non-small cell lung cancer (H460). In the MDA-MB-231 cell line, which was adopted as a model, long-term (48h) treatment with 18μM caffeic acid phenethyl ester reduced the peak current density by 91% and shifted steady-state inactivation to more hyperpolarized potentials and slowed recovery from inactivation. The effects of long-term treatment were also dose-dependent, 1μM caffeic acid phenethyl ester reducing current density by only 65%. The effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on metastatic cell behaviours were tested on the MDA-MB-231 cell line at a working concentration (1μM) that did not affect proliferative activity. Lateral motility and Matrigel invasion were reduced by up to 14% and 51%, respectively. Co-treatment of caffeic acid phenethyl ester ...
CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) is one of the most valuable and investigated component of propolis which is composed by honeybees. In the current study, we aimed at examining apoptotic effects of CAPE on CCRF-CEM leukemic cells and at determining the roles of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cell death. ...
Objective(s): Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the most common outcome of a collection of diverse lung disorders known as interstitial lung diseases. It is proposed that alterations in the levels of fibrogenic mediators and the profibrotic/antifibrotic imbalance play a substantial role in the progression of PF in animal models and possibly in humans. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has numerous biological effects. In the present study, the main objective was to investigate the effects of CAPE on some key mediators including TGF-β1, TNF-α and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) involved in profibrotic/antifibrotic balance and pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Materials and Methods: In this study, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8). (1)
Background: To investigate the effects of propofol and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on prevention of lung injury as a remote organ after performing hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) in a rat model. ...
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is Inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, protein tyrosine kinase and lipoxygenase activities. Cited in 17 publications
The optimal production of P. haemolytica leukotoxin in the culture supernatant of a fluid medium is dependent on a number of factors. The leukotoxin has to be produced by using a strain that is known for its ability to produce high quantities of leukotoxin, inoculated into the most suitable type of medium at the correct culture density containing the necessary supplements and harvested after a certain growth period. The volume in which it is produced may also have an influence. Two different procedures are described to produce the leukotoxin in 5 to 15-ℓ quantities in RPMI 1640 medium. The first method used to produce leukotoxin is one that has been repeatedly described since the presence of the leukotoxin was first established in 1978. Using this method seven batches of leukotoxin were produced in litre quantities with leukotoxin activity ranging from 23-67 u/mℓ. The seed culture inoculum is prepared in brain heart infusion broth, which is centrifuged before the organisms are inoculated ...
Definition of clostridial toxin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is clostridial toxin? Meaning of clostridial toxin as a finance term. What does clostridial toxin mean in finance?
In 1999, an infectious disease prevention law was enacted in Japan that affected the nationwide infectious surveillance system. A total of 19,304 laboratory-confirmed verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli cases were reported through 2004. The annual incidence was 2.74/100,000 population; its fluctuation over time and space was associated with climate, socioeconomic, and population factors.
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) meningitis is a common bacterial infection of the brain. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin represents a key factor, determining the neuropathogenic potential of the pneumococci. Here, we demonstrate selective synaptic loss within the superficial layers of the frontal neocortex of post-mortem brain samples from individuals with pneumococcal meningitis. A similar effect was observed in mice with pneumococcal meningitis only when the bacteria expressed the pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin. Exposure of acute mouse brain slices to only pore-competent pneumolysin at disease-relevant, non-lytic concentrations caused permanent dendritic swelling, dendritic spine elimination and synaptic loss. The NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists MK801 and D-AP5 reduced this pathology. Pneumolysin increased glutamate levels within the mouse brain slices. In mouse astrocytes, pneumolysin initiated the release of glutamate in a calcium
Title:Synthesis of Icaritin and β-anhydroicaritin Mannich Base Derivatives and Their Cytotoxic Activities on Three Human Cancer Cell Lines. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Van-Son Nguyen, Ling Shi, Sheng-Chun Wang and Qiu-An Wang. Affiliation:Technology Faculty of Thanh Hoa Campus, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082. Keywords:Icaritin, β-anhydroicaritin, Mannich base derivatives, synthesis, cytotoxic activity.. Abstract:Background: Prenyl flavonoid icaritin (1) and β-anhydroicaritin (2) are two natural products with important biological and pharmacological effects. such as antiosteoporosis, estrogen regulation and antitumor properties. Objective: The present study investigates the synthesis and cytotoxic activities on three Human cancer cell ...
Vibrio cholerae produces a cytolytic toxin named El Tor cytolysin/hemolysin which is encoded by the hlyA gene. This cytolysin is produced as a 79-kDa precursor form (pro-HlyA) into the culture supernatant after cleavage of the signal peptide of the hlyA product (prepro-HlyA). The pro-HlyA is then processed to a 65-kDa mature cytolysin (mature HlyA) after cleavage of the 15-kDa N-terminal peptide (pro region) of the 79-kDa precursor, usually at the bond between Ala-157 and Asn-158. We investigated whether proteases could process the recombinant 79-kDa pro-HlyA to the 65-kDa mature HlyA. We observed that the soluble hemagglutinin/ protease (HA/protease; a major protease of V. cholerae), trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin BPN, papain, and thermolysin all processed the pro-HlyA to the 65-kDa mature form of the protein. Along with this, the protease-processed HlyA showed drastically increased hemolytic activity. The N-terminal amino acid of the mature form of cytolysin generated by HA/protease ...
While LPS changes may possibly help the biofilm bacteria escape host immune system in vivo, more direct evidence of increases in virulence of the pathogen comes from investigation of its secreted proteases and cytotoxins (leucocidin). Virulence-specific azocasein and micro-culture tetrazolium (MTT) assays against both monospecies and binary biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicate significant increases in virulence potential of proteases and cytotoxins, respectively. These results were further substantiated in phase contrast microscopy images showing advanced stages of oncosis in tissue cultured mouse spleen myeloma (Sp2) cells treated with leucocidin isolated from Ps. aeruginosa treated with sub-MIC ...
As usual, an episode synopsis can be found over at Scotts Polite Dissent. Im Mentioning Cytotoxins Just for the Search Engine Hits Epidermal blistering and tissue necrosis do indeed match the symptoms from cytotoxins, and so this section is designed solely to increase my search engine hits for this Deconstruction review of Fringe. While Im…
article{279c7ca3-4c9b-4e92-95e9-36ca7d4d1564, abstract = {In the 20 years since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori the number of formally described Helicobacter spp. has increased dramatically. The majority of species in the genus have been associated with some form of pathology. Similar to other Gram-negative bacteria, all helicobacters have lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins in the outer leaflet of their outer membrane which is an important modulator of the immune system. H. pylori endotoxin has a number of roles in the pathogenesis of the bacterium. Its relatively low biological and immunological activity and molecular mimicry may contribute to the chronic nature of infection through avoidance of host defence mechanisms and adhesion. In addition to endotoxins, various helicobacters also secrete distinct exotoxins capable of host cell damage. H. pylori has been shown to possess a cytotoxin capable of inducing vacuoles in epithelial cells termed vacuolating cytotoxin or VacA. Although VacA has ...
General Information: This genus consists of organisms that colonize the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract or are found enterohepatically (in the liver). It was only recently discovered (1983) by two Australians (Warren and Marshall) that this organism was associated with peptic ulcers. It is one of the most common chronic infectious organisms, and is found in half the worlds population. This organism attacks the gastric epithilial surface, resulting in chronic gastritis, and can cause more severe diseases including those that lead to gastric carcinomas and lymphomas, peptic ulcers, and severe diarrhea. It is an extracellular pathogen that persists in the gastric environment, which has a very low pH, by production of the urease enzyme, which converts urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, a process which can counteract the acidic environment by production of a base. The toxins include cytolethal distending toxin, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) that induces host epithelial cell apopoptosis ...
General Information: This genus consists of organisms that colonize the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract or are found enterohepatically (in the liver). It was only recently discovered (1983) by two Australians (Warren and Marshall) that this organism was associated with peptic ulcers. It is one of the most common chronic infectious organisms, and is found in half the worlds population. This organism attacks the gastric epithilial surface, resulting in chronic gastritis, and can cause more severe diseases including those that lead to gastric carcinomas and lymphomas, peptic ulcers, and severe diarrhea. It is an extracellular pathogen that persists in the gastric environment, which has a very low pH, by production of the urease enzyme, which converts urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, a process which can counteract the acidic environment by production of a base. The toxins include cytolethal distending toxin, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) that induces host epithelial cell apopoptosis ...
epithelial cells by means of a complex terminal organelle at the tip of one end of the organism. Cytoadherence is mediated by interactive adhesins and accessory proteins clustered on this organelle. After extracellular attachment, M. pneumoniae causes injury to host respiratory tissue. The mechanism of injury is thought to be mediated by the production of hydrogen peroxide and of a recently identified ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of M. pneumoniae that has many similarities to pertussis toxin. Because mycoplasmas lack a cell wall, they also lack cell wall-derived stimulators of the innate immune system, such as lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and murein (peptidoglycan) fragments. However, lipoproteins from the mycoplasmal cell membrane appear to have inflammatory properties, probably acting through Toll-like receptors (primarily TLR2) on macrophages and other cells. Lung ...
ABSTRACTCytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. These regulatory proteins oscillate between a cytosolic GDP-bound inactive form and a membrane-linked GTP-bound active form, orchestrating the actin cy
1O72: Crystal and Electron Microscopy Structures of Sticholysin II Actinoporin Reveal Insights Into the Mechanism of Membrane Pore Formation
1GWY: Crystal and Electron Microscopy Structures of Sticholysin II Actinoporin Reveal Insights Into the Mechanism of Membrane Pore Formation
Epingaione (4-Methyl-1-(5-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-[2,3]bifuranyl-5-yl)-pentan-2-one) was isolated as one of the major lipophilic secondary metabolites from the leaves and stems of Bontia daphnoides L. The compound gave 79.24% and 50.83% anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity on the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and TE-671 sarcoma cells in vitro at 50 μg/mL, respectively. Epingaione was transformed into eleven derivatives under laboratory conditions using ethanol, some gave greater anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines tested. ...
Michelet, Nathalie ; Granum, Per Einar ; Mahillon, Jacques. Bacillus cereus enterotoxins, bi- and tri- component cytolysins and other haemolysins. In: Author : J, Alouf ; Editor(s) : Alouf and Popoff, The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Elsevier 2005, p. 779- ...
Herein, we report the pathogenic and phylogenetic characteristics of seven Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from 434 retail meats in Korea during 2006-2012. The experimental analyses revealed that all the isolates (i) were identified as non-O157 STEC, including O91:H14 (3 isolates), O121:H10 (2), O91:H21 (1), and O18:H20 (1), (ii) carried diverse Stx subtype genes (stx1, stx2c, stx2e, or stx1+stx2b) whose expression levels were varied strain by strain, and (iii) lacked the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, a major virulence factor of STEC, but possessed one or more alternative virulence genes encoding cytotoxins (Cdt and SubAB) and/or adhesins (Saa, Iha, and EcpA ...
Highly virulent enterococcal strains have a pathogenicity island within their genome that encodes, among other traits, a cytolytic toxin that uses a quorum-sensing mechanism to affect autoinduction. Coburn et al. (see the Perspective by Garsin) show that the bacterium actively secretes two components, an autoinducer and an anti-autoinducer. In the absence of target cells, these two interact and prevent the autoinducer from feeding back to induce high-level expression of the cytolysin. In the presence of the target cell, however, the anti-autoinducer binds to the target cell and allows the autoinducer to accumulate to the threshold level required for quorum induction of the cytolysin operon. The anti-autoinducer is itself a toxin component and effectively tags the target for destruction. P. S. Coburn, C. M. Pillar, B. D. Jett, W. Haas, M. S. Gilmore, Enterococcus faecalis senses target cells and in response expresses cytolysin. Science 306, 2270-2272 (2004). [Abstract] [Full Text]. D. A. Garsin, ...
Pathogenesis of Gardenerella vaginalis A. Adherence of G. vaginalis to Host Epithelium: Initial Steps in Invasion The initial steps of establishing infection include adherence to host receptor sites, production of cytotoxic substances specific for host cells, and biofilm formation. vaginais produces vaginolysin, a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, for human cells and encodes a pore-forming toxin that binds … Read more Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestation of Gardenerella vaginalis. ...
Derived from Maytansinoid,a group of cytotoxins structurally similar to rifamycin, geldanamycin, and ansatrienin. The eponymous natural cytotoxic agent maytansine is a 19-member lactam (ansa macrolide) structure originally isolated from the Ethiopian shrub Maytenus ovatus. Maytansinoids can bind to tubulin at or near the vinblastine-binding site, which interfere the formation of microtubules and depolymerize already formed microtubules, inducing mitotic arrest in the intoxicated cells ...
STRO-001 was developed with Sutros proprietary cell-free protein synthesis and site-specific conjugation platforms, which facilitate multiple rounds of antibody and ADC optimization, said Dr. Arturo Molina, a medical oncologist and Sutros chief medical officer.. Sutros Xpress CF+™ platform enables it to produce novel ADCs that directly target cancer cells and avoid a toxic bystander effect on adjacent healthy cells, he added.. Unlike conventional cell-based expression systems, Sutros technology isolates a cells protein production machinery into a cell-free extract, Xtract CF™, which includes all the necessary biochemical components for energy production, transcription and translation. The Xpress CF+™ platform further supports incorporation of non-natural amino acids in specific positions in the protein of interest, allowing for site-specific conjugation of cytotoxins and the creation of homogeneous ADCs. This process is capable of producing single proteins at large scale within ...
Cytotoxic Shock Prostration of bodily functions caused by high levels of cytotoxins. It can be treated with inaprovaline.. Darnays Disease A deadly ailment that attacks the brain and nervous system of its victim.. Dermal Dysplasia Skin disorder caused by an overexposure of the skin to dangerous levels of thermal and ultraviolet radiation.. Forrester-Trent Syndrome Degenerative neurological disorder that is very rare and, if left untreated, can cause paralysis and even death.. Hesperan Thumping Cough A flu-like affliction.. Holodiction A psychological condition where an individual gets so caught up in holographic simulations that the real world becomes unimportant. Also known as Holodeck Addiction.. HTDS Holo-Transference Dementia Syndrome. A medical condition in which someone becomes so disoriented within a holographic simulation that they lose their sense of identity and start to think that they are part of the program.. Irumodic Syndrome Degenerative disorder that causes progressive ...
Introduction This report is an update on my thinking on Cytokinetics. It should be read in conjunction with earlier reports, especially my initiation report of March 15, Cytokinetics: Critical Phase IIB Data is Upcoming in 2013 for Omecamtiv Mecarbil and Tirasemtiv (CYTK, $6.30). In that report, I first recommended
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The MTT assay is based on the conversion of MTT into formazan crystals by living cells, that determines number of viable cells. The treatment of K562 cells with different concentrations of metylthiosemicarbazon complex with Zn2+ (30, 50, 80, 100, 130, 150 and 200µM) at 24, 48 and 72 h. As showen Fig, metylthiosemicarbazon complex with Zn2+ has cytotoxic activity on the K562 cell line and was able to inhibit the proliferation of the K562 cell line. The IC50 is a measure of the effectiveness of metylthiosemicarbazon complex with Zn2+ in inhibiting of proliferation of K562 cells. The IC50 value of this compound is 100µM in 72 h.. Figure 1: Effect of metylthiosemicarbazon complex with Zn2+ on K562 cells. The K562 cells were treated with various concentrations (30-150µM) of metylthiosemicarbazon complex with Zn2+ for 24, 48, 72 h and then were investigated by MTT assay. Data are shown as mean ± SD.. 3.2 Morphological study of K562 ...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
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Ahn GO, Brown M (May 2007). "Targeting tumors with hypoxia-activated cytotoxins". Frontiers in Bioscience. 12 (8-12): 3483-501 ... hypoxia-selective cytotoxins/drugs, and HIF-1 inhibitors. Moreover, it is possible to treat a hypoxic tumor by means of ion ... of cancer progression and therapeutic response Several review articles summarize the current status of hypoxic cytotoxins ( ...
Ahn, GO; Brown, M (May 1, 2007). "Targeting tumors with hypoxia-activated cytotoxins". Frontiers in Bioscience. 12 (8-12): 3483 ...
Microdroplet assay of human serum cytotoxins. Nature 1964; 204: 998-1000. Terasaki PI. Resolution by HLA testing of 1000 ...
It consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins and cytotoxins. However, N. ashei is capable of injecting a much larger volume of venom ...
As a potent cytotoxin". Toxicon. 53 (6): 680-4. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.02.008. PMID 19233223. Torgersen, Trine; Bremnes, ...
Cytotoxins Inhibitors of fibroblast proliferation Invasins Chemotactic inhibitors Collagenase Bacteriocins Immunosuppressive ...
They include potent neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, and endotoxins. Despite the similarity in name, they are unrelated ...
Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cytotoxins and fasciculins. Toxicity of individual specimens within the same species ...
The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and cytotoxins. The venom of the Equatorial spitting cobra exhibited the common ...
In particular, Apartoxin A has been found to be a potent cancer cell cytotoxin. It has been found to be remarkably cytotoxic in ... It is a derivative of the Apratoxin family of cytotoxins. The mixed peptide-polyketide natural product comes from a polyketide ... Although much work has been done to understand the mechanism-of-action for this cytotoxin, there is no defined understanding ... synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase pathway (PKS/NRPS). This cytotoxin is known for inducing G1-phase cell cycle arrest and ...
The subtilase cytotoxin A subunit (subA, Q6EZC2) is a protease known to cleave binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), leading to ... Wang, Hui; Paton, James C.; Paton, Adrienne W. (October 2007). "Pathologic Changes in Mice Induced by Subtilase Cytotoxin, a ... Paton, AW; Paton, JC (Feb 1, 2010). "Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin". Toxins. 2 (2): 215-228. doi:10.3390/toxins2020215. ... Paton, AW; Paton, JC (1 February 2010). "Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin". Toxins. 2 (2): 215-228. doi:10.3390/ ...
Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that has a molecular weight of 270 kDa and an isoelectric point, pl, of 4.1. Toxin B has four ... Clostridium difficile toxin B is a cytotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. It is one of two major kinds of ... Nakamura S, Mikawa M, Tanabe N, Yamakawa K, Nishida S (1982). "Effect of clindamycin on cytotoxin production by Clostridium ... von Eichel-Streiber C (1997). "Enterotoxin A and cytotoxin B (Clostridium difficile)". In Montecucco C, Rappuoli R (eds.). ...
Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120-145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag ... "Search: "cytotoxin-associated gene A" "Helicobacter pylori"". Protein. NCBI.. ...
Stx-2 shares 56% sequence identity with Stx-1. Cytotoxins - an archaic denotation for Stx - is used in a broad sense. ... Konowalchuk J, Speirs JI, Stavric S (December 1977). "Vero response to a cytotoxin of Escherichia coli". Infection and Immunity ...
Wool, I. G.; Huber, P. W.; Endo, Y. (1983-02-25). "The ribonuclease activity of the cytotoxin alpha-sarcin. The characteristics ... "The cytotoxin α-sarcin behaves as a cyclizing ribonuclease". FEBS Letters. 424 (1-2): 46-48. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00137-9 ...
It is a potent cytotoxin that destroys mitochondria. It also causes nausea and vomiting. Cereulide acts as ionophore with a ...
... a cytotoxin produced by Paecilomyces sp. and Aspergillus clavatus isolated from Taxus mairei and Torreya grandis". FEMS ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three- ...
Cytotoxins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Photoactivated Cytotoxins, University of Canterbury, 2006. "Chemotherapy Principles" (PDF). American Cancer Society. Retrieved ...
November 2008). "Tricyclic [1,2,4]triazine 1,4-dioxides as hypoxia selective cytotoxins". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51 ( ...
Yessotoxins (YTXs) are potent cytotoxins which are made of disulfated polyether compounds. This toxins compromises the tumor ...
The venom of the Egyptian cobra consists mainly in neurotoxins and cytotoxins. The average venom yield is 175 to 300 mg in a ...
Two forms of "cytotoxin II" (cardiotoxin) were found in the venom of this species. The crude venom of this species produced the ... The venom of the Egyptian cobra consists mainly of neurotoxins and cytotoxins. The average venom yield is 175 to 300 mg in a ... The venom of the black-necked spitting cobra is somewhat unique among elapids in that it consists primarily of cytotoxins, but ... S. (1999). "Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution. Spatial structures with tightly ...
Earlier research established TcdA strictly as an enterotoxin, and TcdB as a cytotoxin, but later both toxins were found to have ... Tucker KD, Carrig PE, Wilkins TD (May 1990). "Toxin A of Clostridium difficile is a potent cytotoxin". Journal of Clinical ... Florin I, Thelestam M (December 1983). "Internalization of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin into cultured human lung fibroblasts ... cytotoxin) in clinical specimens. Evaluation of a latex agglutination test". The American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 86 (2 ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... Dementieva, Daria V.; Bocharov, Eduard V.; Arseniev, Alexander S. (1999). "Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja ... "Cancer cell injury by cytotoxins from cobra venom is mediated through lysosomal damage". Biochemical Journal. 390 (1): 11-18. ...
They form a major class of cytotoxins, used in the fight against cancers. One example is daunorubicin, which is antileukemic. ...
Konshina AG, Boldyrev IA, Utkin YN, Omel'kov AV, Efremov RG (April 2011). "Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions ... and the cardiotoxin/cytotoxin family, in which a larger fraction of the protein's residues are believed to have functional ...
The venom of this species contains postsynaptic neurotoxin and cytotoxin. There have been only a few fatalities resulting from ...
Molecular cloning of a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activity". J. Exp. Med. 170 (1): 163-176. doi:10.1084/jem ... a cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with ribonuclease activity; and frog liver ribonuclease and frog sialic acid-binding lectin. The ...
On the molecular level, this process is controlled by a number of advanced cytotoxins produced by the bacteria themselves in ... Bacteria that cause infectious diseases produce a number of cytotoxins, and an international research team has now found the ... that the location in the ribosome that is cleaved by VapC20 is the same place that is destroyed by the strong cytotoxins α- ... be used in future to develop new ways of treating pathogenic bacteria by impairing their ability to use such cytotoxins. ...
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) is a 921 dalton glycopeptide released by Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In 1980, it ... Cundell, DR; Kanthakumar, K; Taylor, GW; Goldman, WE; Flak, T; Cole, PJ; Wilson, R (1994). "Effect of tracheal cytotoxin from ... Subsequently, they named the newly sequestered molecule tracheal cytotoxin (TCT). TCT is a soluble piece of peptidoglycan (PGN ... 2005). "Murine Nod1 but not its human orthologue mediates innate immune detection of tracheal cytotoxin". EMBO Reports. 6 (12 ...
Cytotoxins of the CCT family are large (e.g., toxin B of C. difficile is 2366 aas long) and tripartite with the N-terminal ... The Clostridial Cytotoxin (CCT) Family (TC# 1.C.57) is a member of the RTX-toxin superfamily. There are currently 13 classified ... Proteolytically processed clostridial cytotoxins A (306 kDa; TC# 1.C.57.1.2) and B (269 kDa; TC# 1.C.57.1.1) are O- ... Amimoto K, Noro T, Oishi E, Shimizu M (April 2007). "A novel toxin homologous to large clostridial cytotoxins found in culture ...
Vero cell cytotoxins and cytotonic enterotoxins produced by E. coli are toxic proteins, which have been implicated in a number ... Escherichia Coli Cytotoxins and Enterotoxins Can J Microbiol. 1992 Jul;38(7):734-46. doi: 10.1139/m92-120. ... The Vero cell cytotoxins are called verotoxins because they are lethal for Vero cells in culture; they are also known as Shiga- ... Vero cell cytotoxins and cytotonic enterotoxins produced by E. coli are toxic proteins, which have been implicated in a number ...
... by Bidita Debnath on February 2, 2017 at 11:58 PM Research ... Bacteria produce cytotoxins that can cause cell death and result in infections of the deep fascia and other tissues, including ... Bacteria produce cytotoxins that can cause cell death and result in infections of the deep fascia and other tissues, including ... "Our research revealed that the most severe form of the disease requires two cytotoxins. If either one or both are missing, the ...
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new AB5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli ... Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new AB5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli ... Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin. Toxins. 2010; 2(2):215-228. Chicago/Turabian Style. Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C. ... Keywords: subtilase cytotoxin; AB5 toxin; BiP/GRP78; endoplasmic reticulum stress; Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli subtilase ...
IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/TOLIP. ... IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/TOLIP. ... sp,P01454,3SA9_NAJHA Cytotoxin 9 OS=Naja annulifera OX=96794 PE=1 SV=1 ...
IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/TOLIP. ... IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/TOLIP. ... sp,Q98960,3SA3B_NAJAT Cytotoxin 3b OS=Naja atra OX=8656 PE=3 SV=2 MKTLLLTLVVVTIVCLDLGYTLKCNKLVPLFYKTCPAGKNLCYKMFMVATPKVPVKRGCI ...
The structural organization and processing of the vacuolating cytotoxin are characteristic of a … ... produces a unique cytotoxin (VacA) that induces cytoplasmic vacuolation in eukaryotic cells. ... The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori Mol Microbiol. 1996 Apr;20(2):241-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1996.tb02612.x. ... Experiments in a mouse model of H. pylori-induced gastric damage indicate that the cytotoxin plays an important role in ...
S. marcescens cytotoxin did not show hemolytic activity in the liquid hemolytic assay, even when treated with crude cytotoxin ... Cytotoxin purification. The crude cytotoxin preparations were initially subjected to ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE ... Thus, the CHO cells were used in all experiments for the characterization of the cytotoxin. The CD50 of the cytotoxin is ... Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml) of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin ...
Monoglucosylation of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding Rho proteins by clostridial cytotoxins.. Aktories K1, Just I. ...
Characterization of a new cytotoxin that contributes to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis.. Dumont AL1, Nygaard TK, Watkins RL ... LukAB is a potent staphylococcal cytotoxin that kills human phagocytic cell lines ... The pathogenesis of this organism is partly attributed to the production of a large repertoire of cytotoxins that target and ...
Bacteria that cause infectious diseases produce a number of cytotoxins, and an international research team has now found the ... On the molecular level, this process is controlled by a number of advanced cytotoxins produced by the bacteria themselves in ... Bacteria that cause infectious diseases produce a number of cytotoxins, and an international research team has now found the ... that the location in the ribosome that is cleaved by VapC20 is the same place that is destroyed by the strong cytotoxins - ...
A few years ago I was wondering why my scrobbles for Bolzer had no cover art, I though maybe it was a server error. But Im glad theyre no longer banned. But if they banned IN they should ban Absurd and GBK too ...
This is a throwback puzzle to the early days of Foldit. This toxin, produced by the Mozambique spitting cobra, induces contracture in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This protein contains eight cysteine residues, which oxidize to form four disulfide bonds. We are revisiting old Foldit puzzles so we can see how useful the recent additions to the game have been ...
Potent cytotoxins produced by this human pathogen contribute to the infection. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology ... reports that the bacterias full virulence is dependent on the presence of two specific cytotoxins, NADase (SPN) and ... Cytotoxins Contribute to Virulence of Deadly Epidemic Bacterial Infections. Beginning in the mid-1980s, an epidemic of severe ... Bacteria produce cytotoxins that can cause cell death and result in infections of the deep fascia and other tissues, including ...
Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Inhibits T Lymphocyte Activation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Inhibits T Lymphocyte Activation. By Bettina Gebert, Wolfgang Fischer, Evelyn Weiss, ... Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Inhibits T Lymphocyte Activation. By Bettina Gebert, Wolfgang Fischer, Evelyn Weiss, ...
To see all glycan array results for subtilase cytotoxin, click here. Related GBPs References *↑ 1.0 1.1 Fan, E. et al. (2000). ... Subtilase cytotoxin, SubAB, is produced by Shiga toxigenic E. coli. Other members of the AB5 toxin family are expressed as ... Paton, A.W., Srimanote, P., Talbot, U.M., Wang, H., and Paton, J.C. (2004). A new family of potent AB5 cytotoxins produced by ... subtilise cytotoxin (SubAB), also produced by STEC, has been described relatively recently. The AB5 toxins from each sub-family ...
To see all glycan array results for subtilase cytotoxin, click here. Related GBPs References *↑ 1.0 1.1 Fan, E. et al. (2000). ... Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). From CFGparadigms. Revision as of 17:07, 8 July 2010 by Carole Weaver (Talk , contribs) ... Subtilase cytotoxin, SubAB, is produced by Shiga toxigenic E. coli. Other members of the AB5 toxin family are expressed as ... Paton, A.W., Srimanote, P., Talbot, U.M., Wang, H., and Paton, J.C. (2004). A new family of potent AB5 cytotoxins produced by ...
The vacuolating cytotoxin VacA produced by ,i,Helicobacter pylori,/i, induces the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles in ... The vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the major virulence factors released by H. pylori. VacA targets not only ... The production of cytotoxin activity can vary considerably among H. pylori strains due to extensive sequence polymorphisms in ... Vacuolating cytotoxin purified from H. pylori causes mitochondrial damage leading to apoptotic cell death and it was speculated ...
Among the toxins that are known for interacting synergistically are cytotoxins from snake venoms, phospholipases A2 from snake ... we speculate and propose a mechanistic model for how toxin synergism in relation to cytotoxicity may be mediated by cytotoxin/ ... we speculate and propose a mechanistic model for how toxin synergism in relation to cytotoxicity may be mediated by cytotoxin/ ... we demonstrate and quantify the level of synergistically enhanced toxicity for 12 cytotoxin/melittin-PLA2 combinations using ...
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a naturally occurring fragment of Gram-negative peptidoglycan, is a potent elicitor of innate immune ... Structure of Tracheal Cytotoxin in Complex with a Heterodimeric Pattern-Recognition Receptor ... Structure of Tracheal Cytotoxin in Complex with a Heterodimeric Pattern-Recognition Receptor ... Structure of Tracheal Cytotoxin in Complex with a Heterodimeric Pattern-Recognition Receptor ...
pore-forming cytotoxin. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus causes invasive disease and can infect nearly all ... 2011) Characterization of a new cytotoxin that contributes to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. Mol Microbiol 79(3):814-825. ... Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxin kills human neutrophils by targeting the CD11b subunit of the integrin Mac-1 ... Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxin kills human neutrophils by targeting the CD11b subunit of the integrin Mac-1. Ashley L. ...
The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic ... Bothe M, Dutow P, Pich A, Genth H, Klos A. DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin ... DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166. Miriam Bothe 1. ... "DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166." Toxins 7, no. 2: 621-637. ...
The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-gamma.. K E Barber, P S Crosier ... The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-gamma. ... The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-gamma. ... The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-gamma. ...
Outbreak of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in northern England: update * S OBrien, H Smith ... Outbreak of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in northern England: update. Euro Surveill. 1999;3(12):pii ...
Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic 4F Peptide Generates Amyloid Cytotoxins by Forming Hetero-oligomers with β-amyloid. Bikash Ranjan ... Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic 4F Peptide Generates Amyloid Cytotoxins by Forming Hetero-oligomers with β-amyloid ... Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic 4F Peptide Generates Amyloid Cytotoxins by Forming Hetero-oligomers with β-amyloid ... Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic 4F Peptide Generates Amyloid Cytotoxins by Forming Hetero-oligomers with β-amyloid ...
Videoklip a text písně Abysm Nucleus od Cytotoxin. In the pale glint of the headlamps Grey concrete Structures peel from the ...
... pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Here, we ... f High Prevalence of Serine Protease Autotransporter Cytotoxins among Strains of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli * Nadia ... High Prevalence of Serine Protease Autotransporter Cytotoxins among Strains of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli ... pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Here, we ...
Both cytotoxins exhibited differential cytotoxic effects in the cell lines tested, with NS-CTX (P-type cytotoxin) being... ... NS-CTX and NK-CTX are, respectively, P-type and S-type isoforms of cytotoxin, based on the amino acid sequences as per LCMS/MS ... NS-CTX and NK-CTX are, respectively, P-type and an S-type isoforms of cytotoxin, based on the amino acid sequences as per LCMS/ ... Both cytotoxins exhibited differential cytotoxic effects in the cell lines tested, with NS-CTX (P-type cytotoxon) being ...
  • Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of chronic superficial gastritis and duodenal ulcer disease in humans, produces a unique cytotoxin (VacA) that induces cytoplasmic vacuolation in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • The vacuolating cytotoxin VacA produced by Helicobacter pylori induces the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles in host gastric epithelial cells as well as a release of cytochrome C from mitochondria resulting in cell apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Presence of VacA, the virulent Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin, is correlated with the severity of H. pylori -induced gastritis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background -It has been reported that infection with vacuolating cytotoxin positive Helicobacter pylori strains is associated with gastroduodenal disease in Western countries. (bmj.com)
  • Cytotoxin production by Helicobacter pylori from patients with. (mysciencework.com)
  • A cytotoxin produced by some Helicobacter pylori strains has recently been identified. (mysciencework.com)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Helicobacter pylori (strain ATCC 700392 / 26695) (Campylobacter pylori) Vacuolating cytotoxin autotransporter, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (enquirebio.com)
  • The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) induces the degenerative vacuolation of mammalian cells both in vitro and in vivo. (illinois.edu)
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Helicobacter pylori toxin vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) promotes gastric colonization and its presence (VacA+) is associated with more-severe disease. (elsevier.com)
  • This application proposes studies to identify the mechanism by which the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is trafficked to mitochondria in host epithelial cells, where the toxin induces mitochondrial damage. (grantome.com)
  • This application proposes to characterize the mechanism of action of the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that increases the risk for the development of gastric cancer. (grantome.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (CagA)-positive strains of Helicobacter pylori have previously been associated with acute coronary syndromes. (unicatt.it)
  • Several reports indicate that the nonconserved genes of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in particular its cytotoxin are widely heterogeneous among various geographic locations and this is manifested at the protein level ranging from 5-15% which demands access to locally deduced protein antigens for inclusion into diagnostic kits and/or inclusion as a vaccine component for the target population. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Cloning and Expression of the Heterogenic Vacuolating Cytotoxin From an Iranian Helicobacter pylori Strain', Iranian Journal of Biotechnology , 2(2), pp. 123-131. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori isolates produce a cytotoxin in vitro that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Blaser, Martin J. / Divergence of genetic sequences for the vacuolating cytotoxin among Helicobacter pylori strains . (elsevier.com)
  • Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new AB 5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Paton, J.C. Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin. (mdpi.com)
  • Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens . (scielo.br)
  • Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. (ajtmh.org)
  • Shiga-like cytotoxin production by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups. (asm.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies to Escherichia coli Vero cytotoxin 1 and antibodies to O157 lipopolysaccharide in healthy farm family members and urban residents. (asm.org)
  • Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) from verotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains was first described in the 98NK2 strain and has been associated with human disease. (asm.org)
  • To obtain a purified recombinant cytotoxin, the vacA gene (2233 nucleotides) was cloned into an expression vector to produce the protein (744 amino acids), which was expressed in Escherichia coli . (bmj.com)
  • In order to assess the serum antivacuolating cytotoxin antibody which is thought to indicate infection with cytotoxin positive H pylori strains, we have cloned the vacA gene, purified the recombinant cytotoxin protein expressed in Escherichia coli , and conducted a western blot assay to detect the antibody against the toxin in patients with and without various gastrointestinal diseases. (bmj.com)
  • This study analyses the relationship between meteorological phenomena and outbreaks of waterborne-transmitted vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in the Republic of Ireland over an 8-year period (2005-2012). (iwaponline.com)
  • Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are major enteropathogens responsible for causing outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS). (iwaponline.com)
  • Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in England and Wales, 1995: phenotypic methods and genotypic subtyping. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of subtilase-cytotoxin-encoding genes was determined in 397 environmental Escherichia coli strains isolated from water, suspended solids, and sediments sampled from different hydrological and environmental conditions in a California estuary. (elsevier.com)
  • Summary: Sequences encoding the production of a cytotoxin (VT) active on Vero cells were cloned in Escherichia coli K12 from a VT-determining phage that originated in E. coli strain H19 of serotype O26. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Screening a AZapII library of H. pylori 60190 chromosomal fragments permitted the identification of a 3864-base pair (bp) open reading frame (vacA) that encoded the vacuolating cytotoxin, and a ≥567-bp upstream gene that was homologous to Escherichia coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (elsevier.com)
  • Experiments in a mouse model of H. pylori-induced gastric damage indicate that the cytotoxin plays an important role in inducing gastric epithelial necrosis. (nih.gov)
  • VacA, the virulent cytotoxin of H. pylori , has been found mainly in the gastric mucosa and its ability to cause vacuolization has been widely documented in many cell types. (jimmunol.org)
  • Oral treatment of mice with either crude extracts of H. pylori or the purified cytotoxin induces gastric injury that resembles the pathology observed in humans ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Results -Serum IgG antibodies to the cytotoxin were present in 85%, 95%, 95%, and 100% of infected patients with gastric ulcer (n=26), duodenal ulcer (n=21), chronic gastritis (n=19), and endoscopically normal mucosa (n=14), respectively. (bmj.com)
  • 16 19 In Japan, Hirai et al 20 reported a high prevalence of antibody (100%) in sera of six patients with gastric carcinoma, using the antibody mediated neutralising assay against the cytotoxin, suggesting that there is a close relation between infection with cytotoxin producing strains and gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency of occurrence of cytotoxin-producing strains of H. pylori from subjects with upper gastrointestinal disease including nonulcer dyspepsia, gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and gastric cancer. (mysciencework.com)
  • The cytotoxin induces intracellular vacuolization of cultured cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Bacteria that cause infectious diseases produce a number of cytotoxins, and an international research team has now found the mechanism behind one of these toxins. (redorbit.com)
  • Further analysis of the cleavage point in the ribosome also shows that the mechanism is presumably general for a number of the many toxins, and the new knowledge could therefore be used in future to develop new ways of treating pathogenic bacteria by impairing their ability to use such cytotoxins. (redorbit.com)
  • The distantly related ToxA toxin of Pasteurella multocida (TC# 1.C.57.3.1) is 1285 aas while the E. coli Cnf1 and 2 toxins(TC#s 1.C.57.3.2 and 1.C.57.3.3, respectively) are 1014 aas, and the RTX cytotoxin of Vibrio vulnificus (TC# 1.C.57.3.4) is 5206 aas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. (scielo.br)
  • These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli . (scielo.br)
  • We report here the purification of the S. marcescens cytotoxin and compare its biological characteristics with those of other well-characterized toxins. (scielo.br)
  • Among the toxins that are known for interacting synergistically are cytotoxins from snake venoms, phospholipases A 2 from snake and bee venoms, and melittin from bee venom. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a human keratinocyte assay mimicking human epidermis in vitro , we demonstrate and quantify the level of synergistically enhanced toxicity for 12 cytotoxin/melittin-PLA 2 combinations using toxins from elapids, vipers, and bees. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, damage nanobiomembranes in different cells and vesicles. (scientific.net)
  • The production of cytotoxin activity can vary considerably among H. pylori strains due to extensive sequence polymorphisms in the vacA gene [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that in vivo intratumoral (i.t.) gene transfer of this chain followed by IL-13 cytotoxin [comprised of IL-13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL13-PE38QQR)] therapy causes regression of established human tumors in xenografted models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, local gene transfer of IL-13Rα2 followed by receptor-targeted IL-13 cytotoxin therapy may be applied safely and effectively to the treatment of localized breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we have confirmed that in vivo plasmid-mediated gene transfer of IL-13Rα2 sensitized prostate and head and neck tumors to subsequent IL-13 cytotoxin therapy ( 37 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to the eae gene, a novel cytotoxin called subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) might also contribute to the virulence of eae -negative VTEC strains in humans ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the claimed pathogenic bacterial factors is the 139 kDa vacuolating cytotoxin, 11 12 known as the vacA gene product. (bmj.com)
  • One of its major virulence determinants is cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA , and high levels of cagA expression are associated with more severe disease. (bmj.com)
  • A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Cytotoxin Associated Protein gene A in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Isogenic H. pylori mutants with insertional mutation of the vacA gene lacked vacuolating cytotoxin activity and failed to produce the 87-kDa protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) is a 921 dalton glycopeptide released by Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, they named the newly sequestered molecule tracheal cytotoxin (TCT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermonecrotic toxin and tracheal cytotoxin, putative virulence factors of Bordetella avium. (asm.org)
  • We examined Bordetella avium for virulence factors common to Bordetella pertussis, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, adenylate cyclase, dermonecrotic toxin, and tracheal cytotoxin. (asm.org)
  • B. avium produced a dermonecrotic toxin and a tracheal cytotoxin. (asm.org)
  • High-pressure liquid chromatography of B. avium culture supernatant fluid revealed the presence of a tracheal cytotoxin chemically identical to that produced by B. pertussis. (asm.org)
  • These studies revealed that B. avium is similar to B. pertussis in that both species produce a dermonecrotic toxin and a tracheal cytotoxin and production of dermonecrotic toxin is regulated by nicotinamide and MgSO4. (asm.org)
  • The presence of dermonecrotic toxin and tracheal cytotoxin in all Bordetella species indicates that these products may be important virulence factors in bordetellosis. (asm.org)
  • A total of 7 strains (1.76%) were found to harbor subtilase-cytotoxin-encoding genes. (elsevier.com)
  • The 556 bp subA sequences were almost identical to that in the subtilase-cytotoxin-positive strain ED 591 (98%), while subAB sequences of 2 non-Shiga-toxigenic strains revealed 100% similarity with the Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O113:H21 strain 98NK2 that was isolated from an outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, the serogroup O113:H21 was present in this collection of environmental E. coli, and it was found to harbor stx2d, hra1 that encodes the heat resistant agglutinin 1, and a subAB sequence similar to that in the non-Shiga-toxigenic E. coli subtilase cytotoxin strain ED 591. (elsevier.com)
  • Differences in activities of cytotoxin VacA and CagA antigen are connected with polymorphisms observed in the genes which coded these proteins. (pbkom.eu)
  • Thus, sequence divergence in vacA genes may explain the lack of functionally active cytotoxin production by some H. pylori isolates. (elsevier.com)
  • A fourth sub-family, subtilise cytotoxin (SubAB), also produced by STEC, has been described relatively recently. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The pathogenesis of this organism is partly attributed to the production of a large repertoire of cytotoxins that target and kill innate immune cells, which provide the first line of defence against S. aureus infection. (nih.gov)
  • To overcome host defenses, S. aureus secretes a large repertoire of cytotoxins that cause cell death through osmotic lysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of target cells ( 4 ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Potent cytotoxins produced by this human pathogen contribute to the infection. (medindia.net)
  • Both cytotoxins exhibited differential cytotoxic effects in the cell lines tested, with NS-CTX (P-type cytotoxin) being significantly more potent in inhibiting the growth of the cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings revealed the limitations and challenges that could be faced during the development of new cancer therapy from cobra cytotoxins, notwithstanding their potent anticancer effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • The payload in ADCs are highly potent cytotoxins, exerting their effects on critical cellular processes required for survival. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • Typically, the cytotoxins used in ADCs are a 100-1000 times more potent than regular chemotherapeutics and preferably have sub-nanomolar potency. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • The spectrum of bacterial proteins, especial- ly CagA antigen, cytotoxin VacA and BabA adhesin, are correlated with higher virulence of H. pylori strains. (pbkom.eu)
  • Broth culture filtrates of clinical isolates of H. pylori recovered from 175 patients were used to inoculate Vero and HeLa cell monolayers for the detection of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. (mysciencework.com)
  • This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3 ) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. (scielo.br)
  • The addition of cytotoxin B to imidazole-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing MgSO 4 , KCl and the substrate 2-phosphoglycerate resulted in the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate as demonstrated by spectrophotometric analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • The vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is one of the major virulence factors released by H. pylori . (hindawi.com)
  • The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods -A Western blot assay was conducted to detect serum antibodies against the cytotoxin using recombinant cytotoxin (VacA protein) as an antigen. (bmj.com)
  • Cleavage of toxin B and all other large clostridial cytotoxins, is an autocatalytic process dependent on host cytosolic inositolphosphate cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoglucosylation of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding Rho proteins by clostridial cytotoxins. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, it is still unclear whether the cytotoxin causes vacuolization and cell lysis. (scielo.br)
  • The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, by utilizing an interaction-based assay and by including a wealth of information obtained via a thorough literature review, we speculate and propose a mechanistic model for how toxin synergism in relation to cytotoxicity may be mediated by cytotoxin/melittin and PLA 2 complex formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The O157 LPS assay and Vero cytotoxin (VT) 1-neutralizing-antibody (NAb) assay were used to compare the relative frequencies of O157 LPS antibodies and VT1-NAbs in an age-stratified urban population from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and in 216 healthy family members from dairy farm in southern Ontario. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies in human sera against the vacuolating cytotoxin have often been assessed by using the neutralising assay. (bmj.com)
  • Phosphoglycerate conversion was absent when the cytotoxin was heat-inactivated of reacted with specific antitoxin prior to assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion -The western blot method using recombinant VacA protein is simple and useful for detecting antibody to vacuolating cytotoxin. (bmj.com)
  • One mutant lacks the PscJ protein, a structural component of the secretion apparatus, suggesting that cytotoxins are injected into the D. discoideum cell. (pnas.org)
  • Pig Cytotoxin Associated Protein g. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The cytotoxin was heat-labile, cytotoxic activity decreasing to 50% of the initial level on heating at 70°C for 20 min. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although only 50% of H. pylori isolates produce detectable cytotoxin activity in vitro, vacA homologues are present in virtually all isolates. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that cytotoxicity toward HEp-2 cells is primarily due to the inhibitory effect of the cytotoxin on nucleic acid synthesis, possibly on DNA synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Aims -To evaluate the prevalence of cytotoxin producing strains among patients with H pylori infection in relation to gastrointestinal diseases in Japan. (bmj.com)
  • This method showed antibodies against cytotoxin were highly prevalent, even in subjects with endoscopically normal mucosa in Japan, indicating that the cytotoxin may not be an independent cause of gastrointestinal diseases induced by H pylori infection. (bmj.com)
  • Two strains possessed plasmids of different sizes, but one strain possessed no plasmid, indicating that the cytotoxin is probably chromosomally encoded. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We examined the enterotoxicity of a Klebsiella oxytoca cytotoxin which is produced by K. oxytoca OK-1, a strain from a patient with antibiotic- associated hemorrhagic colitis. (elsevier.com)
  • When K. oxytoca OK-1, a cytotoxin-producing strain, was inoculated into the loops at doses of 1 x 10 8 and 5 x 10 9 CFU, similar fluid accumulation was observed. (elsevier.com)
  • However, inoculation of K. oxytoca ATCC 13182, a non-cytotoxin-producing strain, at the same doses did not cause any change. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the cytotoxin-producing strain of K. oxytoca is the causative organism of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis and that the toxin is the factor responsible for pathogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Figueroa-Arredondo, P. The Vibrio cholerae Cytotoxin (VCC) Simultaneously Activates Responses of Death, Inflammation (NF-κB) and Survival (AP-1) through the MAPK Signaling in Human Macrophages THP-1. (preprints.org)
  • Vibrio species can produce multiple extracellular cytotoxins and enzymes that are associated with extensive tissue damage and that may play a major role in the development of sepsis (see Table 1). (medscape.com)
  • Vero cell cytotoxins and cytotonic enterotoxins produced by E. coli are toxic proteins, which have been implicated in a number of specific diseases in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • We studied EPEC and non-EPEC strains of E. coli from stool specimens obtained from infants and adults for production of Shiga-like cytotoxin. (asm.org)
  • Although it was common for healthy infants and adults to have cytotoxin-producing E. coli as part of the fecal flora, Shiga-like cytotoxin was detected more commonly and in greater amounts among EPEC than among other fecal E. coli. (asm.org)
  • Alpha-2 macroglobulin was purified and alpha-1 antiprotease was partially purified from human sera by other methods and shown to have high inhibitory activity against the amebal cytotoxin. (ajtmh.org)
  • The differential inhibition of hemopoietic growth factor activity by cytotoxins and interferon-gamma. (jimmunol.org)
  • When synchronously cultured HEp-2 cells were examined in the presence of cytotoxin, inhibition of DNA synthesis occurred promptly within 5 h, but cell-rounding, the earliest visible morphological change, was not observed until 6 h after exposure. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We show here that two H. pylori virulence determinants, the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, contribute critically and nonredundantly to H. pylori's tolerizing effects on murine DCs in vitro and in vivo. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, in vitro studies on a human macrophage cell line (THP-1), helped explore the activated pathways involved on the onset the innate immune response towards the cytotoxin. (preprints.org)
  • NS-CTX and NK-CTX are, respectively, P-type and S-type isoforms of cytotoxin, based on the amino acid sequences as per LCMS/MS analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • While EGF-PAP did prove to be a fibroblast cytotoxin, it could not completely eliminate them from cell cultures. (openrepository.com)
  • To target IL-13R, we have developed a novel anticancer therapeutic agent, recombinant IL-13 cytotoxin (IL13-PE38QQR), which is composed of IL-13 and a mutated short form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) ( 18 , 32 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ADC cytotoxins (also known as payloads) are cytotoxic agents that induce target cell death in Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs). (medchemexpress.cn)
  • An ADC is a targeted agent composed with a monoclonal antibody, a linker and a cytotoxin. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • The structural organization and processing of the vacuolating cytotoxin are characteristic of a family of proteins exemplified by Neisseria gonorrhoeae IgA protease. (nih.gov)
  • Except for the listed cytotoxins, there are numbers of traditional cytotoxic agents with similar mechanisms of killing cancer cells and can also be used in the development of ADCs. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • Other classes of cytotoxins used in ADCs include enediynes ( Calicheamicin ), duocarmycin derivatives, pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and indolinobenzodiazepines, all of which target the minor groove of DNA, and quinoline alkaloids (SN-38), which inhibit topoisomerase. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • A low-molecular-mass cytotoxin produced by Klebsiella oxytoca isolated previously from patients with antibiotic-associated haemorrhagic enterocolitis was purified, and its biological and chemical properties were elucidated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Each of studied systems included one cytotoxin molecule, 128 lipid molecules (64 molecules in each monolayer) and 11817 water molecules. (scientific.net)
  • The A4 cytotoxin molecule has been finally oriented toward surface of nanobiomembrane with base and one of loop's tip including THR184, ARG186 and LEU158 amino acids, after 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation. (scientific.net)
  • Plasmids were extracted from three strains of K. oxytoca producing the cytotoxin and analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cytotoxins of the CCT family are large (e.g., toxin B of C. difficile is 2366 aas long) and tripartite with the N-terminal domain being the catalytic unit, the C-terminal domain being the cellular receptor and the central hydrophobic domain being the channel-former. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative - No C. difficile cytotoxin detected. (aruplab.com)
  • Cytotoxin B of C. difficile was highly purified by selective ammonium sulfate precipitation, Biogel A5m chromatography, phenyl boronate hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ultracentrifugation. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of a new cytotoxin that contributes to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Meanwhile, the cytotoxins induced mainly caspase-independent late apoptosis in the prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells lines but lacked selectivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To determine whether IL-13Rα2 chain can render sensitivity of breast cancer to IL-13 cytotoxin, we injected IL-13Rα2 plasmid in s.c. established tumors by i.t. route, followed by systemic or i.t. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Jorg B. Engel, Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg, Ferenc G. Rick, Enniko Berkes and Andrew V. Schally, "Targeting of Peptide Cytotoxins to LHRH Receptors For Treatment of Cancer", Current Drug Targets (2016) 17: 488. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cytotoxin is the most important component as it determines the potency to kill cancer cells of an ADC. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • On the molecular level, this process is controlled by a number of advanced cytotoxins produced by the bacteria themselves in order to survive. (redorbit.com)
  • The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. (scielo.br)
  • This orientation has changed during first 50 ns of classical molecular dynamics simulation for both of studied cytotoxins. (scientific.net)
  • Wu, JH & Reynolds, CA 2000, ' Cyclophosphamides as hypoxia-activated diffusible cytotoxins: A theoretical study ', Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design , vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 307-316. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • The sequence data suggest that a 33-amino-acid leader sequence and a C-terminal peptide are cleaved from a 139-kDa protoxin to yield the mature 87-kDa cytotoxin. (elsevier.com)
  • Breast carcinoma cells do not express IL-13Rα2 chain and are resistant to the antitumor effect of IL-13 cytotoxin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hayashi, T 1994, ' Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytotoxin and Its Phage Conversion ', Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi , vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 259-262. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest a role for Shiga-like cytotoxin in the pathogenesis of EPEC-related gastroenteritis. (asm.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Tumour necrosis factor and related cytotoxins. (who.int)
  • Tumour necrosis factor and related cytotoxins. (who.int)
  • Several families of vacA alleles have been identified, and there is a strong correlation between presence of specific vacA genotypes, cytotoxin activity, and peptic ulceration. (nih.gov)
  • This cytotoxin has been reported to be produced by approximately 50% of H pylori strains isolated in Western countries, and has been found to be associated with peptic ulceration. (bmj.com)
  • H. pylori strains from subjects with ulcer disease commonly produced vacuolating cytotoxin, suggesting that it may be a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. (mysciencework.com)