Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of plants.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.
A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
... s are serine proteases released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. They ... The contents of the cytotoxic granules function to permit entry of the granzymes into the target cell cytosol. The granules are ... May 1991). "Cytotoxic T lymphocyte granules are secretory lysosomes, containing both perforin and granzymes". The Journal of ... In NK cells and T cells, granzymes are packaged in cytotoxic granules along with perforin. Granzymes can also be detected in ...
This gene product is a member of a group of related serine proteases from the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. ... 1993). "Purification of three cytotoxic lymphocyte granule serine proteases that induce apoptosis through distinct substrate ... both map to chromosome 5q11-q12 and define a new locus for cytotoxic lymphocyte granule tryptases". Immunogenetics. 40 (3): 235 ... Baker E, Sayers TJ, Sutherland GR, Smyth MJ (1994). "The genes encoding NK cell granule serine proteases, human tryptase-2 ( ...
... are released from cytoplasmic granules in the mast cells once their high-affinity receptors FcεRI detect IgE antibodies and ... Antimicrobial cytotoxic and inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, proteoglycans, serotonin and serine proteases, ...
... and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 cytotoxic proteins within their cytoplasmic granules. This pattern of protein expression ... because of their expression of the cytotoxic granule-bound proteins, have been activated. However, the cause(s) for the ...
These cytoplasmic granules contain positively charged proteins that characterize the cells. ECP is one of the four highly basic ... Mature ECP is cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells by specific binding to cell surface heparan sulfate ... Accordingly, cytotoxic RNases play an important role in cell death. However, the mechanism of ECP-induced apoptosis is still ... Eosinophil cationic protein is localized to the granule matrix of the eosinophil. The ribonuclease activity of ECP is not ...
... specific granules, and azurophil granules. Cytotoxic T cells and NK cells release molecules like perforin and granzymes by a ... and serine proteases from its cytoplasmic granules. In a similar mechanism, activated eosinophils release preformed mediators ... "The granzyme B-serglycin complex from cytotoxic granules requires dynamin for endocytosis". Blood. 103 (10): 3845-3853. doi: ... Four kinds of granules exist in neutrophils that display differences in content and regulation. Secretory vesicles are the most ...
October 2002). "Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies specific for myeloperoxidase cause glomerulonephritis and vasculitis ... a constituent of neutrophil granules), and protein and red blood cells in the urine. In patients with neuropathy, ... alternated or combined with cytotoxic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine. Plasmapheresis may also be indicated in ... An important diagnostic test is the presence of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) with myeloperoxidase ...
Edwards KM, Kam CM, Powers JC, Trapani JA (1999). "The human cytotoxic T cell granule serine protease granzyme H has ... chymotrypsin-like (chymase) activity and is taken up into cytoplasmic vesicles reminiscent of granzyme B-containing endosomes ... 1990). "Cloning of a gene that encodes a new member of the human cytotoxic cell protease family". Biochemistry. 29 (17): 4042-9 ... Klein JL, Selvakumar A, Trapani JA, Dupont B (1990). "Characterization of a novel, human cytotoxic lymphocyte-specific serine ...
... and an absence of cytoplasmic granules. However these morphologic distinctions are not absolute and a definitive diagnosis ... Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, known as plasma cells (for B cells), cytotoxic T cells, and ...
... cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their granules to kill antibody-covered target cells. FcεRI ... whereby the mast cell releases preformed molecules from its cytoplasmic granules; these are a mixture of compounds including ... Activation of FcγRIII by IgG causes the release of cytokines such as IFN-γ that signal to other immune cells, and cytotoxic ... Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated ...
Granules differ between species, with rat uNK cells displaying an increased number of small granules than murine cells. Rat uNK ... However, unlike NK cells, uNK's do not have a fundamental role in the innate immune system and therefore, are not cytotoxic. ... On microscopic examination, they may have one or more cytoplasmic projections and/or be binucleate. Characteristically they ... These granules usually appear regular (but some can be irregularly shaped), and they grow in size and number until ...
... concluding that granule-targeting sequences are localized in the mature chain of TNF and that the cytoplasmic tail is ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ... 2007). "TNF Trafficking to Human Mast Cell Granules: Mature Chain-Dependent Endocytosis". The Journal of Immunology. 178 (9): ... In 1968, Gale A Granger from the University of California, Irvine, reported a cytotoxic factor produced by lymphocytes and ...
... and lytic granules of cytotoxic T cells. Dense granules mainly contain bioactive amines (for example, serotonin and histamine ... electrondense germ plasm organelle encapsulating the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope of the cells destined to the ... The granules of platelets are classified as dense granules and alpha granules. α-Granules are unique to platelets and are the ... The granules of leukocytes are classified as azurophilic granules or specific granules. Leukocyte granules are released in ...
... concluding that granule-targeting sequences are localized in the mature chain of TNF and that the cytoplasmic tail is ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ... Olszewski MB, Groot AJ, Dastych J, Knol EF (May 2007). "TNF trafficking to human mast cell granules: mature chain-dependent ... Olszewski MB, Groot AJ, Dastych J, Knol EF (May 2007). "TNF trafficking to human mast cell granules: mature chain-dependent ...
The stigma is composed of two lipid-granule layers separated by a single thylakoid, which are parallel with the chloroplast ... They have a single large chloroplast, usually with four anterior lobes, which occupies most of the cytoplasmic compartment. ... "Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects on Tumor Cells of Exopolysaccharides from Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butcher Grown Under ... Stigmas are a concentration of pigment granules which the cell uses to detect light allowing them to orientate themselves ...
These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity ... eosinophils degranulate to release an array of cytotoxic granule cationic proteins that are capable of inducing tissue damage ... High concentrations of these DNA traps are known to cause cellular damage, as the granules they contain are responsible for the ... There is evidence to suggest that eosinophil granule protein expression is regulated by the non-coding RNA EGOT. Following ...
Lytic granules are secretory organelles filled with perforin, granzymes and other cytolytic enzymes. After initiation of the ... Jenkins, Misty R; Griffiths, Gillian M (2010). "The synapse and cytolytic machinery of cytotoxic T cells". Current Opinion in ... In this process, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) containing long cytoplasmic tails with immunoreceptor ... Then, the contents of lytic granules is released and via vesicles with SNARE proteins transferred to the target cell. ...
... cytoplasmic granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.190.190.207 - chromaffin granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.190.190.560 - ... cytotoxic MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.622 - lymphocytes, null MeSH A11.118 ... cytoplasmic granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.207 - chromaffin granules MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.500.560 - melanosomes MeSH ... cytoplasmic vesicles MeSH A11.284.430.214.190.875.190.190 - ...
Presence of Birbeck granules on electron microscopy and immuno-cytochemical features e. g. CD1 positivity are more specific. ... S-100 protein is expressed in a cytoplasmic pattern peanut agglutinin (PNA) is expressed on the cell surface and perinuclearly ... that bronchiolar destruction in PLCH is first attributed to the special state of Langerhans cells that induce cytotoxic T-cell ... is an endocytic receptor that induces the formation of Birbeck granules". Immunity. 12 (1): 71-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00) ...
... cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their granules to kill antibody-covered target cells.[22] Fc ... whereby the mast cell releases preformed molecules from its cytoplasmic granules; these are a mixture of compounds including ... Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated ... 1 = antigen; 2 = IgE; 3 = FcεRI; 4 = preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin); 5 = granules; 6 - mast ...
Hypochlorous acid and tyrosyl radical are cytotoxic, so they are used by the neutrophil to kill bacteria and other pathogens. ... It is a lysosomal protein stored in azurophilic granules of the neutrophil and released into the extracellular space during ... Flint SM, McKinney EF, Smith KG (Mar 2015). "Emerging concepts in the pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- ... Antibodies are also known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), though ANCAs have also been detected in staining ...
two domains, long cytoplasmic tail: KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL4, KIR2DL5A, KIR2DL5B, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail ... Most KIRs are inhibitory, meaning that their recognition of MHC molecules suppresses the cytotoxic activity of their NK cell. ... Unlike T lymphocytes, resting NK cells use preformed lytic granules to kill target cells, implying a rapid cytolytic effect ... Only a limited number of KIRs are activating, meaning that their recognition of MHC molecules activates the cytotoxic activity ...
Granule characteristics:. *α granules (alpha granules) - containing P-selectin, platelet factor 4, transforming growth factor- ... They are the functional equivalents of platelets, but circulate as intact mononuclear cells, and are not simply cytoplasmic ... "Platelets mediate cytotoxic T lymphocyte-induced liver damage". Nat. Med. 11 (11): 1167-69. doi:10.1038/nm1317. PMC 2908083 ... Platelets contain dense granules, lambda granules and alpha granules. Activated platelets secrete the contents of these ...
... or Tia1 cytotoxic granule-associated rna binding protein is a 3'UTR mRNA binding protein that can bind the 5'TOP sequence ... January 1990). "A monoclonal antibody reactive with a 15-kDa cytoplasmic granule-associated protein defines a subpopulation of ... "Entrez Gene: TIA1 cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein". Mackenzie IR, Nicholson AM, Sarkar M, Messing J, Purice MD ... where it nucleates a type of RNA granule, termed the stress granule, and participates in the translational stress response. As ...
"Entrez Gene: TIAL1 TIA1 cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein-like 1". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... "Herpes simplex virus 1 induces cytoplasmic accumulation of TIA-1/TIAR and both synthesis and cytoplasmic accumulation of ... Hua Y, Zhou J (2004). "Survival motor neuron protein facilitates assembly of stress granules". FEBS Lett. 572 (1-3): 69-74. doi ...
During wake periods, differentiated effector cells, such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, peak to ... Granulocytes are leukocytes that have granules in their cytoplasm. In this category are neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, and ... structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli". The Biochemical Journal ... Growth factors and cytotoxic factors may also be released. These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site ...
Additionally, honokiol increases free cytoplasmic Ca2+ in rat cortical neurons. Honokiol is a weak cannabinoid CB2 receptor ... "Facile Purification of Honokiol and Its Antiviral and Cytotoxic Properties". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (11): 3426-7. ... "Neuroprotective activity of honokiol and magnolol in cerebellar granule cell damage". European Journal of Pharmacology. 537 (1- ...
Andersen MH, Schrama D, Thor Straten P, Becker JC (2006). "Cytotoxic T cells". J Invest Dermatol. 126 (1): 32-41. PMID 16417215 ... Radoja S, Frey A, Vukmanovic S (2006). "T-cell receptor signaling events triggering granule exocytosis". Crit Rev Immunol. 26 ( ... structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli". Biochem J. 372 (Pt 2): ... Sel T sitotoksik (Inggris: cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL) atau sel T pembunuh merupakan subkelompok dari sel T yang membunuh sel ...
Granule characteristics: *α granules (alpha granules) - containing P-selectin, platelet factor 4, transforming growth factor-β1 ... but circulate as intact cells rather than cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow megakaryocytes.[4]:3 ... activates macrophages and activates cytotoxic response in T and B lymphocytes.[30] ... Platelets contain dense granules, lambda granules and alpha granules. Activated platelets secrete the contents of these ...
They do have numerous granules which provide their ability to kill cells and these granules are why NK cells have an alternate ... Here is the parade of killers and how they work: Cytotoxic T cells (also called Tc or antigen-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes ... The inactive B and T cells are so featureless with few cytoplasmic organelles and mostly inactive chromatin that until the ... It is well known that lymphocytes never have granules or at least not granules that are readily visible even upon staining. ...
Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors.. P A Henkart, P J ... Purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocytes (LGL) tumors were cytolytic to erythrocytes, ... Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors. ... Cytoplasmic granules purified from noncytotoxic lymphoid cells did not contain detectable cytolytic activity; purified granules ...
Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8 … ... has been implicated in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In the present study, ... Localization of Fas ligand in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells: participation of ... Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ CTL clones and in vivo activated CTL ...
Binds and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. Contributes to the regulation of translation by modulating the interaction between the ... "MBNL1 associates with YB-1 in cytoplasmic stress granules.". Onishi H., Kino Y., Morita T., Futai E., Sasagawa N., Ishiura S.. ... Cytotoxic stress and DNA damage enhance translocation to the nucleus. Localized with DDX1, MBNL1 and TIAL1 in stress granules ... "MBNL1 associates with YB-1 in cytoplasmic stress granules.". Onishi H., Kino Y., Morita T., Futai E., Sasagawa N., Ishiura S.. ...
Cytoplasmic granule. Secreted. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs. Shuttles between nucleus ... Cytotoxic stress and DNA damage enhance translocation to the nucleus. Localized with DDX1, MBNL1 and TIAL1 in stress granules ... Binds and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. Contributes to the regulation of translation by modulating the interaction between the ... Phase Separation of C9orf72 Dipeptide Repeats Perturbs Stress Granule Dynamics.. Mol Cell 65:1044-1055.e5 (2017). IHC . Read ...
Cytoplasmic granule. Secreted. Note=Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs. Shuttles between ... Cytotoxic stress and DNA damage enhance translocation to the nucleus. Localized with DDX1, MBNL1 and TIAL1 in stress granules ... Binds and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. Contributes to the regulation of translation by modulating the interaction between the ... Binds and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. Contributes to the regulation of translation by modulating the interaction between the ...
Cytoplasmic granule. Secreted. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs. Shuttles between nucleus ... Cytotoxic stress and DNA damage enhance translocation to the nucleus. Localized with DDX1, MBNL1 and TIAL1 in stress granules ... Binds and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. Contributes to the regulation of translation by modulating the interaction between the ...
Defensins are cationic, cysteine-rich peptides (Mr = 3500-4000) found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and ... Pathophysiologic studies in vitro have pointed to the plasma membrane as a possible target for the cytotoxic action of ...
Perforin is one of the cytolytic mediators present in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural ... Perforin is a cytolytic mediator and is stored in and released by cytoplasmic granules. Moreover, perforin is involved in ... By immunobloting, eBioOMAK-D recognizes a ~70kDa band in lysates of CTLL-2 mouse cytotoxic cell line and in lysates of IL-2 ... Perforin is one of the major cytolytic proteins of cytolytic granules. ...
Granzymes are serine proteases released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. They ... The contents of the cytotoxic granules function to permit entry of the granzymes into the target cell cytosol. The granules are ... May 1991). "Cytotoxic T lymphocyte granules are secretory lysosomes, containing both perforin and granzymes". The Journal of ... In NK cells and T cells, granzymes are packaged in cytotoxic granules along with perforin. Granzymes can also be detected in ...
Granzyme B+ cytoplasmic granules were detected in lymphocytes within cancer cell nests, confirming their activated, cytotoxic ... Our data suggested that human colorectal cancer tissue was infiltrated by various numbers of T cells that had cytotoxic ...
... have the ability to kill malignant or infected cells by releasing cytotoxic proteins contained in their cytoplasmic granules. ... Louis, MO). Lysate was placed on ice for 10 min and centrifuged at 4000 × g at 4°C for 4 min to remove cytoplasmic proteins. ... One of these proteins, perforin, is exclusively expressed by NK and cytotoxic T cells 1 . Perforin is responsible for forming ... IL-2 and IL-6 synergize to augment the pore-forming protein gene expression and cytotoxic potential of human peripheral blood T ...
This gene product is a member of a group of related serine proteases from the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. ... 1993). "Purification of three cytotoxic lymphocyte granule serine proteases that induce apoptosis through distinct substrate ... both map to chromosome 5q11-q12 and define a new locus for cytotoxic lymphocyte granule tryptases". Immunogenetics. 40 (3): 235 ... Baker E, Sayers TJ, Sutherland GR, Smyth MJ (1994). "The genes encoding NK cell granule serine proteases, human tryptase-2 ( ...
Membranolytic protein expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. ... Responsible for the translocation of granzyme B from cytotoxic cells into target cells; granzyme B then migrates to target cell ...
Cytoplasmic granules were not seen after giemsa staining. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated moderate surface villi and ... either the NCC did not recycle or a long lag period was required to restore its cytotoxic capability. ... the cytoplasm contained osmiophilic granules. Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk transformation of target cell binding ... The morphology of nonspecific cytotoxic cells (NCC) was identified. NCC were purified by target cell conjugate formation and ...
Correlation between functional assays, presence of perforin and granzyme transcripts, and cytoplasmic granules. J Exp Med 173: ... 1991) Cytotoxic differentiation of mouse gut thymodependent and independent intraepithelial T lymphocytes is induced locally. ...
Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors, J. Exp. Med. 160:75-93 ... Raulet, D. H., and Bevan, M. J., 1982, A differentiation factor required for the expression of cytotoxic T cell function, ... Männel, D. N., Falk, W., and Dröge, W., 1983, Induction of cytotoxic T cell function requires sequential action of three ... Andrew, M. E., Braciale, V. L., and Braciale, T. J., 1984, Regulation of interleukin 2 receptor expression of murine cytotoxic ...
Granzyme K is a 29 kD serine protease found in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes and NK cells. ... Granzyme K is a 29 kD serine protease found in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes and NK cells. Granzyme K is ... Activated CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and CD8+ T-cells. ...
Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. ... Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. ... Cytotoxic serine protease B, CCP1, Cytotoxic cell protease 1 Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications * ... CSP-B for cytotoxic serine protease B), and CCP1 (cytotoxic cell protease-1). It is expressed as a 32 kD protein encoded by the ...
... the granular cytotoxic T cells tend to kill cells directly by releasing the potent contents of their cytotoxic granules at the ... such as perforins and various components of cytoplasmic granules, or by triggering a series of events with the target cell that ... Cytotoxic T cells may kill infected cells in a number of ways. The mechanism of killing used by a given cytotoxic T cell ... Although similar in outward appearance to lymphocytes, NK cells contain granules that harbour cytotoxic chemicals. ...
Granzymes are exogenous serine proteases released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. ... Cytotoxic T cell. A cytotoxic T cell belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes which are capable of inducing the death of ... Granule. A granule can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy. The term is most often used to describe a secretory ... Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic molecules from secretory vesicles called granules ...
Cytotoxic potential of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Presence of TIA-1, the cytolytic granule-associated protein, in ... Correlation between functional assays, presence of perforin and granzyme transcripts, and cytoplasmic granules. J Exp Med 1991; ... Intraepithelial lymphocytes in human gut have lytic potential and a cytokine profile that suggest T helper 1 and cytotoxic ... Guy-Grand D, Malassis-Seris M, Briottet C, Vassalli P. Cytotoxic differentiation of mouse gut thymodependent and independent ...
Indeed, the proapoptotic serine protease granzyme B that is released from cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural ... Griffin, T.W.; Childs, L.R.; FitzGerald, D.J.; Levin, L.V. Enhancement of the cytotoxic effect of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen ... Rosenblum, M.G.; Barth, S. Development of novel, highly cytotoxic fusion constructs containing granzyme B: Unique mechanisms ... However, immunospecificity was seriously reduced for the peptide modified targeted toxins, which were equally cytotoxic for ...
Although GrB was originally known as a cyotoxic molecule of cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes [104], it was ... Moreover, DHA-mediated cytotoxic effect was reversed by pre-treatment with vitamin E, suggesting that GPx-4 downregulation was ... It also appears that a "combination therapy" of DHA and antitumor drugs may increase the cytotoxic efficacy of drug treatment ... The first is caused by the disruption of mitochondrial membranes, the release into the cytoplasmic compartment of the ...
Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. ... Any of a series of serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within natural killer cells. ... Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells release a protein called perforin, which attacks the target cells. Researchers used ...
... cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are ... The border between the cytoplasmic domain and the C-terminal end of the transmembrane domain of integrin α and β subunits has ... Granule Associated Serine Proteases of Hematopoietic Cells - An Analysis of Their Appearance and Diversification during ... In this thesis, functional properties of the splice variant β1Β, and the effects of several mutations in the cytoplasmic tail ...
... cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are ... These evolutionary old cells store large amounts of proteases within cytoplasmic granules, and one of the most abundant of ... cells store proteases at very high levels within their cytoplasmic granules. In mast cells, these proteases can account for up ... both with respect to the expression of granule proteases and of various enzymes involved in the processing/synthesis of granule ...
The granule membrane then fuses with the plasma membrane, externalizes, and releases the cytotoxic granule contents, triggering ... NK cells contain preformed cytoplasmic granules that resemble secretory lysosomes and contain perforin and granzymes (18). ... Cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic roles of the CTL/NK protease granzyme B. Immunol Rev (2010) 235:105-16. doi:10.1111/j.0105- ... Rapid lytic granule convergence to the MTOC in natural killer cells is dependent on dynein but not cytolytic commitment. Mol ...
This gene product is a member of a group of related serine proteases from the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. ...
A and gzmB have been implicated in Fas-independent nucleolytic and cytolytic processes exerted by cytotoxic T (Tc) cells, but ... Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors ... Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors ... Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells mediate target cell lysis by two independent pathways, one involving exocytosis of preformed granules, ...
... role in cerebellar granule cells have already been demonstrated and the mechanism would involve the regulation of cytoplasmic ... T. K. Rabelo, F. Zeidán-Chuliá, L. M. Vasques et al., "Redox characterization of usnic acid and its cytotoxic effect on human ... Here, we used human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to perform morphological and cytotoxic evaluations of the most common components of ... Major Components of Energy Drinks (Caffeine, Taurine, and Guarana) Exert Cytotoxic Effects on Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by ...
  • Purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocytes (LGL) tumors were cytolytic to erythrocytes, splenocytes, and a number of different lymphoid tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • Perforin is one of the cytolytic mediators present in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). (fishersci.com)
  • Moreover, perforin is involved in immune defense against tumors and virus infections as mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • In the paper they discussed how they purified, characterized and discovered a variety of granzymes found within cytolytic granules that were carried by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene product is a member of a group of related serine proteases from the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granzyme B + cytoplasmic granules were detected in lymphocytes within cancer cell nests, confirming their activated, cytotoxic phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic lymphocytes have the ability to kill malignant or infected cells by releasing cytotoxic proteins contained in their cytoplasmic granules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granzyme K is a 29 kD serine protease found in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes and NK cells. (biolegend.com)
  • One of the main pathways of lymphocyte mediated cytolysis entails the secretion onto target membranes of cytolytic granules contained in cytolytic effector lymphocytes of T-cell or NK-cell type. (genetex.com)
  • Perforin (PRF) is involved in the killing mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes which represents an important mechanism in the immune defense against tumors and virus infections. (genetex.com)
  • Granzymes are exogenous serine proteinases (enzymes) that are released from cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. (biovendor.com)
  • It is typical to categorize lymphoid cells with azurophilic cytoplasmic granules as large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), which usually represent cells of T or NK-cell origin with cytotoxic activity. (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a central role in the control of virus infections ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a type of granular cytotoxic lymphocytes that are non-adherent and non-phagocytic. (kenyon.edu)
  • NK cells were originally defined as a subset of lymphocytes that have natural cytotoxic activity against certain types of tumorous cells and endogenous type-C viruses in mice. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is delivered by natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes and forms oligomeric pores (12 to 18 monomers) in the plasma membrane of either virus-infected or transformed cells. (embl.de)
  • Clone REAL787 recognizes the human perforin, a 70 kD cytolytic protein, which is expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and stored in cytoplasmic granules. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • This item recognises Granzyme A, a 60kD disulphide-linked homodimeric protein expressed in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes. (mybiosource.com)
  • The protein described here is a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease that may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • Perforin is a cytolytic protein present in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (rupress.org)
  • white cell count 25.7×10 9 /l containing 94% atypical lymphocytes with cytoplasmic granules, hemoglobin 11.8 g/dl and platelet count 124×10 9 /l. (elsevier.com)
  • Granzyme B is a serine protease located in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytotoxic granules perforin and granzyme B are intracellular molecules present in a number of lymphocytes, including NK cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Granzyme B is a cysteine protease found in the cytoplasmic granules of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (peprotech.com)
  • Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are defined as nonad-herent mononuclear cells with cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. (minteacoffee.com)
  • About 10% of lymphocytes are larger (12-16μ), have a nucleus which has a slight less compact chromatin and azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm. (minteacoffee.com)
  • Spatiotemporal responses to extracellular signals have been documented in a wide variety of cells, such as neuronal synapses, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, germ cells and during embryo development. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Antigen receptor-triggered secretion of a trypsin-type esterase from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (naver.com)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) suppress T cell responses directed against their antigens regardless of their own T cell receptor (TCR) specificity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5). A extra appropriate method of verify practical task of cytotoxic lymphocytes will be to degree the secretion of molecules which are linked to lytic job. (tampaairforceball.com)
  • Granzyme B has also been described as CGL1 (cathepsin G-like-1), a serine protease expressed only in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes after cell activation, and CTLA-1 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) based on identification of mRNA in various cytotoxic T cells, but not observed in non-cytotoxic lymphoid cells. (fishersci.no)
  • Following synthesis and post-translational modifications, perforin monomers are packaged into lysosome-like cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. (beckman.it)
  • Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors. (rupress.org)
  • Fas ligand (FasL) has been implicated in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • While Granzyme B is mostly expressed by CTL (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and NK cells, it is also expressed in resting and activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells. (biolegend.com)
  • A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) kills an infected or tumorigenic cell by Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of cytolytic granules at the immunological synapse formed between the two cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is a type cytotoxic lymphocyte that represents major part of innate immune system and is specialized to kill certain types of target cells, especially those that became infected with virus or have become cancerous. (sooperarticles.com)
  • it then proliferates and differentiates to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). (weebly.com)
  • Her perforin expression was normal by flow cytometry, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and NK cell granule release on stimulation by mitogens was normal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Natural killer cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. (pravdareport.com)
  • Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ CTL clones and in vivo activated CTL and NK cells, where perforin and granzyme A also resided. (nih.gov)
  • Human Granzyme B is one of the five members of the human granzyme family which includes Granzymes A, B, G, H, and K. Granzyme B is also known as Granzyme 2, serine protease B (CSP-B for cytotoxic serine protease B), and CCP1 (cytotoxic cell protease-1). (biolegend.com)
  • The serine protease granzyme B (GzmB) is stored in the granules of cytotoxic T and NK cells and facilitates immune-mediated destruction of virus-infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • NK cells exert their effects by secreting cytolytic granules such as perforin, granzyme, and serine proteases, and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis through death receptors including Fas/FasL. (jrheum.org)
  • Primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hereditary disorder of MAS, occurs as a result of genetic defects in the perforin- or granzyme-dependent pathways of NK cells or cytotoxic T cells 10 . (jrheum.org)
  • Granules in NK cells (and also stimulated killer T cells) contain proteins responsible for signaling and facilitating cell apoptosis, the most well understood of which are perforin, granzyme, calreticulin, and glycosaminoglycan. (kenyon.edu)
  • NK cells share a similar cytolytic mechanism of granule-exocytosis [12] with killer T cells where they utilize the two crucial cytolytic enzyme: perforin and granzyme. (kenyon.edu)
  • MAIT cells functions are probably related to their capacity to secrete TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 as well as Granzyme B [8] , [10] , the latter suggesting cytotoxic capability. (prolekare.cz)
  • These NK cells release proteins called perforins and granzyme, a cytoplasmic granule, which destroys the target cell by apoptosis. (sooperarticles.com)
  • The cytotoxic molecules, T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and granzyme B, were positive by immunocytochemical analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, 16 molecules proved resistant to cleavage by granzyme B. Similar proteolytic activity of caspase-3 and granzyme B was evident in intact cells during granule-induced cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTLs and NK cells can trigger cell death by either granule exocytosis (granzyme B) or by a Fas/FasL-mediated pathway, involving the initiator protease caspase-8. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some experiments, purified granule contents from a cytotoxic T cell line (YT) were used instead of purified granzyme B. Pretreatment of lysates with iodoacetamide abolished endogenous caspase activity (by covalently modifying their active sites) and enabled the isolated effect of added protease to be observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Percentage of the surface receptors NKG2A, KIR3DL1, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and DNAM-1, as well as the cytotoxic granules perforin and granzyme B positive NK cells were determined in patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 31), gastric cancer (n = 31), and CRC (n = 32) prior to surgery and healthy controls (n = 31) by multicolor flow cytometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cells kill by releasing small cytoplasmic granules of proteins called perforin and granzyme that cause the target cell to die by apoptosis. (pravdareport.com)
  • Granzyme B is found in the granules of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. (fishersci.no)
  • Granzyme B is crucial for the rapid induction of target cell death by apoptosis, induced by interaction with cytotoxic T cells. (fishersci.no)
  • This receptor functions as a death receptor for Granzyme B during cytotoxic T cell-induced apoptosis. (fishersci.no)
  • After NK cells form bindings of their membranal receptors with ligands on the surfaces of their neighboring cells, if the binding cells are recognized as alien, "stressed" or "infected" (target cells), cytolytic granules in NK cells are transported to the site of cell contacts and fuse with NK cells' membrane to release the cytolytic enzymes into the space between the cells' synapses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Natural Killer Cell includes two types of surface receptors (activating receptor and inhibitory receptor) to control their cytotoxic activity. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Altered percentage of surface receptors and cytotoxic granules positive NK cells may play a vital role in tumor immunosurveillance escape by inducing NK cell dysfunction in patients with PC, GC, and CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The direct cytotoxic effects of NK cells are determined by their expression of surface receptors and cytotoxic granules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, surface receptors and cytotoxic granules are an important area of cancer research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoplasmic adapter regulating receptors of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family such as CD84, SLAMF1, LY9 and CD244. (uniprot.org)
  • One of NK cells' originally-described morphological characteristics was the granules inside their cytoplasm, similar to what seen in macrophages. (kenyon.edu)
  • Natural Killer Cells are cytotoxic and contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which in turns contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Tumor cells are characterized by moderately pale cytoplasm with azurophilic granules. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Examination of granules exposed to calcium in the electron microscope using negative staining showed that calcium treatment of granules results in the formation of ring-shaped structures previously described to be associated with LGL-mediated cytotoxicity. (rupress.org)
  • [21] The cytolytic granules also contain Fas ligands, which facilitate the Fas-medicated cytotoxicity of NK cells coexisting with the granule-exocytosis pathway [22] , and granulysin but knowledge about its biochemical pathways and significance within the cytolytic granules are limited. (kenyon.edu)
  • Granule-exocytosis and Fas-mediated pathways of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (kenyon.edu)
  • While both CTL and NK cells can trigger Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis (where L is ligand), they can also effect cell death by granule-exocytosis-induced cytotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • one of many significant mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity contains exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules from the effector towards the objective cell. (tampaairforceball.com)
  • By utilizing a granule exocytosis inhibitor (TN16), we demonstrated that FasL translocated onto cell surface upon degranulation of anti-CD3-stimulated CD8+ CTL clones. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggested a substantial contribution of FasL to granule exocytosis-mediated target cell lysis by CD8+ CTL and NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • NAADP activates two-pore channels on T cell cytolytic granules to stimulate exocytosis and killing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, NAADP activates TPCs to drive exocytosis in a way that is not mimicked by global Ca(2+) signals induced by IP(3) or ionomycin, suggesting that critical, local Ca(2+) nanodomains around TPCs stimulate granule exocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hence, by virtue of the NAADP/TPC pathway, cytolytic granules generate Ca(2+) signals that lead to their own exocytosis and to cell killing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coligation of mAb B23.1 bound to gp49B1 and IgE fixed to the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgE on the surface of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells inhibited exocytosis in a dose-related manner, as defined by the release of the secretory granule constituent beta-hexosaminidase, as well as the generation of the membrane-derived lipid mediator, leukotriene C4. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoplasmic granule toxins, predominantly perforin, and a family of structurally related serine proteases (granzymes) with various substrate specificities are secreted by exocytosis and together induce apoptosis of the target cell. (beckman.it)
  • Few previous manuscripts have reported azurophilic granules in B-cell prolymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • 1 ] reported a case of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) with azurophilic granules in almost all prolymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Lysosomes of leukocytes and fibroblasts, dense bodies of platelets, azurophilic granules of neutrophils, and melanosomes of melanocytes are generally larger in size and irregular in morphology, indicating that a common pathway in the synthesis of organelles responsible for storage is affected in patients with CHS. (medscape.com)
  • Defensins are cationic, cysteine-rich peptides (Mr = 3500-4000) found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • We show that granzymes A and -B (GrA and GrB), which are highly upregulated in human Tregs upon stimulation, leak out of cytotoxic granules to induce cleavage of cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates, precipitating apoptosis in target cells. (jci.org)
  • The cytoplasmic expression of CD3 antigens in normal and malignant cells of the T lymphoid lineage. (naver.com)
  • The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE triggers the secretion of the mediators stored in cytoplasmic granules and causes a de novo synthesis of cytokines ( 7 ), that in turn activate the migration of neutrophils and macrophages, causing tissue inflammation ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Impaired cytotoxic function of NK cells leads to excessive activation of macrophages and T cells, as seen in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and is a major, life-threatening complication of AOSD and sJIA 8 , 9 . (jrheum.org)
  • Cytotoxic function of NK cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • Granzymes are serine proteases released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In NK cells and T cells, granzymes are packaged in cytotoxic granules along with perforin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contents of the cytotoxic granules function to permit entry of the granzymes into the target cell cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The granules are released into an immune synapse formed with a target cell, where perforin mediates the delivery of the granzymes into endosomes in the target cell, and finally into the target cell cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "granzymes" is derived from: granules + enzymes. (biovendor.com)
  • These granules contain next to granzymes other proteins including a pore-forming protein (Perforin). (biovendor.com)
  • The CTL produces cytoplasmic granules containing enzymes (granzymes) and perforin. (weebly.com)
  • Serine proteases are among the most abundant granule constituents of several hematopoietic cell lineages including mast cells, neutrophils, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Granule permeabilization in neutrophils leads to cathepsin G-mediated death upstream and independent of apoptotic caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In addition, membrane permeabilization by lysosomotropic agent l -leucyl- l -leucine methyl ester that allows cytosolic release of granule contents was sufficient to induce rapid PMN death through a CG-dependent pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The results of the current study suggest that exosomes derived from NK cells exert cytotoxic effects on melanoma cells and thus warrant further development as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer. (thno.org)
  • In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS. (rush.edu)
  • While rare cases of B-PLL with granular cytoplasmic inclusions have previously been reported, we believe the phenomenon is not well known, even among experienced hematologists and hematopathologists. (springer.com)
  • CTLs and NK cells are rich in cytoplasmic granules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTLs respond with activation and granule secretion when serving as targets for T-cell recognition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that CTLs actively respond to recognition by polarizing their cytotoxic granules to the contact area, releasing their lethal cargo, and vigorously proliferating. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, later research revealed that these granules bear more similarity to those in stimulated killer T-cells than those in macrophages, and are the effector organelles of cytolysis caused by killer T-cells and NK cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • Finally the dividing cells differentiate into effector cells, known as Plasma Cells (for B cells), Cytotoxic T cells, and Helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforin is one of the major effector molecules used by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells to mediate targeted cell lysis. (beckman.it)
  • Granule concentrations of approximately 1 microgram/ml granule protein were adequate to lyse 100% of the erythrocytes, while the nucleated cells required up to 100 micrograms/ml granule protein to achieve complete lysis. (rupress.org)
  • The pore-forming protein perforin is preferentially expressed in NK and cytotoxic T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells release a protein called perforin, which attacks the target cells. (definitions.net)
  • The primary transducer of the cellular response to the double-strand break, a highly cytotoxic DNA lesion, is the nuclear protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM), which phosphorylates numerous effectors that play key roles in the damage response pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aggregates of post-translationally modified transactive response (TAR)-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are characteristic features in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Cytotoxic granule endocytosis depends on the Flower protein. (nih.gov)
  • The result of an autoimmune screen, including rheumatoid factor, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, and anti-citrullinated protein antibody was negative. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cellular stress response (SR) is a phylogenetically conserved protection mechanism that involves inhibition of protein synthesis through recruitment of translation factors such as eIF4G into insoluble stress granules (SGs) and blockade of proinflammatory responses by interruption of the signaling pathway from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. (asm.org)
  • Granule-mediated lysis of erythrocytes and nucleated cells was complete within 3 min at room temperature. (rupress.org)
  • MMT is acutely cytotoxic and dopamine-producing cells (PC-12) seemed to be more susceptible to cytotoxic effects than nondopaminergic cells (striatal γ-aminobutyric acidergic and cerebellar granule cells). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Loss or inactivation of ATM leads to A-T, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neuronal degeneration, particularly the loss of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells, immunodeficiency, genomic instability, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conclusion, we have unveiled a new cytotoxic function for the serine protease CG and showed that serpinB1 is critical for maintaining PMN survival by antagonizing intracellular CG activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Any of a series of serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within natural killer cells. (definitions.net)
  • The same is true for natural killer cells and potentially cytotoxic CD56+ T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Localized with DDX1, MBNL1 and TIAL1 in stress granules upon stress. (abcam.cn)
  • In addition to several RBPs, TDP-43 has also been reported in stress granules in FTD and ALS pathologies. (bvsalud.org)
  • In cell mediated immunity, be able to describe and distinguish the activities of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells, and memory T cells. (wikipremed.com)
  • CD8 CD8 is a T-cell marker for the detection of cytotoxic/suppressor T-cells. (neogenomics.fr)
  • Cytotoxic stress and DNA damage enhance translocation to the nucleus. (abcam.cn)
  • The other type of T cells express a molecule called CD8 on their cell surface, therefore known as CD8 T cells (known as cytotoxic after activation). (weebly.com)
  • Selective release of a key molecule allows a cell to respond at a given moment, and cells ensure that the response can be initiated instantly by pre-producing and packaging the molecule, often storing the molecule as a granule. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cleavage of endogenous substrates in vivo was also studied by incubating a Fas-negative erythroleukemia cell line (K562) with either YT granule contents or lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results provide support for the hypothesis that the cytotoxic processes mediated by LGL are a secretory event characterized by the release of cytolytic material from the cytoplasmic granules after triggering by a surface receptor. (rupress.org)
  • The CHS gene affects the synthesis and/or maintenance of storage/secretory granules in various types of cells. (medscape.com)
  • Upon binding of the CTL to a target cell (by CTL-receptor and antigen-presenting MHC molecules on the target cell) the contents of the granules are released in the intercellular space where after perforine will "perforate" the target cell membrane by forming transmembrane pores. (biovendor.com)
  • NK cells are divided into 5 phenotypes based on differences in surface receptor expression and cytotoxic functions 17 . (jrheum.org)
  • The NK receptor, CD161, highly expressed by MAIT cells, modulated the cytokine but not the cytotoxic response triggered by bacteria infected cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • A cytotoxic reaction in which an antibody-coated target cell is directly killed by an Fc receptor-bearing leukocyte, e.g. (tashkhis.com)
  • IP 3 Receptor-Dependent Cytoplasmic Ca 2+ Signals Are Tightly Controlled by Cavβ3. (nih.gov)
  • MMT also potently depleted dopamine apparently by cytoplasmic vesicular release to the cytosol, a neurochemical change resembling other dopaminergic neurotoxicants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • By immunobloting, eBioOMAK-D recognizes a ~70kDa band in lysates of CTLL-2 mouse cytotoxic cell line and in lysates of IL-2 stimulated but not unstimulated mouse splenocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • Chymotrypsin-like serine proteases are found in high abundance in mast cell granules. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a distinctive skin lymphoma that is characterized by infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue by neoplastic cytotoxic T cells mimicking panniculitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are encoded from four different chromosomal loci: the chymase locus, the met-ase locus, the T cell tryptase and the mast cell tryptase locus. (diva-portal.org)
  • To identify whether biologically relevant concentrations of SLO and SLS were cytotoxic to epithelial and phagocytic cells that the bacteria would typically encounter during human infection and to characterize the influence of cell injury on bacterial pathogenesis, we derived GAS strains deficient in SLO or SLS in the background of an invasive GAS M3 isolate and determined their virulence in in vitro and in vivo models of human disease. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, all of these responses are detected in the nuclei of granule and Purkinje cells, suggesting that nuclear ATM functions in these cells similar to other cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • these motifs downregulate natural killer cell and T-cell activation signals that lead to cytotoxic activity. (pnas.org)
  • Data presented in this work suggest that endogenous DEF6 forms cytoplasmic granules in a variety of T cell states and the DEF6 mutant Y210EY222E, which mimics ITK phosphorylation, interacts with mRNA. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Those resembling erythema nodosum (EN) show small vessel vasculitis and perivascular lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrin deposition in the vessel wall, while the punched out ulcers are characterized by a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (neutrophil infiltrate) with fibrinoid necrosis. (angelfire.com)
  • Engagement of inhibitory KIRs mediates the phosphorylation of cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Our data suggested that human colorectal cancer tissue was infiltrated by various numbers of T cells that had cytotoxic phenotype, contributing to a better survival of patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the early stages of neutrophil maturation, normal azurophil granules fuse to form megagranules, whereas, in the later stage (ie, during myelocyte stage), normal granules are formed. (medscape.com)
  • Despite knowledge of cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43, the cellular effects of TDP-43 aggregates and their cytotoxic mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. (bvsalud.org)
  • and granulysin but knowledge about its biochemical pathways and significance within the cytolytic granules are limited. (kenyon.edu)
  • Perforin is one of the major cytolytic proteins of cytolytic granules. (fishersci.com)
  • We demonstrate that cytolytic granules are not only reservoirs of cytolytic proteins but are also the acidic Ca(2+) stores mobilized by NAADP via TPC channels on the granules themselves, so that TPCs migrate to the immunological synapse upon CTL activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Please refer to Best Protocols: Protocol A: Two step protocol for (cytoplasmic) intracellular proteins. (fishersci.no)
  • Exposure of LGL tumor granules to calcium before the addition of target cells resulted in an inactivation of granule cytolytic activity over the course of 20 min at room temperature. (rupress.org)
  • Non-specific cytotoxic response against tumor target cells mediated by leucocytes from seawater teleosts, Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax: an ultrastructural study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In LGLs, these granules are composed of the cytotoxic proteins that are released during interactions with target cells. (springer.com)
  • Differentially Expressed in FDCP6 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, primarily expressed in T cells, which has been previously shown to form cytoplasmic aggregates when phosphorylated by ITK. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Lymphoblasts can be distinguished microscopically from myeloblasts by having less distinct nucleoli, more condensed chromatin, and an absence of cytoplasmic granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKLAM is rapidly synthesized and then targeted to the granule membranes of NK cells upon NK activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diagnosis is established by the presence of characteristic eosinophilic peroxidase-positive giant granules in leukocytes. (medscape.com)
  • purified granules from rat mast cells and rat liver lysosomes likewise failed to display cytolytic activity. (rupress.org)
  • However, granules prepared from normal rat peripheral blood LGL were cytolytic. (rupress.org)
  • the granules of LGL isolated from human peripheral blood have been analyzed by enzyme cytochemistry and electron microscopy. (minteacoffee.com)
  • HBV-specific tetramer-positive CD8 cells express high perforin content ex vivo, expand vigorously, and display efficient cytotoxic activity and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production upon peptide stimulation. (asm.org)