Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Creatine Kinase, Mitochondrial Form: A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 2: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone: Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.MalatesCreatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.GlucosephosphatesGreen Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.CitratesDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.PyruvatesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Adenine NucleotidesApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Foster LJ, de Hoog CL, Zhang Y (April 2006). "A mammalian organelle map by protein correlation profiling". Cell. 125 (1): 187- ... Aw, T.Y. (2000). "Intracellular compartmentation of organelles and gradients of low molecular weight species". Int Rev Cytol. ... In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is within the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ...
It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... GCL is exclusively located in plastids, and glutathione synthetase (GS) is dual-targeted to plastids and cytosol, thus GSH and ... Jara JR, Aroca P, Solano F, Martinez JH, Lozano JA (November 1988). "The role of sulfhydryl compounds in mammalian ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ...
The actual concentration of NAD+ in cell cytosol is harder to measure, with recent estimates in animal cells ranging around 0.3 ... There are some reports that mammalian cells can take up extracellular NAD+ from their surroundings. Despite the presence of the ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... "Nutrient-Sensitive Mitochondrial NAD+ Levels Dictate Cell Survival". Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. ...
... the cytosol. Electrolytes enter and leave cells through proteins in the cell membrane called ion channels. For example, muscle ... Compartmentation and communication in living systems. Ligand conduction: a general catalytic principle in chemical, osmotic and ... Bell G, Burant C, Takeda J, Gould G (1993). "Structure and function of mammalian facilitative sugar transporters". J Biol Chem ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ...
... in cell cytosol is harder to measure, with recent estimates in animal cells ranging around 0.3 mM,[11][12] and approximately ... "Characterization of NAD Uptake in Mammalian Cells". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (10): 6367-74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M706204200. PMID 18180302 ... Koch-Nolte F, Fischer S, Haag F, Ziegler M (2011). "Compartmentation of NAD+-dependent signalling". FEBS Lett. 585 (11): 1651-6 ... "Cell. 130 (6): 1095-107. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.035. PMC 3366687. PMID 17889652.. ...
... incapable of dividing to produce daughter cells. The best-known anucleated cell is the mammalian red blood cell, or erythrocyte ... Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annual Review of Microbiology. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/ ... The fluid component of this is termed the nucleosol, similar to the cytosol in the cytoplasm.[7] ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ...
... as in the maturation of mammalian red blood cells, or from faulty cell division. An anucleated cell contains no nucleus and is ... The viscous liquid within it is called nucleoplasm (or karyolymph), and is similar in composition to the cytosol found outside ... 2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 299-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.59.030804 ... therefore, incapable of dividing to produce daughter cells. The best-known anucleated cell is the mammalian red blood cell, or ...
Intracellular compartmentation of arginases may have important implications for arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. For ... Protein content of whole cells, cytosol, and mitochondria was determined by a modified Lowry method, using BSA as a standard ( ... 5). On the basis of cell volume (0.462 μl/106 cells) and protein content (268 μg/106 cells) in bovine coronary venular EC (14) ... Almost all mammalian cells contain one of the isoforms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) that synthesizes NO and l-citrulline ...
overhead-Animal cell, Plant cell]. *Cytosol: Glycolysis and most of gluconeogenesis; Pentose Phosphate shunt; Fatty acid ... Compartmentation in Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in having a nucleus and cell organelles (their cells are ... coli cell is about the size of a typical mammalian mitochondria. ... Eukaryote cells. Typical idealized eukaryote cells are shown in ... overhead- E. coli cell]. A prokaryote cell: size and composition. Lets look at E. coli for a moment just to get an idea of its ...
Subcellular Distribution of NAD+ between Cytosol and Mitochondria Determines the Metabolic Profile of Human Cells. ... A transporter mediating NAD import into mammalian mitochondria has not been identified. In contrast, human recombinant NMNAT3 ... Although at least in some fungi and plants, mitochondrial NAD is imported from the cytosol by carrier … proteins, in mammals, ... Projects: MESI-STRAT, PoLiMeR - Polymers in the Liver: Metabolism and Regulation, NAD COMPARTMENTATION, Bergen(Ziegler lab) ...
Flux studies of mammalian cell cultures comprise e.g. the comparison of different cell lines [30], the influence of butyrate on ... As example amino acid metabolism in yeast may occur in the cytosol, the mitochondrium or in both compartments, whereby the ... Lapidot A, Gopher A: Quantitation of metabolic compartmentation in hyperammonemic brain by natural abundance 13C-NMR detection ... Mammalian cell cultures, tissues, animals and humans. Isotopic tracer experiments with GC-MS labelling analysis are utilized in ...
Metabolic compartmentation and extracellular transport reversibility proved essential to successfully reproduce the dynamics of ... Intracellular fluxes of the CHO-K1 cell line central carbon metabolism were successfully determined for a complex network using ... It achieves this by using compartmentation to control NADPH and NADH availability and by simultaneous synthesis and catabolism ... However, this is being hampered by the high complexity of metabolic networks, particularly concerning compartmentation. ...
Compartmentation of Fura Red fluorescence was estimated by exposure to Mn2+. The results were cytosol 60 +/- 3%, organelles 12 ... CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM STAIRCASE IN CULTURED MYOCARDIAL-CELLS CIRCULATION RESEARCH Lee, H. C., Clusin, W. T. 1987; 61 (6): 934-939 ... CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM TRANSIENTS FROM THE BEATING MAMMALIAN HEART PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED ... CAFFEINE INDUCES A TRANSIENT INWARD CURRENT IN CULTURED CARDIAC-CELLS NATURE Clusin, W. T. 1983; 301 (5897): 248-250 Abstract. ...
In mammalian cells rapid alterations in the proportions of one-carbon THF occur after exposure to methotrexate, along with an ... 1991) Compartmentation of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism in eukaryotes. FASEB J 5:2645-2651. ... In other eukaryotes the parallel paths of THF metabolism in the cytosol and mitochondria are largely interconnected by ... 1993) Regulation of folate and one-carbon metabolism in mammalian cells. IV. Role of folylpoly-glutamate synthetase in ...
Foster LJ, de Hoog CL, Zhang Y (April 2006). "A mammalian organelle map by protein correlation profiling". Cell. 125 (1): 187- ... Aw, T.Y. (2000). "Intracellular compartmentation of organelles and gradients of low molecular weight species". Int Rev Cytol. ... In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is within the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the ... Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell ...
ATP compartmentation in plastids and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by fluorescent protein sensing. Chia Pao Voon, ... T immune cells can be engineered to express tumor-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes and thereby kill cancer cells. This ... in amino and fatty acids as playing an important role in virulence gene expression both in vitro and during mammalian infection ... ATP compartmentation in plastids and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by fluorescent protein sensing ...
... structural components of the cell that are impervious to small molecules in the cytosol, and enzymes that catalyze its ... 1983) Compartments of cyclic AMP and protein kinase in mammalian cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem 258:10233-10239. ... In vascular smooth muscle cells and HEK-293 cells, AC1 selectively slowed cell proliferation while AC2, AC5, and AC6 had little ... in HASM cells (Gros et al., 2006; Bogard et al., 2012). AC2 overexpressed in the same cells is unable to mediate the ...
Cell. Biochem. 239 (1-2): 35-43. * ^ Maxfield FR, Mondal M (June 2006). "Sterol and lipid trafficking in mammalian cells". ... Bowsher CG, Tobin AK (April 2001). "Compartmentation of metabolism within mitochondria and plastids". J. Exp. Bot. 52 (356): ... The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in ... Typical ion concentrations in mammalian cytosol and blood.[4] Ion Concentration in cytosol (millimolar) Concentration in blood ...
Transport of microinjected proteins into peroxisomes of mammalian cells: inability of Zellweger cell lines to import proteins ... Cellular compartmentation of ureide biogenesis in root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) ... All of their matrix proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol, and post-translationally ... Peroxisome assembly factor-2, a putative ATPase cloned by functional complementation on a peroxisome-deficient mammalian cell ...
It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... GCL is exclusively located in plastids, and glutathione synthetase (GS) is dual-targeted to plastids and cytosol, thus GSH and ... Jara JR, Aroca P, Solano F, Martinez JH, Lozano JA (November 1988). "The role of sulfhydryl compounds in mammalian ... implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae". The Plant Journal. 41 (1): 15-30. doi: ...
... partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. We have previously reported the ... as a genetic tool for manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio in human cells. Here, we present triphosphopyridine nucleotide ... Tracing compartmentalized NADPH metabolism in the cytosol and mitochondria of mammalian cells. Mol. Cell 55, 253-263 (2014). ... Sies, H. Metabolic compartmentation (Academic Press, 1982).. *. 4. Klingenberg, M. & Buecher, T. Biological oxidations. Annu. ...
In this review, we will (a) underline the role of ROS in the pathway leading a normal cell to tumor transformation and ... ROS concentration and compartmentation determine their physiological or pathological effects. ROS overproduction is a feature ... of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. ROS continuously contribute to each step ... The presence of ROS is a constant feature in living cells metabolizing O,sub,2,/sub,. ...
We will use primary cultures of rat calvarial osteoblasts, and osteoblast cell lines, including MC3T3-E1 and UMR106.01 cells, ... Compartmentation and compartment-specific regulation of PDE5 by protein kinase G allows selective cGMP-mediated regulation of ... Biochemical analysis therefore shows that PfPKG is distinct from mammalian PKGs with respect to both cyclic nucleotide analogue ... Protein kinase G transmits the cardioprotective signal from cytosol to mitochondria. Alexandre D T Costa. Department of Biology ...
Cobb CF, Ennis MF, van Thiel DH, Gavaler JS, Lester R (1980) Isolated testes perfusion: a method using a cell and protein-free ... Lundquist F, Fugmann U, Rasmussen H, Svendsen I (1962) The metabolism of acetaldehyde in mammalian tissues. Reactions in rat ... Marjanen L (1973) Comparison of aldehyde dehydrogenases from cytosol and mitochondria of rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 327: ... Parrilla R, Ohkawa K, Lindros KO, Zimmerman U-JP, Kobayashi K, Williamson JR (1974) Functional compartmentation of acetaldehyde ...
GFP in mammalian cells (64, 76, 77) demonstrated the presence of VDAC proteins at the cell surface in the PM. By confocal ... One way to bring low-abundance proteins into view is to analyze subproteomes based on subcellular compartmentation (21). For ... led to a strong labeling of the PM together with a fluorescence background in the cytosol (data not shown). In other respects, ... instance, mammalian phagolysosome (22) and nuclear pore complex (23), PM in plant cells (9, 24) or animal cells (1), ...
Lowe KR, Osborne CB, Lin BF, Kim JS, Hsu JC, Shane B. Regulation of folate and one-carbon metabolism in mammalian cells II. ... The tri-compartmentation of FPGS in Arabidopsis was reported as being a key to the homeostasis of folate and folate-dependent ... chloroplasts are autonomous for de novo methionine synthesis and can import S-adenosylmethionine from the cytosol. J Biol Chem ... Lin BF, Huang RS, Shane B. Regulation of folate and one-carbon metabolism in mammalian cells III. Role of mitochondrial ...
... but also in mammalian cells when adaptation to metabolic imbalances is required and p53 transcriptional activity is induced ... such signal can be transduced to the cytosol. Concerning the glycolytic enzymes in the cytosol, not only their activities but ... 1998). Therefore, the aspects of macro- and micro-compartmentation need to be taken into account as already mentioned in the ... S-nitrosylated GAPDH initiates apoptotic cell death by nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding. Nat Cell Biol 7:665-674. ...
This course covers the delivery of nutrients from foods to mammalian cells; major metabolic pathways; function of nutrients in ... The concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cytosol increases 20-fold within seconds of an appropriate stimulus. This is ... intracellular trafficking and subcellular compartmentation, cytoskeletal architecture, nucleocytoplasmic transport, signal ... Visualizing the Cytoskeleton - Cell Biology. This is an introductory survey of cell and developmental biology. The assembly of ...
It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin ... Strangely, osmotin acts like the mammalian hormone adiponectin in various in vitro and in vivo models. Adiponectin and osmotin ... It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
... development of redox probes allow specific measurement of defined ROS in different cellular compartments in intact living cells ... development of redox probes allow specific measurement of defined ROS in different cellular compartments in intact living cells ... roGFPs or HyPer targeted to the mitochondrial matrix, IMS, and cytosol showed that exposure of the cells to paraquat or MPP+ ... Since Orp1 is not present in mammalian cells, it remains to be elucidated which cellular redox couples or enzymes are actually ...
nuclear factor of activated T cells. NO-GC. nitric oxide-stimulated guanylyl cyclase. pGC. particulate guanylyl cyclase. PKGI. ... Compartmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling in the heart: the role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Circ Res. 2006; ... Protein kinase G transmits the cardioprotective signal from cytosol to mitochondria. Circ Res. 2005;97:329-336. ... Function and dysfunction of mammalian membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: lessons from genetic mouse models and implications ...
2007 The degree of macromolecular crowding in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of mammalian cells is conserved. FEBS Lett. 581, ... 2006 Introns and the origin of nucleus-cytosol compartmentation. Nature 440, 41-45. (doi:10.1038/nature04531). ... 2003 Organization of mammalian cytoplasm. Mol. Cell Biol. 23, 9318-9326. (doi:10.1128/MCB.23.24.9318-9326.2003). ... b) Cell division and membrane remodelling systems. Cell division obviously is central to all cellular life forms. Nevertheless ...
  • These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together to carry out metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, a localized signal is generated by a G protein-coupled receptor paired to one or more of the nine different transmembrane adenylyl cyclase isoforms that generate the cAMP signal in the cytosol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2001 ). Studies of folate polyglutamylation in yeast and mammalian systems have shown that this post-biosynthetic processing protects this molecule from oxidative breakdown by protein binding (Suh et al. (springeropen.com)
  • It is a differentially expressed and developmentally regulated protein that protects the cells from osmotic stress and invading pathogens as well, by structural or metabolic alterations. (frontiersin.org)
  • It binds to a seven-transmembrane-domain receptor-like protein and induces programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through RAS2/cAMP signaling pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results suggest that AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar protein trafficking and thereby to the maintenance of the large central vacuole of plant cells, and might play a role in cell-cycle regulation. (labome.org)
  • However, in a normal cellular condition, a nascent polypeptide chain faces a crowded environment and there is a good possibility that protein will be misfolded and will form aggregates that make the protein inactive, and in certain cases it becomes toxic for the cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2017 ). A moderate ROS level may affect a number of cell biological processes through transcriptional regulation that include processes that have a direct impact on transcriptional regulation causing the modification of protein/enzyme molecules (i.e. (springer.com)
  • Overexpression of proteins or abnormally folded nascent proteins can lead to protein accumulation and aggregation in cells, causing ER stress, which in severe cases could trigger cell death. (guwsmedical.info)
  • In lymphoid cell lines and in resting peripheral blood α/β T cells, PAG is expressed as a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein and binds the major negative regulator of Src kinases, the tyrosine kinase Csk. (rupress.org)
  • Signal transduction by immunoreceptors (TCRs, B cell receptors, and most Fc receptors) after their aggregation by natural ligands or Abs is initiated by activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) of the Src and Syk families, which phosphorylate a variety of substrates, thus allowing propagation of the initial stimulus to cytosolic signaling pathways ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • These are heterotrimeric G proteins, Src family kinases, and the recently cloned transmembrane adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT). (rupress.org)
  • The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. (genecards.org)
  • The encoded protein is expressed in endothelial cells, cultured fibroblasts, and osteosarcoma cells. (genecards.org)
  • This protein and RII PKA colocalize at the cell periphery. (genecards.org)
  • This protein is a cell growth-related protein. (genecards.org)
  • Anchoring protein that mediates the subcellular compartmentation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). (genecards.org)
  • To elucidate how iron is supplied to developing male germ cells, we analyzed iron deposition and iron transport proteins in testes of mice with iron overload and with genetic ablation of the iron regulators Hfe and iron regulatory protein 2. (physiology.org)
  • Consistent with the hypothesized contribution of oxidative protein folding to H 2 O 2 production, ER-localized TriPer detected an increase in the luminal H 2 O 2 signal upon induction of pro-insulin (a disulfide-bonded protein of pancreatic β-cells), which was attenuated by the ectopic expression of catalase in the ER lumen. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These data show that while the full length CCN2 protein is strongly associated with fibrosis and stellate cell function, key integrinbinding properties, signaling, and fibrogenic pathways are exhibited by module 3 alone. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Different suspending cells were chosen to investigate cell-protein interactions through antigen-antibody reactions on the biological cell surfaces through binding detection. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • PRX1 silencing significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2, which was partially responsible for vitK3-induced ROS accumulation and consequent cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virally encoded homolog of the mammalian pro-survival protein Bcl-2, BHRF1 contributes to viral infectivity and lymphomagenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition to the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, its key target in lymphoid cells, BHRF1 also binds a selective sub-set of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bid, Puma, Bak) expressed by host cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • There are two distinct isoforms of mammalian arginase (arginase I and II), which are encoded by different genes and differ in molecular and immunological properties, tissue distribution, subcellular location, and regulation of expression ( 9 , 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • It is generally believed that the large number of second messenger-synthesizing and -degrading enzyme isoforms provide the cell with tools to precisely regulate second messenger levels in different subcellular compartments and following exposure to different stimuli. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cell uses a number of mechanisms to limit second messenger levels to different subcellular compartments. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are related conditions in which an alteration of insulin resistance or beta-cell dysfunction exists, but because of compensation glucose homeostasis has not been lost. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Such an internal iron cycle essentially detaches the iron homeostasis within the seminiferous tubule from the periphery and protects developing germ cells from iron fluctuations. (physiology.org)
  • While the involvement of mtPTP opening in cell death is well established 1 , accumulating evidence indicates that the mtPTP serves a physiologic role during mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis 2 , bioenergetics and redox signaling 3 . (jove.com)
  • They are lytic compartments, function as reservoirs for ions and metabolites, including pigments, and are crucial to processes of detoxification and general cell homeostasis. (plantcell.org)
  • Glia-neuron partnership is important for inner retinal homeostasis and any disturbances may result in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. (hindawi.com)
  • Interactions between the most inner retinal neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and the most abundant retinal glial cells, the Müller cells, are essential to a functional retinal homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • Guanine nucleotide homeostasis is central to photoreceptor cells, where cGMP is the signal transducing molecule in the light response. (elifesciences.org)
  • Purine nucleotide homeostasis is vital for many basic functions of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • The alternative route of ADPGlc via generation within the cytosol and subsequent uptake into the amyloplast, as it occurs in the endosperm cells of graminaceous species, is shown by dotted arrows. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • RGC survival was evaluated by cell viability assays and glutamate uptake was assessed by kinetic uptake assays. (hindawi.com)
  • We have previously reported that cell cultures of the human Müller glia cell line, MIO-M1 [ 24 ], are capable of increasing their glutamate uptake and their expression of EAAT1 during starvation [ 15 ], thus indicating a regulatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity of the RGCs. (hindawi.com)
  • The exact sites of uptake of the various forms of nitrogen along the length of the root, the cells that are directly involved and in vivo regulation are not well understood. (biorxiv.org)
  • Plasmid/polylysine complexes, which are used to transfect mammalian cells, increase the uptake of DNA, but plasmid molecules are sequestered into vesicles where they cannot escape to reach the nuclear machinery. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
  • Figure 1.26 [overhead- E. coli cytosol] magnifies a square section of that cell another ten times so that particles such as ribosomes, proteins and DNA are readily visible. (humboldt.edu)
  • Although at least in some fungi and plants, mitochondrial NAD is imported from the cytosol by carrier … proteins, in mammals, the mechanism of how this organellar pool is generated has remained obscure. (fairdomhub.org)
  • However, our knowledge of how receptors, cAMP signaling enzymes, effectors, and other key proteins form specific signaling complexes to regulate specific cell responses is limited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The multicomponent nature of these systems and the spatiotemporal dynamics involved as proteins interact and move within a cell make cAMP responses highly complex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • All of their matrix proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol, and post-translationally transported into the organelle. (deepdyve.com)
  • In animal cells, PM proteins represent a point for potential therapeutic intervention, making the PM a source of drug targets, for instance in cancer research ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Molecular chaperones are a class of proteins responsible for proper folding of a large number of polypeptides in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess a family of proteins responsible for binding to nascent polypeptide chains and help them fold into biologically functional three-dimensional structures, they are known as molecular chaperones, and they vary in size and complexity [ 2 - 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common feature of the glycosomal glycolytic enzymes (with the exception of glucosephosphate isomerase) is that they are highly basic proteins with pI values between 8.8 and 10.2, values which are 1-4 higher than in the case of their mammalian cytosolic counterparts and 3-6 higher than in the case of the various unicellular organisms. (uclouvain.be)
  • It is suggested that both the larger subunit size and the basic character of the T. brucei glycolytic proteins are involved in the routing of the enzymes from their site of biogenesis (the cytosol) towards their site of action (the glycosome). (uclouvain.be)
  • Anabolism , on the other hand, uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids . (chemeurope.com)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins in the cytoskeleton that form a system of scaffolding to maintain cell shape. (chemeurope.com)
  • For instance, FoxO proteins are in the nucleus ( 39 ), TSC2 is in the cytosol ( 8 , 16 ), and AS160 is associated with the microsome ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Thousands of potential combinations of these three elements are possible in any given cell type, making the characterization of cAMP signaling compartments daunting. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This single second messenger can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate functions within independently regulated cell compartments. (biologists.org)
  • They postulated that cAMP signals in physically separated compartments within a cell. (biologists.org)
  • Following endosome labeling of HeLa cells with a pH-sensitive (FITC-dextran) and pH-insensitive (Cy5-dextran) fluid- phase marker in the absence or presence of replication-defective adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), first, the pH of labeled compartments was determined by flow-cytometry of cell suspensions. (gtmb.org)
  • When compared to control cells, the pH of labeled compartments was elevated by co-internalization of Ad5 indicating endosome lysis and penetration of the marker into the pH-neutral cytoplasm. (gtmb.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that adenovirus internalized for 10 min into HeLa cells destroys about 30% of endosomal compartments. (gtmb.org)
  • In this review, vacuoles are provisionally defined as the intracellular compartments that arise as a terminal product of the secretory pathway in plant cells. (plantcell.org)
  • doctor rerum politicarum) (Nummereringen er kronologisk fra første doktorgrad i I de avhandlingene som er trykket i fakultetets skriftserie, er angitt en annen nummerering som startet i 2001. (docplayer.net)
  • Endothelial cells (EC) metabolize l -arginine mainly by arginase, which exists as two distinct isoforms, arginase I and II. (physiology.org)
  • Moreover, the choice of vectors and the route of their administration dramatically affect both the efficiency of tumor transduction and its spatial distribution, as well as the extent of transgene expression within a brain tumor and outside it, in the surrounding tumor cell-infiltrated tissue. (gtmb.org)
  • Expression of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a mouse tumor cell line reduces tumorigenicity and elicits PSA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (pianolarge.ml)
  • while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0 - 7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the above reasons, the role of Mg 2+ as transient regulator of cytosolic enzymes appears to be intrinsically denied by the coordination chemistry, the concentrations existing in the cytosol, and by experimental evidence. (bioscience.org)
  • In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain their required cytosolic Na and K concentrations. (popflock.com)
  • In the terminal differentiation nucleated stages of the erythroid and granulocytic development, dominant nucleoli apparently disappeared, since these cells mostly contained very small nucleoli of a similar size with one fibrillar centre. (bvsalud.org)
  • In plant cells too, as signaling processes controlling responses to biotic and abiotic factors occur in PM, a better knowledge of the PM proteome would help developing defense strategies. (mcponline.org)
  • These findings collectively suggest that in the absence of external stimuli, the PAG-Csk complex transmits negative regulatory signals and thus may help to keep resting T cells in a quiescent state. (rupress.org)
  • Estimates of the number of metabolites in single cells such as E. coli and baker's yeast predict that under 1,000 are made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure of yeast cells to poor nitrogen sources or treatment with the Tor kinase inhibitor rapamycin elicits activation of Gln3 and transcription of nitrogen catabolite-repressed (NCR) genes whose products function in scavenging and metabolizing nitrogen. (pnas.org)
  • They share some of their basic properties with the vacuoles of algae and yeast and the lysosomes of animal cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Mapping the intracellular fluxes for established mammalian cell lines becomes increasingly important for scientific and economic reasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simulation of resting conditions under the constraints of maximization of glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycle fluxes between the two cell types with subsequent minimization of Euclidean norm of fluxes resulted in a flux distribution in accordance with literature-based findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the perspective of unified cell bioenergetics certain subsequent stages of cancer development, from initiation stage, through transformation to metastasis, are analyzed. (springer.com)
  • Typical idealized eukaryote cells are shown in Figure 7.7 on p 108 (animal) and Figure 7.8 on p 109 (plant). (humboldt.edu)
  • Plant Cell. (labome.org)
  • In the vegetative organs of the plant, they act in combination with the cell wall to generate turgor, the driving force for hydraulic stiffness and growth. (plantcell.org)
  • Plant cell vacuoles are widely diverse in form, size, content, and functional dynamics, and a single cell may contain more than one kind of vacuole. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, there are 10 different gene products in the mammalian AC gene family (AC1-9 and an atypical soluble AC isoform). (ahajournals.org)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression -the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuronal gene transfer with SFV vectors did not trigger any major cell toxicity. (gtmb.org)
  • Successful human gene therapy requires methods to transfer recombinant genes to cells efficiently. (gtmb.org)
  • A sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of this strain was obtained using whole genome ampliï¬ cation of DNA from the single amoeba cell, followed by NGS sequencing. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used metagenomic and single-cell genomic approaches to characterize the functional gene repertoire of Chloroflexi symbionts in marine sponges. (asm.org)
  • Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. (stanford.edu)
  • these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation, cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest a redefining of brain glutamate neurotransmitter release and recycling as a series of metabolic interactions between glial cells and neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Indoction in monocytes and endothelial cells by inflammatory and immunological agents with special reference to cyclosporin A 1097 Sæter Gunnar (dr.med. (docplayer.net)
  • Tracking ER H 2 O 2 in live pancreatic β-cells points to a role for glutathione in H 2 O 2 turnover. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, unlike the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system that is largely isolated from the ER, several lines of evidence suggest equilibration of glutathione pools between the cytosol and ER. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Arsenite-induced stress granule formation is inhibited by elevated levels of reduced glutathione in West Nile virus-infected cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood, mostly because methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy only give information on the average structure of water, and cannot measure local variations at the microscopic scale. (wikipedia.org)