Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Flexibacter: A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family CYTOPHAGACEAE. In some species there is a cyclic change in cell morphology.Emperipolesis: The movement of one cell within another cell (non-phagocytic).HistoryEntosis: The processes by which one cell actively invades and becomes internalized within another cell.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Famous PersonsCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Leucyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide: An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Cytochromes b5: Cytochromes of the b group that are found bound to cytoplasmic side of ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. They serve as electron carrier proteins for a variety of membrane-bound OXYGENASES. They are reduced by the enzyme CYTOCHROME-B(5) REDUCTASE.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/13467)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (2/13467)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (3/13467)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (4/13467)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

The endosome fusion regulator early-endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) is a dimer. (5/13467)

EEA1, an early-endosomal protein originally identified as an autoantigen, is essential for endocytic membrane fusion. It interacts with early endosomes via binding to the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the active form of the small GTPase Rab5. Most of the EEA1 sequence contains heptad repeats characteristic of proteins involved in coiled-coil protein-protein interactions. Here we have investigated the ability of EEA1 to self-interact. Crosslinking of cytosolic and recombinant EEA1 resulted in the disappearance of the 180-kDa monomer in SDS/PAGE and the strong appearance of a approximately 350-kDa crosslinked product. Glycerol gradient centrifugation experiments indicated that native EEA1 had the same hydrodynamic properties as the approximately 350-kDa crosslinked complex. Two-hybrid analysis indicated that N- and C-terminal fragments of EEA1 can interact with themselves, but not with each other, suggesting that EEA1 forms parallel coiled-coil dimers. The ability of the C-terminus of EEA1 to dimerize correlates with its ability to bind to Rab5 and early endosomes, whereas its binding to PtdIns3P is independent of dimerization. These data enable us to propose a model for the quaternary structure of EEA1.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/13467)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (7/13467)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (8/13467)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

*Cytosol

The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ... The concentrations of the other ions in cytosol are quite different from those in extracellular fluid and the cytosol also ... of the volume of the cytosol. However, measuring precisely how much protein is dissolved in cytosol in intact cells is ... and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. The term "cytosol" ...

*Cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase

Bauer, K. (1998). "Cytosol non-specific dipeptidase". In Barrett, A.J.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. Handbook of Proteolytic ... Cytosol non-specific dipeptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.18, N2-beta-alanylarginine dipeptidase, glycyl-glycine dipeptidase, glycyl-leucine ...

*Cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.14, arylamidase, aminopolypeptidase, thiol-activated aminopeptidase, human liver ... aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, soluble alanyl aminopeptidase, cytosol aminopeptidase III, alanine ...

*Differential centrifugation

... and Ribosomes and cytosol. High g-force makes sedimentation of small particles much faster than Brownian diffusion, even for ...

*Malate dehydrogenase

Once in the cytosol, the malate is oxidized back to oxaloacetate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Finally, ... Lodola A, Shore JD, Parker DM, Holbrook J (December 1978). "Malate dehydrogenase of the cytosol. A kinetic investigation of the ...

*Glycolipid transfer protein

Glucosylceramide Uptake Protein from Spleen Cytosol. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1980;255(10):4463-67. PMID 7372587. Metz ...

*Juvenile hormone

This enzyme has 8 helical domains anchoring it in the Golgi membrane of the ER; the catalytic domain is in the cytosol. It is ... All steps occur in the cytosol. The starting material is citrate, which is exported by the mitochondrion when metabolic fuels ... although there appear to be no studies on export of citrate or other metabolites from the mitochondrion into the cytosol, or ...

*Norbormide

... this fraction contains cytosol and microsomes." The S9 fraction consists of two components: the microsomes component which ...

*Arylesterase

Kim DH, Yang YS, Jakoby WB (1990). "Nonserine esterases from rat liver cytosol". Protein. Expr. Purif. 1 (1): 19-27. doi: ...

*BOMT

Heyns, W.; G., Verhoeven; De Moor, P. (1976). "Androgen binding in rat uterus cytosol. Study of the specificity". Journal of ...

*S9 fraction

... this fraction contains cytosol and microsomes." The microsomes component of the S9 fraction contain cytochrome P450 isoforms ( ...

*Terpenoid

The reactions take place in the cytosol. The pathway was discovered in the 1950s. The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1- ...

*NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1)

This protein is located in the cytosol. NQO1 enzyme expression can be induced by dioxin and inhibited by dicoumarol. This gene ... quinone oxidoreductase and conjugation by acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases in human hepatic cytosols". Cancer Research ...

*Intracellular

Cytosol Microparasite Intracellular parasite "Definition of Intracellular". Matsudaira, Paul T.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Arnold Berk ...

*Rigor mortis

Additionally, calcium enters the cytosol after death. Calcium is released into the cytosol due to the deterioration of the ... Once calcium is introduced into the cytosol, it binds to the troponin of thin filaments, which causes the troponin-tropomyosin ... Also, the breakdown of the sarcolemma causes additional calcium to enter the cytosol. The calcium activates the formation of ...

*Acetylsalicylate deacetylase

Kim DH, Yang YS, Jakoby WB (1990). "Aspirin hydrolyzing esterases from rat liver cytosol". Biochem. Pharmacol. 40 (3): 481-7. ...

*Deoxyguanosine kinase

Distinct molecular forms in mitochondria and cytosol". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (7): 2180-3. PMID 218928. Molecular and Cellular ...

*Endoplasm

The contents of the cytosol change based on the needs of the cell. Not to be confused with the cytoplasm, the cytosol is only ... The cytosol makes up the semifluid portion of the endoplasm, in which materials are suspended. It is a concentrated aqueous gel ... Cytosol contains predominantly water, but also has a complex mixture of large hydrophilic molecules, smaller molecules and ... The endoplasm's granules are suspended in cytosol. The term granule refers to a small particle within the endoplasm, typically ...

*Fatty acid degradation

The liberated carnitine returns to the cytosol. It is important to note that carnitine acyltransferase I undergoes allosteric ... impermeable to fatty acids and a specialized carnitine carrier system operates to transport activated fatty acids from cytosol ...

*Phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase

Roach PD, Palmer FB (1981). "Human erythrocyte cytosol phosphatidyl-inositol-bisphosphate phosphatase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...

*Oxaloacetic acid

Once in the cytosol, malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate again using NAD+. Then oxaloacetate remains in the cytosol, where the ... In the cytosol there are fumarate molecules. Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. ...

*Trehalase

This enzyme activity was found in the cytosol. A second trehalase activity was found in the vacuoles of the same oraganism12. ...

*G beta-gamma complex

Synthesis of the subunits occurs in the cytosol. Folding of the β-subunit is thought to be aided by the chaperone CCT ( ...

*Tripeptide aminopeptidase

Sachs, L.; Marks, N. (1982). "A highly specific aminotripeptidase of rat brain cytosol. Substrate specificity and effects of ... Doumeng, C.; Maroux, S. (1979). "Aminopeptidase, a cytosol enzyme from rabbit intestinal mucosa". Biochem. J. 177: 801-808. PMC ...

*Sacoglossa

de Vries, Jan; Christa, Gregor; Gould, Sven B. (2014). "Plastid survival in the cytosol of animal cells". Trends in Plant ...
Retro-translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol of secretory and membrane proteins takes place on misfolded molecules targeted for proteasomal degradation, in a process called ER associated degradation (ERAD), Because of the difficulties in clearly discriminating the fraction of molecules already retro-translocated from the ones in the ER, we took advantage of the E coli biotin-ligase (BirA) expressed in the cytosol of mammalian cells, to specifically biotin-label proteins that undergo retro-translocation, The method was validated using four different model proteins, known to undergo retro-translocation upon different conditions; the MHC-Iα chain, the non-secretory null-Hong Kong mutant of 01 antitrypsin, the immunoglobulin γH chain and calreticulin, The -- specific mono-biotinylation of only cytosolically dislocated molecules resulted in a novel quantitative method to determine the extent of retro-translocation. The method was used to study dislocation of CD4 and ...
On the left is the rat liver homogenate and on the right is the rat liver cytosol. Wonderful! This de-stained more than the previous gel I ran, and the protein bands are more clearly visible. Its always rewarding to see improvement!. I would like to give a special thanks to Peggy Wang for mentoring me throughout this process and Dr. Allan Wolkoff for providing the resources to work in his lab!. div.wpmrec2x{max-width:610px;} div.wpmrec2x div.u > div{float:left;margin-right:10px;} div.wpmrec2x div.u > div:nth-child(3n){margin-right:0px;} ...
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates corticosteroid secretion from adrenal cells through activation of 5-HT4 receptors positively coupled to adenylyl-cyclase. In the present study, we investigated in frog adrenocortical cells the effect of 5-HT4 receptor agonists on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and determined the sequence of events associated with 5-HT4 receptor agonist zacopride (10[-8] to 10[-5]M each in the vicinity of cultured adrenocortical cells caused a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation of the cells with the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist [1-[2-(methylsulfonylamino)ethyl]-4- piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate maleate totally blocked the 5-HT-induced stimulation of [Ca2+]i. Chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N, N-tetraacetic acid (10 MM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on [Ca2+]i. Conversely, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium ATPase activity, had no effect on the [Ca2+]i ...
Pulmonary tumors induced in A/J mice 14 months after a single i.p. injection of urethan vary greatly in size. Since glucocorticoids may play a major role in regulating lung cell proliferation, glucocorticoid binding was examined in these tumors to determine whether tumor size was related to any specific pattern of [3H]dexamethasone ([3H]DEX) binding. Tumor samples were incubated in vitro with 17 nm [3H]DEX for 90 min at 37°, washed extensively to reduce nonspecific binding, and either fractionated by differential centrifugation to quantify nuclear and cytosolic binding or processed for autoradiography. Quantitative binding studies demonstrate a reduction in specific nuclear [3H]DEX binding and an increase in nonspecific cytosolic binding in all of the tumors examined as compared to normal adult lung. Autoradiographic studies reveal pulmonary tumors of different morphology which vary in their [3H]DEX binding characteristics. Small tumors were of two histological patterns, alveolar adenomas which ...
Human liver cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase share 70% sequence identity. However, the first 21 residues are not conserved between the human isozymes (15% identity). The three-dimensional structures of the beef mitochondrial and sheep cytosolic forms have virtually identical three-dimensional structures. Here, we solved the structure of the human mitochondrial enzyme and found it to be identical to the beef enzyme. The first 21 residues are found on the surface of the enzyme and make no contact with other subunits in the tetramer. A pair of chimeric enzymes between the human isozymes was made. Each chimera had the first 21 residues from one isozyme and the remaining 479 from the other. When the first 21 residues were from the mitochondrial isozyme, an enzyme with cytosolic-like properties was produced. The other was expressed but was insoluble. It was possible to restore solubility and activity to the chimera that had the first 21 cytosolic residues fused to the ...
Abstract Both viral infection and DNA transfection expose single-stranded or double-stranded DNA to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates a serie..
The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway mediates recognition of MHV-68 in MSCs.MSCs were infected with MHV-68 (MOI 0.1) (a) or transfected with MHV-68 DNA
Relocalization of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus of heat stressed HUVECs.Cells were incubated at 37 °C (CONT) or were subjected to a heat stress (HS)
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Nuclear_Cytosol Fractionation Kit \ KT-388 for more molecular products just contact us
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment for protein synthesis and maturation and also functions as a Ca2+ storage organelle. The failure of the ER to cope with the excessive protein load due to perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress. In response to ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to reduce the unfolded protein load and meanwhile increase protein folding capacity. Activation of PERK (PKR-like eIF2a kinase) signaling and induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) represent two major survival arms of the UPR. In this thesis, the fortuitous discovery of a novel cytosolic isoform of GRP78 is reported. This GRP78 isoform, designated as GRP78va, is generated by alternative splicing and alternative translational initiation. Expression of GRP78va is enhanced by ER stress and is notably elevated in human leukemic cells and leukemia patients. Unlike the canonical form of GRP78 which is primarily localized in the ER ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment for protein synthesis and maturation and also functions as a Ca2+ storage organelle. The failure of the ER to cope with the excessive protein load due to perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress. In response to ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to reduce the unfolded protein load and meanwhile increase protein folding capacity. Activation of PERK (PKR-like eIF2a kinase) signaling and induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) represent two major survival arms of the UPR. In this thesis, the fortuitous discovery of a novel cytosolic isoform of GRP78 is reported. This GRP78 isoform, designated as GRP78va, is generated by alternative splicing and alternative translational initiation. Expression of GRP78va is enhanced by ER stress and is notably elevated in human leukemic cells and leukemia patients. Unlike the canonical form of GRP78 which is primarily localized in the ER ...
The bath-to-cell transport, cytosolic concentration, and tubular content of methylmercury (Me203Hg+) and the sulfhydryl-amino acids and sulfhydryl-amino acid derivatives conjugated to Me203Hg+ were studied in the non-perfused S2 segments of the proximal tubule of the rabbit kidney. Active transport of Me203Hg+ was established by a temperature dependent (greater than 100% reduction in bath-to-cell transport, 99% decrease in cytosolic concentration, 63% decline in the tubular contents at 12°C when compared to 37°C). Conjugates of Me203Hg+ showed mixed results, with L-cysteine and L-taurine demonstrating the most significant increase in uptake. Transport of Me203Hg+-L-cysteine was also temperature dependent with a 77% reduction in bath-to-cell transport, 76% decrease in cytosolic concentration, and 86% decline in tubular contents at 12°C when compared to 37°C. A significant decrease in transport was seen with the classic organic anion transport (OAT) inhibitors of PAH (71% and 67%) and probenicid (48%
1AJS: Refinement and comparisons of the crystal structures of pig cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase and its complex with 2-methylaspartate.
Background Obesity and associated hormonal disturbances are risk factors for colon cancer. Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) generates NADPH used for lipogenesis in gastrointestinal (GI), liver and adipose tissues. We have reported that inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI) in the diet lowered body fat content and colon tumor incidence of rats fed AIN-93G diet, while others have demonstrated SPI inhibition of rat hepatic ME1 expression. The present study examined the individual and combined effects of dietary SPI and absence of ME1 on: 1) serum concentrations of hormones implicated in colon cancer development, 2) expression of lipogenic and proliferation-associated genes in the mouse colon and small intestine, and 3) liver and adipose expression of lipogenic and adipocytokine genes that may contribute to colon cancer predisposition. Methods Weanling wild type (WT) and ME1 null (MOD-1) male mice were fed high-fat (HF), iso-caloric diets containing either casein (CAS) or SPI as sole protein source for 5 wks
Ion concentrations in the roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties that differed in NaCl tolerance were compared after exposure to NaCl. Triple-barreled H+-, K+-, and Na+-selective microelectrodes were used to measure cytosolic activities of the three ions after 5 and 8 d of NaCl stress. In both varieties of barley, it was only possible to record successfully from root cortical cells because the epidermal cells appeared to be damaged. The data show that from the 1st d of full NaCl stress, there were differences in the way in which the two varieties responded. At 5 d, the tolerant variety maintained a 10-fold lower cytosolic Na+ than the more sensitive variety, although by 8 d the two varieties were not significantly different. At this time, the more tolerant variety was better at maintaining root cytosolic K+ in the high-NaCl background than was the more sensitive variety. In contrast to earlier work on K+-starved barley (Walker et al., 1996), there was no acidification of the cytosol ...
In this article, we present for the first time results indicating that lipid droplets increase in size by a process that is independent of triglyceride biosynthesis. Time-lapse recordings and confocal microscopy of NIH 3T3 cells microinjected with ADRP-GFP or stained with Nile Red indicated that fusion between the droplets could explain this increase in size. The process is dependent on intact microtubules.. An understanding of the mechanism behind the assembly of cytosolic lipid droplets is of utmost importance for our understanding of the metabolic diseases of the twenty-first century: insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The droplets of most direct importance for these diseases are formed in liver, muscles, and macrophages. Such droplets contain the PAT protein4,5 ADRP,8,9 which has a central role in their assembly6 (L.A., P.B., M.R., J.E., Marchesan D, Magnusson B, Ruiz M, P.H., Asp L, M.A.F., J.B., S.-O.O., unpublished data, 2005). Accumulation of ...
Available data indicate that the liver is a target organ for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and that this effect is most likely mediated by PTH-induced calcium entry into hepatocytes. The present study examined the effects of both PTH-(1-84) and its amino-terminal fragment [PTH-(1-34)] on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of hepatocytes and explored the cellular pathways that mediate this potential action of PTH. Both moieties of PTH produced a dose-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i, but the effect of PTH-(1-84) was greater (P | 0.01) than an equimolar amount of PTH-(1-34). This effect required calcium in the medium and was totally [PTH-(1-34)] or partially [PTH-(1-84)] blocked by PTH antagonist ([Nle8,18,Tyr34]bPTH-(7-34)-NH2] and by verapamil or nifedipine. Sodium or chloride channel blockers did not modify this effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, dibutyryl adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP), and G protein activator also produced a dose-dependent
Calcium-dependent mitochondrial solute carrier. Mediates the reversible, electroneutral exchange of Mg-ATP or Mg-ADP against phosphate ions, catalyzing the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Nucleotide transport is inactive when cytosolic calcium levels are low, and is activated by an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. May play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death, probably by promoting the formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby buffering calcium levels in the mitochondrial matrix (By similarity).
Calcium-dependent mitochondrial solute carrier. Mediates the reversible, electroneutral exchange of Mg-ATP or Mg-ADP against phosphate ions, catalyzing the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Nucleotide transport is inactive when cytosolic calcium levels are low, and is activated by an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. May play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death, probably by promoting the formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby buffering calcium levels in the mitochondrial matrix ...
Evidence was presented to indicate that the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) to a protein in rat liver cytosol facilitates its oxidation by microsomal enzymes. Cytosols were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography of rat liver cytosol saturated with carbon- 14 labeled BaP resulted in two peaks of protein bound radioactivity. Glutathione-S-transfe
Fatty acids in milk are thought to play an important role in intestinal maturation and gene expression in the postnatal small intestine. In this study, we determined the jejunal mRNA levels, in rats, of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alph
The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for lung cancer. miRNAs are single-stranded, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and show tissue-specific signatures. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent
At one time, it was believed that the cytoplasm intervening between the discrete organelles and deposits was unstructured. This belief was reinforced by the use of homogenization and centrifugation of the homogenates to yield fractions consisting of recognizable membrane-bound organelles. The final supernatant produced by this process, after the separation of organelles, is called the cytosol. The cytosol constitutes about half the total volume of the cell. Homogenization of cells disrupts a delicate microtrabecular lattice that incorporates filaments of actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments, enzymes, and other soluble constituents into a structured cytosol. The cytosol coordinates the intracellular movements of organelles and provides an explanation for the viscosity of the cytoplasm. Soluble (not membrane-bound) enzymes, such as those of the glycolytic pathway, for example, function more efficiently when organized in a sequence instead of having to rely on random collisions with their ...
The exocytosis is a key mechanism, crucial for physiological functions such as neurotransmission and hormone secretion. Upon physiological stimuli that increase cytosolic calcium, secretory vesicles storing transmitter molecules dock and fuse with the plasma membrane. During the fusion process, a narrow channel, called "fusion pore" connects the vesicular and extracellular compartments, allowing the slow trickling out of small molecules stored in the vesicle lumen. Later, the fusion pore expands to massively release the total vesicular content, or alternatively it may close, leading to the partial release of transmitters. These two modes of exocytosis are known as "full fusion" and "kiss-and-run" respectively. Why do endocrine cells require different modes of exodocytosis? Secretory vesicles of endocrine cells contain a cocktail of molecules of different sizes and physiological functions. Thus the existence of these two modes of exocytosis allows the cells to adjust the release of the active ...
View Notes - D103 clicker+questions_lecture+16-18 from BIOL 05400 at UC Irvine. A. expression level of AKAPs B. level of adenylyl cyclase activity C. increased cytosolic concentration of cAMP D.
We reported previously that expressed pleckstrin will bind to plasma membranes and induce lamellipodia and actin reorganization (Ma et al. 1997; Ma and Abrams 1999). We have now found that expressed and phosphorylated pleckstrin also induces cell spreading through an integrin-dependent pathway and that this effect is adhesion substrate-specific.. The observation that pleckstrin-induced cell spreading is inhibited by the dominant-negative αIIbβ3 Ser753Pro mutant implies that pleckstrin cooperates with integrins to mediate cell signaling. Most integrins respond to agonist-stimulated signals ("inside-out" signaling) that regulate their ability to bind to extracellular matrix proteins, where binding to the matrix itself initiates signals ("outside-in" signaling) that increases the cytosolic concentration of calcium, causes the phosphorylation of a number of signaling proteins, and induces the reorganization of the cytoskeleton (Shattil 1999; Giancotti and Ruoslahti 1999). Our data place pleckstrin ...
Purified Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit from Creative Biomart. Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit can be used for research.
Plant membranes are relatively permeable to K+ due to various selective K+ channels across the membrane. Basically, one distinguishes between low-affinity K+ channels and high-affinity channels. For the function of the low-affinity channels, the electrochemical difference between the cytosol and the outer medium (liquid in root or leaf apoplast) is of decisive importance. The K+ is imported into the cell for as long as the electrochemical potential in the cytosol is lower than in the outer solution. With the import of the positive charge (K+) the electrochemical potential increases (decrease of the negative charge of the cytosol) and finally attains that of the outer medium, equilibrium is attained, and there is no further driving force for the uptake of K+ (15). The negative charge of the cytosol is maintained by the activity of the plasmalemma H+ pump permanently excreting H+ from the cytosol into the apoplast and thus maintaining the high negative charge of the cytosol and building up an ...
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Most living cells maintain internal environments that are different from their extracellular environment, as well as concentration differences between the cytosol and internal compartments. In human tissues, for example, all cells have a higher concentration of Na+ outside the cell than inside, and a higher concentration of K+ inside the cell than outside. These concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ represent a form of energy storage, similar to a battery. An example of a concentration difference between the cytosol and an internal compartment is found in the lysosome, where the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) can be 100 to 1000 times greater than the concentration outside, in the cytosol.. ...
VEGFA dimer:p-6Y-VEGFR2 dimer:PI3K/VEGFA:p-6Y-VEGFR2:TSAd:p-Y418-SRC-1:p-Y772,Y814-AXL:PI3K [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) ...
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The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
To identify novel anti-cancer agents, we created and screened a unique nutraceutical library for activity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. From this screen, we determined that glucopsychosine was selectively toxic toward AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples with no effect toward normal hematopoietic cells. It delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor weights in mouse xenograft models without imparting toxicity. Glucopsychosine increased cytosolic calcium and induced apoptosis through calpain enzymes. Extracellular calcium was functionally important for glucopsychosine-induced AML cell death and surface calcium channel expression is altered in AML cells highlighting a unique mechanism of glucopsychosines selectivity ...
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Permeabilization of the plasma membrane of HepG2 cells subsequent to pulse-chase incubations has enabled us to evaluate the hypothesis that cytosolic-free oligosaccharides are sequestered into and degraded by lysosomes. Short chase incubations revealed that free oligosaccharides rapidly appear in the cytosol at a time during which there is a loss of these components from the MBCs (Fig. 1, A and B). This observation can be accounted for by the previously observed rapid translocation of large, free polymannose-type oligosaccharides out of the ER into the cytosol (Moore et al., 1995). At present it is unclear whether this ER-to-cytosol transport of free oligosaccharides is the sole mechanism responsible for the appearance of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol. Recently, it has been proposed that newly synthesized glycoproteins may be translocated out of the ER and degraded in this compartment (Wiertz et al., 1996) by the actions of a cytosolic N-glycanase (Kitajima et al., 1995; Suzuki et al., ...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still ...
2003 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 278, no 4, 2141-2146 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
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Background: The transformation of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane by extracted cytosol from living resources, has recently drawn much attention. It enables us to address the question of whether the purified phospholipid SLB membrane, including lipids related to amoeba locomotion, which was discussed in many previous studies, exhibits membrane deformation in the presence of cytosol extracted from amoeba; Methods: In this report, a method for reconstituting a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane, composed of purified phospholipids and cytosol extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum, is described. This technique is a new reconstitution method combining the artificial constitution of membranes with the reconstitution using animate cytosol (without precise purification at a molecular level), contributing to membrane deformation analysis; Results: The morphology transition of a SLB membrane composed of phosphatidylcholines, after the addition of cytosolic extract, was traced using a confocal
Organellar and Cytosolic Localization of Four Phosphoribosyl Diphosphate Synthase Isozymes in Spinach: Four cDNAs encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) syn
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To study the role of cytosolic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, in cell activation, in particular during adhesion and movement on a surface in response to chemotactic peptide stimulation and during...
NCF2, NCF1, and a membrane bound cytochrome b558 are required for activation of the latent NADPH oxidase (necessary for superoxide production).
Due to their sessile life style, higher plants have to adapt rapidly to variable environmental conditions. Signalling networks that perceive, transmit and integrate information translate environmental cues into appropriate cellular programs. Changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), represent a fundamental concept in signalling in all eukaryotic cells. In plants, the second messenger Ca2+ is associated with various abiotic and biotic stimuli such as salt and osmotic stress, oxidative stress, wounding, low temperature, pathogen attack and nodulation (Dodd et al., 2010). Levels of cytosolic Ca2+ are tightly regulated by coordinated transport processes between the cytosol and the sites of Ca2+ storage (Berridge et al., 2000; Kudla et al., 2010). Ca2+ signals are characterized by a transient rise of cytosolic free Ca2+ but vary in their temporal and spatial qualities in a stimulus-dependent way and have therefore been designated as Ca2+ signatures (McAinsh et al., 1992; McAinsh and Hetherington, ...
Principal Investigator:SHIMADA Kazunori, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:General medical chemistry
In quiescent cells (not shown), atomic factor-B (NF-B) is sequestered in the cytosol at hand inhibitor of B (IB), which binds to definitive regions on NF-B and...
Initial observations in the late 1980s indicated that an important regulatory step in the biosynthesis of LT in human PMN involves the translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to a membrane compartment (Rouzer et al., 1985; Rouzer and Samuelsson, 1987). Ca2+ mobilization is required for 5-LO translocation. However, Ca2+ mobilization alone is not sufficient because little 5-LO translocation occurs when unprimed cells are stimulated with agonists such as fMLP or PAF, which induce the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and subsequent Ca2+ influx. Since those initial reports, it has been established that 5-LO activation in stimulated human PMN involves the Ca2+-dependent movement of 5-LO from the cytosol to the nuclear envelope in a mechanism not yet completely understood but implicating the membrane protein FLAP (Dixon et al., 1990; Reid et al., 1990). Indeed, it has been clearly established by using FLAP antagonists that FLAP plays an essential role in the translocation of 5-LO in intact ...
TP53 regulates transcription of additional cell cycle genes whose exact role in the p53 pathway remain uncertain (Homo sapiens) ...
G6PD is a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogese. This protein is a cytosolic enzyme encoded by a housekeeping X-linked gene whose main function is to…
Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) has long been known to act as a key second messenger in many intracellular pathways including syptic transmission, muscle…
tr:C4QYH5_KOMPG] Hexokinase isoenzyme 2 that catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose in the cytosol; K00844 hexokinase [EC:2.7.1.1] ...
Suzanne DAnna3 Main Regions of a Cell n plasma (cell) membrane n cytosol (cytoplasm) n organelles - specialized highly organized structures for specific cellular activities n inclusions - temporary structures
|p|Acetyl-Glutathione is a novel oral acetyl-glutathione formulation that is stable in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, well absorbed and able to enter the cells directly and present to the cytosol for mitochondrial entry.* Acetyl-Glutathione uses
Cytosolic α-mannosidases are glycosyl hydrolases that participate in the catabolism of cytosolic free N-oligosaccharides. Two soluble α-mannosidases (E-I and E-II) belonging to glycosyl hydrolases family 47 have been described in Candida albicans. We demonstrate that addition of pepstatin A during the preparation of cell homogenates enriched α-mannosidase E-I at the expense of E-II, indicating that the latter is generated by proteolysis during cell disruption. E-I corresponded to a polypeptide of 52 kDa that was associated with mannosidase activity and was recognized by an anti-α1,2-mannosidase antibody. The N-mannan core trimming properties of the purified enzyme E-I were consistent with its classification as a family 47 α1,2-mannosidase. Differential density-gradient centrifugation of homogenates revealed that α1,2-mannosidase E-I was localized to the cytosolic fraction and Golgi-derived vesicles, and that a 65 kDa membrane-bound α1,2-mannosidase was present in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
We have previously reported the substrate specificity of the cytosolic α-D-mannosidase purified from rat liver using Man9GlcNAc, i.e. Manα1-2Manα1-3(Manα1-2Manα1-6)Man α1-6(Manα1-2Manα1-2Manα1-3)Manβ1-4GlcNAc, as substrate [Grard, Saint-Pol, Haeuw, Alonso, Wieruszeski, Strecker and Michalski (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 223, 99-106]. Man9GlcNAc is hydrolysed giving Man5GlcNAc, i.e. Manα1-2Manα1-2Manα1-3(Manα1-6)Manβ1-4GlcNAc, possessing the same structure as the oligosaccharide of the dolichol pathway formed in the cytosolic compartment during the biosynthesis of N-glycosylprotein glycans. We study here the activity of the purified cytosolic α-D-mannosidase towards the oligosaccharide-diphosphodolichol intermediates formed during the biosynthesis of N-glycans, and also towards soluble oligosaccharides released from the endoplasmic reticulum which are glucosylated or not and possessing at their reducing end either a single N-acetylglucosamine residue or a di-N-acetylchitobiose ...
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induction of synaptic vesicle exocytosis by positive regulation of presynaptic cytosolic calcium ion concentration - Ontology Report - Chinchilla Research Resource Database
ATP synthase β subunit (ATPSβ) had been previously shown to play an important role in controlling ATP synthesis in pancreatic β cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of ATPSβ in regulation of hepatic ATP content and glucose metabolism in diabetic mice. Both ATPSβ expression and ATP content were reduced in the livers of type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice. Hepatic overexpression of ATPSβ elevated cellular ATP content, and ameliorated hyperglycemia of STZ-induced diabetic mice and db/db mice. ATPSβ overexpression increased phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) levels and reduced PEPCK and G6pase expression levels in the livers. Consistently, ATPSβ overexpression repressed hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. In cultured hepatocytes, ATPSβ overexpression increased intracellular and extracellular ATP content, elevated cytosolic free calcium level and activated Akt independent of insulin. ATPSβ-induced increase in cytosolic free calcium and pAkt levels was attenuated by inhibition of P2 ...
Translocation of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC) activity from cytosolic to membrane fractions was assessed in washed human platelet suspensions. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced a rapid loss of PKC activity from the cytosolic compartment in stirred platelets, which was not accompanied by measurable increases in membrane-associated activity, but was paralleled by a decrease in total cellular enzyme activity (cytosol plus membrane). When platelet aggregation was prevented by not stirring, (i) cytosolic activity was decreased by PMA, (ii) significant and maintained (1-15 min with PMA) increases in membrane-bound PKC were detected, and (iii) the decline in total enzyme activity was markedly slower. In stirred platelets, total and specific inhibition of PMA-induced aggregation by a fibrinogen-derived peptide (RGDS, i.e. Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) promoted maximal increases in membrane-associated PKC in the presence of PMA and completely prevented the loss in cellular activity. Thrombin ...
Abstract: Cytidine-triphosphate synthetase (UTP: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.4.2.) has been purified over 31 000-fold to homogeneity with 17% recovery from rat liver cytosol, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. The presence of CTP synthetase monomer, dimer and tetramer has been demonstrated in the ammonium sulfate fraction of rat liver cytosol. By gel-permeation HPLC, the molecular weights of the three molecular forms of the enzyme have been estimated as 240 000 (tetramer), 120 000 (dimer) and 60 000 (monomer). By gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel A-1.5m column, the molecular weights of dimer and monomer were estimated as 100 000 and 50 000, respectively. The molecular weight of the monomeric subunit is determined to be 66 000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Monomers isolated fresh from 0-30 (NH4)2SO4 fraction of rat liver cytosol are enzymatically active. Purified rat liver CTP synthetase exhibited sigmoidal kinetic plots as a function of ...
The existence and significance of a hormone-sensitive, rapidly mobilizable intracellular pool of Ca2+ in hamster brown-fat cells was investigated with 45Ca2+-labelling techniques. It was shown that such a pool existed and was probably located within the abundant mitochondria. It was rapidly mobilized by norepinephrine (median effective concentration 50 nM) through alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. The mobilization of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores (mitochondria) required the presence of extracellular Na+, but not of Ca2+, K+ or Mg2+. It is concluded that the experiments are in agreement with a hypothesis linking the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ pools with an alpha-adrenergically-induced increase in plasma membrane Na+ permeability (observed as a membrane depolarization), and a subsequent activation of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange, leading to mobilization of mitochondrial Ca2+ and the mediation of alpha-adrenergic effects as a result of an elevated cytosolic Ca2+ level.. ...
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Abstract: Ca2+ signaling plays a vital role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy.We previously proved that cytosolic Ca2+ overload is involved in cadmium(Cd)-induced apoptosis in rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells, but the source of elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) and the effect of potential subcellular Ca2+ redistribution on apoptosis and autophagy remain to be elucidated. Firstly, data showed that Cd-induced elevation of [Ca2+]c was primarily generated intracellularly. Moreover, elevations of [Ca2+]c and mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]mit) with depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]ER) were revealed in Cd-treated rPT cells, but this subcellular Ca2+ redistributionwas significantly suppressed by 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Elevated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels with up-regulated IP3 receptor (IP3R) protein levels were shown in Cd-exposed cells, confirming that IP3R-mediated ER Ca2+ release results in the elevation of [Ca2+]c. ...
In our model of contractile dysfunction following global ischemia with cardioplegic arrest, there was no detectable induction of pro-apoptotic signaling cascades within the first 2 hours of reperfusion. However, when dopamine was used to treat postischemic contractile dysfunction, caspase-9 and caspase-3 fragmentation/activation occurred and Bax expression increased, resulting in nuclear protein (PARP) cleavage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This pro-apoptotic state was associated with elevated cytosolic calcium concentration, and occurred even when the dopamine-induced positive inotropy and increased myocardial oxygen consumption were suppressed (BDM). On the other hand, improving left ventricular contractility by increasing contractile protein calcium sensitivity without further elevating cytosolic calcium appeared to prevent caspase activation and nuclear protein breakdown or DNA fragmentation.. There is some evidence that myocardial ischemia-reperfusion may be associated with activation of ...
Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell.[12] The pH of the intracellular fluid is 7.4.[13] while human cytosolic pH ranges between 7.0 - 7.4, and is usually higher if a cell is growing.[14] The viscosity of cytoplasm is roughly the same as pure water, although diffusion of small molecules through this liquid is about fourfold slower than in pure water, due mostly to collisions with the large numbers of macromolecules in the cytosol.[15] Studies in the brine shrimp have examined how water affects cell functions; these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal.[3]. Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood, mostly because methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy only give information on the ...
The term pyroptosis (pyro greek for fire or fever) has been originally coined to describe the non‐apoptotic, caspase‐1‐dependent cell death of Salmonella‐infected macrophages that would alarm and recruit neighboring cells to the site of infection (Cookson & Brennan, 2001). Later it became apparent that the activation of caspase‐1 to induce pyroptosis is controlled by a subset of PRRs that can induce inflammasome activation (e.g. NLRP3, AIM2 or NLRC4/NAIP). Upon recognition of their cognate ligands, these sensors seed the prion‐like assembly of the inflammasome adapter ASC into a high molecular weight cytosolic complex to which caspase‐1 becomes recruited and is activated by. Auto‐processed caspase‐1 then matures the cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 to render them bioactive and induce pyroptotic cell death. Besides this canonical inflammasome activation leading to caspase‐1 maturation, other pro‐inflammatory caspases, murine caspase‐11 and human caspase‐4 and caspase‐5, ...
The term pyroptosis (pyro greek for fire or fever) has been originally coined to describe the non‐apoptotic, caspase‐1‐dependent cell death of Salmonella‐infected macrophages that would alarm and recruit neighboring cells to the site of infection (Cookson & Brennan, 2001). Later it became apparent that the activation of caspase‐1 to induce pyroptosis is controlled by a subset of PRRs that can induce inflammasome activation (e.g. NLRP3, AIM2 or NLRC4/NAIP). Upon recognition of their cognate ligands, these sensors seed the prion‐like assembly of the inflammasome adapter ASC into a high molecular weight cytosolic complex to which caspase‐1 becomes recruited and is activated by. Auto‐processed caspase‐1 then matures the cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 to render them bioactive and induce pyroptotic cell death. Besides this canonical inflammasome activation leading to caspase‐1 maturation, other pro‐inflammatory caspases, murine caspase‐11 and human caspase‐4 and caspase‐5, ...
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To this day, a significant proportion of the human genome remains devoid of functional characterization. In this study, we present evidence that the previously functionally uncharacterized product of the human DHRS10 gene is endowed with 17beta-HSD (17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity. 17beta-HSD enzymes are primarily involved in the metabolism of steroids at the C-17 position and also of other substrates such as fatty acids, prostaglandins and xenobiotics. In vitro, DHRS10 converts NAD+ into NADH in the presence of oestradiol, testosterone and 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol. Furthermore, the product of oestradiol oxidation, oestrone, was identified in intact cells transfected with a construct plasmid encoding the DHRS10 protein. In situ fluorescence hybridization studies have revealed the cytoplasmic localization of DHRS10. Along with tissue expression data, this suggests a role for DHRS10 in the local inactivation of steroids in the central nervous system and placenta. The crystal structure
The present results indicate that in the ventricle of the CM hamster, there are two major cell populations: one with low gj probably produced by the pathological process, and a second group characterized by higher gj values. The impairment in cell coupling is quite appreciable, particularly in some cell pairs in which extremely low gj values (0.8 to 2.5 nS) were found. Previous studies by Weingart and Maurer30 in rat ventricular cells indicated that these gj values are incompatible with the propagation of the action potential. This idea is supported by the finding that in some areas of the left ventricular wall, impulse propagation is greatly impaired.29 The low gj might be related to different factors: (1) A high cytosolic calcium concentration (477±10 nmol/L) was found in some areas of the CM hamster heart compared with controls (260±15 nmol/L).27 It is known that an increase in free calcium concentration decreases cell communication.31 The high intracellular free calcium concentration in CM ...
Carefully balanced deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are essential for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome replication and repair. Two synthetic pathways operate in cells to produce dNTPs, e.g., the de novo and the salvage pathways. The key regulatory enzymes for de novo synthesis are ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), and this process is considered to be cytosolic. The salvage pathway operates both in the cytosol (TK1 and dCK) and the mitochondria (TK2 and dGK). Mitochondrial dNTP pools are separated from the cytosolic ones owing to the double membrane structure of the mitochondria, and are formed by the salvage enzymes TK2 and dGK together with NMPKs and NDPK in postmitotic tissues, while in proliferating cells the mitochondrial dNTPs are mainly imported from the cytosol produced by the cytosolic pathways ...
Individual Test Kits (Molybdate/Molybdenum) Three methods are available - 2 colorimetric and one titrimetric. Xanthogonate forms a pink color; thioglycolate forms a yellowish color with molybdate. Molybdenum may be titrated by citric acid with the reaction having a red to yellow endpoint. QUANTITY, CONTENTS, CODE. 10 g, *Molybdenum Reagent *6630-D. 30 mL, *Hydrochloric Acid, *6,381-G. 2, Test Tubes 5 mL glass w/cap, 0230. 1, Spoon 0.1g plastic, 0699. 1, Sodium Molybdate Comparator 1-10 ppm, 6629. *WARNING: Reagents marked with an * are considered to be potential health hazards. ...
p40phox a component of the NADPH-oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme system responsible for the oxidative burst. Upon neutrophil stimulation, this protein and other cytosolic elements are sent to the cell membrane from the cytosol to form a complex which produces phagocytic oxygen radicals. Responsible for the downregulation of NADPH-oxidase. Alternative splicing has been observed. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are commonly observed in a large number of cell types in response to stimulation by an extracellular agonist. In most cell types the mechanism of regular spiking is well understood and models based on Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) can account for many experimental observations. However, cells do not always exhibit simple Ca2+ oscillations. In response to given agonists, some cells show more complex behaviour in the form of bursting, i.e. trains of Ca2+ spikes separated by silent phases. Here we develop several theoretical models, based on physiologically plausible assumptions, that could account for complex intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. The models are all based on one- or two-pool models based on CICR. We extend these models by (i) considering the inhibition of the Ca2+-release channel on a unique intracellular store at high cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, (ii) taking into account the Ca2+-activated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), ...
Attardi, B and Ohno, S, "Cytosol androgen receptor from kidney of normal and testicular feminized (tfm) mice." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2314 ...
The study of cytosolic protein complexes, calledsystems or functional proteomics, is complicated by the challenges associated with purifying unadulterated, functional complexes, and with developing analytical methods for studying protein structure that can accommodate high molecular masses, or weak and transient protein-protein interactions
Rabbit anti NCF1 antibody recognizes neutrophil cytosol factor 1 also known as NOXO2, p47phox or SH3PXD1A. NCF1 is involved in the product
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All cells on Earth have genetic material (DNA), a plasma membrane, cytoplasm (also known as cytosol), and ribosomes. These features are ubiquitous between both prokaryotic and eukaryotic...
Aβ in mitochondria slows the maturation of proteins that enter the organelle from cytosol, according to a new study. The finding could help explain the wide range of mitochondrial deficits seen in Alzheimers disease.. ...
The cytosolic fraction of insulin-treated adipocytes exhibits a 2-fold increase in protein kinase activity when Kemptide is used as a substrate. The detection of insulin-stimulated kinase activity is critically dependent on the presence of phosphatase inhibitors such as fluoride and vanadate in the cell homogenization buffer. The cytosolic protein kinase activity exhibits high sensitivity (ED50 = 2 X 10(-10) M) and a rapid response (maximal after 2 min) to insulin. Kinetic analyses of the cytosolic kinase indicate that insulin increases the Vmax of Kemptide phosphorylation and ATP utilization without affecting the affinities of this enzyme toward the substrate or nucleotide. Upon chromatography on anion-exchange and gel filtration columns, the insulin-stimulated cytosolic kinase activity is resolved from the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and migrates as a single peak with an apparent Mr = 50,000-60,000. The partially purified kinase preferentially utilizes histones, Kemptide, multifunctional calmodulin
Neutrophil cytosol factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCF2 gene. This gene encodes neutrophil cytosolic factor 2, the 67-kilodalton cytosolic subunit of the multi-protein complex known as NADPH oxidase found in neutrophils. This oxidase produces a burst of superoxide which is delivered to the lumen of the neutrophil phagosome. Mutations in this gene, as well as in other NADPH oxidase subunits, can result in chronic granulomatous disease. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116701 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026480 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: NCF2 neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (65kDa, chronic granulomatous disease, autosomal 2)". Wientjes FB, Segal AW (1996). "NADPH oxidase and the respiratory burst". Semin. Cell Biol. 6 (6): 357-65. doi:10.1016/S1043-4682(05)80006-6. PMID 8748143. DeLeo FR, Quinn MT (1997). "Assembly of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase: molecular interaction of oxidase ...
Neutrophil cytosol factor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCF4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic regulatory component of the superoxide-producing phagocyte NADPH-oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme system important for host defense. This protein is preferentially expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. It interacts primarily with neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2/p67-phox) to form a complex with neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1/p47-phox), which further interacts with the small G protein RAC1 and translocates to the membrane upon cell stimulation. This complex then activates flavocytochrome b, the membrane-integrated catalytic core of the enzyme system. The PX domain of this protein can bind phospholipid products of the PI(3) kinase, which suggests its role in PI(3) kinase-mediated signaling events. The phosphorylation of this protein was found to negatively regulate the enzyme activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have ...
EC 3.3.2.10. Accepted name: soluble epoxide hydrolase. Reaction: an epoxide + H2O = a glycol. Other name(s): epoxide hydrase (ambiguous); epoxide hydratase (ambiguous); arene-oxide hydratase (ambiguous); aryl epoxide hydrase (ambiguous); trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase; sEH; cytosolic epoxide hydrolase Systematic name: epoxide hydrolase Comments: Catalyses the hydrolysis of trans-substituted epoxides, such as trans-stilbene oxide, as well as various aliphatic epoxides derived from fatty-acid metabolism [7]. It is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic epoxides (epoxyicosatrienoic acids; EETs) and linoleic acid epoxides. The EETs, which are endogenous chemical mediators, act at the vascular, renal and cardiac levels to regulate blood pressure [4,5]. The enzyme from mammals is a bifunctional enzyme: the C-terminal domain exhibits epoxide-hydrolase activity and the N-terminal domain has the activity of EC 3.1.3.76, lipid-phosphate phosphatase [1,2]. Like EC 3.3.2.9, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, ...
The development of drugs and chemicals requires extensive cytotoxicity testing. Several tests rely on the energy status and the oxidative capacity of cells, i.e. the MTT and the Alamar Blue assay [3]. Both can be applied in an automated way on multi-well plates for HTS. But there are certain limitations, as the final readout depends on two incubation steps: the exposure to the substance and the biotransformation of the reagent. Additionally, the cost effectiveness is a serious factor in large scale screening.. In recent publications, we reported a correlation between cytosolic Ca2+ increase and cell death induced by oxidative stress [20, 21]. Using a panel of different biological and pharmacological approaches we investigated distinct Ca2+ sources merging in a composite pool of toxin dependent increase in free cytosolic Ca2+. The enzymatic activities of the nuclear PARP1 in conjunction with its counterpart poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are responsible for extracellular Ca2+ gated by ...
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All these results demonstrate that DD is caused in most cases by haploinsufficiency of SERCA2b, which could be amplified when the mutated pump has a dominant-negative effect. The analysis of L321F (Sato et al., 2004) revealed that a decreased Ca2+ affinity and insensitivity to the feedback inhibition without decreased expression are sufficient to cause abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and DD. The range of functional alterations observed among ATP2A2 variants could account for the variable clinical features of DD.. Although Ca2+-mediated Ca2+ signaling was preserved in DD keratinocytes (Fig. 6), Ca2+ homeostasis was not completely normal, as evidenced by the abnormally low resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations (Table 2). Baseline cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations are maintained by the constant interaction of proteins that control Ca2+ release or influx with proteins that control Ca2+ extrusion or reuptake. Loss of one of the reuptake mechanisms, such as the Ca2+-sequestering SERCA2, resulting from DD ...
Prior to this study, biliverdin reductase was assumed to be exclusive to the cytosol and nonresponsive to chemicals (Kutty and Maines, 1981; Huang and Maines, 1990). Hence, the enzyme was only examined in the cytosol, and primarily with respect to its molecular and biochemical properties. The present study reports, for the first time, on the nuclear presence of the reductase and increases in its nuclear localization in response to renal toxins, LPS and bromobenzene. The study also suggests that nuclear localization of biliverdin reductase is not exclusive to the rat kidney and extends to human cell lines. As noted above, biliverdin reductase is the product of a single copy gene (McCoubrey et al., 1995) that undergoes post-translational modification to give rise to variants with different molecular weight (Huang et al., 1989; Huang and Maines, 1990). The present study detects two bands in the rat kidney cytosol; however, as noted, molecular variants close in size to the smaller cytosolic variant ...
In the present study we addressed the question of whether the biosynthesis of secondary carotenoids in H. pluvialisproceeds via an independent second pathway that operates outside the chloroplast, as the accumulation of the astaxanthin esters in cytosolic lipid vesicles might indicate. According to our data for PDS, we conclude that, at least for this relatively early biosynthetic step of carotenogenesis, no second cytosolic pathway exists and that higher biosynthetic activity is coupled to higher amounts of enzyme. Up-regulation on both the mRNA and protein levels was observed upon induction of SC synthesis. Because of slight variability in the extent of SC accumulation between parallels (Grünewald, 1997), we do not interpret the small difference between the maxima in PDS mRNA and protein levels as a sign for post-translational regulation events-at least the main part of up-regulation takes place at the mRNA level.. Bouvier et al. (1998) showed that pepper PDS mRNA increased under different ...
170364-57-5 manufacture one time per month), fulfillment of rest (satisfied, dissatisfied slightly, or issue (quite dissatisfied, or extremely dissatisfied or havent slept in 170364-57-5 manufacture any way), involvement in entertainment and community activity (hardly ever or rarely, occasionally, or frequently), and regular physical exercise (nearly every time, 2C4 moments/week, or 1 period/week). Additionally, we repeated the analyses for every disaster-induced transformation in SES (i.e., transformation in living agreements, became unemployed, and lower income). We computed the percentage of surplus risks described by lifestyle-related elements the following: (PRmodel 1???PRmodel 2)/(PRmodel 1C1))??100 [23]. Outcomes Features by disaster-induced transformation in SES The features of the analysis participants regarding to disaster-induced transformation in SES for women and men are proven in Table ?Desk1.1. For both sexes, the prevalence of poor subjective wellness among participants using a ...
The secretion of ions and fluid plays a critical role in a variety of physiological activities that are vital to homeostatic mechanisms in animals. Control of such secretory activity is achieved by a range of neurotransmitters and hormones many of which act intracellularly by generating the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and increasing cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca2+]i). These increases are achieved by a combination of the InsP3-induced release of Ca2+ from specific intracellular stores and the activation of Ca2+ entry from the extracellular environment. The [Ca2+]i signal represents a balance between the adequate activation of components of the secretory mechanism and the avoidance of [Ca2+]i levels that are toxic to the cell. Resting [Ca2+]i is maintained low by the action of Ca2+ pumps on the intracellular stores and plasma membrane, with the result that gradients for Ca2+ movement into the cytosol from either of these two sources are very large and ...
The effect of a single oral administration of 750 mg/kg tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) on endogenous phosphorylation of specific brain cytosolic proteins has been studied in roosters following the development of delayed neurotoxicity. In vitro phosphorylation assay using [Y-32P]ATP was carried out. Proteins were then resolved on one dimensional 8% SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, s
In the human erythroleukemia cell line, HEL, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) via pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways. Unlike iloprost, the stable prostacyclin analogue cicaprost (ZK 96480), is devoid of agonistic properties at prostaglandin E2 receptors. We compared the effects of cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 on [Ca2+]i in HEL cells. Cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 were similarly potent to increase [Ca2+]i in HEL cells. However, unlike the effects of PGE2, those of the prostacyclin analogues were not inhibited by pertussis toxin. The prostaglandins studied increased [Ca2+]i through both mobilization from internal stores and Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. Prostacyclin analogue- and PGE2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i were desensitized in a homologous manner. Additionally, there was cross-desensitization between cicaprost and iloprost, but not between the prostacyclin analogues and PGE2. Our ...
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive drug that can cause toxicity and degeneration in the brain. Several pieces of evidence have demonstrated that METH toxicity results in increases in oxidative stress that regulate an intracellular signaling cascade that leads to cell death. Recently, several studies have emphasized that the overload of cytosolic calcium levels and mitochondrial fission into a small mitochondrial structure is involved in cell death processes. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of METH toxicity on cytosolic calcium overload and mitochondrial fission in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally, the protective effect of melatonin against METH-induced toxicity was also investigated. The results of the present study demonstrated that METH significantly decreases cell viability and increases the levels of mitochondrial fission (Fis1 and Drp1) proteins and pro-apoptotic protein, Bax in isolated mitochondria. The levels of Drp1 in the cytosol of METH-treated cells had
Induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and cytosolic translocation of cytochrome C are considered essential components of the apoptotic pathway. Hence, there is the realization that mitochondrial- specific drugs could have potential for use as chemotherapeutic agents to trigger apoptosis In tumor cells. Recently, we showed that photoproducts of merocyanine 540 (pMC540) induced tumor cell apoptosis. In this study, we focused on identifying mitochondrial-specific compounds from pMC540 and studied their apoptotic potential. One purified fraction, C5, induced a drop In mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cytosolic translocation of cytochrome C in HL60 human leukemia cells. Moreover, the addition of C5 to purified rat liver mitochondria induced MPT as indicated by mitochondrial matrix swelling, which was completely inhibited by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the inner-membrane pore. Supernatant of C5-treated mitochondria showed a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C, which ...
In order to determine the specificity of abnormalities of alcohol metabolism in patients with alcoholic liver disease, blood acetaldehyde concentrations after oral ethanol challenge and the activities of alcohol metabolising enzymes in liver biopsy samples have been determined in patients with alcoholic liver disease and a wide variety of non-alcoholic liver disorders. Significant decreases in hepatic cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were associated with significant increases in acetaldehyde concentrations after ethanol in both patient groups compared with control subjects. There was a significant correlation between hepatic cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase and mean blood acetaldehyde concentration 30-180 min after ethanol ingestion (y = 17.4-0.45x; r = -0.56; p less than 0.01) confirming the importance of this enzyme in controlling blood acetaldehyde concentrations. These findings suggest that disturbances in alcohol metabolism in patients with alcoholic liver disease are the ...
The acute and chronic adaptation to changes in blood flow occur as a result of endothelium-dependent responses that regulate vascular tone and the organization of the blood vessel wall. Among the most rapid responses of vascular endothelial cells to changes in fluid shear stress are K+ channel activation,2 generation of inositol trisphosphate,3 an increase in [Ca2+]i,23 24 and changes in pHi.4 5 The present study shows that an abrupt decrease in fluid shear stress produces cytosolic alkalinization of vascular endothelial cells by affecting membrane ion transporters that contribute to pHi regulation. After a period of exposure to continuous fluid shear stress at 2.7 dyne/cm2, the abrupt reduction of fluid shear stress from 2.7 to 0.3 dyne/cm2 produced a bicarbonate-dependent increase in pHi of 0.27 pH unit, which was not affected by prior inhibition of the Na+-H+ exchanger alone. Recovery from an NH4Cl prepulse-induced acid load occurred more rapidly when fluid shear stress was abruptly reduced ...

Cytosol - WikipediaCytosol - Wikipedia

The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its ... The concentrations of the other ions in cytosol are quite different from those in extracellular fluid and the cytosol also ... of the volume of the cytosol. However, measuring precisely how much protein is dissolved in cytosol in intact cells is ... and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. The term "cytosol" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosol

Cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase - WikipediaCytosol nonspecific dipeptidase - Wikipedia

Bauer, K. (1998). "Cytosol non-specific dipeptidase". In Barrett, A.J.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. Handbook of Proteolytic ... Cytosol non-specific dipeptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... Cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.18, N2-beta-alanylarginine dipeptidase, glycyl-glycine dipeptidase, glycyl-leucine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosol_nonspecific_dipeptidase

cytosol | Encyclopedia.comcytosol | Encyclopedia.com

Source for information on cytosol: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... cytosol (hyaloplasm) The semifluid soluble part of the cytoplasm of cells, which contains the components of the cytoskeleton ... cytosol (hyaloplasm) The semifluid soluble part of the cytoplasm of cells, which contains the components of the cytoskeleton ... cytosol A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytosol

cytosol | SGDcytosol | SGD

Gene Ontology Term: cytosol. GO ID. GO:0005829 Aspect. Cellular Component. Description. The part of the cytoplasm that does not ...
more infohttps://www.yeastgenome.org/go/GO:0005829

Transcalciferin in serum and cytosol | SpringerLinkTranscalciferin in serum and cytosol | SpringerLink

Cytosol These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02064097

CytoSol BioSolvent Application 1998 (Part 2) - YouTubeCytoSol BioSolvent Application 1998 (Part 2) - YouTube

CytoSol BioSolvent is based upon vegetable oil. Recognized by the EPA on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule. ... The CytoSol is effective in shoreline restoration. www.rapidenergyservices.com 1-866-456-3696 CytoSol is a product developed by ... CytoSol BioSolvent is based upon vegetable oil. Recognized by the EPA on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule. ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hG_AOgnCV1M

Cytosol | Definition of Cytosol at Dictionary.comCytosol | Definition of Cytosol at Dictionary.com

Cytosol definition, the water-soluble components of cell cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal ... cytosol. 1965-70; cyto- + sol(ution), on the model of hydrosol, etc. ... In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes, the cytosol surrounds the organelles. ... cytosine arabinoside, cytosine ribonucleoside, cytosis, cytoskeleton, cytosmear, cytosol, cytosome, cytost, cytostasis, ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/cytosol

Probable cytosol aminopeptidase (C1DPG2) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIProbable cytosol aminopeptidase (C1DPG2) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/C1DPG2

Pinning Prions to the Cytosol | ALZFORUMPinning Prions to the Cytosol | ALZFORUM

But Mironov also found that in a subset of CA1 hippocampal cells, the bulk of the prion occurred in the cytosol. Though the ... targeted PrP to the cytosol, but Mironov could not find cytPrP in that area of the brain. The authors conclude that "cytPrP is ... Neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration when PrP accumulates in the cytosol. Science. 2002 Nov 29;298(5599):1781-5. PubMed. ... This group proposed that this misfolded protein is ejected from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol, where the ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/pinning-prions-cytosol

Neutrophil cytosol factor P40 (IPR000919) | InterPro | EMBL-EBINeutrophil cytosol factor P40 (IPR000919) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR000919

Re: Very confused about cytosol and cytoplasm!?!Re: Very confused about cytosol and cytoplasm!?!

... Date: Tue Mar 9 23:47:02 2004. Posted By: Dr. Nagesh N Bhat, Post-doc/Fellow ... Cytosol is the general liquid area of the cytoplasm excluding the compartments. For further details, refer Genes V (page 30) or ...
more infohttp://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2004-03/1078941353.Cb.r.html

Mitochondria / Cytosol Fractionation Kit from MBL InternationalMitochondria / Cytosol Fractionation Kit from MBL International

Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit 4C,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product ... Cytosol/Particulate Separation Kit from BioVision. 11. Cytosol / Particulate Rapid Separation Kit from MBL International. ... Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit Research Focus: other Storage Temperature: 4C Shipping Temperature: 4C. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-products/Mitochondria---Cytosol-Fractionation-Kit-from-MBL-International-4885-1/

Reactome | TUBB4B [cytosol]Reactome | TUBB4B [cytosol]

beta-tubulin:GDP [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * beta-tubulin [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * TUBB4B [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... beta-tubulin:GDP [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * beta-tubulin [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * TUBB4B [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... beta-tubulin:GDP [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * beta-tubulin [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * TUBB4B [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... beta-tubulin:GDP [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * beta-tubulin [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * TUBB4B [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-191702

Reactome | PDPK1 [cytosol]Reactome | PDPK1 [cytosol]

Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-MMU-202210

Reactome | CLIP1 [cytosol]Reactome | CLIP1 [cytosol]

Mad1:kinetochore complex [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Kinetochore [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * CLIP1 [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... Mad1:kinetochore complex [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Kinetochore [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * CLIP1 [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... Mad1:kinetochore complex [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Kinetochore [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * CLIP1 [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ... Mad1:kinetochore complex [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Kinetochore [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * CLIP1 [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-377732

Reactome | USP9X [cytosol]Reactome | USP9X [cytosol]

USP9X:Ub-SNCA [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * USP9X [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * USPX9:SNCA [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * USP9X [cytosol ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-870499

Accumulation of Osmolytes | Calcium In Biology | CytosolAccumulation of Osmolytes | Calcium In Biology | Cytosol

This indicates that Ca2 may differentially exercise its control on accumulation of osmotic solutes in cytosol and in vacuoles ... to counteract the loss of turgor by increasing and maintaining higher amount of intracellular compatible solutes in cytosol and ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/132411086/Accumulation-of-Osmolytes

Pro- and Anti-Oxidant Factors in Rat lung Cytosol | SpringerLinkPro- and Anti-Oxidant Factors in Rat lung Cytosol | SpringerLink

Doelman C.J.A., Bast A. (1990) Pro- and Anti-Oxidant Factors in Rat lung Cytosol. In: Emerit I., Packer L., Auclair C. (eds) ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5730-8_71

Aminopeptidase, Cytosol - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAminopeptidase, Cytosol - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

This occurs in Tissue Cell Cytosol, with high activity in the Duodenum, liver, and Kidney. The activity of this enzyme is ... Aminopeptidase, Cytosol. A Zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/aminopeptidase-cytosol.html

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Cytosol aminopeptidase - P28838 (AMPL HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Cytosol aminopeptidase - P28838 (AMPL HUMAN)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/B3KMQ3

1V0H: Ascobate Peroxidase From Soybean Cytosol In Complex With Salicylhydroxamic Acid1V0H: Ascobate Peroxidase From Soybean Cytosol In Complex With Salicylhydroxamic Acid

ASCORBATE PEROXIDASEProtoporphyrin Ix Containing FeSalicylhydroxamic AcidSodium Ion[dihydrogen 3,7,12,17-tetramethyl-8,13-divinyl-2,18-porphinedipropionato(2-)]iron
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/pdb/1V0H

Lung cytosol in-vitro: post #1Lung cytosol in-vitro: post #1

I am using lung cytosol form mice and will expose them to different treatments for 4h. Then it will be electrophoresed to ... How can I use the cytosol in vitro? I me... ... Lung cytosol in-vitro - posted in Molecular Biology: Hi All, I ... Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: cytosol, lung cells, EMSA. Protocols and Techniques Forums → Molecular Biology ... How can I use the cytosol in vitro? I mean do put in culture plates and just the treatments? does it need any media for that? ...
more infohttp://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/31051-lung-cytosol-in-vitro/

Structural Biochemistry/Cell Organelles/Cytosol - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldStructural Biochemistry/Cell Organelles/Cytosol - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Besides ions, the cytosol also has macromolecules. Cytoplasm vs. Cytosol[edit]. There is often much confusion between the ... However, they cytosol is in fact just a part of the cytoplasm. The gel-like translucent fluid is what the cytosol really is. It ... Protein also occupies approximately 20-30% of the volume of cytosol. However, even with this many protein occupying cytosol, ... and dissolved ions all consist of the contents of cytosol. Structurally, the cytosol consists mostly of water. However, it does ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Cell_Organelles/Cytosol

Ncf1 - Neutrophil cytosol factor 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ncf1 gene & proteinNcf1 - Neutrophil cytosol factor 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Ncf1 gene & protein

Cytosol. *cytosol 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published experimental evidence.,/p> ,p>,a ... Neutrophil cytosol factor 1Add BLAST. 390. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... Cytosol. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual ... sp,Q09014,NCF1_MOUSE Neutrophil cytosol factor 1 OS=Mus musculus GN=Ncf1 PE=1 SV=3 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q09014

The human cell in cytosol - The Human Protein AtlasThe human cell in cytosol - The Human Protein Atlas

Cytosol: 4266. *Cytoplasmic bodies: 60. *Rods & Rings: 19. The cytosol is a highly crowded and complex medium (Luby-Phelps K, ... 3308 proteins in the cytosol have multiple locations.. *388 proteins in the cytosol show a cell to cell variation. Of these 291 ... Figure 1. Examples of proteins localized to the cytosol. G3BP1 is an enzyme localized in the cytosol and plays a role in signal ... All the organelles, except the nucleus, suspended in the cytosol make up the cytoplasm (Clegg JS, 1984). The cytosol itself is ...
more infohttps://www.proteinatlas.org/humanproteome/cell/cytosol
  • Isolation of a complex of respiratory burst oxidase components from resting neutrophil cytosol. (nih.gov)
  • In the resting neutrophil, some of the components of the oxidase, including proteins p47phox and p67phox, are in the cytosol, while the rest are in a fraction that usually copurifies with plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • On gel filtration, the complex migrated with a molecular weight of 240-300K, similar to that observed with whole neutrophil cytosol. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that in resting neutrophil cytosol, p47phox and p67phox exist as a complex. (nih.gov)
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viscosity of cytoplasm is roughly the same as pure water, although diffusion of small molecules through this liquid is about fourfold slower than in pure water, due mostly to collisions with the large numbers of macromolecules in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Re: Very confused about cytosol and cytoplasm! (madsci.org)
  • Cytosol is the general liquid area of the cytoplasm excluding the compartments. (madsci.org)
  • There is often much confusion between the cytoplasm and the cytosol. (wikibooks.org)
  • When looking at the two, the cytosol is often confused as being the cytoplasm itself, and many individuals view the two as being synonymous. (wikibooks.org)
  • However, they cytosol is in fact just a part of the cytoplasm. (wikibooks.org)
  • Importantly, their data, which appeared in the August 6 Journal of Neuroscience, show that a pool of prions exists in the neuronal cytosol, supporting a recent hypothesis that minute amounts of misfolded, cytosolic prion may be sufficient to cripple neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • When supplemented with recombinant p67phox, the complex displayed considerable activity in a cell-free oxidase-activating system, and even without added p67phox, the complex could more than double O2- production in an oxidase-activating system supplemented with suboptimal amounts of cytosol. (nih.gov)
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • But Mironov also found that in a subset of CA1 hippocampal cells, the bulk of the prion occurred in the cytosol. (alzforum.org)
  • Transportation of metabolite and cell communication are among some of the important functions that occur within the cytosol. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood, mostly because methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy only give information on the average structure of water, and cannot measure local variations at the microscopic scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complex mixture of substances dissolved in water forms the cytosol even though water is the large majority of the mixture. (wikibooks.org)
  • Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs in Tissue Cell Cytosol , with high activity in the Duodenum , liver, and Kidney . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Consisting of around 75% of the cell's total volume, the cytosol is composed of many different cellular components. (wikibooks.org)
  • targeted PrP to the cytosol, but Mironov could not find cytPrP in that area of the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Although it was once thought to be a simple solution of molecules, the cytosol has multiple levels of organization. (wikipedia.org)