Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/13467)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Effect of hepatocarcinogens on the binding of glucocorticoid-receptor complex in rat liver nuclei. (2/13467)

The effects of a number of carcinogens and hepatotoxins on the binding kinetics of the interactions of glucocorticoidcytosol receptor complex with nuclear acceptor sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent sites in rat liver were investigated. Both the apparent concentration of nuclear binding sites and the Kd were significantly diminished following treatment of rats with sublethal doses of the carcinogens aflatoxin B1, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, thioacetamide, 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 3-methylcholanthrene. Treatment with actinomycin D resulted in a slight reduction in the apparent concentration of nuclear acceptor sites but had no effect on the nuclear binding Kd. The hepatotoxic but noncarcinogenic analgesic, acetaminophen, as well as the weakly toxic aflatoxin B1 cognate, aflatoxin B2, were without effect on the kinetics or binding capacity of glucocorticoid-nuclear acceptor site interaction. These experiments suggest that chemically induced alteration of functional glucocorticoid binding sites on chromatin may be involved in the biochemical effects produced in liver by carcinogens of several chemical types. This experimental model may provide a useful approach for further elucidation of early events in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (3/13467)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (4/13467)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

The endosome fusion regulator early-endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) is a dimer. (5/13467)

EEA1, an early-endosomal protein originally identified as an autoantigen, is essential for endocytic membrane fusion. It interacts with early endosomes via binding to the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the active form of the small GTPase Rab5. Most of the EEA1 sequence contains heptad repeats characteristic of proteins involved in coiled-coil protein-protein interactions. Here we have investigated the ability of EEA1 to self-interact. Crosslinking of cytosolic and recombinant EEA1 resulted in the disappearance of the 180-kDa monomer in SDS/PAGE and the strong appearance of a approximately 350-kDa crosslinked product. Glycerol gradient centrifugation experiments indicated that native EEA1 had the same hydrodynamic properties as the approximately 350-kDa crosslinked complex. Two-hybrid analysis indicated that N- and C-terminal fragments of EEA1 can interact with themselves, but not with each other, suggesting that EEA1 forms parallel coiled-coil dimers. The ability of the C-terminus of EEA1 to dimerize correlates with its ability to bind to Rab5 and early endosomes, whereas its binding to PtdIns3P is independent of dimerization. These data enable us to propose a model for the quaternary structure of EEA1.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/13467)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (7/13467)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (8/13467)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

Author(s): Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Pingping; Zhang, Zhuangzhuang; Farré, Jean-Claude; Li, Xuezhi; Wang, Ruonan; Xia, Zhijie; Subramani, Suresh; Ma, Changle | Abstract: Damaged or redundant peroxisomes and their luminal cargoes are removed by pexophagy, a selective autophagy pathway. In yeasts, pexophagy depends mostly on the pexophagy receptors, such as Atg30 for Pichia pastoris and Atg36 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the autophagy scaffold proteins, Atg11 and Atg17, and the core autophagy machinery. In P. pastoris, the receptors for peroxisomal matrix proteins containing peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs) include the PTS1 receptor, Pex5, and the PTS2 receptor and co-receptor, Pex7 and Pex20, respectively. These shuttling receptors are predominantly cytosolic and only partially peroxisomal. It remains unresolved as to whether, when and how the cytosolic pools of peroxisomal receptors, as well as the peroxisomal matrix proteins, are degraded under pexophagy conditions. These cytosolic pools exist both
Retro-translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol of secretory and membrane proteins takes place on misfolded molecules targeted for proteasomal degradation, in a process called ER associated degradation (ERAD), Because of the difficulties in clearly discriminating the fraction of molecules already retro-translocated from the ones in the ER, we took advantage of the E coli biotin-ligase (BirA) expressed in the cytosol of mammalian cells, to specifically biotin-label proteins that undergo retro-translocation, The method was validated using four different model proteins, known to undergo retro-translocation upon different conditions; the MHC-Iα chain, the non-secretory null-Hong Kong mutant of 01 antitrypsin, the immunoglobulin γH chain and calreticulin, The -- specific mono-biotinylation of only cytosolically dislocated molecules resulted in a novel quantitative method to determine the extent of retro-translocation. The method was used to study dislocation of CD4 and ...
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) stimulates corticosteroid secretion from adrenal cells through activation of 5-HT4 receptors positively coupled to adenylyl-cyclase. In the present study, we investigated in frog adrenocortical cells the effect of 5-HT4 receptor agonists on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and determined the sequence of events associated with 5-HT4 receptor agonist zacopride (10[-8] to 10[-5]M each in the vicinity of cultured adrenocortical cells caused a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Preincubation of the cells with the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist [1-[2-(methylsulfonylamino)ethyl]-4- piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate maleate totally blocked the 5-HT-induced stimulation of [Ca2+]i. Chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N, N-tetraacetic acid (10 MM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on [Ca2+]i. Conversely, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium ATPase activity, had no effect on the [Ca2+]i ...
Pulmonary tumors induced in A/J mice 14 months after a single i.p. injection of urethan vary greatly in size. Since glucocorticoids may play a major role in regulating lung cell proliferation, glucocorticoid binding was examined in these tumors to determine whether tumor size was related to any specific pattern of [3H]dexamethasone ([3H]DEX) binding. Tumor samples were incubated in vitro with 17 nm [3H]DEX for 90 min at 37°, washed extensively to reduce nonspecific binding, and either fractionated by differential centrifugation to quantify nuclear and cytosolic binding or processed for autoradiography. Quantitative binding studies demonstrate a reduction in specific nuclear [3H]DEX binding and an increase in nonspecific cytosolic binding in all of the tumors examined as compared to normal adult lung. Autoradiographic studies reveal pulmonary tumors of different morphology which vary in their [3H]DEX binding characteristics. Small tumors were of two histological patterns, alveolar adenomas which ...
Human liver cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase share 70% sequence identity. However, the first 21 residues are not conserved between the human isozymes (15% identity). The three-dimensional structures of the beef mitochondrial and sheep cytosolic forms have virtually identical three-dimensional structures. Here, we solved the structure of the human mitochondrial enzyme and found it to be identical to the beef enzyme. The first 21 residues are found on the surface of the enzyme and make no contact with other subunits in the tetramer. A pair of chimeric enzymes between the human isozymes was made. Each chimera had the first 21 residues from one isozyme and the remaining 479 from the other. When the first 21 residues were from the mitochondrial isozyme, an enzyme with cytosolic-like properties was produced. The other was expressed but was insoluble. It was possible to restore solubility and activity to the chimera that had the first 21 cytosolic residues fused to the ...
The cytosol consists mainly of water in which various molecules are dissolved or suspended. These molecules include proteins, fats and carbohydrates as well as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Many of the reactions that take place in the cell occur in the cytosol. Insert here: W/S Cell Q 4 ...
The cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway mediates recognition of MHV-68 in MSCs.MSCs were infected with MHV-68 (MOI 0.1) (a) or transfected with MHV-68 DNA
Relocalization of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus of heat stressed HUVECs.Cells were incubated at 37 °C (CONT) or were subjected to a heat stress (HS)
உயிரணு உயிரியலில் உயிரணுக்கணிகம் அல்லது கலக்கணிகம் அல்லது குழியவுரு (Cytoplasm) என்பது உயிரணு ஒன்றின் உள்ளடக்கத்தில், உயிரணுக் கரு தவிர்ந்த மிகுதியாக உள்ள பகுதியாகும். இது உயிரணு நீர்மம் (en:Cytosol) எனும் நீர்மக் கரைசலையும் (இந்த நீர்மக் கரைசல் உயிரணு மென்சவ்விற்கு உள்ளாக இருக்கும் கூழ்மப் பொருள்), உயிரணுக்களின் உள்ளே காணப்படும் நுண்ணுறுப்புக்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய பகுதி ஆகும். இந்த ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell wall oligogalacturonides increase cytosolic free calcium in carrot protoplasts.. AU - Messiaen, Johan. AU - Read, Nick. AU - Van Cutsem, Pierre. AU - Trewavas, Antony. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Article. VL - 104. SP - 365. EP - 371. JO - Journal of Cell Science. JF - Journal of Cell Science. SN - 0021-9533. ER - ...
Ca2+ is implicated as a second messenger in the response of stomata to a range of stimuli. However, the mechanism by which stimulus-induced increases in guard cell cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) are transduced into different physiological responses remains to be explained. Oscillations in [Ca2+]i may provide one way in which this can occur. We used photometric and imaging techniques to examine this hypothesis in guard cells of Commelina communis. External Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e), which causes an increase in [Ca2+]i, was used as a closing stimulus. The total increase in [Ca2+]i was directly related to the concentration of [Ca2+]e, both of which correlated closely with the degree of stomatal closure. Increases were oscillatory in nature, with the pattern of the oscillations dependent on the concentration of [Ca2+]e. At 0.1 mM, [Ca2+]e induced symmetrical oscillations. In contrast, 1.0 mM [Ca2+]e induced asymmetric oscillations. Oscillations were stimulus dependent and modulated by changing [Ca2+]e. ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment for protein synthesis and maturation and also functions as a Ca2+ storage organelle. The failure of the ER to cope with the excessive protein load due to perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress. In response to ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to reduce the unfolded protein load and meanwhile increase protein folding capacity. Activation of PERK (PKR-like eIF2a kinase) signaling and induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) represent two major survival arms of the UPR. In this thesis, the fortuitous discovery of a novel cytosolic isoform of GRP78 is reported. This GRP78 isoform, designated as GRP78va, is generated by alternative splicing and alternative translational initiation. Expression of GRP78va is enhanced by ER stress and is notably elevated in human leukemic cells and leukemia patients. Unlike the canonical form of GRP78 which is primarily localized in the ER ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment for protein synthesis and maturation and also functions as a Ca2+ storage organelle. The failure of the ER to cope with the excessive protein load due to perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress. In response to ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to reduce the unfolded protein load and meanwhile increase protein folding capacity. Activation of PERK (PKR-like eIF2a kinase) signaling and induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) represent two major survival arms of the UPR. In this thesis, the fortuitous discovery of a novel cytosolic isoform of GRP78 is reported. This GRP78 isoform, designated as GRP78va, is generated by alternative splicing and alternative translational initiation. Expression of GRP78va is enhanced by ER stress and is notably elevated in human leukemic cells and leukemia patients. Unlike the canonical form of GRP78 which is primarily localized in the ER ...
The bath-to-cell transport, cytosolic concentration, and tubular content of methylmercury (Me203Hg+) and the sulfhydryl-amino acids and sulfhydryl-amino acid derivatives conjugated to Me203Hg+ were studied in the non-perfused S2 segments of the proximal tubule of the rabbit kidney. Active transport of Me203Hg+ was established by a temperature dependent (greater than 100% reduction in bath-to-cell transport, 99% decrease in cytosolic concentration, 63% decline in the tubular contents at 12°C when compared to 37°C). Conjugates of Me203Hg+ showed mixed results, with L-cysteine and L-taurine demonstrating the most significant increase in uptake. Transport of Me203Hg+-L-cysteine was also temperature dependent with a 77% reduction in bath-to-cell transport, 76% decrease in cytosolic concentration, and 86% decline in tubular contents at 12°C when compared to 37°C. A significant decrease in transport was seen with the classic organic anion transport (OAT) inhibitors of PAH (71% and 67%) and probenicid (48%
Background Obesity and associated hormonal disturbances are risk factors for colon cancer. Cytosolic Malic Enzyme (ME1) generates NADPH used for lipogenesis in gastrointestinal (GI), liver and adipose tissues. We have reported that inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI) in the diet lowered body fat content and colon tumor incidence of rats fed AIN-93G diet, while others have demonstrated SPI inhibition of rat hepatic ME1 expression. The present study examined the individual and combined effects of dietary SPI and absence of ME1 on: 1) serum concentrations of hormones implicated in colon cancer development, 2) expression of lipogenic and proliferation-associated genes in the mouse colon and small intestine, and 3) liver and adipose expression of lipogenic and adipocytokine genes that may contribute to colon cancer predisposition. Methods Weanling wild type (WT) and ME1 null (MOD-1) male mice were fed high-fat (HF), iso-caloric diets containing either casein (CAS) or SPI as sole protein source for 5 wks
Available data indicate that the liver is a target organ for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and that this effect is most likely mediated by PTH-induced calcium entry into hepatocytes. The present study examined the effects of both PTH-(1-84) and its amino-terminal fragment [PTH-(1-34)] on cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of hepatocytes and explored the cellular pathways that mediate this potential action of PTH. Both moieties of PTH produced a dose-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i, but the effect of PTH-(1-84) was greater (P | 0.01) than an equimolar amount of PTH-(1-34). This effect required calcium in the medium and was totally [PTH-(1-34)] or partially [PTH-(1-84)] blocked by PTH antagonist ([Nle8,18,Tyr34]bPTH-(7-34)-NH2] and by verapamil or nifedipine. Sodium or chloride channel blockers did not modify this effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, dibutyryl adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP), and G protein activator also produced a dose-dependent
Evidence was presented to indicate that the binding of benzo(a)pyrene (50328) (BaP) to a protein in rat liver cytosol facilitates its oxidation by microsomal enzymes. Cytosols were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley-rats. Sephadex G-100 gel permeation chromatography of rat liver cytosol saturated with carbon- 14 labeled BaP resulted in two peaks of protein bound radioactivity. Glutathione-S-transfe
Fatty acids in milk are thought to play an important role in intestinal maturation and gene expression in the postnatal small intestine. In this study, we determined the jejunal mRNA levels, in rats, of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alph
The focus of this review is to provide an update on the progress of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for lung cancer. miRNAs are single-stranded, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and show tissue-specific signatures. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA expression patterns represent
The exocytosis is a key mechanism, crucial for physiological functions such as neurotransmission and hormone secretion. Upon physiological stimuli that increase cytosolic calcium, secretory vesicles storing transmitter molecules dock and fuse with the plasma membrane. During the fusion process, a narrow channel, called fusion pore connects the vesicular and extracellular compartments, allowing the slow trickling out of small molecules stored in the vesicle lumen. Later, the fusion pore expands to massively release the total vesicular content, or alternatively it may close, leading to the partial release of transmitters. These two modes of exocytosis are known as full fusion and kiss-and-run respectively. Why do endocrine cells require different modes of exodocytosis? Secretory vesicles of endocrine cells contain a cocktail of molecules of different sizes and physiological functions. Thus the existence of these two modes of exocytosis allows the cells to adjust the release of the active ...
Author: Jha, D et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-03; Title: CyLoP-1: A Novel Cysteine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptide for Cytosolic Delivery of Cargoes
View Notes - D103 clicker+questions_lecture+16-18 from BIOL 05400 at UC Irvine. A. expression level of AKAPs B. level of adenylyl cyclase activity C. increased cytosolic concentration of cAMP D.
We reported previously that expressed pleckstrin will bind to plasma membranes and induce lamellipodia and actin reorganization (Ma et al. 1997; Ma and Abrams 1999). We have now found that expressed and phosphorylated pleckstrin also induces cell spreading through an integrin-dependent pathway and that this effect is adhesion substrate-specific.. The observation that pleckstrin-induced cell spreading is inhibited by the dominant-negative αIIbβ3 Ser753Pro mutant implies that pleckstrin cooperates with integrins to mediate cell signaling. Most integrins respond to agonist-stimulated signals (inside-out signaling) that regulate their ability to bind to extracellular matrix proteins, where binding to the matrix itself initiates signals (outside-in signaling) that increases the cytosolic concentration of calcium, causes the phosphorylation of a number of signaling proteins, and induces the reorganization of the cytoskeleton (Shattil 1999; Giancotti and Ruoslahti 1999). Our data place pleckstrin ...
This *very cool* paper in The Journal of Physiology (also featured in the F1000) by authors Tünde Molnar, Peter Barabas, Lutz Birnbaumer, Claudio Punzo, Vladimir Kefalov and David Krizaj examines mechanisms of cytosolic calcium levels in rod photoreceptor cells.. Continue reading Store-Operated Channels Regulate Intracellular Calcium In Mammalian Rods. ...
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Plant membranes are relatively permeable to K+ due to various selective K+ channels across the membrane. Basically, one distinguishes between low-affinity K+ channels and high-affinity channels. For the function of the low-affinity channels, the electrochemical difference between the cytosol and the outer medium (liquid in root or leaf apoplast) is of decisive importance. The K+ is imported into the cell for as long as the electrochemical potential in the cytosol is lower than in the outer solution. With the import of the positive charge (K+) the electrochemical potential increases (decrease of the negative charge of the cytosol) and finally attains that of the outer medium, equilibrium is attained, and there is no further driving force for the uptake of K+ (15). The negative charge of the cytosol is maintained by the activity of the plasmalemma H+ pump permanently excreting H+ from the cytosol into the apoplast and thus maintaining the high negative charge of the cytosol and building up an ...
Fyn along with other short kinase family members are important for t cell activation,other molecules involved in T cell activation includes CD45 whose cytoplasmic domain contains tyrosine phosphatase enzyme and the T cell co receptor either CD4 or CD8.In this example the co receptor is CD4 ,the co receptor molecules have bound to cytoplasmic domains tyrosine kinase Lck,the cytosol enzyme ZAP70 also plays a essential role t cell activation ...
Ultimately, signaling functions triggering programmed cell dying in reaction to acetic acid have also been commonly described .No matter of the particular
Every cell in an organism is comprised of a fluid that fills the cell and is surrounded by a cell membrane. This fluid is called the cytoplasm or the cytosol. Explore the cytoplasm functions, its types, processes, constituents and physical & chemical features of the Cytoplasm in detail.
Nelles, and transfers them into the cytosol. Therefore, a 15857111 decreased concentration of ZIP transporters may perhaps indicate a decreased net zinc
Supplementary MaterialsDataset 1 41598_2018_26487_MOESM1_ESM. they are destined to are becoming increasingly reported nowadays (Desk?S1). Cytosolic nucleic acids could be categorized by their source. The first is a pathogenic RNA or DNA invaded from outdoors, which can be identified by sensor protein, leading to the induction of inflammatory pathways and the chance of tumor1C3. The additional can be from order LY2140023 within the cell, nuclei. Tension order LY2140023 circumstances for DNA, including UV irradiation, contact with genotoxic real estate agents, stalled DNA replication (R-loops formation), and tumors, result in the discharge of cytosolic genomic DNA (cgDNA)4C7 and cytosolic chromatin8C10. order LY2140023 Earlier two studies proven that (1) 129 cytosolic DNA clones had been identified from center cells isolated from IRF3 KO mice, while 137 cgDNA clones from TREX1/IRF3 double KO mice11 and (2) a total of 231 cytosolic DNA were cloned from tumor cells present in E-Myc mice that is a ...
Most living cells maintain internal environments that are different from their extracellular environment, as well as concentration differences between the cytosol and internal compartments. In human tissues, for example, all cells have a higher concentration of Na+ outside the cell than inside, and a higher concentration of K+ inside the cell than outside. These concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ represent a form of energy storage, similar to a battery. An example of a concentration difference between the cytosol and an internal compartment is found in the lysosome, where the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) can be 100 to 1000 times greater than the concentration outside, in the cytosol.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Does Not Solely Control the Rate of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in the Intact Mouse Liver. AU - Burgess, Shawn C.. AU - He, TianTeng. AU - Yan, Zheng. AU - Lindner, Jill. AU - Sherry, A. Dean. AU - Malloy, Craig R.. AU - Browning, Jeffrey D. AU - Magnuson, Mark A.. N1 - Funding Information: S.C.B. is the recipient of American Diabetes Association Junior Faculty Award 1-50-JF-05. These studies were supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants RR-02584, HL-34557, and DK59632. We are grateful to C. Storey and A. Milde for their expertise in performing the isolated liver perfusions. PY - 2007/4/4. Y1 - 2007/4/4. N2 - When dietary carbohydrate is unavailable, glucose required to support metabolism in vital tissues is generated via gluconeogenesis in the liver. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), commonly considered the control point for liver gluconeogenesis, is normally regulated by circulating hormones to ...
The effect of long-chain acyl-CoA on subcellular adenine nucleotide systems was studied in the intact liver cell. Long-chain acyl-CoA content was varied by varying the nutritional state (fed and starved states) or by addition of oleate. Starvation led to an increase in the mitochondrial and a decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio in liver both in vivo and in the isolated perfused organ as compared with the fed state. The changes were reversed on re-feeding glucose in liver in vivo or on infusion of substrates (glucose, glycerol) in the perfused liver, respectively. Similar changes in mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios occurred on addition of oleate, but, importantly, not with a short-chain fatty acid such as octanoate. It is concluded that long-chain acyl-CoA exerts an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocation in the intact cell, as was previously postulated in the literature from data obtained with isolated mitochondria. The physiological relevance with ...
Both cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids and sodium dodecyl sulfate activated NADPH oxidase in plasma membranes of human neutrophils in the presence of neutrophil cytosol. In contrast, 5,8,11,14-icosatetraynoic acid, saturated fatty acids, esters, peroxides and 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a potent activator of protein kinase C, were inactive. 5,8,11,14-icosatetraynoic acid inhibited superoxide formation elicited by fatty acids. Guanosine 5[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma S]), a potent activator of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (N-proteins) enhanced superoxide formation elicited by fatty acids up to fourfold, supporting our previous suggestion that NADPH oxidase is regulated by an N-protein [Seifert, R. et al. (1986) FEBS Lett. 205, 161-165]. Cytosols from various tissues, soybean lipoxygenase and protein kinase C, purified from chicken stomach, did not substitute neutrophil cytosol. The activity of neutrophil cytosol was destroyed by heating at 95 degrees C. Superoxide ...
Cytosolic levels of neuron-specific enolase in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. - A Ruibal, M I Nuñez, J Rodríguez, L Jiménez, M C del Rio, J Zapatero
To identify novel anti-cancer agents, we created and screened a unique nutraceutical library for activity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. From this screen, we determined that glucopsychosine was selectively toxic toward AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples with no effect toward normal hematopoietic cells. It delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor weights in mouse xenograft models without imparting toxicity. Glucopsychosine increased cytosolic calcium and induced apoptosis through calpain enzymes. Extracellular calcium was functionally important for glucopsychosine-induced AML cell death and surface calcium channel expression is altered in AML cells highlighting a unique mechanism of glucopsychosines selectivity ...
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Permeabilization of the plasma membrane of HepG2 cells subsequent to pulse-chase incubations has enabled us to evaluate the hypothesis that cytosolic-free oligosaccharides are sequestered into and degraded by lysosomes. Short chase incubations revealed that free oligosaccharides rapidly appear in the cytosol at a time during which there is a loss of these components from the MBCs (Fig. 1, A and B). This observation can be accounted for by the previously observed rapid translocation of large, free polymannose-type oligosaccharides out of the ER into the cytosol (Moore et al., 1995). At present it is unclear whether this ER-to-cytosol transport of free oligosaccharides is the sole mechanism responsible for the appearance of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol. Recently, it has been proposed that newly synthesized glycoproteins may be translocated out of the ER and degraded in this compartment (Wiertz et al., 1996) by the actions of a cytosolic N-glycanase (Kitajima et al., 1995; Suzuki et al., ...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still ...
|p style=text-indent:20px;|The aim of this paper is to study the calcium profile governed by the advection diffusion equation. The mathematical and computational modeling has provided insights to understand the calcium signalling which depends upon cytosolic calcium concentration. Here the model includes the important physiological parameters like diffusion coefficient, flow velocity etc. The mathematical model is fractionalised using Hilfer derivative and appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. The use of fractional order derivative is more advantageous than the integer order because of the non-local property of the fractional order differentiation operator i.e. the next state of the system depends not only upon its current state but also upon all of its preceeding states. Analytic solution of the fractional advection diffusion equation arising in study of diffusion of cytosolic calcium in RBC is found using integral transform techniques. Since, the Hilfer derivative is generalisation of
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a readily dissociable complex of p47phox and p67phox in cytosol of unstimulated human neutrophils. AU - Iyer, Shankar S.. AU - Pearson, Doran W.. AU - Nauseef, William M.. AU - Clark, Robert A.. PY - 1994/9/2. Y1 - 1994/9/2. N2 - We explored the association between two cytosolic components of the phagocyte respiratory burst oxidase, p47phox and p67phox. Both of these proteins bound to immobilized GTP or 2,5-ADP, but not to GDP or ATP. Similarly, triazine dye-ligand chromatography demonstrated coisolation of p47phox and p67phox. Binding of p67phox to GTP was less avid than that of p47phox. Each of the proteins in whole neutrophil cytosol bound separately to GTP in the absence of the other, whereas studies with recombinant proteins showed binding of p47phox but not p67phox. These data suggest that p47phox and p67phox exist as a complex that very likely involves at least one additional cytosolic protein. Sequential precipitation in graded concentrations of ammonium ...
Organellar and Cytosolic Localization of Four Phosphoribosyl Diphosphate Synthase Isozymes in Spinach: Four cDNAs encoding phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) syn
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A major focus of our lab is to understand how the immune system distinguishes between virulent and avirulent bacteria and tailors appropriate antimicrobial responses. One key immune pathway involves the inflammasome, a multi-protein cytosolic complex that activates the host proteases caspase-1 and caspase-11 upon cytosolic detection of bacterial products. These caspases mediate the release of IL-1 family cytokines and other inflammatory factors critical for host defense, but overexuberant activation can lead to pathological outcomes such as septic shock. We are currently pursuing how mouse and human inflammasomes differentially respond to bacterial infection ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the vacuolar protein aminopeptidase I (API) is localized to the vacuole independent of the secretory pathway. The alternate targeting mechanism used by this protein has not been characterized. API is synthesized as a 61-kD soluble cytosolic precursor. Upon delivery to the vacuole, the amino-terminal propeptide is removed by proteinase B (PrB) to yield the mature 50-kD hydrolase. We exploited this delivery-dependent maturation event in a mutant screen to identify genes whose products are involved in API targeting. Using antiserum to the API propeptide, we isolated mutants that accumulate precursor API. These mutants, designated cvt, fall into eight complementation groups, five of which define novel genes. These five complementation groups exhibit a specific defect in maturation of API, but do not have a significant effect on vacuolar protein targeting through the secretory pathway. Localization studies show that precursor API accumulates outside of the vacuole in all ...
To study the role of cytosolic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, in cell activation, in particular during adhesion and movement on a surface in response to chemotactic peptide stimulation and during...
Highlighted Article: Cytosolic malate dehydrogenases of heat-resistant Echinolittorina snails have the greatest heat stability known for animal orthologs of this protein because of a small number of amino acid substitutions that modify structural flexibility at and around the enzymes active site. ...
NCF2, NCF1, and a membrane bound cytochrome b558 are required for activation of the latent NADPH oxidase (necessary for superoxide production).
Due to their sessile life style, higher plants have to adapt rapidly to variable environmental conditions. Signalling networks that perceive, transmit and integrate information translate environmental cues into appropriate cellular programs. Changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), represent a fundamental concept in signalling in all eukaryotic cells. In plants, the second messenger Ca2+ is associated with various abiotic and biotic stimuli such as salt and osmotic stress, oxidative stress, wounding, low temperature, pathogen attack and nodulation (Dodd et al., 2010). Levels of cytosolic Ca2+ are tightly regulated by coordinated transport processes between the cytosol and the sites of Ca2+ storage (Berridge et al., 2000; Kudla et al., 2010). Ca2+ signals are characterized by a transient rise of cytosolic free Ca2+ but vary in their temporal and spatial qualities in a stimulus-dependent way and have therefore been designated as Ca2+ signatures (McAinsh et al., 1992; McAinsh and Hetherington, ...
Environmental stress causes vast losses in the forest sector, with drought and heat episodes being the foremost drivers. We use different approaches to dissect natural tolerance mechanisms in species and hybrids of economic relevance, mostly poplar, walnut and chestnut. Over the last years we have identified some key genes and evaluated their applied potential through a biotechnological scheme. It covers from genetic studies in model species to research under field conditions. Our results bolster the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, an increasingly important field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles and other practical factors constrain conventional breeding.. For example, we have obtained the first poplar lines with a substantial and durable increase in thermotolerance. Specifically, these lines accumulate a major cytosolic sHSP with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking the unique biochemical activity of such protein ...
In quiescent cells (not shown), atomic factor-B (NF-B) is sequestered in the cytosol at hand inhibitor of B (IB), which binds to definitive regions on NF-B and...
Initial observations in the late 1980s indicated that an important regulatory step in the biosynthesis of LT in human PMN involves the translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to a membrane compartment (Rouzer et al., 1985; Rouzer and Samuelsson, 1987). Ca2+ mobilization is required for 5-LO translocation. However, Ca2+ mobilization alone is not sufficient because little 5-LO translocation occurs when unprimed cells are stimulated with agonists such as fMLP or PAF, which induce the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and subsequent Ca2+ influx. Since those initial reports, it has been established that 5-LO activation in stimulated human PMN involves the Ca2+-dependent movement of 5-LO from the cytosol to the nuclear envelope in a mechanism not yet completely understood but implicating the membrane protein FLAP (Dixon et al., 1990; Reid et al., 1990). Indeed, it has been clearly established by using FLAP antagonists that FLAP plays an essential role in the translocation of 5-LO in intact ...
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Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) has long been known to act as a key second messenger in many intracellular pathways including syptic transmission, muscle…
Suzanne DAnna3 Main Regions of a Cell n plasma (cell) membrane n cytosol (cytoplasm) n organelles - specialized highly organized structures for specific cellular activities n inclusions - temporary structures
Cytoplasm is a clear liquid that fills the cells of both plants and animals. All cytoplasm contains three parts: the cytosol, the...
|p|Acetyl-Glutathione is a novel oral acetyl-glutathione formulation that is stable in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, well absorbed and able to enter the cells directly and present to the cytosol for mitochondrial entry.* Acetyl-Glutathione uses
Fertile mucus is produced by the cervix, a głównym zadaniem tej wydzieliny jest stworzenie jak najlepszych warunków do … Read on... ...
Retro-translocation into the cytosol[edit]. Because the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is located in the cytosol, terminally ... the Hrd1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase can function as a retrotranslocon or dislocon to transport substrates into the cytosol. ...
Succinate accumulation in the cytosol[edit]. SDH inactivation can block the oxidation of succinate, starting a cascade of ... Under normal cellular function, HIF1-α in the cytosol is quickly hydroxylated by prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), shown with the light ... succinate accumulated in the mitochondrial matrix diffuses through the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes to the cytosol ( ...
In 1965, Lardy introduced the term "cytosol", later redefined to refer to the liquid inside cells. By the time Huxley wrote, a ... cytosol (Lardy, 1965). The word "protoplasm" comes from the Greek protos for first, and plasma for thing formed, and was ...
323-. ISBN 978-0-323-14666-1. Baulieu EE, Jung I (February 1970). "A prostatic cytosol receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ...
Once in the cytosol, the malate is oxidized back to oxaloacetate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Finally, ... Lodola A, Shore JD, Parker DM, Holbrook J (December 1978). "Malate dehydrogenase of the cytosol. A kinetic investigation of the ...
Metz RJ, Radin NS (May 1980). "Glucosylceramide uptake protein from spleen cytosol". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 ( ...
These reactions occur in the cytosol. Synthesis Palmitic acid Coenzyme A Brady, R.N.; DiMari, S.J.; Snell, E.E. (1969). " ... The activation of fatty acids occurs in the cytosol and beta-oxidation occurs in the mitochondria. However, long chain fatty ...
Calcium enters the cytosol after death. Calcium is released into the cytosol due to the deterioration of the sarcoplasmic ... Once calcium is introduced into the cytosol, it binds to the troponin of thin filaments, which causes the troponin-tropomyosin ... Also, the breakdown of the sarcolemma causes additional calcium to enter the cytosol. The calcium activates the formation of ...
In the cytosol of epithelial cells, fatty acids and monoglycerides are recombined back into triglycerides. In the cytosol of ... Tryglyceride biosynthesis occurs in the cytosol. The precursor for fatty acids is acetyl-CoA and it occurs in the cytosol of ... In the cytosol of the cell (for example a muscle cell), the glycerol will be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which is ... 70% of cholesterol biosynthesis occurs in the cytosol of liver cells.[citation needed] Lipid metabolism disorders (including ...
It is active in cell cytosol. Reviews of what is reported in the literature about cobalamin chemistry, transport, and ... These enzymatically active enzyme cofactors function, respectively, in mitochondria and cell cytosol. Cyanocobalamin is a ... and then combines with a methyl ligand in the cytosol (to become MeCbl) or with an adenosyl ligand in mitochondria (to become ... vitamin as either the adenosyl or methyl vitamers does not increase the amount of AdoCbl in mitochondria nor MeCbl in cytosol. ...
... this fraction contains cytosol and microsomes." The S9 fraction consists of two components: the microsomes component which ...
Kim DH, Yang YS, Jakoby WB (1990). "Nonserine esterases from rat liver cytosol". Protein Expr. Purif. 1 (1): 19-27. doi:10.1016 ...
... this fraction contains cytosol and microsomes." The microsomes component of the S9 fraction contain cytochrome P450 isoforms ( ...
Heyns, W.; G., Verhoeven; De Moor, P. (1976). "Androgen binding in rat uterus cytosol. Study of the specificity". Journal of ...
This protein is located in the cytosol. NQO1 enzyme expression can be induced by dioxin and inhibited by dicoumarol. This gene ... quinone oxidoreductase and conjugation by acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases in human hepatic cytosols". Cancer Research ...
Kim DH, Yang YS, Jakoby WB (1990). "Aspirin hydrolyzing esterases from rat liver cytosol". Biochem. Pharmacol. 40 (3): 481-7. ...
Distinct molecular forms in mitochondria and cytosol". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (7): 2180-3. PMID 218928. Biology portal v t e. ...
The contents of the cytosol change based on the needs of the cell. Not to be confused with the cytoplasm, the cytosol is only ... The cytosol makes up the semifluid portion of the endoplasm, in which materials are suspended. It is a concentrated aqueous gel ... Cytosol contains predominantly water, but also has a complex mixture of large hydrophilic molecules, smaller molecules and ... The endoplasm's granules are suspended in cytosol. The term granule refers to a small particle within the endoplasm, typically ...
The liberated carnitine returns to the cytosol. It is important to note that carnitine acyltransferase I undergoes allosteric ... impermeable to fatty acids and a specialized carnitine carrier system operates to transport activated fatty acids from cytosol ...
Roach PD, Palmer FB (1981). "Human erythrocyte cytosol phosphatidyl-inositol-bisphosphate phosphatase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Once in the cytosol, malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate again using NAD+. Then oxaloacetate remains in the cytosol, where the ... In the cytosol there are fumarate molecules. Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. ...
"Endosome-to-cytosol transport of viral nucleocapsids". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (7): 653-664. doi:10.1038/ncb1269. ISSN 1465-7392 ... "The ESCRT-I subunit TSG101 controls endosome-to-cytosol release of viral RNA". Traffic. 9 (12): 2279-2290. doi:10.1111/j.1600- ...
However, it is doubtful that this is a meaningful effect in vivo, because citrate in the cytosol is utilized mainly for ... The oxaloacetate is then re-cycled to the cytosol via its conversion to aspartate which is readily transported out of the ... In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) ... However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol occurs. This ...
Synthesis of the subunits occurs in the cytosol. Folding of the β-subunit is thought to be aided by the chaperone CCT ( ...
Sachs L, Marks N (September 1982). "A highly specific aminotripeptidase of rat brain cytosol. Substrate specificity and effects ... Doumeng C, Maroux S (March 1979). "Aminotripeptidase, a cytosol enzyme from rabbit intestinal mucosa". The Biochemical Journal ...
Sitaramayya A, Wright LS, Siegel FL (1980). "Enzymatic methylation of calmodulin in rat brain cytosol". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (18 ...
The encoded protein is predicted to have a subcellular location within the cytosol. In the DNA, C6orf62 is 12,529 base pairs ... It is located subcellularly localized throughout the cytosol. C6orf62 is broadly expressed within the human body, however, its ...
First, mRNA is translated in the cell's cytosol. The resulting unfolded precursor proteins will then be able to reach their ...
de Vries J, Christa G, Gould SB (June 2014). "Plastid survival in the cytosol of animal cells". Trends in Plant Science. 19 (6 ...
The ratio of NADPH:NADP+ is normally about 100:1 in liver cytosol[citation needed]. This makes the cytosol a highly-reducing ... For most organisms, the pentose phosphate pathway takes place in the cytosol; in plants, most steps take place in plastids. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
40S:eIF3:eIF1A [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 40S ribosomal complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * Rps7 [cytosol] (Rattus ... 40S:eIF3:eIF1A [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 40S ribosomal complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * Rps7 [cytosol] (Rattus ... 48S complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 43S complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 40S ribosomal complex [cytosol] (Rattus ... 48S complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 43S complex [cytosol] (Rattus norvegicus) * 40S ribosomal complex [cytosol] (Rattus ...
E3:Ub:substrate [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * E3 ligases in proteasomal degradation [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * RBX1:CUL3:BTB [ ... E3:Ub:substrate [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * E3 ligases in proteasomal degradation [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * RBX1:CUL3:BTB [ ... Ag-substrate:E3:E2:Ub [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * E3 ligases in proteasomal degradation [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * RBX1:CUL3:BTB ... Ag-substrate:E3:E2:Ub [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * E3 ligases in proteasomal degradation [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * RBX1:CUL3:BTB ...
BBS5 [cytosol] (R-HSA-5617633) 0.556. 3 Q9BTA9 1 * WAC [nucleoplasm] (R-HSA-8942150) ...
p-S10 CDKN1B [cytosol] (R-HSA-9632829) * p-S10 CDKN1B [nucleoplasm] (R-HSA-9632832) ...
CASP9(1-416) [cytosol] (R-HSA-57033) * p-S196-CASP9(1-416) [cytosol] (R-HSA-198636) ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
SNCA [cytosol] (R-HSA-5658500) * Ub-SNCA [cytosol] (R-HSA-5660754) 0.582. 5 ...
LC3:K48polyUB Mitophagy Substrates:SQSTM1 [cytosol] (Drosophila melanogaster) * K48polyUB Mitophagy Substrates:SQSTM1 [ ... LC3:K48polyUB Mitophagy Substrates:SQSTM1 [cytosol] (Drosophila melanogaster) * K48polyUB Mitophagy Substrates:SQSTM1 [ ...
p-Y-DPYSL4 [cytosol] (R-HSA-399794) * p-S544-DPYSL4 [cytosol] (R-HSA-399808) ...
G76-NEDD8-C111-AcM-UBE2M [cytosol] (R-HSA-4419894) 0.922. 9 UniProt:Q93034 CUL5 2 * G76-NEDD8-K724-CUL5 [cytosol] (R-HSA- ...
UBQLN2 [cytosol] (R-HSA-8866007) 0.556. 3 UniProt:P61962 DCAF7 2 * DCAF7 [nucleoplasm] (R-HSA-8863312) ...
STK24 [cytosol] (R-HSA-351829) * STK24(1-313) [cytosol] (R-HSA-351892) ...
BIRC2(1-372) [cytosol] (R-HSA-202913) * BIRC2(373-618) [cytosol] (R-HSA-202931) ...
rRNA processing in the nucleus and cytosol (Homo sapiens) * Major pathway of rRNA processing in the nucleolus and cytosol (Homo ...
CTNNB1(116-376) [cytosol] (R-HSA-202950) * p-S552-CTNNB1 [cytosol] (R-HSA-3134933) ...
Cytosol™ Brand Extracts Cytosol™ brand extracts are derived from the cytoplasm of selected organs and glands through a process ...
does protein essay occur in the cytosol I stereoscopic photograph [opposil degas carriage at the corporate, divisional, and ...
cytosol, nucleoplasm Locations in the PathwayBrowser Expand all Immune System (Homo sapiens) * * Cytokine Signaling in Immune ...
It is not currently known what function PLCβ1 has in the cytosol and nucleus nor is it known what factors localize PLC&# ...
rRNA processing in the nucleus and cytosol (Gallus gallus) * Major pathway of rRNA processing in the nucleolus and cytosol ( ...
p-Y701-STAT1:p-Y705-STAT3 translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus (Dictyostelium discoideum) * p-Y701-STAT1:p-Y705-STAT3 [ ... p-Y701-STAT1:p-Y705-STAT3 translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus (Dictyostelium discoideum) ...
ATM:PEX5 translocates from cytosol to peroxisomal membrane (Canis familiaris) * ATM:PEX5 [peroxisomal membrane] (Canis ...
Phthiocerol dimycocerosates promote access to the cytosol and intracellular burden of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in lymphatic ...
SLC2A1 tetramer does not transport Glc from extracellular region to cytosol (Homo sapiens) * SLC2A1 mutants [plasma membrane] ( ...
Compound Effects On Cta1 Translocation From The Er To The Cytosol. The intact CT holotoxin was additionally discovered to be a ... However, the functional pool of toxin either is directly translocated from the endosomes to the cytosol (e.g., DT) or is ... In the cytosol, the low number of lysines in CTA1 most likely protects it from ubiquitination and additional degradation by the ... LF or EF ultimately reaches the cytosol . BoNT/A consists of a catalytic subunit, the 50-kDa mild chain , related by a ...
Copper determination by ETAAS in fish tissue cytosols 2016-5-17Dragun Zrinka Raspor Biserka Copper determination by ETAAS in ... Copper determination by ETAAS in fish tissue cytosols 2016-5-17Dragun Zrinka Raspor Biserka Copper determination by ETAAS in ... fish tissue cytosols with minimal sample pretreatment // Atomic spectroscopy 29 (2008) 3 107-113 7 1 and multielement hollow ... fish tissue cytosols with minimal sample pretreatment // Atomic spectroscopy 29 (2008) 3 107-113 7 1 and multielement hollow ...
Defective SLC12A1 does not cotransport Na+, K+, 2Cl- from extracellular region to cytosol (Homo sapiens) * SLC12A1 mutants [ ...
MAPT-8 [cytosol] (R-HSA-9619519) * p-S262,S356,S396-MAPT-8 [cytosol] (R-HSA-9619521) ...
  • This Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit provides reagents for quick & efficient isolation of intact mitochondria from cultured cells. (
  • Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit is used for isolation of a highly enriched mitochondrial fraction from cytosolic fraction of mammalian cells including both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells. (
  • The Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit provides unique formulations of reagents for effective isolation of a highly enriched mitochondrial fraction from cytosolic fraction of mammalian cells including both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cells. (
  • The cytosol consists mostly of water, dissolved ions, small molecules, and large water-soluble molecules (such as proteins). (
  • However, even with this many protein occupying cytosol, some proteins with the membranes or organelles in cells are known to be very weak and are eventually released into solution upon cell lysis. (
  • In the resting neutrophil, some of the components of the oxidase, including proteins p47phox and p67phox, are in the cytosol, while the rest are in a fraction that usually copurifies with plasma membrane. (
  • Proteins that are misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported back into the cytosol for destruction by the proteasome. (
  • The vital composition of cytosol comprises of a lot of water, dissolved ions, large water soluble molecules, smaller minute molecules and proteins. (
  • 2. Cytosol comprises of a lot of water, dissolved ions, large water soluble molecules, smaller minute molecules and proteins. (
  • Proteins and other macromolecules will dissolve in cytosol when not being used. (
  • Folding in the cytosol is achieved either on controlled chain release from these factors or after transfer of newly synthesized proteins to downstream chaperones, such as the chaperonins. (
  • Here we focus on recent advances in our mechanistic understanding of de novo protein folding in the cytosol and seek to provide a coherent view of the overall flux of newly synthesized proteins through the chaperone system. (
  • Applied to suitable GFP reporter cells, it allows the important distinction between proteins trapped in endosomes and those delivered to the cytosol. (
  • It was observed that rat liver cytosol can transfer 32 P from 32 PO 4 to acceptor proteins. (
  • After endocytic uptake, the toxin is transported retrogradely to the ER, where the enzymatically active RTA is translocated to the cytosol in a similar manner as misfolded ER proteins. (
  • While ERAD is a surveillance system normally dedicated to the removal of misfolded ER proteins to the cytosol for proteasomal destruction, pathogens can co-opt elements of this pathway to gain entry into the host cytosol by disguising themselves as misfolded ER proteins. (
  • Evaluation of Acetonitrile Precipitation as a Method for Separating Small from High Molecular Mass Proteins in Cytosol from MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. (
  • A comparison of the amino acid compositions of one of the folate-binding proteins of rat liver cytosol, folate-binding protein-cytosol II, and that of glycine N-methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine:glycine methyltransferase, EC from the same source indicated a great deal of structural homology between the two proteins. (
  • In the cytosol, where most proteins are synthesized, quality control remains poorly understood. (
  • The binding of radiolabelled methyltrienolone 17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-estra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (R1881) to adult male rat liver cytosol has been characterized in the presence of Na-molybdate to stabilize steroid-hormone receptors, and triamcinolone acetonide to block progestin receptors. (
  • Using sucrose density gradient analysis, male liver cytosol contains a [3H] R1881 macromolecular complex which sediments in the 8-9S region. (
  • 8S binding of R1881 to male rat serum, female liver cytosol or cytosol from a tfm rat cannot be demonstrated. (
  • Further metabolism of [3H] R1881 following 20h incubation with male rat liver cytosol was excluded: In the 8S region 97% of [3H] R1881 was recovered by thin layer chromatography. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of a [3H]methyltrienolone (R1881) binding protein in rat liver cytosol. (
  • Why Do Most Human Liver Cytosol Preparations Lack Xanthine Oxidase Activity? (
  • Glycine N-methyltransferase is a folate binding protein of rat liver cytosol. (
  • article{Cook1984GlycineNI, title={Glycine N-methyltransferase is a folate binding protein of rat liver cytosol. (
  • Antiserum prepared against the purified folate-binding protein almost completely inactivated the enzyme activity in crude liver cytosol. (
  • This group proposed that this misfolded protein is ejected from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol, where the proteasome destroys it. (
  • These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together and take part in metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. (
  • Commonly seen, protein molecules that do not bind to cytoskeleton or cell membranes are simply because they dissolve in the cytosol. (
  • Protein also occupies approximately 20-30% of the volume of cytosol. (
  • On loss of IL-7 in a dependent cell line, Bax protein translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria, where it integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. (
  • Bax moves from the cytosol to the mitochondria under conditions that induce cell death, for example in staurosporine-treated Cos-7 cells in which a Bax-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was overexpressed ( 13 ) or during IL-3 withdrawal in FL5.12A cells ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Characteristics of this [3H] R1881-8S binding protein include high affinity (Kd = 2.3 +/- 41 nM) and low binding capacity (18.8 +/- 3.3 fmol/mg cytosol protein), precipitability in 0-33% ammonium sulfate, and translocation to isolated nuclei following in vivo R1881 treatment. (
  • The major components in cytosol are concentration gradients, protein complexes, protein compartments and cytoskeletal sieving. (
  • Thus, PARL preserves mitochondrial membrane homeostasis via STARD7 processing and is emerging as a critical regulator of protein localization between mitochondria and the cytosol. (
  • An Immuno-Suppressive Aphid Saliva Protein Is Delivered into the Cytosol of Plant Mesophyll Cells During Feeding. (
  • Additionally, we show that under salinity stress (100 m m NaCl), peroxisomes are required for NO accumulation in the cytosol, thereby participating in the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) and in increasing protein tyrosine nitration, which is a marker of nitrosative stress. (
  • Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we found that the integrin adhesome is extensively pre-assembled already in the cytosol as multi-protein building blocks for adhesion sites. (
  • Strikingly, we found that the integrin adhesome is actually extensively pre-assembled already in the cytosol, forming multi-protein building blocks that can facilitate rapid and modular assembly of adhesion sites. (
  • 2005). Instead, fluorescence microscopy revealed that the Sec16-P1092L protein was largely displaced from tER sites to the cytosol (Connerly et al. (
  • During entry, this virus family, including monkey SV40 and human BK PyV, hijacks ER protein quality control machinery to breach the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step. (
  • 7, 8] In order to investigate calcium responses in both compartments upon treatment with jasmonates and synthetic functional mimics, in the present study transgenic tobacco cells, carrying the Ca2+-sensing protein aequorin either in the cytosol or nucleoplasm, were employed. (
  • Cytosols from various tissues, soybean lipoxygenase and protein kinase C, purified from chicken stomach, did not substitute neutrophil cytosol. (
  • The activity of neutrophil cytosol was destroyed by heating at 95 degrees C. Superoxide formation was not affected by the inhibitor of protein kinase C 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7). (
  • Removal of cytosolic ATP by preincubation with hexokinase and glucose, dialysis of neutrophil cytosol or chelation of calcium with EGTA did not abolish the stimulatory effect of arachidonic acid and GTP[gamma S]. Thus, the cytosolic cofactor appears to be a neutrophil-specific and heat-labile protein, which is neither a lipoxygenase nor protein kinase C. (
  • Amember of the family of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities, called p97 in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast, associates with the cofactor Ufd1-Npl4 to move polyubiquitinated polypeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane into the cytosol for their subsequent degradation by the proteasome. (
  • The nonenveloped simian polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40 (SV40) hijacks the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol, a critical infection step. (
  • and finally (4) isolated cytosol, obtained by selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane, exhibits divalent cation-dependent, thermolabile nuclease activity, determined by Southern blotting and 32P-release from end-labeled DNA. (
  • Once the process of eukaryotes starts, the fluid is separated by the cell membrane from the organelles (mitochondrial matrix) and the other contents that float about in the cytosol. (
  • Sulfate imported across the plasma membrane is the primary substrate provided to the sulfate assimilation pathways, where the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) serves as an enzyme to catalyze the initial metabolic reaction generating adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) from ATP and sulfate in both plastids and cytosol. (
  • However, quantitative ultrastructural observations reveal that acidification of the cytosol results in formation of heterogeneously sized and in average smaller clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane and buds on the TGN. (
  • The two ATPase domains (D1 and D2) of p97 appear to alternate in ATP hydrolysis, which is essential for the movement of polypeptides from the ER membrane into the cytosol. (
  • However, recent works have shed some light on the decisive step during which polypeptides are released from the ER membrane into the cytosol before they are degraded by the proteasome. (
  • These foci, postulated to represent the ER membrane penetration site, harbor ER components, including BiP, known to facilitate viral ER-to-cytosol transport. (
  • In this study, we pinpointed an ER-resident factor that executes a crucial role in promoting ER-to-cytosol membrane penetration of PyVs. (
  • There it co-opts components of the ERAD machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol ( 4 , 6 , 14 ). (
  • The catalytic A1 subunit of CT then crosses the ER membrane and enters the cytosol in a process that has been hypothesized to involve the mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). (
  • cytosol ( hyaloplasm ) The semifluid soluble part of the cytoplasm of cells, which contains the components of the cytoskeleton and in which the cell's organelles are suspended. (
  • Re: Very confused about cytosol and cytoplasm! (
  • Cytosol is the general liquid area of the cytoplasm excluding the compartments. (
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (
  • The viscosity of cytoplasm is roughly the same as pure water, although diffusion of small molecules through this liquid is about fourfold slower than in pure water, due mostly to collisions with the large numbers of macromolecules in the cytosol. (
  • There is often much confusion between the cytoplasm and the cytosol. (
  • When looking at the two, the cytosol is often confused as being the cytoplasm itself, and many individuals view the two as being synonymous. (
  • However, they cytosol is in fact just a part of the cytoplasm. (
  • The cytosol is responsible for suspending the other elements contained within the cytoplasm, like the cytoplasmic inclusions and the cell organelles. (
  • Cytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that is not held by any of the organelles in the cell. (
  • On the other hand, cytoplasm is made of three chief elements including the cytosol, the cell organelles and the inclusions. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the HSV-1 capsid was ubiquitinated in the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome, hence releasing genomic DNA into the cytoplasm for detection by DNA sensors. (
  • 3 ] specifically estimated the relative abundance of lncRNAs in the nucleus versus the cytosol and concluded that 17% of the tested lncRNAs were enriched in the nucleus and 4% in the cytoplasm. (
  • In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. (
  • Mutations of L-CYS DESULFHYDRASE 1 ( DES1 ) impede H 2 S generation in the Arabidopsis cytosol and strongly affect plant metabolism. (
  • In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. (
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , DES1 is the only identified l -Cysteine desulfhydrase located in the cytosol, and it is involved in the degradation of cysteine and the concomitant production of H 2 S in this cell compartment. (
  • On the other hand, cells such as eukaryotes cell the cytosol containing the cell's genome is held within the cell nucleus, which then separates from the cytosol by nuclear pores that blocks the free diffusion of any kind of molecule that is larger than 10 nm in diameter. (
  • From the cytosol, the virus enters the nucleus, where ensuing transcription and replication of the viral genome cause lytic infection or cell transformation. (
  • Subcellular localization revealed that the cytosol-localized AtHSBP translocated to the nucleus in response to HS. (
  • A subset of specific lncRNAs is enriched in the nucleus but surprisingly the majority is enriched in the cytosol and in ribosomal fractions. (
  • While these results suggest diverse roles of lncRNAs in different cellular compartments and biological processes, comprehensive knowledge on the relative abundances of lncRNAs in ribosomes, the cytosol and the nucleus is currently still lacking. (
  • Structural Requirements of Jasmonates and Synthetic Analogues as Inducers of Ca2+ Signals in the Nucleus and the Cytosol of Plant Cells. (
  • 5, 6] Specific Ca2+ signatures in the cytosol as well as in the nucleus are described for plant cells after stimulation with pathogen-derived elicitors or osmotic stress. (
  • 2), and JA itself, induced transient Ca2+ signals in a concentration-dependent manner in both the cytosol (D[Ca2+]cyt) and the nucleus (D[Ca2+]nuc). (
  • Surprisingly, their degradation occurs not in the cytosol but in the nucleus (Prasad et al. (
  • APK is present in both plastids and cytosol for phosphorylation, while APR and the subsequent pathway enzyme, sulfite reductase (SiR), are localized only in plastids for catalyzing the reduction steps. (
  • The sulfate assimilation pathway thus bifurcates into two directions to phosphorylate or reduce APS in plastids, whereas only the APS phosphorylation pathway is present in cytosol (Figure 1 ). (
  • The illustration shows subcellular partitioning of sulfate assimilation and APS/PAPS metabolic pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis . (
  • Plant cells contain different Ser acetyltransferase and OASTL enzymes in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria, resulting in a complex variety of isoforms and different subcellular Cys pools. (
  • In this study, we provide an in vivo demonstration that Arabidopsis peroxisomes are essential for NO accumulation in the cytosol, thus participating in the generation of nitrosative stress under salinity conditions. (
  • But Mironov also found that in a subset of CA1 hippocampal cells, the bulk of the prion occurred in the cytosol. (
  • The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, or groundplasm, is the liquid found inside cells. (
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (
  • In cells such as prokaryotes cell, the cytosol within nucleoid contains the cell's genome. (
  • Cytosol is the intra-cellular fluid that is present inside the cells. (
  • For an effective isolation of a highly enriched mitochondrial fraction from the cytosol fraction of various mammalian cells including both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cells. (
  • Sucrose concentration in phloem sap was several times higher than in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. (
  • The sucrose concentration in the cytosol of mesophyll cells ranged between 75 and 165 mM and was almost equal to the vacuolar concentration. (
  • Phloem sap could be collected from F. sylvatica and M. kobus and the concentration of sucrose in phloem sap was about five- and 11-fold higher, respectively, than in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. (
  • Isolation of phosphooligosaccharide/phosphoinositol glycan from caveolae and cytosol of insulin-stimulated cells. (
  • The core kit contains unique formulations of buffers and reagent that allow isolation of mitochondria and cytosol in two easy steps. (
  • 4 days of treatment with metal oxide caused a statistically significant increase in nicotinamide adénine dinucléotide oxidase activity in mitochondria and cytosol. (
  • It has been observed that the mitochondria compensate for its lack of mitochondrial tRNA genes by taking in tRNA contained within the cytosol of the cell. (
  • We demonstrate that PARL-mediated cleavage during mitochondrial import partitions STARD7 to the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. (
  • These findings indicate that INH-2 promotes a translocation of PP1C from the SR to the cytosol, increases inactive cytosolic PP1, and decreases SR-PP1 activity, thereby increasing PLN phosphorylation. (
  • In this work we describe a novel assay to detect the movement of CTA1 from the ER to the cytosol and provide supporting evidence for the ERAD model of CT translocation. (
  • Isolation of a complex of respiratory burst oxidase components from resting neutrophil cytosol. (
  • On gel filtration, the complex migrated with a molecular weight of 240-300K, similar to that observed with whole neutrophil cytosol. (
  • These results indicate that in resting neutrophil cytosol, p47phox and p67phox exist as a complex. (
  • Both cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids and sodium dodecyl sulfate activated NADPH oxidase in plasma membranes of human neutrophils in the presence of neutrophil cytosol. (
  • Moreover, analysis of the involvement of EDEM1 and EDEM2 in ricin retrotranslocation to the cytosol may provide crucial information about general mechanisms of the recognition of ERAD substrates in the ER. (
  • In eukaryotes, the cytosol surrounds the organelles. (
  • The cytosol is thus a liquid matrix around the organelles. (
  • In eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur in the cytosol, others take place within organelles. (
  • One of the key components that supports these organelles is the cytosol. (
  • However, the structural support of these organelles will be provided by a major cellular component known as the cytosol. (
  • The cytosol , by definition, is the fluid in which organelles of the cell reside. (
  • Therefore, the cytosol technically does not include organelles. (
  • Materials and organelles within the cytosol are not evenly distributed. (
  • Here we perform subcellular RNA-seq on nuclei, cytosol and mono- and polyribosomes separated by ribosomal fractionation. (
  • The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular crowding. (
  • Besides ions, the cytosol also has macromolecules. (
  • Since most macromolecules (with the exception of lipids) are polar, they can dissolve in the watery component of cytosol for storage. (
  • The intracellular fluid inside a cell is called the cytosol. (
  • In prokaryotes, cytosol is where most metabolic chemical reactions occur. (
  • In regards to function, the cytosol is also the location where many of the cell's chemical reactions occur. (
  • Additionally, enzymes , which are biological catalysts, are often found in the cytosol in order to speed up chemical reactions within the cell. (
  • Although water is vital for life, the structure of this water in the cytosol is not well understood, mostly because methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy only give information on the average structure of water, and cannot measure local variations at the microscopic scale. (
  • Following its internalization by endocytosis, plasmid DNA has to be released into the cytosol before its nuclear entry can occur. (
  • Transportation of metabolite and cell communication are among some of the important functions that occur within the cytosol. (
  • Many of the reactions that take place in the cell occur in the cytosol. (
  • Circumstantial and indirect evidence suggests that changes in the concentration of free Ca2+ in the cytosol might be induced downstream of the jasmonate signal. (
  • The concentration of the signal compound necessary for 50 % of the induced response (EC50) was determined to be (0.57 0.06) mm for the cytosol and (0.43 [*] Dipl. (
  • Importantly, their data, which appeared in the August 6 Journal of Neuroscience, show that a pool of prions exists in the neuronal cytosol, supporting a recent hypothesis that minute amounts of misfolded, cytosolic prion may be sufficient to cripple neurons. (
  • This shows that many of the enzymes in cytosol are bound to the cytoskeleton in the cell. (
  • When supplemented with recombinant p67phox, the complex displayed considerable activity in a cell-free oxidase-activating system, and even without added p67phox, the complex could more than double O2- production in an oxidase-activating system supplemented with suboptimal amounts of cytosol. (
  • We have partially purified CSF-1, which had been stabilized with NaF and ATP, and CSF-2 from cytosols of Rana pipiens eggs by ammonium sulphate (AmS) precipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation or gel filtration, and investigated their molecular characteristics. (
  • CSF-1 was sensitive to protease, but resistant to RNAse, and inactivated within 2 h at 25 degrees C. CSF-1 could be sedimented in a sucrose density gradient from a fresh cytosol or its crude fraction precipitated at 20-30% saturation of AmS, showing the sedimentation coefficient 3S. (
  • The turnover of plasmid DNA, delivered by microinjection into the cytosol, was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative single-cell fluorescence video-image analysis. (
  • Here, we investigate this question by exploring the cytosolic state of integrin-adhesome components and their dynamic exchange between adhesion sites and cytosol. (
  • Genome analyses suggest that nucleotide biosynthesis is, in contrast to higher plants, not located in the plastid, but in the cytosol. (
  • Although it was once thought to be a simple solution of molecules, the cytosol has multiple levels of organization. (
  • The cytosol consists mainly of water in which various molecules are dissolved or suspended. (
  • Even though none of these components are alienated by cell membranes still they don't mix as numerous levels of union confine definite molecules to distinct locales inside the cytosol. (
  • Malondialdehyde accumulation was found to be higher in the cytosol compared to the mitochondria of stems, and in the cytosol of leaves and roots. (
  • Structurally, the cytosol consists mostly of water. (
  • Sodium and potassium concentrations are different in the cytosol compared with the concentrations in the extracellular fluid. (
  • Clathrin and HA2 adaptors: effects of potassium depletion, hypertonic medium, and cytosol acidification. (
  • Redistribution of Sec16 to the cytosol accelerates tER dynamics, supporting a negative regulatory role for Sec16. (
  • Redistribution of Sec16 to the cytosol by the P1092L mutation but not by deletion of the entire CCD. (

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