The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (1/10346)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (2/10346)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change. (3/10346)

Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction.  (+info)

Nitric oxide modulates endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. (4/10346)

A functional interrelation between nitric oxide (NO), the endothelial-derived vasodilating factor, and endothelin 1 (ET-1), the potent vasoconstrictive peptide, was investigated in microvascular endothelium of human brain. Nor-1 dose-dependently decreased the ET-1-stimulated mobilization of Ca2+. This response was mimicked with cGMP and abrogated by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase or cGMP-dependent protein kinase G. These findings indicate that NO and ET-1 interactions involved in modulation of intracellular Ca2+ are mediated by cGMP/protein kinase G. In addition, Nor-1-mediated effects were associated with rearrangements of cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. The results suggest mechanisms by which NO-ET-1 interactions may contribute to regulation of microvascular function.  (+info)

EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. (5/10346)

The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells.  (+info)

Homotypic and heterotypic interaction of the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor protein merlin and the ERM protein ezrin. (6/10346)

Ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) are homologous proteins, which are linkers between plasma membrane components and the actin-containing cytoskeleton. The ERM protein family members associate with each other in a homotypic and heterotypic manner. The neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein merlin (schwannomin) is structurally related to ERM members. Merlin is involved in tumorigenesis of NF2-associated and sporadic schwannomas and meningiomas, but the tumor suppressor mechanism is poorly understood. We have studied the ability of merlin to self-associate and bind ezrin. Ezrin was coimmunoprecipitated with merlin from lysates of human U251 glioma cells and from COS-1 cells transfected with cDNA encoding for merlin isoform I. The interaction was further studied and the association domains were mapped with the yeast two-hybrid system and with blot overlay and affinity precipitation experiments. The heterotypic binding of merlin and ezrin and the homotypic association of merlin involves interaction between the amino- and carboxy-termini. The amino-terminal association domain of merlin involves residues 1-339 and has similar features with the amino-terminal association domain of ezrin. The carboxy-terminal association domain cannot be mapped as precisely as in ezrin, but it requires residues 585-595 and a more amino-terminal segment. Unlike ezrin, merlin does not require activation for self-association but native merlin molecules can interact with each other. Heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, however, occurs only following conformational alterations in both proteins. These results biochemically connect merlin to the cortical cytoskeleton and indicate differential regulation of merlin from ERM proteins.  (+info)

Regulation of p190 Rho-GAP by v-Src is linked to cytoskeletal disruption during transformation. (7/10346)

The v-Src oncoprotein perturbs the dynamic regulation of the cellular cytoskeletal and adhesion network by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we have examined in detail the effects of a temperature-dependent v-Src protein on the regulation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that has been implicated in disruption of the organised actin cytoskeleton, and addressed the dependence of v-Src-induced stress fibre loss on inhibition of Rho activity. We found that activation of v-Src induced association of tyrosine phosphorylated p190 with p120(RasGAP) and stimulation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity, although p120(RasGAP) itself was not a target for phosphorylation by v-Src in chicken embryo cells. These events required the catalytic activity of v-Src and were linked to loss of actin stress fibres during morphological transformation and not mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, these effects were rapidly reversible since switching off v-Src led to dissociation of the p190/p120(RasGAP) complex, inactivation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity and re-induction of actin stress fibres. In addition, transient transfection of Val14-RhoA, a constitutively active Rho protein that is insensitive to RhoGAPs, suppressed v-Src-induced stress fibre loss and cell transformation. Thus, we show here for the first time that an activated Src kinase requires the inactivation of Rho-mediated actin stress fibre assembly to induce its effects on actin disorganisation. Moreover, our work supports p190 as a strong candidate effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeletal disruption, most likely mediated by antagonism of the cellular function of Rho.  (+info)

Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (8/10346)

We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell.  (+info)

The primary symptoms of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome include:

1. Eczema and skin rashes
2. Immune system dysfunction, leading to recurrent infections
3. Bleeding disorders, including easy bruising and nosebleeds
4. Delayed development and growth retardation
5. Short stature
6. Poor muscle tone and coarse facial features
7. Heart defects, such as ventricular septal defects
8. Kidney disease or dysfunction
9. Increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications through medications, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and other supportive measures.

The prognosis for individuals with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome varies depending on the severity of their symptoms and the presence of any comorbidities. With appropriate medical care, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but they may require lifelong monitoring and treatment to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.

... Monthly News and Blog MBInfo - Cytoskeleton Dynamics Cytoskeleton, Cell Motility and Motors - The Virtual Library ... Cytoskeleton and cell motility including videos Open access review article on the emergent complexity of the cytoskeleton ( ... "Recurring views on the structure and function of the cytoskeleton: a 300-year epic". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 46 (2 ... The cytoskeleton was once thought to be a feature only of eukaryotic cells, but homologues to all the major proteins of the ...
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Cytoskeleton. 44 (3): 209-24. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0169(199911)44:3. 3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 10542369. Kitazawa H, Iida J, Uchida A ... Cytoskeleton. 23 (4): 236-43. doi:10.1002/cm.970230403. PMID 1477887. West RR, Tenbarge KM, Olmsted JB (1991). "A model for ... Cytoskeleton. 27 (2): 133-49. doi:10.1002/cm.970270205. PMID 7909279. Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). " ... Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 54 (4): 317-36. doi:10.1002/cm.10105. PMID 12601693. Chapin SJ, Bulinski JC (1993). " ...
Cytoskeleton. 33 (4): 298-323. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0169(1996)33:4. 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 8801035. v t e (Articles with short ... Wolfrum, U. (1995). "Centrin in the photoreceptor cells of mammalian retinae". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 32 (1): 55- ...
Dense bodies also are associated with beta-actin, which is the type found in the cytoskeleton, suggesting that dense bodies may ... Perrin BJ, Ervasti JM (2010). "The actin gene family: function follows isoform". Cytoskeleton. 67 (10): 630-34. doi:10.1002/cm. ... coordinate tensions from both the contractile machinery and the cytoskeleton. Dense bodies appear darker under an electron ...
Cytoskeleton. 29 (2): 110-6. doi:10.1002/cm.970290203. PMID 7820861. Fujii T, Watanabe M, Ogoma Y, Kondo Y, Arai T (1993). " ...
Cytoskeleton. 41 (4): 308-24. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0169(1998)41:4. 3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 9858156. Pestic-Dragovich L, Stojiljkovic ...
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton appears to have evolved from ancestral precursors related to prokaryotic FtsZ and MreB. FtsZ and ... Evolution of the cytoskeleton Bioessays. 2007 Jul;29(7):668-77. doi: 10.1002/bies.20601. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton appears to have evolved from ancestral precursors related to prokaryotic FtsZ and MreB. FtsZ and ...
Yet, how cytoskeleton networks respond in real-time to changing ion concentrations, and how actin-microtubule interactions ... Yet, how cytoskeleton networks respond in real-time to changing ion concentrations, and how actin-microtubule interactions ... intriguing findings shed new light on how varying environmental conditions can dynamically tune the morphology of cytoskeleton ... The dynamic morphology and mechanics of the cytoskeleton is determined by interacting networks of semiflexible actin filaments ...
The Role of the Cytoskeleton in Cellular Aging (R21/R33) PAR-13-301. NIA ... Role of the Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton in Aging. Although information on the role of the cytoskeleton systems in aging is ... "Role of the Cytoskeleton in Cellular Aging" in May, 2009. The group of experts, including both aging and cytoskeleton ... Broadly defined, the cytoskeleton is a complex array of three major protein systems: microtubules, intermediate filaments and ...
... to transport intracellular cargo and to change shape during movement depends on the cytoskeleton, an interconnected network of ... Figure 1. Elements of the cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells provides structure and organization, resists and ... Cell mechanics and the cytoskeleton Daniel A Fletcher et al. Nature. 2010. . ... Cell mechanics and the cytoskeleton Daniel A Fletcher 1 , R Dyche Mullins ...
... Jennifer A. Epler. ,1Rugao Liu. ,1and Yoji ...
Cilia, Wnt signaling, and the cytoskeleton Helen L May-Simera et al. Cilia. 2012. . ... Effect of the Rho-Kinase/ROCK Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton Components. Guan G, Cannon RD, Coates DE, Mei L. Guan G, et al. ... Cilia, Wnt signaling, and the cytoskeleton Helen L May-Simera 1 , Matthew W Kelley ... Diagrammatic overview of Wnt involvement with the cytoskeleton. Transport of APC by kinesin motors plays an important role in ...
However, the cytoskeleton-cortex interaction and its role in cell mechanics is not well understood.. To this end, we propose a ... We focus on three main questions: (1) What is the purely physical change in the actin cytoskeleton in response geometric ... Thus, the interplay between the cell cortex and the bulk cytoskeleton is a key factor in understanding intracellular transport ... Transport of intracellular components requires interaction with the cytoskeleton in the bulk cytoplasm as well as the cell ...
Keywords: Stress urinary incontinence, Mechanical stretching, Actin cytoskeleton, Apoptosis Citation styles. APA Copy. Li, Y., ... The aim of this study is to determine how Piezo1 and actin cytoskeleton are involved in the mechanized stretch (MS) induced ... Based on these findings, Piezo1 connects the actin cytoskeleton to the apoptosis of hAVWFs cells, providing an idea for the ... However, the disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton suppressed the protective effect of Piezo1 silencing on MS. Based on these ...
Review of Live Cell Imaging methods focused on cell-permeable compounds that efficiently label the actin cytoskeleton. ... Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a wide range of kits and products for drug screening, signal transduction and cytoskeletal research. ... Many cell types have been labeled with this system (see and sometimes challenging ones ... Cytoskeleton Kit (Includes SiR-Actin, SiR-Tubulin, and Verapamil) (Cat. # CY-SC006) ...
Cytoskeleton. Intermediate Filaments. Animals. Humans. Vimentin. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases. Acetylglucosamine. Signal ... Site-specific glycosylation regulates the form and function of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. ... Intermediate filaments (IF) are a major component of the metazoan cytoskeleton and are essential for normal cell morphology, ... In addition, we show that the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, which remodels the host IF cytoskeleton during ...
Author(s): Gilden, Julia Katherine | Advisor(s): Krummel, Matthew F | Abstract: Coordination of immunity requires rapid trafficking of T cells among diverse tissues throughout the body. In their travels, cells can adopt versatile shapes and modes of motility. In lymph nodes and interstitial spaces, T cells crawl rapidly, with an amoeboid morphology characterized by leading edge protrusion and MyoII-based contraction at the trailing uropod. In this work, I have investigated the role of septin GTPases in T cell motility, and in other aspects of T cell biology. Knockdown of septins in D10 T cells results in an uncontrolled cortex with unusual and dynamic blebs and protrusion that lead to inefficient crawling in 2D. Using an osmotic stress model of cortical expansion and contraction, I determined that septins function in the contraction phase of cortical control, assembling at the plasma membrane at stretched, actin-poor regions. My data indicate that septins coordinate the cortex via recapture and
... The Perfect Cytoskeletal Storm Posted on February 13th, 2020. by Dr. Francis Collins ... Seeing the Cytoskeleton in a Whole New Light Posted on January 9th, 2020. by Dr. Francis Collins ... The cytoskeleton plays an important role in giving cells shape and structure. But it also allows a cell to move and divide. ... Tags: actin, cell biology, clathrin, cytoskeleton, imaging, light microscopy, microscopy, Nobel Prize, SIM, SIM technology, ...
Activation of either ERK1/2 or ERK5 MAP kinase pathways can lead to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton Joana Castro Barros, ... Many of the studies of the effects of oncogenes on the cytoskeleton have made use of chemical inhibitors of MEK1/2 but it is ... Inhibition of ERK1/2 or ERK5 signalling alone is not sufficient to restore the actin cytoskeleton in Src-transformed cells. As ... ERK1/2 and ERK5 disrupt the cytoskeleton by different mechanisms. In order to determine whether ERK5 pathway activation can ...
Explain the Cytoskeleton and its elements, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments, Cilia and Flagella difference and Structural ... Cytoskeleton and its elements. The cytoskeleton is the network of fibres found in eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells and ... Cytoskeleton is not permanent like our skeleton because its components can disassemble and reform. Cytoskeleton is made up of ... Question 1. What will be the result if the cytoskeleton stops working?. Solution: The absence of a cytoskeleton in the cell ...
Expression of 69 genes, including selenoproteins W1 and K, which are genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and ... Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal ... Integrating proteomics and transcriptomics datasets revealed reduced inflammatory and immune responses and cytoskeleton ... cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies. The FASEB Journal, 30 (8). pp. 2812-2825. ISSN 0892-6638 ...
Very little is known about the protein composition of protists non-actin and non-tubulin cytoskeleton, i.e., the different ... This allows imaging of the cytoskeleton structures and protein localization with unprecedented resolution. Initial results show ... Structure of cytoskeleton in excavates and euglenids ... Project: Structure of cytoskeleton in excavates and euglenids. ...
... Stefano Del Duca;Iris Aloisi; ... When actin and tubulin are the substrates, this destabilizes the cytoskeleton and inhibits the pollen-tubes growth process. In ... When actin and tubulin are the substrates, this destabilizes the cytoskeleton and inhibits the pollen-tubes growth process. In ... TGase activity and cytoskeleton function during GSI in the Malinae. ...
Effects of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Level and Cytoskeleton F-Actin on Cell Protrusion Mechanics. ...
Role of the actin cytoskeleton in acinar cell protein secretion - Robert De Lisle, University of Kansas ...
The intricate morphology and molecular identity of axons are maintained for decades but also continuously adapt to changes in the environment and activity of neurons. Axons fulfill these paradoxical demands…
Cytoskeleton. H-Index. The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact ... Cytoskeleton. SCImago SJR Rank. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR indicator) is a measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals ... Cytoskeleton. SJR Impact Factor 2-year, 3-year, 4-year 2-year. Impact Factor. 2.62 ... ... http ... ... ...
The main function of the cytoskeleton is to from and maintain the shape of the cell and support the resitance to deformation. ... By controlled deformation due to contraction, the cytoskeleton also allows the migration of cells. However, also involvment in ... All structures enable fast disassembly and growth to maintain the essential functions of the cytoskeleton. ... endocytosis as well as the division of chromosomes during cell cycle are included in the overall function of the cytoskeleton. ...
Cytoskeleton (F-actin) staining. Coverslips with cell monolayer were washed twice with prewarmed DPBS and fixated with 4% ... In addition, we investigated the effects of DX-HNTs on cytoskeleton formation. We found that the HNTs taken up by A549 (Fig. 8C ... and D) and Hep3b (data not shown) cells do not induce any detectable changes in cytoskeleton organisation in cells. ...
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... while the cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that provides structural support, shape, and organization to the cell. ... What is Cytoskeleton?. The cytoskeleton is a framework that helps cells retain their form and internal order and provides ... The cytoskeleton aids in the transport of chemicals and nutrients within cells. The cytoskeleton is also thought to serve as a ... Cytoplasm vs Cytoskeleton. The difference between cytoplasm and cytoskeleton is that cytoplasm is the viscous, mucilaginous ...
The cytoskeleton is a structure that helps cells maintain their shape and internal organization, and it also provides ... Cytoskeleton: Description, Structure, Types, and Function August 21, 2021. Cytoskeleton: Definition, Importance, and Functions ...
Home , Members , Research , Publications , Links , News , Archives. © Actin Cytoskeleton Research Group Last modified: Jan 28, 2013. Number of visitors ...
  • In contrast, by targeting the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Cytoskeleton Inc Laboratories manufactures the cell cytoskeleton intermediate filaments reagents distributed by Genprice. (
  • Cytoskeleton Inc Laboratories manufactures the protein fibers of the cytoskeleton reagents distributed by Genprice. (
  • Our intriguing findings shed new light on how varying environmental conditions can dynamically tune the morphology of cytoskeleton networks and trigger active contraction without the use of motor proteins. (
  • The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of filamentous proteins, enables cells to maintain shape and structure while carrying out a wide range of processes such as cell proliferation, migration and division. (
  • Active reorganization of cytoskeleton networks is typically driven by ATP-consuming motor proteins including myosin and kinesin. (
  • Taken together these three networks are comprised of proteins which represent the major architectural building blocks of both the cytoplasm (classical cytoskeleton) and the nucleus (nucleoskeleton) of vertebrate cells. (
  • The ability of a eukaryotic cell to resist deformation, to transport intracellular cargo and to change shape during movement depends on the cytoskeleton, an interconnected network of filamentous polymers and regulatory proteins. (
  • As part of this process, microtubules , which are structural proteins that help make up the cell's cytoskeleton, reorganize the newly copied chromosomes into a dense, football-shaped spindle. (
  • Mechanics of cells mainly come from the molecular interactions between actin filaments and diverse actin-binding proteins in the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Multiple T3SS1 effector proteins target the actin cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, to induce localized membrane ruffles on the cell surface. (
  • The cytoskeleton is a network of long fibers that make up the cell's structural framework. (
  • At the present time, remarkably little is known about the role of the cytoskeleton in the normal aging process, even though it is well established that there are numerous changes in cytoskeletal systems that have become the hallmarks of age-related disorders. (
  • Of the many signaling pathways associated with primary cilia, the most extensively studied in association with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal rearrangements are both canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways. (
  • We also show that in Src -transformed cells inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling is not sufficient for reappearance of the actin cytoskeleton and that ERK5 activation contributes to cytoskeletal disruption by Src. (
  • Several lines of indirect evidence, such as mutations or dysregulated expression of genes related to cytoskeleton , have suggested that cytoskeletal dynamics, a process essential for axons and dendrites development, is compromised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (
  • The dynamic morphology and mechanics of the cytoskeleton is determined by interacting networks of semiflexible actin filaments and rigid microtubules. (
  • Two of the principle constituents of the cytoskeleton are thin semiflexible actin filaments, ∼7 nm wide with a persistence length of l p ∼ 10 μ m, and thicker rigid microtubules, ∼25 nm wide with l p ∼ 1 mm [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Broadly defined, the cytoskeleton is a complex array of three major protein systems: microtubules, intermediate filaments and actin/microfilaments. (
  • Like other eukaryotic cells, neurons have a cytoskeleton that consists of three main polymers: microtubules (green), intermediate filaments (purple) and actin filaments (red). (
  • The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules, made visible by fluorescently tagging a protein called doublecortin (orange). (
  • Evidence has accumulated that both the classical extracellular activated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway can contribute to alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Very little is known about the protein composition of protist's non-actin and non-tubulin cytoskeleton, i.e., the different types of intermediate and striated fibres. (
  • This allows imaging of the cytoskeleton structures and protein localization with unprecedented resolution. (
  • A computational model can give additional information that is critical for understanding the mechanics of the cytoskeleton which in vitro assay cannot offer, such asthelocation or force of each molecule. (
  • Most of the previous models lack some mechanical details that could potentially be critical in the mechanics of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • The model describes the detailed mechanics and dynamics, thus enabling the investigation of previously unexplored aspects of cytoskeleton mechanics. (
  • Intermediate filaments (IF) are a major component of the metazoan cytoskeleton and are essential for normal cell morphology, motility, and signal transduction. (
  • The Cell Cytoskeleton Intermediate Filaments reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (
  • The eukaryotic cytoskeleton appears to have evolved from ancestral precursors related to prokaryotic FtsZ and MreB. (
  • The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells provides structure and organization, resists and transmits stresses, and drives shape change and movement. (
  • Applications considering the effect of age on factors such as cytoskeleton structure and function, the impact of the cytoskeleton on intracellular organelle interactions, and signaling or regulatory molecules controlling cellular architecture are encouraged. (
  • In addition, we show that the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, which remodels the host IF cytoskeleton during infection, requires specific vimentin glycosylation sites and O-GlcNAc transferase activity to maintain its replicative niche. (
  • 8. Calponin isoforms CNN1, CNN2 and CNN3: Regulators for actin cytoskeleton functions in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. (
  • This work laid the foundation of my currently ongoing work in identification of novel regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Due to the complex geometry of the actin structures in non-muscle cells, it has not been well understood how the actin cytoskeleton generates force and remodels itself. (
  • Site-specific glycosylation regulates the form and function of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. (
  • 20. Calponin 3 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in trophoblastic cell fusion. (
  • The purpose of this FOA is to stimulate the development of innovative research strategies aimed at increasing the understanding of the molecular and cellular changes in the cytoskeleton that occur during the aging process. (
  • Recent work has demonstrated that both internal and external physical forces can act through the cytoskeleton to affect local mechanical properties and cellular behaviour. (
  • Although the cytoskeleton has historically been understood as the structural framework of the cell, the proper function of actin is also required for a diverse array of cellular pathways. (
  • The collapse of these cellular processes manifests during aging and exposure to a myriad of stresses, which is in part due to the breakdown of the cytoskeleton under these conditions. (
  • A major contributor to the lack of these essential studies is the lack of tools available for in vivo, live-cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in multi-cellular organisms. (
  • As the cilium is effectively a microtubular extension of the cytoskeleton, investigating connections between the cilium and the cytoskeleton provides greater insight into signaling and cell function. (
  • Recent advances in organic chemical synthesis have facilitated the ultimate aim of producing small cell-permeable compounds which can efficiently label the actin cytoskeleton and track its dynamic properties 1-3 . (
  • These alterations to the cytoskeleton can lead to increased cell motility through changes in actin dynamics and decreased cell adhesion. (
  • This video, which took third place in the ASCB contest, shows the cytoskeleton of a frequently studied human breast cancer cell line. (
  • To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact Cytoskeleton Inc. Other Cell products are available in stock. (
  • The famous neuroscientist C.S. Sherrington observed the cytoskeleton may act as the nervous system of single cell organisms. (
  • Penrose and Hameroff speculated that the cytoskeleton is like a micro myofascial system, within each cell. (
  • The cytoskeleton has several critical functions, including determining cell shape, participating in cell division, and allowing cells to move. (
  • Early in my postdoctoral career, I developed a system for robust, tissue-specific, live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton in the muscle, intestine, and hypodermis of C. elegans, utilizing LifeAct fused to a fluorescent molecule. (
  • Molecular architecture of the trypanosome cytoskeleton. (
  • The mechanisms through which changes in the actin cytoskeleton occur in oncogenic transformation have been the focus of much investigation. (
  • Actin cytoskeleton dynamics in stem cells from autistic individuals. (
  • Here we investigated the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) of 13 ASD patients and 8 control individuals by inducing actin filament depolymerization and then measuing their reconstruction upon activation of the RhoGTPases Rac, Cdc42 or RhoA. (
  • Oncogenic transformation often leads to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Many of the studies of the effects of oncogenes on the cytoskeleton have made use of chemical inhibitors of MEK1/2 but it is now clear that these inhibitors also inactivate MEK5 in the MEK5-ERK5 MAP kinase pathway raising the possibility that this pathway may also be involved in oncogenic transformation. (
  • Altered regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is a common feature of malignant transformation. (
  • Li Y, Li L, Li B, Liao W, Liu T, Shen F, Hong L. Mechanical stretching induces fibroblasts apoptosis through activating Piezo1 and then destroying actin cytoskeleton. (
  • 17. Deletion of calponin 2 in macrophages alters cytoskeleton-based functions and attenuates the development of atherosclerosis. (
  • Based on these findings, Piezo1 connects the actin cytoskeleton to the apoptosis of hAVWFs cells, providing an idea for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of SUI. (
  • However, no study has yet examined whether cytoskeleton dynamics is functionally altered in cells from ASD patients . (
  • Yet, how cytoskeleton networks respond in real-time to changing ion concentrations, and how actin-microtubule interactions impact network response to these changing conditions remains unknown. (
  • The aim of this study is to determine how Piezo1 and actin cytoskeleton are involved in the mechanized stretch (MS) induced apoptosis of human anterior vaginal wall fibroblasts (hAVWFs) and the mechanism. (
  • This resubmission application for a Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00) from the University of California (UC), Berkeley, CA, on behalf of the candidate Dr. Ryo Higuchi-Sanabria, proposes to study novel genes that are found to alter the chromatin state and lipid homeostasis in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • This action results in the remodeling of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. (
  • There is also interest in studying the role of the cytoskeleton in nuclear-cytoplasmic communications, and in spatio-temporal relationships during the aging process and in age-related diseases. (
  • Activation of the classical Ras-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling cascade has been implicated in the effects of oncogenes such as Ras and Src on the cytoskeleton. (
  • Interestingly, the breakdown of the cytoskeleton throughout age has been adopted as common knowledge in the field of aging biology, despite the lack of clear and direct evidence. (
  • However, the disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton suppressed the protective effect of Piezo1 silencing on MS. Based on these findings, Piezo1 connects the actin cytoskeleton to apoptosis of hAVWFs, providing new insight for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of SUI. (