Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cortactin: A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.PhosphoproteinsNocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesGuanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.ThiazolesFibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsExtracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cofilin 1: Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Neurofibromin 2: A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.ras GTPase-Activating Proteins: PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (1/10346)The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus. (+info)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (2/10346)Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin. (+info)
Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change. (3/10346)Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction. (+info)
Nitric oxide modulates endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cytoskeletal F-actin filaments in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. (4/10346)A functional interrelation between nitric oxide (NO), the endothelial-derived vasodilating factor, and endothelin 1 (ET-1), the potent vasoconstrictive peptide, was investigated in microvascular endothelium of human brain. Nor-1 dose-dependently decreased the ET-1-stimulated mobilization of Ca2+. This response was mimicked with cGMP and abrogated by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase or cGMP-dependent protein kinase G. These findings indicate that NO and ET-1 interactions involved in modulation of intracellular Ca2+ are mediated by cGMP/protein kinase G. In addition, Nor-1-mediated effects were associated with rearrangements of cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. The results suggest mechanisms by which NO-ET-1 interactions may contribute to regulation of microvascular function. (+info)
EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. (5/10346)The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells. (+info)
Homotypic and heterotypic interaction of the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor protein merlin and the ERM protein ezrin. (6/10346)Ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) are homologous proteins, which are linkers between plasma membrane components and the actin-containing cytoskeleton. The ERM protein family members associate with each other in a homotypic and heterotypic manner. The neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein merlin (schwannomin) is structurally related to ERM members. Merlin is involved in tumorigenesis of NF2-associated and sporadic schwannomas and meningiomas, but the tumor suppressor mechanism is poorly understood. We have studied the ability of merlin to self-associate and bind ezrin. Ezrin was coimmunoprecipitated with merlin from lysates of human U251 glioma cells and from COS-1 cells transfected with cDNA encoding for merlin isoform I. The interaction was further studied and the association domains were mapped with the yeast two-hybrid system and with blot overlay and affinity precipitation experiments. The heterotypic binding of merlin and ezrin and the homotypic association of merlin involves interaction between the amino- and carboxy-termini. The amino-terminal association domain of merlin involves residues 1-339 and has similar features with the amino-terminal association domain of ezrin. The carboxy-terminal association domain cannot be mapped as precisely as in ezrin, but it requires residues 585-595 and a more amino-terminal segment. Unlike ezrin, merlin does not require activation for self-association but native merlin molecules can interact with each other. Heterodimerization between merlin and ezrin, however, occurs only following conformational alterations in both proteins. These results biochemically connect merlin to the cortical cytoskeleton and indicate differential regulation of merlin from ERM proteins. (+info)
Regulation of p190 Rho-GAP by v-Src is linked to cytoskeletal disruption during transformation. (7/10346)The v-Src oncoprotein perturbs the dynamic regulation of the cellular cytoskeletal and adhesion network by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we have examined in detail the effects of a temperature-dependent v-Src protein on the regulation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that has been implicated in disruption of the organised actin cytoskeleton, and addressed the dependence of v-Src-induced stress fibre loss on inhibition of Rho activity. We found that activation of v-Src induced association of tyrosine phosphorylated p190 with p120(RasGAP) and stimulation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity, although p120(RasGAP) itself was not a target for phosphorylation by v-Src in chicken embryo cells. These events required the catalytic activity of v-Src and were linked to loss of actin stress fibres during morphological transformation and not mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, these effects were rapidly reversible since switching off v-Src led to dissociation of the p190/p120(RasGAP) complex, inactivation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity and re-induction of actin stress fibres. In addition, transient transfection of Val14-RhoA, a constitutively active Rho protein that is insensitive to RhoGAPs, suppressed v-Src-induced stress fibre loss and cell transformation. Thus, we show here for the first time that an activated Src kinase requires the inactivation of Rho-mediated actin stress fibre assembly to induce its effects on actin disorganisation. Moreover, our work supports p190 as a strong candidate effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeletal disruption, most likely mediated by antagonism of the cellular function of Rho. (+info)
Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery. (8/10346)We have identified a approximately 140 amino acid domain that is shared by a variety of proteins in budding and fission yeast, nematode, rat, mouse, frog, oat, and man. Typically, this domain is located within 20 residues of the N-terminus of the various proteins. The percent identity among the domains in the 12 proteins ranges from 42 to 93%, with 16 absolutely conserved residues: N-x(11-13)-V-x2-A-T-x(34-36)-R-x(7-8)-W-R-x3-K-x12-G-x-E-x15 -L-x11-12-D-x-G-R-x11-D-x7-R. Even though these proteins share little beyond their segment of homology, data are emerging that several of the proteins are involved in endocytosis and or regulation of cytoskeletal organization. We have named this protein segment the ENTH domain, for Epsin N-terminal Homology domain, and hypothesize that it is a candidate for binding specific ligands and/or enzymatic activity in the cell. (+info)
Course on Cytoskeleton: April 13-20, 2016 | Institut Curie - Training Unit
The general objective of this 8th cytoskeleton course is to understand the role of the cytoskeleton in tissue mechanics at different levels: molecular, cellular and in the living organism. It will provide introductions to the main cytoskeleton networks as well as to the main knowledge in force generation and tissue mechanics and will cover general mechanisms of cytoskeleton functions, in the organization and the maintenance of tissue shape and mechanics in different conditions, systems and organs : during development, on monolayers, in gut homeostasis, in cancer and in the brain ...
Rapid Cytoskeletal Response of Epithelial Cells to Force Generation by Type IV Pili
Many bacterial pathogens interfere with cellular functions including phagocytosis and barrier integrity. The human pathogen Neissieria gonorrhoeae generates grappling hooks for adhesion, spreading, and induction of signal cascades that lead to formation cortical plaques containing f-actin and ezrin. It is unclear whether high mechanical forces generated by type IV pili (T4P) are a direct signal that leads to cytoskeletal rearrangements and at which time scale the cytoskeletal response occurs. Here we used laser tweezers to mimic type IV pilus mediated force generation by T4P-coated beads on the order of 100pN. We found that actin-EGFP and ezrin-EGFP accumulated below pilus-coated beads when force was applied. Within 2 min, accumulation significantly exceeded controls without force or without pili, demonstrating that T4P-generated force rapidly induces accumulation of plaque proteins. This finding adds mechanical force to the many strategies by which bacteria modulate the host cell cytoskeleton.
Bacterial Cytoskeleton May Offer New Drug Target
In fact, it was only in the late 1990s that biologists discovered bacteria even had a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton was first identified in the cells of eukaryotic organisms (those, such as plants and animals, whose cells have specialized organelles and a discrete nucleus). Bacteria are tiny, for one thing, and until the advent of advanced imaging technology, scientists could not get a good look inside. The species Goley studies, Caulobacter crescentus, is a mere 500 nanometers across, or about one one-hundredth the size of an average human cell.. Second, a cell wall encases most bacterial species, and scientists assumed this semi-rigid structure obviated the need for a cytoskeleton.. These assumptions turned out to be wrong. In 1998, structural biologist Jan Löwe, in the United Kingdom, demonstrated that a bacterial protein called FtsZ is an evolutionary counterpart of tubulin, a key protein component of the eukaryote cytoskeleton. The finding implied that the cytoskeleton was not a ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Adenovirus endocytosis requires actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho family Gtpases,
Perturbation of actin dynamics induces NF-κB activation in myelomonocytic cells through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway |...
Although several reports showed the effect of compounds disrupting microtubules on NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation, nothing is known about agents perturbing actin dynamics. In the present study, we have shown that actin cytoskeleton disruption induced by actin-depolymerizing agents such as cytochalasin D and latrunculin B and actin-polymerizing compounds such as jasplakinolide induced NF-κB activation in myelomonocytic cells. The transduction pathway involved the IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase complex and a degradation of IκBα. We have shown that NF-κB activation in response to the perturbation of actin dynamics required reactive oxygen species, as demonstrated by the effect of antioxidants. Actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D induced O2− release from human monocytes, through the activation of the NADPH oxidase, as confirmed by the phosphorylation and by the membrane translocation of p47phox. NF-κB activation after actin cytoskeleton disruption could be physiologically ...
METHODS IN CELL BIOLOGY,VOLUME 24: THE CYTOSKELETON, PART A: CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION: THE...
Buy or Rent METHODS IN CELL BIOLOGY,VOLUME 24: THE CYTOSKELETON, PART A: CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION: THE CYTOSKELETON, PART A: CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
cytoskeleton - University of California Research
The purple in the center is the cells nucleus. Surrounding it are wispy blue and white microtubules and filaments that make up the cells cytoskeleton.. The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules-the wispy threads surrounding the purple DNA-containing nucleus-and filaments of a protein called actin, seen here as the fine blue meshwork in the cell periphery. Both actin and microtubules are critical for growth and movement.. Unlike our own bony skeleton, which keeps the same arrangement throughout our lives, the cellular cytoskeleton is dynamic, continuously morphing in response to cellular signals. In this image, cytoskeleton remodeling of the skin cell was triggered by addition of a growth factor, which produced protrusions of the cell edge and the characteristic "fried egg" shape of this cell. These protrusions have little "feet" that help the cell move forward. The Wittmann lab recently used these skin cells to model the complex choreography by which microtubules ...
AID 670519 - Drug uptake in human T24 cell cytoskeleton at 2 uM after 1 hr by Dil-C28 dye staining-based inverted microscopic...
Effects of intracellular calcium and actin cytoskeleton on TCR mobility measured by fluorescence recovery. - Immunology
BACKGROUND: The activation of T lymphocytes by specific antigen is accompanied by the formation of a specialized signaling region termed the immunological synapse, characterized by the clustering and segregation of surface molecules and, in particular, by T cell receptor (TCR) clustering. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand TCR motion during cellular activation, we used confocal microscopy and photo-bleaching recovery techniques to investigate the lateral mobility of TCR on the surface of human T lymphocytes under various pharmacological treatments. Using drugs that cause an increase in intracellular calcium, we observed a decrease in TCR mobility that was dependent on a functional actin cytoskeleton. In parallel experiments measurement of filamentous actin by FACS analysis showed that raising intracellular calcium also causes increased polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. These in vitro results were analyzed using a mathematical model that revealed effective binding parameters
Aspects of plant cell growth and the actin cytoskeleton : lessons from root hairs</em>...
TY - THES. T1 - Aspects of plant cell growth and the actin cytoskeleton : lessons from root hairs. AU - de Ruijter, N.C.A.. N1 - WU thesis 2675 Proefschrift Wageningen. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The main topic the thesis addresses is the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the growth process of plant cells. Plant growth implies a combination of cell division and cell expansion. The cytoskeleton, which exists of microtubules and actin filaments, plays a major role in both processes. Before cell growth takes place, a new cell is formed by cell division. The orientation of the division plane most often predicts the orientation of cell expansion, and a correct positioning of the division plane is therefore important for plant morphogenesis. During most stages of cell division microtubules and actin filaments have a similar configuration.In Chapter 1 (De Ruijter et al. , 1997, Acta Bot. Neerl . 46: 279-290) the cytoskeleton of microtubules has been visualized during all stages of cell division for ...
nature supplement: cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells pervades the cytoplasm. It comprises three broad classes of proteins: actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. In addition to establishing cell and tissue shape, the cytoskeleton along with associated motor proteins influences a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, including cell migration, movement of organelles and cell division.. We are witnessing a rapid advance in our understanding of the cytoskeleton, driven in particular by determination of the structures of key molecules and acquisition of proteomics inventories of cytoskeletal proteins and their binding partners. The cytoskeleton is now no longer considered to be a rigid scaffold, but instead is viewed as a complex and dynamic network of protein filaments that can be modulated by internal and external cues.. This Insight examines many different facets of the cytoskeleton, reviewing the basic principles of filament organization, the operation of motor proteins and the role of ...
Pathophysiological aspects of frontotemporal dementia-emphasis on cytoskeleton proteins and autoimmunity | Semantic Scholar
The aim of this study was to investigate two putative pathophysiological aspects of the common neurodegenerative disorder frontotemporal dementia (FTD). To this end, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau (total tau) and the light subtype of the neurofilament proteins (NFL) were studied in patients with FTD (n=16) and in age-matched controls (n=16). In addition, serum was analysed for IgG and IgM antibodies to the most common gangliosides and sulfatide in FTD patients (n=13) and in age-matched controls (n=20). The CSF-NFL levels were increased in FTD (1606+/-1151 pg/ml, mean+/-S.D.; P|0.001) compared with controls (308+/-203 pg/ml), whereas the CSF-tau levels were normal. In serum, autoantibody IgG-GA1 was significantly increased in FTD (P|0.05) compared with controls. No correlations were found between the effect parameters and demographic variables in any group. The results of this study suggest that cytoskeleton proteins other than tau are also involved in the pathophysiology of FTD and that
Standard J : The Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall
The internal organizations of a eukaryotes organelles are due to the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a cellular framework found within the cytoplasm. It is composed of microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubules are thin, hollow cylinders made of protein. Microfilaments are smaller, solid protein fiber. Both of them help keep the shape of a cell, as well as stabilizing different organelles and making a way for the organelles to move about a cell. The cytoskeleton can change its shape and structure, which causes the cells shape to change. Actin filaments are polymers that make shape-changes because of their ATP-driven assembly in the cytoplasm. ...
The cytoskeleton of digestive epithelia in health and disease<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The cytoskeleton of digestive epithelia in health and disease. AU - NO, Ku. AU - Zhou, XJ. AU - Toivola, Diana. AU - Omary, MB. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The mammalian cell cytoskeleton consists of a diverse group of fibrillar elements that play a pivotal role in mediating a number of digestive and nondigestive cell functions, including secretion, absorption, motility, mechanical integrity, and mitosis. The cytoskeleton of higher-eukaryotic cells consists of three highly abundant major protein families: microfilaments (MF), microtubules (MT), and intermediate filaments (IF), as well as a growing number of associated proteins. Within digestive epithelia, the prototype members of these three protein families are actins, tubulins, and keratins, respectively. This review highlights the important structural, regulatory, functional, and unique features of the three major cytoskeletal protein groups in digestive epithelia. The emerging exciting biological aspects of these protein ...
Targeting the Cytoskeleton with Plant-Bioactive Compounds in Cancer Therapy | IntechOpen
In this overview we describe the main plant-derived bioactive compounds used in cancer therapy which has the cell cytoskeleton as therapeutic target. Three major classes of these compounds are described: antimitotics with microtubule-destabilizing and-stabilizing effects, plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments/actin, and plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments like keratins and vimentin. We also focus on the molecular aspects of interactions with their cellular targets: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. Some critical aspects of cardiac side effects of cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on cardiac cytoskeleton and protective effect of plant-derived compounds. The application of plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting the cytoskeleton, respectively, prevention of the injury of cytoskeletal components elicited by chemotherapeutics.
A contractile and counterbalancing adhesion system controls the 3D shape of crawling cells | JCB
Lamella flattening is a basic morphological feature of migrating cells, with its molecular and physical mechanisms likely crucial for events underlying cell motility and mechanotransduction. Our results addressing these mechanisms reveal a complex interdependency of actin, myosin IIA, and focal adhesions in generating lamella flattening through counterbalanced contraction and adhesion.. Using the improved resolution of SIM, we dissected actin fiber organization and cytoskeletal interactions underlying lamella shape, beginning by molecularly characterizing the vertical 3D layering and dynamics of cytoskeletal elements in the thin lamella, which were previously unresolvable by conventional light microscopy (Fig. 1; Hotulainen and Lappalainen, 2006) and only partially described by EM (Small et al., 1998). The vertical layering we observed included: myosin IIA-rich actin arcs, aligned along the dorsal cell surface tangentially to the leading edge; and noncontractile DSFs, aligned perpendicular to ...
Actin Cytoskeleton and Stress Fiber Molecules Research Areas: R&D Systems
cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport Antibodies | Invitrogen ...
CYRI/FAM49B negatively regulates RAC1-driven cytoskeletal remodelling and protects against bacterial infection
Download Cytoskeleton Methods And Protocols (Methods In Molecular Biology Vol 161)
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Mythical origins of the actin cytoskeleton<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mythical origins of the actin cytoskeleton. AU - Akıl, Caner. AU - Kitaoku, Yoshihito. AU - Tran, Linh T.. AU - Liebl, David. AU - Choe, Han. AU - Muengsaen, Duangkamon. AU - Suginta, Wipa. AU - Schulte, Albert. AU - Robinson, Robert C.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR19S5 , Japan; A∗STAR , Singapore; VISTEC and the Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI) public funding agency through a grant within the Global Partnership Program, Thailand. We thank Esra Balıkçı and David Popp for technical support.. PY - 2021/2. Y1 - 2021/2. N2 - The origin of the eukaryotic cell is one of the greatest mysteries in modern biology. Eukaryotic-wide specific biological processes arose in the lost ancestors of eukaryotes. These distinctive features, such as the actin cytoskeleton, define what it is to be a eukaryote. Recent sequencing, characterization, and isolation of Asgard archaea have opened an intriguing window into the ...
What is a Cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton of a cell helps provide shape, strength, and an organised structure to the cell. The cytoskeleton can be compared to a transport network facilitating various types of movement in the cell. It helps with cell reproduction, the movement of organelles, the functions of muscles and intracellular transport between the organelles. It also enables the separation of daughter chromosomes to opposite poles during cell division.
Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy to Study Cytoskeleton Assembly and Organization in Live Cells - Current Protocols
Gα12/13 regulate epiboly by inhibiting E-cadherin activity and modulating the actin cytoskeleton | JCB
In this paper, we demonstrate that Gα12/13 signaling can regulate different aspects of epiboly movements by two distinct mechanisms: inhibiting E-cadherin activity and modulating actin cytoskeleton organization.. Excess or reduced Gα12/13 signaling during gastrulation resulted in delayed epiboly of the deep cells and in the splitting of the df cell cluster (Fig. 1). Moreover, excess Gα12/13 activity led to the detachment of cells from embryonic tissues, which suggests that cell adhesion is defective under these circumstances (Fig. 2). All of these phenotypic characteristics resemble those observed in hab (cdh1) mutant embryos (Kane et al., 1996; Kane and Warga, 2004), which suggests a possible link between Gα12/13 signaling and E-cadherin. Indeed, although altered Gα12/13 expression did not change the expression level and cellular distribution of E-cadherin (Fig. 3), our in vivo genetic experiments demonstrated that Gα12/13 can inhibit the function of E-cadherin. In particular, we found ...
Cytoskeleton Antibodies - ImmuQuest
Cytoskeleton antibodies are indicated in work understanding the cytoskeleton , the organising infrastructure of the cell, both scaffolding for cellular components and facilitative for intracellular organelle movement and information transmission. Cytoskeleton antibodies are available in the following volumes including
Distinct cytoskeletal tracks direct individual vesicle populations to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. - PubMed - NCBI
"mRNA and cytoskeletal filaments" by Gary J. Bassell and Robert H. Singer
The localization of some mRNAs to distinct intracellular regions is achieved through interactions of the mRNA with cytoskeletal filaments. RNA-cytoskeletal interactions exist that influence the transport, anchoring and translation of mRNA. Recent analysis of RNA movements in living cells suggests the formation of RNA granules and their active transport along microtubules. The anchoring and translation of mRNA may be mediated by interactions with orthogonal networks of F-actin and elongation factor 1alpha.
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization Gene Ontology Term (GO:0032956)
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Cellular chirality arising from the self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton
Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. A radially symmetrical system of …
The Cytoskeleton-Autophagy Connection
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by whic …
CAP2 (cyclase associated actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein 2)
What role does the cytoskeleton play in a living cell? | Reference.com
Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System en Apple Books
Without a cytoskeleton, a neuron or glial cell would be a shapeless jelly mass unable to function in the milieu of the brain. If we are to understand neuronal cells function in health and disease, we must determine how the cytoskeleton forms and contributes to neural physiology and pathobiology. Cyt…
Nuclear staining instead of cytoskeleton - Immunology and Histology
Study offers first explanation of how cells rapidly repair and maintain structure - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
SALT LAKE CITY-Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah have discovered that a protein, zyxin, is necessary for the maintenance and repair of the cells cytoskeleton, or internal framework, which serves as the muscle and bone of the cell. The research has implications for cancer, as well as other diseases, since alterations in the cytoskeleton are often associated with disease. The research was published in the Sep. 14, 2010, issue of the journal Developmental Cell.. "Just like people, the cells in our bodies are exposed to all kinds of stress," says Mary Beckerle, Ph.D., the studys principal investigator and HCI executive director. "One type of stress, mechanical stress that is derived from application of physical force, is experienced by many organs such as the lung, which stretches with each breath, the heart, which is physically challenged with each beat, and the uterus, which undergoes intense contractions during labor and childbirth. We were interested in ...
ZFIN GO: Cellular Component: cortical cytoskeleton
Download The Cytoskeleton Part A Cytoskeletal Proteins Isolation And Characterization 1982
3t3 culture cell - Stock Image G442/0133 - Science Photo Library
Culture cell. Confocal light micrograph of a 3t3 (mouse fibroblast) cell in culture. The nucleus is blue. Protein fibres making up the cells cytoskeleton are red and green. The cytoskeleton is a network of structural proteins, such as actin and tubulin, that supports the cells organelles and other internal structures. 3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. Magnification: x1000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock Image G442/0133
M1-C2-L7 --| Cytoskeleton Flashcards - Cram.com
Mutagenetix > Incidental...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of LIM proteins, characterized by a LIM motif and a domain of Src homology region 3, and also a member of the nebulin family of actin-binding proteins. The encoded protein is a cAMP and cGMP dependent signaling protein and binds to the actin cytoskeleton at extensions of the cell membrane. The encoded protein has been linked to metastatic breast cancer, hematopoetic tumors such as B-cell lymphomas, and colorectal cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012 ...
WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility | JCB
Eukaryotic cells move using several distinct modes of locomotion, including crawling and flagella-driven swimming. The stereotyped architecture of flagella and the conservation of their protein components make the evolutionary conservation of cell swimming clear. In contrast, "crawling motility" is a collection of distinct processes whose evolutionary relationships are not well understood (Rodriguez et al., 2005; Lämmermann and Sixt, 2009; Paluch and Raz, 2013). Some crawling cells require dedicated adhesion molecules to make specific, high-affinity contacts with their surroundings, whereas other cells rely on weaker, nonspecific interactions. Crawling cells also use different mechanisms to advance their leading edge, either assembling polymerized actin networks to push the plasma membrane forward or detaching the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton to form a rapidly expanding bleb. Furthermore, some cell types have been shown to use contractile forces to generate forward movement ...
Cytoskeleton reorganization of spreading cells on micro-patterned islands: a functional model | Philosophical Transactions of...
The main function of the algorithm is to distribute nascent FAs and determine which of these (and their associated actin filaments) should be selected for maturation/reinforcement. The algorithm currently considers three mechanisms for FA maturation: (i) lamellipodia retraction occurs that would otherwise leave a nascent adhesion outside the cell body (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003), (ii) membrane tension spanning two FAs exceeds a certain force threshold (Balaban et al. 2001; Bischofs et al. 2009), and (iii) the cell leading edge advances until it encompasses a nascent FA at the protruding tip of an existing filopodium (Schäfer et al. 2009).. FA maturation induced by lamellipodial retraction has been described as a force independent process (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003). While experimentally well characterized, it is to date not well understood. In contrast, the separate mechanism of tension induced adhesion maturation is clearly force regulated, inherently involving actin SFs that are recruited to the ...
Welcome to The Visible Embryo
By changing polarity, Cdc42 regulates shape, structure and function in yeast cells. This oscillating mechanism may be a general strategy among all self-organizing biological systems, not just simple yeast.. Researchers used fluorescent markers to tag each of the many proteins involved, observing the protein oscillate, switching sides about every five minutes. The fluctuations provide an adaptable mechanism for cells to control their size and structure in the fast-changing environment within.. The findings demonstrate just part of the complex process of cell growth and differentiation, but mark how advanced the science of biophysics has become. Only recently has the clear imaging and monitoring of protein activity become possible at the minute sizes and shortened time scales of individual cell maturation.. Vavyloniss research has explored the way the cellular cytoskeleton organizes and functions for years. In collaboration with biologists and computer scientists, his team uses physics to study, ...
The Last Stoic: September 2010
The principles of prestressed tensegrity are similarly applicable on the cellular level; although, as we shall see later on, geodesic structures are also found in the cell on a smaller scale. The cell possesses a molecular framework called the cytoskeleton enclosed within the surface membrane that mechanically stabilizes the cell. The cytoskeleton is comprised of three different types of molecular protein polymers, called microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. The microfilaments, which are the thinnest proteins in the cytoskeleton, comprise a network that extends throughout the cell, exerting tension by pulling the cells external membrane and everything in between towards the nucleus at its center (Ingber, The Bridge). To counterbalance the tensional forces, the microtubules -- the thickest protein chains of the three -- act as struts that bear compression. The adhesions of the extracellular matrix, or the "anchoring scaffolding to which cells are naturally secured in the ...
Gene expression within a dynamic nuclear landscape | The EMBO Journal
Gene expression occurs simultaneously at multiple transcription factories in actively transcribing cells (Pombo et al, 2000). Therefore, at any given time, one can envision waves of mRNA transcripts moving from sites of transcriptions towards nuclear pores and destined to cytoplasmic translation. Some mRNAs diffuse in the cytoplasm until they encounter ribosomes (Fusco et al, 2003), while others are actively translocated on cytoskeletal filaments to ultimately localize at specific regions of the cell (Shav‐Tal and Singer, 2005). The spatial sorting of RNA cargo in the cytoplasm requires the recruitment of specific motor proteins and the investment of cellular energy. However, what is the situation in the nucleus where transcripts originate? While no mechanism of active nuclear transport system is known to date, it has been provocatively suggested that a nucleoskeletal transport mechanism including nuclear motor proteins might exist. Indeed, the basic building blocks of the cytoskeleton, that ...
The Cytoskeleton - Thomas D. Pollard; Robert D. Goldman - Oxford University Press
Cytoskeleton - DSHB
The effect of insulin and IGF1 on the cytoskeleton in relation to SMC migration - Growth Hormone
highly structured by endomembranes and a cytoskeleton Cell movement flagella made of flagellin flagella and cilia containing ... Centrosome: the cytoskeleton organiser: The centrosome produces the microtubules of a cell - a key component of the ... Michie KA, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75: 467-92. doi: ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. There are a great number of ...
The cellular cytoskeleton is a dynamic system that functions on many different levels: In addition to giving the cell a ... The cytoskeleton formed by microtubules is essential to the morphogenetic process of an organism's development. For example, a ... Ren, X.-D. (1999). "Regulation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho by cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton". The EMBO Journal. ... This communication between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the cellular response is also related to the action of growth ...
Cytoskeleton. 65 (9): 687-707. doi:10.1002/cm.20296. PMC 2561250 . PMID 18615630. Brookes S, Lammie GA, Schuuring E, de Boer C ... Samaj J, Baluska F, Voigt B, Schlicht M, Volkmann D, Menzel D (July 2004). "Endocytosis, actin cytoskeleton, and signaling". ... "Cell volume-dependent phosphorylation of proteins of the cortical cytoskeleton and cell-cell contact sites. The role of Fyn and ... "Osmotic stress-induced remodeling of the cortical cytoskeleton". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 283 (3): C850-65. doi:10.1152/ ...
Cyclase-associated protein family
Beyond polymer polarity: how the cytoskeleton builds a polarized cell, in: Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. Vol. 9, nº 11 ... Yi, Kexi; Li, Rong (1 October 2012). "Actin cytoskeleton in cell polarity and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte ... maturation". Cytoskeleton. Wiley-Liss. 69 (10): 727-737. doi:10.1002/cm.21048. Retrieved 29 September 2015. Yi, Kexi; ...
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 61 (3): 145-160. doi:10.1002/cm.20072. Lee, I-Ju; Coffman, Valerie C.; Wu, Jian-Qiu ( ... Cytoskeleton. 69 (10): 764-777. doi:10.1002/cm.21056. Das, M (2010). "Microtubule-dependent spatial organization of ... October 2012). "Contractile-ring assembly in fission yeast cytokinesis: Recent advances and new perspectives". Cytoskeleton. 69 ...
Shroom protein family
Cytoskeleton. 67 (12): 808-23. doi:10.1002/cm.20490. PMC 3019100 . PMID 20886612. Bang C, Batkai S, Dangwal S, Gupta SK, ... Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 67 (12): 808-23. doi:10.1002/cm.20490. PMC 3019100 . PMID 20886612. Haglund K, Ivankovic-Dikic I, ... and that it is a potential link between Abl family kinases and the actin cytoskeleton. ArgBP2 contains several potential Abl ... "Involvement of palladin and alpha-actinin in targeting of the Abl/Arg kinase adaptor ArgBP2 to the actin cytoskeleton". Exp. ...
Cytoskeleton. 44 (3): 209-24. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0169(199911)44:3. 3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 10542369. Kitazawa H, Iida J, Uchida A ... Cytoskeleton. 23 (4): 236-43. doi:10.1002/cm.970230403. PMID 1477887. West RR, Tenbarge KM, Olmsted JB (1991). "A model for ... Cytoskeleton. 27 (2): 133-49. doi:10.1002/cm.970270205. PMID 7909279. Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, et al. (1996). " ... Cell motility and the cytoskeleton. 54 (4): 317-36. doi:10.1002/cm.10105. PMID 12601693. Chapin SJ, Bulinski JC (1993). " ...
The bacterial cytoskeleton may not be as complex as that found in eukaryotes; however, it contains proteins that are highly ... The actin cytoskeleton in vivo is not exclusively composed of actin, other proteins are required for its formation, continuance ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton of organisms among all taxonomic groups have similar components to actin and tubulin. For example, ... Actin's cytoskeleton is key to the processes of endocytosis, cytokinesis, determination of cell polarity and morphogenesis in ...
nature supplement: cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton, cellular motility and the reductionist agenda. THOMAS D. POLLARD. doi:10.1038/nature01598. ,. Full text. ,. ... The cytoskeleton is now no longer considered to be a rigid scaffold, but instead is viewed as a complex and dynamic network of ... With this broad range of topics we aim to appeal not only to the cytoskeleton community, but also to the wide range of our ... The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells pervades the cytoplasm. It comprises three broad classes of proteins: actin filaments, ...
What is a Cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton can be compared to a transport network facilitating various types of movement in the cell. It helps with cell ... The cytoskeleton of a cell helps provide shape, strength, and an organised structure to the cell. ... Shapers and the Cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is made of three types of structural proteins that help it to maintain the shape ... The cytoskeleton of a cell helps provide shape, strength, and an organised structure to the cell. The cytoskeleton can be ...
2021 Motility & Cytoskeleton Subgroup
The mission of the Motility and Cytoskeleton Subgroup is to understand the basic mechanisms that underlie motility and ... The mission of the Motility and Cytoskeleton Subgroup is to understand the basic mechanisms that underlie motility and ... Areas of focus also include the regulatory proteins that control the activity of motors and the cytoskeleton,. ... In order to join the Motility & Cytoskeleton Subgroup, you must be a current member of the Society. ...
The Cytoskeleton-Autophagy Connection
Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy ... Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and ... The Cytoskeleton-Autophagy Connection Curr Biol. 2017 Apr 24;27(8):R318-R326. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.02.061. ... Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and ...
Bacterial Cytoskeleton May Offer New Drug Target
In fact, it was only in the late 1990s that biologists discovered bacteria even had a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton was first ... a key protein component of the eukaryote cytoskeleton. The finding implied that the cytoskeleton was not a eukaryotic invention ... Bacterial Cytoskeleton May Offer New Drug Target. Despite their ubiquity as research tools, there is still much we dont fully ... One area that particularly intrigues Goley is the cytoskeletons role in cell division. In Caulobacter and other bacteria, one ...
Lane change in the cytoskeleton - TUM
Munich-based scientists have now investigated the molecular mechanisms in the cytoskeleton necessary for this and revealed ... Transport proteins can switch between microtubule network and actin networkLane change in the cytoskeleton. Many amphibians and ... Microscopic image of a cells cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are blue and microtubules are shown in red. The transporters can be ... All cells of higher organisms are permeated by a cytoskeleton that essentially consists of actin filaments and small protein ...
Template:Cytoskeleton - Metadata - Citizendium
abc = Cytoskeleton. cat_check = yes. status = 2. underlinked = no. cleanup = yes. Workgroup designations: cat1 = Biology. cat2 ... pagename = Cytoskeleton. variant = Article size = 6,261 bytes. Cluster subpages. Required for checklist ... This is a central location for all information relating to the Cytoskeleton cluster. It is critical to keep this page updated ... Retrieved from "https://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Template:Cytoskeleton/Metadata&oldid=100750489" ...
What role does the cytoskeleton play in a living cell? | Reference.com
The role of a cytoskeleton in a living cell is to supply structure to the cell, give the cell the ability to move and ensure ... What is the cytoskeleton of a cell?. A: The cytoskeleton is the three-dimensional scaffolding present in eukaryotic cells. The ... The essential role the cytoskeleton plays in cell proliferation has led to cytoskeleton-inhibiting anti-cancer drugs. ... The role of a cytoskeleton in a living cell is to supply structure to the cell, give the cell the ability to move and ensure ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Adenovirus endocytosis requires actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho family Gtpases,
Adenovirus endocytosis requires actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho family Gtpases, ... Adenovirus endocytosis requires actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho family Gtpases, (1998) by E i, D Stupack, G M ... ed by binding of the viral penton base protein to integrins (50). This interaction induces integrin activation, cytoskeleton ... both of which are important in altering the cytoskeleton in order to facilitate internalization. The later stages of virus ...
Category:Cytoskeleton | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Nuclear staining instead of cytoskeleton - Immunology and Histology
However, my results show big lumps in the nucleus giving a very strong signal and a much weaker signal from the cytoskeleton. ... However, my results show big lumps in the nucleus giving a very strong signal and a much weaker signal from the cytoskeleton. ... I just did some immunochemistry with an antibody against a protein that is known for binding to the cytoskeleton and does not ... I just did some immunochemistry with an antibody against a protein that is known for binding to the cytoskeleton and does not ...
Targeting the Cytoskeleton with Plant-Bioactive Compounds in Cancer Therapy | IntechOpen
Some critical aspects of cardiac side effects of cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on cardiac cytoskeleton and ... In this overview we describe the main plant-derived bioactive compounds used in cancer therapy which has the cell cytoskeleton ... plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting the cytoskeleton, ... The cytoskeleton constitutes the supporting framework of the cell, and it is composed of three types of cytosolic filaments: ...
cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport Antibodies | Invitrogen ...
Cytoskeleton - Wikipedia
Cytoskeleton Monthly News and Blog MBInfo - Cytoskeleton Dynamics Cytoskeleton, Cell Motility and Motors - The Virtual Library ... Cytoskeleton and cell motility including videos Open access review article on the emergent complexity of the cytoskeleton ( ... causing pathology with the cytoskeleton. Huntingtons disease has also been found to affect the cytoskeleton of cells by excess ... The cytoskeleton was once thought to be a feature only of eukaryotic cells, but homologues to all the major proteins of the ...
Prokaryotic cytoskeleton - Wikipedia
The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is the collective name for all structural filaments in prokaryotes. It was once thought that ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Wickstead B, Gull K (2011). "The evolution of the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Cell ... Ausmees, N.; Kuhn, J.R.; Jacobs-Wagner, C. (2003). "The Bacterial Cytoskeleton An Intermediate Filament-Like Function in Cell ... Michie KA, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton" (PDF). Annu. Rev. Biochem. 75: 467-92. doi:10.1146/ ...
The Cytoskeleton | SpringerLink
Cells contain a cytoskeleton, made from microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments,... ... Receptors and transmembrane proteins may also be in intimate contact with the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is often in a ... Bretscher, A., and Weber, K., 1980, Villin is a major protein of the microvillus cytoskeleton which binds both G- and F-actin ... Osborn M., Weber K. (1986) The Cytoskeleton. In: Welch G.R., Clegg J.S. (eds) The Organization of Cell Metabolism. NATO ASI ...
... provides an important structural framework for:. * Cell shape. For cells without cell walls, the cytoskeleton ... The Cytoskeleton. Most eukaryotic cells contain a complex network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton. It forms a ... and it is thought that the movement of these vesicles is guided by the cytoskeleton. ... framework for the movement of organelles around the cytoplasm - most of the organelles are attached to the cytoskeleton. The ...
Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton | SpringerLink
Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton from a ... Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of ... The presence/absence of gene families with central roles in endomembrane and cytoskeleton dynamics in a variety of eukaryotic ... eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton from a cell biological and comparative genomic perspective. Many of the chapters ...
DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells | PNAS
The stability of cell membrane arises from the cytoskeleton underneath the membrane. The major component of cytoskeletons is ... To solve this problem, we constructed an artificial cytoskeleton with DNA nanotechnology (a DNA cytoskeleton). The DNA ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ...
DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells | PNAS
To solve this problem, we constructed an artificial cytoskeleton with DNA nanotechnology (a DNA cytoskeleton). The DNA ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ...
Cytoskeleton | Blood Journal
Membrane Protein-Cytoskeleton Interactions, Volume 43 - 1st Edition
Purchase Membrane Protein-Cytoskeleton Interactions, Volume 43 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121533434, ... and function at the plasma membrane by the cytoskeleton. Discussions also include the roles of cytoskeleton in the structural ... K.R. Fath and D.R. Burgess, The Role of the Cytoskeleton and Molecular Motors in Transport between the Golgi Complex and Plasma ... R.B. Doctor, R. Bacallao, and L.J. Mandel, Role of the Cytoskeleton in Membrane Alterations in Ischemic and Anoxic Renal ...
Intracellular pathogens and the actin cytoskeleton. - PubMed - NCBI
Intracellular pathogens and the actin cytoskeleton.. Dramsi S1, Cossart P.. Author information. 1. Unité des Interactions ... Thus pathogens are convenient systems in which to study actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in response to stimuli at the plasma ... Another step during which pathogens harness the actin cytoskeleton takes place in the cytosol, within which some bacteria ( ... Many pathogens actively exploit the actin cytoskeleton during infection. This exploitation may take place during entry into ...
Faulty cytoskeleton impairs immune cells | EurekAlert! Science News
... the cytoskeleton, is a vital process for immune cells. In a new collaborative study, led by scientists from LBI-RUD/CeMM, a ... rare inherited disease revealed a hitherto unknown role of a cytoskeleton-regulating factor for the proper functioning of the ... Defects of the cytoskeleton thus can have detrimental effects on the immune response and thereby on the ability of the organism ... Faulty cytoskeleton impairs immune cells. CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences ...
Map10 cytoskeleton gene ontology
Resf1 cytoskeleton gene ontology
Interactions of mitochondria with the actin cytoskeleton. - PubMed - NCBI
The actin cytoskeleton is also involved in the immobilization of mitochondria at the cortex in cultured tobacco cells and in ... Interactions of mitochondria with the actin cytoskeleton.. Boldogh IR1, Pon LA. ... Interactions between mitochondria and the cytoskeleton are essential for normal mitochondrial morphology, motility and ... the actin cytoskeleton is required for short-distance mitochondrial movements and for immobilization of the organelle at the ...
Cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 family (IPR026165) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Cytoskeletons shaking hands | EurekAlert! Science News
Neuronal polarization and the cytoskeleton
... formation is the key event during neuronal polarization and is based on tightly regulated rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. ... Here, we discuss how the cytoskeleton drives neuronal polarization. First, we convey the role of the actin cytoskeleton and ... Neuronal polarization and the cytoskeleton Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011 Oct;22(8):825-33. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.08.007. Epub ... as important regulators for neuronal polarization by mediating the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules ...
The Cytoskeleton :: DNA Learning Center
Symposium on protein traffic & cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton Regulators - QIAGEN
Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Cytoskeleton Regulators RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Cytoskeleton Regulators RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Cytoskeleton Regulators RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Cytoskeleton Regulators RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression ... Protein kinase and phosphatase cascades control cytoskeleton component activity, and G-proteins recruit cytoskeleton components ...
Cytoskeleton - encyclopedia article - Citizendium
The cytoskeleton was once believed to be a feature only of eukaryotic cells, but homologues of the major proteins of the ... The cytoskeleton is a structural "scaffold" or "skeleton" that is present inside all eukaryotic cells. This dynamic, three ... Vogl AW et al. (2008) The Sertoli cell cytoskeleton Adv Exp Med Biol 636:186-211 PMID 19856169 ... The cytoskeleton of mammalian Sertoli cells is one of the most elaborate that has been described. Actin filaments, vimentin- ...
Molecular Motors and the Cytoskeleton, Part B, Volume 298 - 1st Edition
Purchase Molecular Motors and the Cytoskeleton, Part B, Volume 298 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780121821999, ... Molecular Motors and the Cytoskeleton, Part B, Volume 298 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... T.M. Svitkina and G.G. Borisy, Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of the Cytoskeleton of Cultured Cells. Subject Index. ... Strategies to Assess Phosphoprotein Phosphatase and Protein Kinase-Mediated Regulation of the Cytoskeleton. ...
Cytoskeleton Integrators: The Spectrin Superfamily. Ronald K.H. Liem. PART 2. CYTOSKELETON IN CELL AND TISSUE ARCHITECTURE. ... Download a Free Excerpt from The Cytoskeleton:. Preface. Chapter 1: Overview of the Cytoskeleton from an Evolutionary ... The Cytoskeleton. Subject Area(s): Microscopy and Imaging; Cell Biology. Edited by Thomas D. Pollard, Department of Molecular, ... The Actin Cytoskeleton and Actin-Based Motility. Tatyana Svitkina. Muscle Contraction. H. Lee Sweeney and David W. Hammers. ...
ProteinsMotilityMicrotubulesFilamentsCytoplasmCell'sIntracellularMembrane-cytoskeletonCellular cytoskeletonBacterial cytoskeletonEukaryotic cellsAntibodiesNeuronalFilament systemsProteinRolesNucleusEukaryoteCellsDifferentiationTargetingDynamicsPolarityRole of the cytoskeletonMicrotubuleCellsNeuronal cytoskeletonCytoplasmicComposed of actinRegulatesCiliaProteins of the cytoskeletonComponents of the cytoskeletonEukaryotic Membranes and CytoskeletonMorphologyPathwaysStructuralTubulinVesiclesAxonCell's cytoskeletonSpectrin CytoskeletonAxonalRegulationCytoskeletalDysregulationScaffoldCell AdhesionTherapeutic targetSignal TransductionFibersStructuresOrganismRegulatorsImmunologyMotor proteinsMembraneActin bindingAntibodiesIntermediateGenesStructure
- There are also three types of movement proteins connected to the cytoskeleton. (news-medical.net)
- Finally, mature autophagosomes detach from the ER membrane by an as yet unknown mechanism, undergo intracellular transport and then fuse with lysosomes, endosomes and multivesicular bodies through mechanisms that involve actin- and microtubule-mediated motility, cytoskeleton-membrane scaffolds and signaling proteins. (nih.gov)
- Goley focuses on the bacterial cytoskeleton, a collection of cellular proteins that assemble themselves into a scaffold that gives the bacterial cell its shape and may help to orchestrate cell division. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Soon, scientists discovered other bacterial cytoskeleton proteins, and conducted studies that indicated these proteins endowed bacterial species with their idiosyncratic shapes (from rods to stars) and also aided in cell division. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Here the motor proteins which move the pigments organelles are subject to different regulatory mechanisms, and there is no interaction between the different cytoskeleton networks", says Ökten. (tum.de)
- The filament systems of a cytoskeleton share a vital feature: they are made of proteins that can assemble themselves into a filamentous network. (reference.com)
- In lively accounts, which are unafraid to address controversy, Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System introduces readers to the most sophisticated concepts and latest discoveries: from overexpression systems to knock-out models for specific cytoskeletal proteins, from continuous transport assays in vivo to live-cell imaging in primary neurons, and from factors regulating cytoskeleton behavior to the dysregulation of these processes leading to neurological disease. (apple.com)
- The cytoskeleton of higher-eukaryotic cells consists of three highly abundant major protein families: microfilaments (MF), microtubules (MT), and intermediate filaments (IF), as well as a growing number of associated proteins. (abo.fi)
- This subgroup studies the molecular motors and their tracks that define cell shape and motility, from muscle to the cytoskeleton. (biophysics.org)
- The mission of the Motility and Cytoskeleton Subgroup is to understand the basic mechanisms that underlie motility and contractility of biological systems. (biophysics.org)
- In order to join the Motility & Cytoskeleton Subgroup, you must be a current member of the Society. (biophysics.org)
- The mammalian cell cytoskeleton consists of a diverse group of fibrillar elements that play a pivotal role in mediating a number of digestive and nondigestive cell functions, including secretion, absorption, motility, mechanical integrity, and mitosis. (abo.fi)
- All cells of higher organisms are permeated by a cytoskeleton that essentially consists of actin filaments and small protein tubes called microtubules. (tum.de)
- The cytoskeleton contains three types of filaments within the cytoplasm, including intermediate filaments, microfilaments and microtubules. (reference.com)
- The cytoskeleton constitutes the supporting framework of the cell, and it is composed of three types of cytosolic filaments: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. (intechopen.com)
- Surrounding it are wispy blue and white microtubules and filaments that make up the cell's cytoskeleton. (scienceblog.com)
- The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules-the wispy threads surrounding the purple DNA-containing nucleus-and filaments of a protein called actin, seen here as the fine blue meshwork in the cell periphery. (scienceblog.com)
- Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. (nih.gov)
- Cytoskeleton antibodies are indicated in work understanding the cytoskeleton , the organising infrastructure of the cell, both scaffolding for cellular components and facilitative for intracellular organelle movement and information transmission. (immuquest.com)
- Effects of intracellular calcium and actin cytoskeleton on TCR mobility measured by fluorescence recovery. (ox.ac.uk)
- Using drugs that cause an increase in intracellular calcium, we observed a decrease in TCR mobility that was dependent on a functional actin cytoskeleton. (ox.ac.uk)
- In parallel experiments measurement of filamentous actin by FACS analysis showed that raising intracellular calcium also causes increased polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose, based on our results, that increase in intracellular calcium levels leads to actin polymerization and increases TCR/cytoskeleton interactions that reduce the overall mobility of the TCR. (ox.ac.uk)
- If we are to understand neuronal cells function in health and disease, we must determine how the cytoskeleton forms and contributes to neural physiology and pathobiology. (apple.com)
- Cytoskeleton of the Nervous System provides a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date account of what we now know and what we want to know in the near future--about the functioning of the cytoskeleton of neuronal cells at the molecular level. (apple.com)
- The presence/absence of gene families with central roles in endomembrane and cytoskeleton dynamics in a variety of eukaryotic taxa and an understanding of eukaryote phylogeny allow us to accurately reconstruct the cellular machineries present in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. (springer.com)
- Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. (nih.gov)
- Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. (nih.gov)
- Dysregulation of cytoskeleton dynamics most severely affects cells whose shape plays a critical role in their function, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes, contributing to neurological disorders and cardiomyopathies, respectively. (qiagen.com)
- Ledesma MD and Dotti CG (2003) Membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics during axonal elongation and stabilization. (els.net)
- The 15th Plant and Microbial Cytoskeleton Gordon Research Conference will connect researchers utilizing a diverse array of quantitative approaches to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling the organization, dynamics and function of the cytoskeleton in model plant, fungal and bacterial cell systems. (grc.org)
- Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication. (popcouncil.org)
- In fungi the actin cytoskeleton is involved in numerous cellular processes including: cell polarity, cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, bud site selection, cell wall remodelling and cell shape d. (psu.edu)
- In this review, we discuss current understanding of the AIS cytoskeleton with particular interest in its unique architecture and role in maintenance of neuron polarity. (hindawi.com)
- We discuss how the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function and highlight recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeletal assembly and stability. (hindawi.com)
- The transformation of EMT is described as the process in which epithelial cells that function as ion and fluid transporters lose their epithelial polarity, cellular adhesion molecules, and reorganize their actin cytoskeleton from a cortical bundle formation that supported adhesion molecules into stress fibers containing de novo expressed α -smooth muscle actin ( α -SMA) that supports migration. (hindawi.com)
Role of the cytoskeleton3
- This Insight examines many different facets of the cytoskeleton, reviewing the basic principles of filament organization, the operation of motor proteins and the role of the cytoskeleton in key biological processes. (nature.com)
- K.R. Fath and D.R. Burgess , The Role of the Cytoskeleton and Molecular Motors in Transport between the Golgi Complex and Plasma Membrane. (elsevier.com)
- R.B. Doctor, R. Bacallao, and L.J. Mandel , Role of the Cytoskeleton in Membrane Alterations in Ischemic and Anoxic Renal Epithelia. (elsevier.com)
- The more specific topics discussed in these minireviews include actin mechanics and fragmentation, vimentin intermediate filament networks and the microtubule cytoskeleton. (asbmb.org)
- In the minireview titled " Building the microtubule cytoskeleton piece by piece ," Ray Alfaro-Aco and Sabine Petry of Princeton University note the importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton within the cell. (asbmb.org)
- The present study considers effects on the microtubule cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
- At least two aspects of the microtubule cytoskeleton in Trembler PNS axons were altered by demyelination. (jneurosci.org)
- First, the stability of the Trembler axonal microtubule cytoskeleton is decreased, as measured by decreased levels of insoluble tubulin (Sahenk and Brady, 1987). (jneurosci.org)
- The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells pervades the cytoplasm. (nature.com)
- For cells without cell walls, the cytoskeleton determines the shape of the cell. (gsu.edu)
- The DNA cytoskeleton significantly improves mechanical stability and, therefore, confers tolerance against osmotic shock to liposomes like the cytoskeleton in live cells. (pnas.org)
- X. Yao and J.G. Forte , Membrane-Cytoskeleton Interaction in Regulated Exocytosis and Apical Insertion of Vesicles in Epithelial Cells. (elsevier.com)
- Thus pathogens are convenient systems in which to study actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in response to stimuli at the plasma membrane or inside cells. (nih.gov)
- A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes). (wikipedia.org)
- The cytoskeleton can also contract, thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1903, Nikolai K. Koltsov proposed that the shape of cells was determined by a network of tubules that he termed the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
- The actin cytoskeleton is also involved in the immobilization of mitochondria at the cortex in cultured tobacco cells and in budding yeast. (nih.gov)
- The cytoskeleton was first identified in the cells of eukaryotic organisms (those, such as plants and animals, whose cells have specialized organelles and a discrete nucleus). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- It was once thought that prokaryotic cells did not possess cytoskeletons, but advances in visualization technology and structure determination led to the discovery of filaments in these cells in the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
- The cytoskeleton is a structural " scaffold " or " skeleton " that is present inside all eukaryotic cells. (citizendium.org)
- The cytoskeleton of mammalian Sertoli cells is one of the most elaborate that has been described. (citizendium.org)
- The cytoskeleton was once believed to be a feature only of eukaryotic cells, but homologues of the major proteins of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton have been found in prokaryotes . (citizendium.org)
- The actin cytoskeleton mediates a variety of essential biological functions in all eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
- In MCF10A cells, the insulin-induced phosphorylation of PAK and aldolase release from the cytoskeleton was reduced when mutated Rac1 was overexpressed or when Rac1 was knocked down. (sciencemag.org)
- The research could provide crucial information on how the actin cytoskeleton helps cells respond to mechanical forces. (asbmb.org)
- Until now it remained unclear whether the cytoskeleton also contributes to immune evasion, rendering cancer cells resistant to attacks by the immune system. (innovations-report.com)
- It is well known that rearrangement of the cytoskeleton inside NK cells is necessary for the formation of the immunological synapse and granule release to the target cells. (innovations-report.com)
- This gave us impulse to investigate what happens with the cytoskeleton of cancer cells in contact with NK cells. (innovations-report.com)
- The scientists thus took a closer look at possible alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in breast cancer cells comparing NK-mediated cytotoxicity resistant and susceptible cell lines. (innovations-report.com)
- Although the effects of Rho GTPases on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are perhaps still best characterized in fibroblasts, there is now compelling evidence of a similar role for these proteins in all eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
- The dynamic nature of a cytoskeleton is required for cells to have the ability to change their shape and to ensure successful cell division or migration. (reference.com)
- Eukaryotic cells are advanced cells that have, at minimum, a cellular membrane surrounding cytoplasm, a cytoskeleton and membrane-covered organelles. (reference.com)
- The cytoskeleton is the three-dimensional scaffolding present in eukaryotic cells. (reference.com)
- The neuronal cytoskeleton plays a key role in both protecting cells against oxidative stress and is itself the target of oxidative stress-induced damage. (mdpi.com)
- Previous work in our laboratory on Trembler mouse sciatic nerve established that myelinating Schwann cells exert a profound effect on the underlying neuronal cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
- Cytoskeleton stains routinely serve as fiducial markers in the fluorescence imaging of live and fixed cells for both orientation and colocalization. (thermofisher.com)
- The cytoskeleton plays an important role in cell growth in general, which is why tip-growing cells provide an excellent model system for studying this aspect. (wur.nl)
- Common aspects as well as differences in configuration and function of the cytoskeleton in various types of tip-growing cells reveal the general principles that govern the relationship between the cytoskeleton and cell growth. (wur.nl)
- Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Villigen, Switzerland, have for the first time elucidated the structure of important enzymes in human cells that alter essential building blocks of the cellular cytoskeleton. (psi.ch)
- The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that forms the 'infrastructure' of eukaryotic cells , prokaryotic cells , and archaeans . (thoughtco.com)
- The cytoskeleton assists in the transportation of communication signals between cells. (thoughtco.com)
- The cytoskeleton is a three-dimensional network of proteins that provides cells with internal support, organises their structures and intervenes in processes such as intracellular transport or traffic. (innovations-report.com)
- Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Thus, actin cytoskeleton self-organization provides built-in machinery that potentially allows cells to develop left-right asymmetry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The cytoskeleton is one of the main therapeutic targets in cancer cells [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- The cytoskeleton was previously considered to be a feature only of eukaryotic cells, but recent research has revealed that homologues to all the major proteins of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton can also be found in prokaryotes . (academickids.com)
- Angiogenesis requires coordinated changes in cell shape of endothelial cells (ECs), orchestrated by the actin cytoskeleton. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The cellular cytoskeleton forms the primary basis through which a cell governs the changes in size, shape, migration, proliferation, and forms the primary means through which the cells respond to their environment. (dovepress.com)
- This study aims to gain insight into cytoskeleton regulators in GBM cells and to understand the effect of various oncology drugs, including temozolomide, on cytoskeleton regulators. (dovepress.com)
- We compare the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in GBM-derived tumor and normal tissue, CD133-postive and -negative cells from GBM and neural cells, and GBM stem-like and differentiated cells. (dovepress.com)
- When cells are stimulated, molecular rearrangements of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton take place: F-actin depolymerizes and fodrin reorganizes into patches. (biologists.org)
- In bacterial toxin-permeabilized chromaffin cells, experiments using actin-perturbing agents such as cytochalasin D and DNAase I suggest that exocytosis is in part controlled by the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
- The neuronal cytoskeleton is a system of highly organized polymers that provide architectural support for axons and dendrites, and also provide railways for the transport of various classes of cytoplasmic constituents. (els.net)
- Oxidative stress affects the regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through these regulatory mechanisms, with some changes being protective and others pathogenic. (mdpi.com)
- Confocal laser scanning microscopy of rhodamine-phalloidin staining in vivo revealed that high levels of microinjected profilin induced a degradation of the actin cytoskeleton in the phragmoplast, the perinuclear zone, and the cytoplasmic strands. (mendeley.com)
- The AIS cytoskeleton is divided into two parts, submembrane and cytoplasmic, based on localization, function, and molecular composition. (hindawi.com)
- Collectively this structure is called the "cytoskeleton" or the "cytoplasmic matrix" and, just like our body's bony skeleton, it provides rigidity and support to the whole cell. (yinyoga.com)
- The cytoskeleton helps to make cytoplasmic streaming possible. (thoughtco.com)
Composed of actin1
- The meeting will culminate with talks aimed at the interplay between cilia, cytoskeleton and cancer and how these processes can be targeted therapeutically. (biochemistry.org)
- Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer has been approved for the purposes of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) by the Society of Biology. (biochemistry.org)
- Approval signifies that the Society of Biology recognizes the Cilia, Cytoskeleton and Cancer event is of merit to the development needs of participants. (biochemistry.org)
Proteins of the cytoskeleton1
Components of the cytoskeleton1
Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton5
- Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of eukaryotic endomembranes and cytoskeleton from a cell biological and comparative genomic perspective. (springer.com)
- The app kisses a download Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution between the City and its pitfalls, browser employees and instructors. (danijohnson.com)
- If larval, not the download Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: in its Japanese on-page. (danijohnson.com)
- get all the students, left about the download Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and, and more. (danijohnson.com)
- You may refresh still typed this download Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and. (danijohnson.com)
- The cytoskeleton is the intracellular filament system that controls the morphology of a cell, allows it to move, and provides trafficking routes for intracellular transport. (cshlpress.com)
- Its cytoskeleton, the morphology of its hydrogenosomes, and endocytosis phenomena have been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (scielo.cl)
- It is the precise regulation of actin filament assembly/disassembly that mediates the organization of actin cytoskeleton, affects cellular morphology, adhesion, remodeling, and movement, and contributes to tissue development and wound healing ( Pollard and Borisy, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Within this laboratory, the "Cytoskeleton and Cancer Progression" research group, led by Dr. Clément Thomas, focuses in particular on the actin cytoskeleton and related signaling pathways in the context of breast cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- More than that though, the cytoskeleton also provides pathways for information to flow along. (yinyoga.com)
- The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is the collective name for all structural filaments in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
- Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on the cytoskeleton and primary cilium at a structural and functional level. (biochemistry.org)
- In this study, to better understand functional conservation across expanded gene families in core eukaryotic processes, we focused on the major structural components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, including actins, myosins, septins, and tubulin genes. (genetics.org)
- Much of the complex synthesis and distribution function of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex makes use of transport vescicles, and it is thought that the movement of these vesicles is guided by the cytoskeleton. (gsu.edu)
- Types of intracellular movement supported by the cytoskeleton include transportation of vesicles into and out of a cell, chromosome manipulation during mitosis and meiosis , and organelle migration. (thoughtco.com)
- Axon formation is the key event during neuronal polarization and is based on tightly regulated rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
- To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
- However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in maintenance of axon integrity. (jneurosci.org)
- We show that nodal αII spectrin is found at greater densities in large diameter myelinated axons, suggesting that nodes are particularly vulnerable domains requiring a specialized cytoskeleton to protect against axon degeneration. (jneurosci.org)
- Proper regulation of the cytoskeleton is important to many fundamental cellular functions, including axon/dendrite formation, migration, differentiation and proliferation. (ucsd.edu)
- The organization of actin cytoskeleton has also been associated with numerous physiological and pathological conditions, for instance, the elongation of axonal growth cone during peripheral nerve regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
- A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g. compression, torsion, and stretch). (jneurosci.org)
- P.R. Smith and D.J. Benos , Regulation of Epithelial Ion Channel Activity by the Membrane-Cytoskeleton. (elsevier.com)
- QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytoskeleton research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
- Sarmiere PD and Bamburg JR (2004) Regulation of the neuronal actin cytoskeleton by ADF/cofilin. (els.net)
- We are witnessing a rapid advance in our understanding of the cytoskeleton, driven in particular by determination of the structures of key molecules and acquisition of proteomics inventories of cytoskeletal proteins and their binding partners. (nature.com)
- The editors of " The state of the cytoskeleton in 2015 ," Robert Fischer of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and Velia Fowler at The Scripps Research institute, describe how cytoskeletal polymers have been a topic of interest for more than 70 years. (asbmb.org)
- In addition, a range of dye conjugates and fluorescent proteins that react with cytoskeletal subclasses are commonly used in cytoskeleton research. (thermofisher.com)
- The application of plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting the cytoskeleton, respectively, prevention of the injury of cytoskeletal components elicited by chemotherapeutics. (intechopen.com)
- Defects of the cytoskeleton thus can have detrimental effects on the immune response and thereby on the ability of the organism to control infections. (eurekalert.org)
- The structure, function and dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton can be very different, depending on organism and cell type. (wikipedia.org)
- The Human Cytoskeleton Regulators RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes controlling the intracellular scaffolding's biogenesis, organization, polymerization, and. (qiagen.com)
- Members of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases have emerged as key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, and furthermore, through their interaction with multiple target proteins, they ensure coordinated control of other cellular activities such as gene transcription and adhesion. (sciencemag.org)
- This study examines the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). (dovepress.com)
- In addition, the correlation between the expression of cytoskeleton regulators with the clinical outcome was examined to identify genes associated with longer patient survival. (dovepress.com)
- Importantly, this work highlights the advantage of using cytoskeleton regulators as biomarkers for assessing prognosis and treatment design for GBM. (dovepress.com)
- In Cytoskeleton Methods and Protocols, Ray Gavin brings together an international panel of experienced researchers to detail the readily reproducible methods that utilize biochemistry, immunology, genetics, microscopy, and image analysis for investigating cytoskeleton structure and function. (springer.com)
- In addition to establishing cell and tissue shape, the cytoskeleton along with associated motor proteins influences a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, including cell migration, movement of organelles and cell division. (nature.com)
- Here the motor proteins which move the pigments organelles are subject to different regulatory mechanisms, and there is no interaction between the different cytoskeleton networks", says Ökten. (tum.de)
- A number of motor proteins are found in the cytoskeleton. (thoughtco.com)
- The DNA cytoskeleton is a DNA network formed underneath the membrane of positively charged lipids through electrostatic interactions without the need for special handling. (pnas.org)
- The connection between cell junctions and the cytoskeleton may be more dynamic than originally considered and may rely on multiple, weak associations between the cadherin-catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton or rely on other membrane-associated proteins (i.e. nectin and afadin). (cellsignal.com)
- Intermediate Filament Cytoskeleton, Vol 78. (researchandmarkets.com)
- The cytoskeleton of a cell helps provide shape, strength, and an organised structure to the cell. (news-medical.net)
- This makes them the thinnest of the three types of structure in the cytoskeleton. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a cytoskeleton which provides the structure for mitochondria, the cell's energy producers. (news-medical.net)
- The cytoskeleton provides the cell with structure and shape, and by excluding macromolecules from some of the cytosol, it adds to the level of macromolecular crowding in this compartment. (wikipedia.org)
- Second, a cell wall encases most bacterial species, and scientists assumed this semi-rigid structure obviated the need for a cytoskeleton. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Maintaining the shape of the cell, creating proper internal structure, guiding organelles and pulling chromosomes apart during mitosis are some of the important functions of the cytoskeleton. (asbmb.org)
- The role of a cytoskeleton in a living cell is to supply structure to the cell, give the cell the ability to move and ensure proper cell division during cellular reproduction. (reference.com)
- The cytoskeleton is not a static structure, but is able to disassemble and reassemble its parts in order to enable internal and overall cell mobility . (thoughtco.com)
- State-of-the-art and highly practical, Cytoskeleton Methods and Protocols makes available a diverse collection of powerful experimental systems and tools for successfully studying cytoskeleton structure and function. (springer.com)