Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. The subtype was originally identified in a cell line derived from MEGAKARYOCYTES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Identification of APC2, a homologue of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor. (1/9127)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor protein controls the Wnt signalling pathway by forming a complex with glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), axin/conductin and betacatenin. Complex formation induces the rapid degradation of betacatenin. In colon carcinoma cells, loss of APC leads to the accumulation of betacatenin in the nucleus, where it binds to and activates the Tcf-4 transcription factor (reviewed in [1] [2]). Here, we report the identification and genomic structure of APC homologues. Mammalian APC2, which closely resembles APC in overall domain structure, was functionally analyzed and shown to contain two SAMP domains, both of which are required for binding to conductin. Like APC, APC2 regulates the formation of active betacatenin-Tcf complexes, as demonstrated using transient transcriptional activation assays in APC -/- colon carcinoma cells. Human APC2 maps to chromosome 19p13.3. APC and APC2 may therefore have comparable functions in development and cancer.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/9127)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/9127)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/9127)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (5/9127)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (6/9127)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (7/9127)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (8/9127)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

Since their discovery in the 20th century, antibiotics have been prescribed for patients with bacterial infections. The first commercially available antibiotic was penicillin, which was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming in St. Marys Hospital, UK. Penicillin was effective to inhibit the growth of disease-causing microorganisms. However, in 1947, four years after the mass-production of penicillin, the first penicillin resistance case was identified. Since then, scientists have been looking for new targets to inhibit the bacterial growth. Among them, the bacterial cell division protein, filament temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ), is a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. FtsZ protein is an essential protein in bacterial cytoplasmic division. A GTPase active site is formed when two FtsZ monomers are joined together in head-to-tail manner. The presence of GTP induces the polymerization of FtsZ in the middle of the cell. FtsZ polymers act as a platform to recruit other cell ...
FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division by polymerizing to form the Z ring at the site of cytokinesis. Phytochemicals are known to disrupt bacterial cell division through inhibition of FtsZ assembly. In the present study phytochemicals like eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, 4-formyl cinnamic acid, naringenin and caffeic acid were were tested for their potential to inhibit cell division. Effect of these antimicrobial compounds on the growth of E. coli was determined and the inhibition of FtsZ assembly in vitro was investigated. The present study revealed trans-cinnamic acid as the most potent inhibitor of FtsZ assembly ...
We have characterized the self-association of FtsZ in its GDP-bound state (GDP-FtsZ) and the heteroassociation of FtsZ and a soluble recombinant ZipA (sZipA) lacking the N-terminal transmembrane domain by means of composition gradient−static light scattering (CG−SLS) and by measurement of sedimentation equilibrium. CG−SLS experiments at high ionic strengths and in the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ show that, while FtsZ self-associates in a noncooperative fashion, sZipA acts as a monomer. CG−SLS data obtained from mixtures of FtsZ (A) and sZipA (B) in the presence of Mg2+ are quantitatively described by an equilibrium model that takes into account significant scattering contributions from B, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A1B, A2B, A3B, and A4B. However, in the absence of Mg2+ (with EDTA), the data are best explained by an equilibrium model in which only B, A1, A2, A3, A1B, and A2B contribute significantly to scattering. The best-fit molecular weights of monomeric A and B are in good agreement with ...
A wide variety of drug-resistant microorganisms are continuously emerging, restricting the therapeutic options for common bacterial infections. Antimicrobial agents that were originally potent are now...
Suprastructures and dynamic properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Global Markets Directs, Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) targeted pipeline therapeutics. The
Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset of kinases that phosphorylate ezrin closely co-distributes with apical recycling endosome marker rab11a in the subapical domain. Expression of dominant-negative rab11a mutant or depletion of the rab11a-binding motor protein myosin Vb prevents the subapical enrichment of rab11a and these kinases and inhibits ezrin phosphorylation and microvilli development, without affecting the polarized distribution of ezrin itself. We observe a similar loss of the subapical enrichment of rab11a and the kinases and reduced phosphorylation of ezrin in Microvillus inclusion disease, which is associated with MYO5B mutations, intestinal microvilli atrophy and mal-absorption. Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation ...
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
The FtsZ protein forms a dynamic polymeric ring structure, which functions as the guiding scaffold for septal invagination at the mid-cell site during cytokinesis in bacterial cells (Bi & Lutkenhaus, 1991). FtsZ forms polymers in a GTP-dependent manner in vivo and under different cationic conditions in vitro (Andreu et al., 2002; Beuria et al., 2003;Bi & Lutkenhaus, 1991; Bramhill & Thompson, 1994; Caplan & Erickson, 2003; Diaz et al., 2001; Erickson et al., 1996; Lu et al., 1998; Mingorance et al., 2001; Mukherjee & Lutkenhaus, 1994, 1999; Rivas et al., 2000; Romberg et al., 2001; Scheffers et al., 2001; Wang et al., 1997; White et al., 2000; Yu & Margolin, 1997). The rate of polymerization of the FtsZ protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MtFtsZ) is remarkably slow when compared to that of the Escherichia coli FtsZ protein (EcFtsZ) (Bramhill & Thompson, 1994; Mukherjee & Lutkenhaus, 1999; White et al., 2000). While polymerization of EcFtsZ reaches steady state in 30 s after the addition ...
Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and ...
The earliest stage in bacterial cell division is the formation of a ring, composed of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ, at the division site. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of Z-ring formation is required to ensure that division occurs precisely at midcell between two replicated chromosomes. However, the mechanism of Z-ring formation and its regulation in vivo remain unresolved. Here we identify the defect of an interesting temperature-sensitive ftsZ mutant (ts1) of Bacillus subtilis. At the nonpermissive temperature, the mutant protein, FtsZ(Ts1), assembles into spiral-like structures between chromosomes. When shifted back down to the permissive temperature, functional Z rings form and division resumes. Our observations support a model in which Z-ring formation at the division site arises from reorganization of a long cytoskeletal spiral form of FtsZ and suggest that the FtsZ(Ts1) protein is captured as a shorter spiral-forming intermediate that is unable to complete this reorganization ...
Therapeutic irradiation can induce cognitive impairments without necessarily causing the gross histologic disruption classically associated with exposure to high radiation doses ( 1). Given that postmitotic neurons are generally considered to be relatively radioresistant, new approaches/techniques have been used to identify other targets that may ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury. Data now exist regarding neurogenesis ( 14, 15), specific genetic factors ( 33) or receptor expression ( 34), and show that changes in these end points can be associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Still, there is considerable uncertainty regarding how molecular and cellular events within specific neuronal populations are translated into changes that affect behavioral performance. Understanding such changes will be critical to the development of strategies or approaches necessary to prevent or treat the cognitive changes induced by therapeutic irradiation of ...
FtsZ has a GTPase activity that is associated with assembly and required for the dynamics of FtsZ polymers (24). In this study, we have investigated the properties of FtsZ2 that can support cell division despite having a dramatically reduced GTPase activity. We found that FtsZ2 is unable to assemble in vitro; however, it copolymerized upon addition of FtsZ, provided FtsZ is above the critical concentration. This supports a model for cooperative assembly of FtsZ polymers. Significantly, the stability of the copolymers increased with increasing FtsZ2 incorporation, implying FtsZ2 polymers, if formed, would be stable. Since FtsZ2 can support viability, our results suggest that stable FtsZ filaments are able to function in cell division. This result has important implications for the role of the Z ring in cell division, because it argues that constriction of the Z ring can occur through forces acting on FtsZ filaments.. FtsZ2 was isolated as an allele of ftsZ that was resistant to the cell division ...
In vivo characterization of Escherichia coli ftsZ mutants: effects on Z-ring structure and function.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic derivatives of totarol. AU - Kim, Michelle B.. AU - OBrien, Terrence E.. AU - Moore, Jared T.. AU - Anderson, David E.. AU - Foss, Marie H.. AU - Weibel, Douglas B.. AU - Ames, James B.. AU - Shaw, Jared T.. PY - 2012/10/11. Y1 - 2012/10/11. N2 - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic analogues of the diterpenoid totarol are described. An advanced synthetic intermediate with a ketone on the A-ring is used to attach fused heterocycles, and a carbon-to-nitrogen atom replacement is made on the B-ring by de novo synthesis. A-ring analogues with an indole attached exhibit, for the first time, enhanced antimicrobial activity relative to the parent natural product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that the indole analogues do not target the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ as had been hypothesized for totarol.. AB - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic analogues of the diterpenoid ...
In neurons certain mRNA transcripts are transported to synapses through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we report that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein CBF-A (CArG Box binding Factor A) facilitates dendritic transport and localization of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII alpha) mRNAs. We discovered that, in the adult mouse brain, CBF-A has a broad distribution. In the nucleus, CBF-A was found at active transcription sites and interchromosomal spaces and close to nuclear pores. In the cytoplasm, CBF-A localized to dendrites as well as pre- and postsynaptic sites. CBF-A was found in synaptosomal fractions, associated with Arc, BDNF, and CaMKII alpha mRNAs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated a direct interaction mediated via their hnRNP A2 response element (A2RE)/RNA trafficking sequence (RTS) elements located in the 3 untranslated regions. ...
Cooperativity in the structuring equilibria of FtsZ and Z-ring disassembly.The model that emerges out of the in vitro work led us to determine the amount of SulA required to inhibit Z-ring formation in vivo. SulA inhibited Z-ring formation in vivo with somewhat lower stoichiometry compared to what we observed in vitro. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that MalE-SulA resulted in Z-ring disassembly when it reached ≤50% of the total cellular level of FtsZ. A previous study likewise found that a reduction in FtsZ levels by as little as 30 to 40% was sufficient to block cell division in E. coli (15). Why do Z rings disappear when the level of FtsZ decreases by only 30 to 50%?. It has been estimated that 30% of cellular FtsZ in E. coli is actually present in the Z ring (2). The estimates for intracellular concentration of FtsZ vary between strains but are generally 6 to 7 μM as we determined here (38, 61). This means that 2 μM of FtsZ is present in the ring with another 0.9 μM free in the ...
Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in both developed and developing nations. It is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Ezrin is involved in maintaining cell structure and cell motility. Expression levels of the ezrin gene correlate with numerous human malignancies. Material and Methods: Ezrin expression was evaluated in fifty one cases of colorectal carcinoma by using two methods; objective and quantitative method to determine the statistical relation between ezrin objective analysis score and clinicopathological parameters and to do a comparative study between both methods of analysis. Results: Ezrin was expressed in 92.2% of cases, and it showed a statistical significant relation with tumor grade. A statistically significant relation was found between ezrin objective analysis score and ezrin quantitative analysis score (P-value |0.05). A strong positive Pearson correlation exists between both
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix ...
Cell division in bacteria is facilitated by a polymeric ring structure, the Z ring, composed of tubulin-like FtsZ protofilaments. Recently it has been shown that in Bacillus subtilis, the Z ring forms through the cell cycle-mediated remodelling of a helical FtsZ polymer. To investigate how this occurs in vivo, we have exploited a unique temperature-sensitive strain of B. subtilis expressing the mutant protein FtsZ(Ts1). FtsZ(Ts1) is unable to complete Z ring assembly at 49°C, becoming trapped at an intermediate stage in the helix-to-ring progression. To determine why this is the case, we used a combination of methods to identify the specific defect of the FtsZ(Ts1) protein in vivo. Our results indicate that while FtsZ(Ts1) is able to polymerize normally into protofilaments, it is defective in the ability to support lateral associations between these filaments at high temperatures. This strongly suggests that lateral FtsZ association plays a crucial role in the polymer transitions that lead to ...
Distribution of ezrin expression in primary and recurrent tumours. Bar charts visualizing the distribution of mean A) cytoplasmic and B) membranous ezrin expres
The high-resolution visualization of FtsZ polymerization and depolymerization on a lipid membrane allowed us to directly observe its assembly/disassembly characteristics and its spatial regulation by the Min proteins. In particular, we could assemble dynamic FtsZ filament bundles that anneal and branch, resulting in a dynamic network on supported bilayers. By using a minus end-capping fragment, NZ, we can show that the protofilament ends are generated, and the proteins may be exchanged, constantly throughout the length of the filament bundles. This specific dynamic turnover, quite distinct from the dynamics observed in microtubules, constitutes the basis for Z-ring positioning by the Min protein machinery.. The Z-ring presumably consists laterally of 6-10 protofilaments (7, 21, 49, 50). FtsZ first polymerizes into single-stranded short protofilaments and subsequently interacts laterally and longitudinally to settle into longer, staggered bundles. The exchange of subunits is occurring not only ...
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Congratulations to Jan Lowe (MCR Cambridge), Joen Luirink (VU Amsterdam) and their teams! Great collaboration!. Structural analysis of the interaction between the bacterial cell division proteins FtsQ and FtsB. D Kureisaite‑Ciziene, A Varadajan, SH McLaughlin, M Glas, AM Sliva, R Luirink, C Mueller, T den Blaauwen, TN Grossmann, J Luirink*, J Löwe* DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01346-18; bioRxiv ...
Sample immunohistochemical images. Images representing A) a primary tumour with strong membranous and moderate cytoplasmic ezrin expression in nearly 100% of ce
FtsZ is a widely conserved tubulin-like GTPase that directs bacterial cell division. This protein assembly machine works cooperatively polymerizing into single-stranded filaments, by means of self-switching between inactive and actively associating monomer conformations ...
Monoclonal Antibody for studying ezrin (Thr567) phosphate/moesin (Thr558) phosphate/radixin (Thr564) phosphate in the Cytoskeletal Signaling research area.
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Gabriella M. Nepomuceno, Katie M. Chan, Valerie Huynh, Kevin S. Martin, Jared T. Moore, Terrence E. Obrien, Luiz A E Pollo, Francisco J. Sarabia, Clarissa Tadeus, Zi Yao, David E. Anderson, James B. Ames, Jared T. Shaw ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins differentially regulate endothelial hyperpermeability after thrombin. AU - Adyshev, Djanybek M.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. AU - Moldobaeva, Nurgul. AU - Kim, Kyung mi. AU - Ma, Shwu Fan. AU - Kasa, Anita. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Verin, Alexander D.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption induced by inflammatory agonists such as thrombin leads to potentially lethal physiological dysfunction such as alveolar flooding, hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema. Thrombin stimulates paracellular gap and F-actin stress fiber formation, triggers actomyosin contraction, and alters EC permeability through multiple mechanisms that include protein kinase C (PKC) activation. We previously have shown that the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) actin-binding proteins differentially participate in sphingosine-1 phosphate-induced EC barrier enhancement. Phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the COOH-terminus of ERM proteins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration. AU - Ramirez-Amaya, Victor. AU - Angulo-Perkins, Arafat. AU - Chawla, Monica K.. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rosi, Susanna. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in~2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ~8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats~50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in ...
Bacterial cell division is restricted to the middle of the cell. This, say Kyoko Suefuji, Regina Valluzzi, and Debabrata RayChaudhuri (Tufts University, Boston, MA), can be explained by polymerization events that oscillate between the two ends of the cell.. The polymerization process forms filaments of MinD at one end of the cell, which sequester MinC from the middle of the cell, thus leaving the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ to do its job. An additional component, MinE, forms a cap on the MinCD crescent so that the inhibitor, MinC, cannot reach the central FtsZ.. These proteins must inhibit division at both ends, and they do so by oscillating from one end of the cell to the other every 50 seconds. In several existing models, self-assembly is a key part of this oscillation. Joe Lutkenhaus (University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS) has recently seen self-assembly of MinD on lipid vesicles, with diffraction patterns suggesting a regular structure.. But the Tufts team is the first to visualize ...
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Cell division protein FtsZ; Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase ...
Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia ...
Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell
The major cause of death in pancreatic cancer is due to metastases; therefore, it is important to study the mechanism by which the pancreatic cancer cells migrate and invade. This would help advance therapeutics and ultimately help prolong survival. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the regulation of actin microfilament formation, which ultimately leads to cell migration and invasion. CAP1 binds to G-actin inhibiting polymerization. We first tested whether CAP1 binds to adenylyl cyclase (AC) by performing co-immunoprecipitation. We found that CAP1 not only interacts with G-actin, but also with a number of AC isoforms: AC1, AC3, AC4 and AC7. Further studies need to be done to determine how CAP1/AC/G-actin interact and the impact of these interactions on the invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells ...
EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery - EzrA contains a single transmembrane helix at its N-terminus followed by the 540 amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The structure of the B. subtilis EzrA cytoplasmic domain reveals an extended rod with three alpha helices packed together along its length. The rod comprises five repeats of a ~100 amino acid triple helical bundle, connected in a (...)
NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum. Related
Rabbit polyclonal Ezrin / Radixin / Moesin antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed binary fission, that requires the microbial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. of VX-765 manufacture the unipolar development and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid patient. This system of cell department offers not really been recorded in additional human being microbial pathogens recommending the potential for developing is definitely the leading microbial trigger of sexually sent attacks. will not really communicate FtsZ, which is definitely required for the extremely conserved procedure of binary fission that most bacterias use to separate. non-etheless, it provides been believed that this microbial virus splits by binary fission. We Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 present right here that splits VX-765 manufacture by a polarized cell department procedure that can be identical to the flourishing procedure of some various other bacterias that absence FtsZ, such as the Planctomycetes. This story setting of cell ...
In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. The divisome is thought to facilitate many of the steps required to make two cells out of one. FtsQ and FtsB are part of the divisome, with FtsQ being a central hub, interacting with most... ...
A download the cytoskeleton part a cytoskeletal proteins isolation per use a nonprotein la zoccola 2011, Dir. A Traves de la Ventana 2005, Dir. A dekat CAPEX peritonitis prolactin noi 2011, Dir.
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Jung, H.K., F. Ishino, M. Matsuhashi 1989. Inhibition of growth of ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ mutant cells of Escherichia coli by amplification of a chromosomal region encompassing closely aligned cell division and cell growth genes. J.Bacteriol. 171:6379- ...
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The IMF Executive Board approved the program for Moldovas funding. The three-year program, during which time the Republic will receive approximately $180 million.Prime Minister Pavel Filip confirmed the information and sent a thank you message to colleag
View all contributions by Dr. Filip Casselman from AalstBelgium in the field of interventional cardiology and cardiovascular disease on PCRonline.
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Nytt S-CCS konsept for oppdrett av laks - Postsmoltproduksjon i FishGLOBE. Espmark, Åsa Maria Olofsdotter; Stiller, Kevin Torben; Shahzad , Khurram; Reiten, Britt Kristin Megård; Marchenko, Yuriy; Gerwins, Jascha; Radonjic, Filip Strand; Eckel, Bernhard; Lazado, Carlo C.; Berge, Arne ...
Das, KM; Dasgupta, A; Mandal, A; Geng, X (1993). "Autoimmunity to cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin. A clue to the pathogenetic ... and one of the most ancient systems is based on filamentous polymers of the protein actin. A polymer of a second protein, ... such as the Human Genome Project and EST data of expressed proteins that many eukaryotes produce a range of proteins from a ... These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin ...
Tanaka K (2000). "Formin family proteins in cytoskeletal control". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 267 (2): 479-81. doi:10.1006/ ... proteins in these processes. The protein encoded by this gene contains FH domains and belongs to a novel FH protein subfamily ... Liu W, Sato A, Khadka D, Bharti R, Diaz H, Runnels LW, Habas R (Jan 2008). "Mechanism of activation of the Formin protein Daam1 ... X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (3): 169-76 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RDX gene. Radixin is a cytoskeletal protein that may be important in ... Hoeflich KP, Ikura M (2005). "Radixin: cytoskeletal adopter and signaling protein". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 36 (11): 2131-6 ... "Interaction of radixin with Rho small G protein GDP/GTP exchange protein Dbl". Oncogene. 16 (25): 3279-84. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Yonemura S, Hirao M, Doi Y, Takahashi N, Kondo T, Tsukita S, Tsukita S (1998). "Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM) Proteins Bind to a ...
"Actin Binding Proteins: Regulation of Cytoskeletal Microfilaments". Physiological Reviews. 83 (2): 433-473. doi:10.1152/physrev ... This is due to the constant removal of the protein subunits from these filaments at one end of the filament, while protein ... "The bacterial cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ self-organize into dynamic cytoskeletal patterns". Nature Cell Biology. 16 ( ... The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic part of a cell and cytoskeletal filaments constantly grow and shrink through addition and ...
... a novel outer nuclear membrane protein, associates with the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... Nesprin proteins connect cytoskeletal filaments to the nucleoskeleton. Nesprin-mediated connections to the cytoskeleton ... All four nesprin proteins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) present in mammals are expressed in the outer nuclear ... KASH domain proteins of Nesprin-1 and -2 are part of a LINC complex (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) and can bind ...
DNase I binds to the cytoskeletal protein actin. It binds actin monomers with very high (sub-nanomolar) affinity and actin ... This protein is stored in the zymogen granules of the nuclear envelope and functions by cleaving DNA in an endonucleolytic ... A recombinant form of this protein is used to treat one of the symptoms of cystic fibrosis by hydrolyzing the extracellular DNA ... 2001). "Interaction of ADP-ribosylated actin with actin binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 508 (1): 131-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01 ...
subscription required) Cullum, Nichola Anne (1989). Nerve cytoskeletal proteins in diabetes mellitus (PhD thesis). University ...
Feng Y, Walsh CA (June 2001). "Protein-protein interactions, cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal migration". Nature Reviews. ... "Blood protein increases heart disease risk". BBC News. 29 April 2010. Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, Ushijima H, Müller WE ( ... Lp-PLA2 is a 45-kDa protein of 441 amino acids. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. In the blood Lp-PLA2 travels mainly ...
It was the first prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein identified. TubZ (Q8KNP3; pBt156) was identified in Bacillus thuringiensis as ... as well as the bacterial protein TubZ, the archaeal protein CetZ, and the FtsZ protein family widespread in bacteria and ... December 2002). "Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter". Proceedings of the ... Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member ...
Manta P, Mamali I, Zambelis T, Aquaviva T, Kararizou E, Kalfakis N (2006). "Immunocytochemical study of cytoskeletal proteins ... Similarly, the protein typically produced by that gene is called "myotubularin".[citation needed] There are several global ... MTM1 codes for the myotubularin protein, a highly conserved lipid phosphatase involved in cellular transport, trafficking and ...
Xu, K.; Zhong, G.; Zhuang, X. (2013-01-25). "Actin, Spectrin, and Associated Proteins Form a Periodic Cytoskeletal Structure in ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. Measuring ... Dickinson RB, Caro L, Purich DL (October 2004). "Force generation by cytoskeletal filament end-tracking proteins". Biophysical ... Filament-severing proteins like gelsolin. Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non- ...
Briggs MW, Sacks DB (June 2003). "IQGAP proteins are integral components of cytoskeletal regulation". EMBO Rep. 4 (6): 571-4. ... or poly-proline protein-protein domain, so named because of two functionally conserved tryptophans, W, is a protein-protein ... IQGAP1 is a 190 kDa protein with 5 domains. A protein domain is a subsection of a protein that shows up multiple times in ... "IQGAP1: Gene and protein summary". The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Stradal T, Kranewitter W, Winder SJ, Gimona M ...
ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling". The Journal of Cell Biology. 145 (4): 851-63. doi:10.1083/jcb.145.4.851. ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ... Lineage for Protein: Focal adhesion kinase 1 Q00944 "Entrez Gene: PTK2 PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2". Guan JL, Shalloway D ( ...
Ott DE, Coren LV, Kane BP, Busch LK, Johnson DG, Sowder RC, Chertova EN, Arthur LO, Henderson LE (1996). "Cytoskeletal proteins ... "Cofilin Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase Testicular Protein Kinase 1 and Its Role in Integrin-mediated Actin Reorganization ... Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K, Hatayama T (Feb 2004). "Screening of Hsp105alpha-binding proteins using yeast and ... Davidson MM, Haslam RJ (1994). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+ ...
... belongs to the spectrin family of cytoskeletal proteins. SPTBN5 contains the following domains: actin-binding domain ... Spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 5 also known as SPTBN5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPTBN5 gene. ...
Gilmore AP, Wood C, Ohanian V, Jackson P, Patel B, Rees DJ, Hynes RO, Critchley DR (Jul 1993). "The cytoskeletal protein talin ... Gilmore AP, Ohanian V, Spurr NK, Critchley DR (Aug 1995). "Localisation of the human gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein ... Critchley DR (Nov 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion" (PDF). Biochemical Society ... Critchley DR (2009). "Biochemical and structural properties of the integrin-associated cytoskeletal protein talin". Annual ...
"The cytoskeletal protein Ndel1 regulates dynamin 2 GTPase activity". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e14583. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...614583C. doi: ... HECT, C2 and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HECW1 gene. In ... Li Y, Ozaki T, Kikuchi H, Yamamoto H, Ohira M, Nakagawara A (June 2008). "A novel HECT-type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase NEDL1 ... Harvey KF, Dinudom A, Cook DI, Kumar S (March 2001). "The Nedd4-like protein KIAA0439 is a potential regulator of the ...
Kaech S, Ludin B, Matus A (1996). "Cytoskeletal plasticity in cells expressing neuronal microtubule-associated proteins". ... First use of green fluorescent protein-tagged proteins in transfected cells and for live imaging in neurons. Description of ... "Application of novel vectors for GFP-tagging of proteins to study microtubule-associated proteins". Gene. 173 (1 Spec No): 107- ... Development of Western blotting technique to detect proteins. Publication of two protocols for plant transgenesis, which were ...
Ott DE, Coren LV, Kane BP, Busch LK, Johnson DG, Sowder RC, Chertova EN, Arthur LO, Henderson LE (1996). "Cytoskeletal proteins ... Moesin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSN gene. Moesin (for membrane-organizing extension spike protein) is a ... Lankes WT, Furthmayr H (Oct 1991). "Moesin: a member of the protein 4.1-talin-ezrin family of proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... two putative membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (22): 10846-50. Bibcode:1993PNAS... ...
Vale, Ronald; Kreis, Thomas (1999). Guidebook to the Cytoskeletal and Motor Proteins (2nd ed.). Sambrook & Tooze Partnership. ... Its size, structure, and sequence/location of protein motifs is similar to other type III intermediate filament proteins such ... glial fibrillary acidic protein, and desmin. All intermediate filament proteins share a common secondary structure consisting ... This protein in humans is encoded by the PRPH gene. Peripherin is thought to play a role in neurite elongation during ...
ParM produces two important cytoskeletal proteins, MreB, and actin. ParM is directed to move the plasmid copies to opposite ...
It belongs to the talin protein family. This gene encodes a protein related to talin 1, a cytoskeletal protein that plays a ... Critchley DR (Nov 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion". Biochemical Society ... "Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (28): 16995-9. ... protein, which binds talin2 mRNAs directly and represses translation. Knockout of FXR1 upregulates talin-2 protein, which ...
... is a 117-kDa cytoskeletal protein with 1066 amino acids. The protein contains an acidic N-terminal domain and a basic ... Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one ... In mammalian cells, vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques that is involved in linkage of ... Critchley DR (November 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion". Biochemical Society ...
Not only have analogues for all major cytoskeletal proteins in eukaryotes been found in prokaryotes, cytoskeletal proteins with ... Izard J (2006). "Cytoskeletal cytoplasmic filament ribbon of Treponema: a member of an intermediate-like filament protein ... Gitai Z (February 2006). "Plasmid segregation: a new class of cytoskeletal proteins emerges". Current Biology. 16 (4): R133-6. ... One of these gradient-forming systems consists of MinCDE proteins (see below). MreB is a bacterial protein believed to be ...
In addition, cytoskeletal proteins can also be measured using LD. The insertion of membrane proteins into a lipid membrane has ... Fibrous proteins, such as proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease and prion proteins fulfil the requirements for UV LD in that ... For example, CD tells us when a membrane peptide or protein folds whereas LD tells when it inserts into a membrane. ... been monitored using LD, supplying the experimentalist with information about the orientation of the protein relative to the ...
Hansen WJ, Cowan NJ, Welch WJ (Apr 1999). "Prefoldin-nascent chain complexes in the folding of cytoskeletal proteins". The ... The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly ... Prefoldin subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PFDN4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the prefoldin beta ... Hartl FU, Hayer-Hartl M (Mar 2002). "Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein". Science. 295 ( ...
Hansen WJ, Cowan NJ, Welch WJ (1999). "Prefoldin-Nascent Chain Complexes in the Folding of Cytoskeletal Proteins". J. Cell Biol ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly ...
van der Loop FT, Schaart G, Timmer ED, Ramaekers FC, van Eys GJ (Sep 1996). "Smoothelin, a novel cytoskeletal protein specific ... Smoothelin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMTN gene. This gene encodes a structural protein that is found ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... 2000). "Apparent up-regulation of stimulatory G-protein alpha subunits in the pregnant human myometrium is mimicked by elevated ...
"Protein kinase Calpha-induced p115RhoGEF phosphorylation signals endothelial cytoskeletal rearrangement". The Journal of ... Rho is a small GTPase protein that is inactive when bound to the guanine nucleotide GDP. But when acted on by Rho GEF proteins ... RhoGEF1 is a member of a group of four RhoGEF proteins known to be activated by G protein coupled receptors coupled to the G12 ... In addition to being activated by G12 or G13 G proteins, three of these four RhoGEF proteins (ARHGEF1/11/12) also function as ...
Hansen WJ, Cowan NJ, Welch WJ (April 1999). "Prefoldin-nascent chain complexes in the folding of cytoskeletal proteins". The ... The encoded protein is one of six subunits of prefoldin, a molecular chaperone complex that binds and stabilizes newly ... Prefoldin subunit 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PFDN5 gene. This gene encodes a member of the prefoldin alpha ... Mori K, Maeda Y, Kitaura H, Taira T, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Ariga H (November 1998). "MM-1, a novel c-Myc-associating protein that ...
... within the cells which leads to Protein Kinase G-mediated (PKG) cytoskeletal modifications.[46] The resultant effect of this ... "Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 24 (9): 633-34. doi:10.1093/protein/gzr012.. ... Konopacka, Agnieszka; Konopacki, Filip A.; Albrecht, Jan (2009). "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ... release at the neuromuscular junction through degradation of the SNARE proteins required for ACh vesicle-membrane fusion.[35] ...
2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ... This enables a turnover of neuroreceptors or other proteins to be maintained and thus the numbers of receptors can be fine ...
... domain is a structural domain that is found in proteins involved in endocytosis and cytoskeletal machinery. This domain is ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Protein domains, Peripheral membrane proteins). ... "Identification of a novel domain shared by putative components of the endocytic and cytoskeletal machinery". Protein Sci. 8 (2 ... Proteins containing this domain have been found to bind PtdIns(4,5)P2 and Ins(1,4,5)P3 suggesting that the domain is a membrane ...
Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... They exhibit a high degree of protein dynamics, alone or in complex. Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ...
This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ... This causes the alteration of local host cytoskeletal actin at the entry site as part of a zipper mechanism. Then, the bacteria ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... CDC42, protein tyrosine kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and Src-family kinases then activate Arp2/3. ...
2005). "Engagement of specific T-cell surface molecules regulates cytoskeletal polarization in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes". ... tax protein triggers microtubule reorientation in the virological synapse". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (33): 29653-60. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... which is triggered by engagement of ICAM-1 on the infected cell's surface and expression of several viral proteins. Viruses use ...
... a part of cytoskeletal filaments. Unlike fibroblasts, fibroblast-like synoviocytes also secrete unique proteins, that are ... Specific for fibroblast-like synoviocytes is also the expression of CD55; this protein is often used to identify this cell type ... These include especially lubricin, a protein crucial for the joint lubrication. Furthermore these cells express a number of ... such as expression of several types of collagens and protein vimentin, ...
"Cytoskeletal protein PSTPIP1 directs the PEST-type protein tyrosine phosphatase to the c-Abl kinase to mediate Abl ... Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ... Yamanashi Y, Baltimore D (January 1997). "Identification of the Abl- and rasGAP-associated 62 kDa protein as a docking protein ...
1993). "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin ... Myosin-13 also known as myosin, heavy chain 13 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the MYH13 gene. MYH13 is a myosin ... Lehner B, Sanderson CM (2004). "A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation". Genome Res. 14 (7): 1315-23. doi: ...
This gene encodes a protein that interacts with huntingtin, with two cytoskeletal proteins (dynactin and pericentriolar ... Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HAP1 gene. This protein was found to bind ... The interactions with cytoskeletal proteins and a kinase substrate suggest a role for this protein in vesicular trafficking or ... and kinesin-like protein which is another transport-mediation protein. HAP1 also shows a similar CNS distribution pattern to ...
ARHJ belongs to the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins regulate the dynamic assembly of cytoskeletal ... Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoJ is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHOJ gene. ...
PI(3,4)P2 plays another possible role at the PM, promoting cytoskeletal rearrangements through actin regulatory proteins like ... Following this release, T308 in the proteins activation loop and S437 in the proteins hydrophobic domain are phosphorylated by ... Characterization of a 3- phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Bα. ... Characterization of a 3- phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Bα. ...
... cytoskeletal, and Chaperone (protein)s. This results in the addition of the PG to the protein by a Michael addition reaction ... in diverse proteins. The reaction inactivates or reduces the activity of various functionally important target proteins and is ... The inhibition of protein translation can trigger programmed cell death responses while the sequestration of TRAF2 may suppress ... H-Ras: 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 forms a covalent bond with cysteine 184 on H-ras thereby activating this signaling protein and ...
... procyclin is the major surface protein of procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei strain 427". Biochem. J. 326 (Pt ... timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 323 (1218): 573-88. ... "Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in ...
IF proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that confer resistance to mechanical stress and are encoded by a dispersed multigene ... the low degree of conservation between these two proteins compared to other cloned IF proteins suggested that synemin was not ... This protein has been found to form a linkage between desmin, which is a subunit of the IF network, and the extracellular ... Synemin, also known as desmuslin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNM gene. Synemin is an intermediate filament ...
The unmodified C3orf62 protein is a "glycine depleted protein" relative to amounts of glycine in proteins in the rest of the ... cytoskeletal, 4.3% cytoplasmic. C3orf62 is expressed in more than 30 different tissues; highest expression is in whole blood. ... Inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5), Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 9 (TXNDC9), and MORF4-family associated proteins ( ... C3orf62 is a glycine depleted protein relative to the amount of glycine in proteins in the rest of the genome. C3orf62 has a ...
Ankyrin repeats of the multidomain Shank protein family interact with the cytoskeletal protein alpha-fodrin". J. Biol. Chem. ... The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion ... Secondly, another insert of 20 amino acids in the 10th spectrin repeat, termed SH3i+, contains protein kinase A and protein ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 ...
At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting ... Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly ... Hsu SC, Hazuka CD, Roth R, Foletti DL, Heuser J, Scheller RH (1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures ...
Highlight the Cytoskeletal Structure of the Common Ancestor of Filasterea, Metazoa and Choanoflagellata". Protist. 170 (4): 385 ... "Phylogenetic Relationships within the Opisthokonta Based on Phylogenomic Analyses of Conserved Single-Copy Protein Domains". ...
Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related ... Fernández-Larrea J, Merlos-Suárez A, Ureña JM, Baselga J, Arribas J (1999). "A role for a PDZ protein in the early secretory ... Alpha-1-syntrophin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNTA1 gene. Alpha-1 syntrophin is a signal transducing adaptor ...
Scherrer LC, Pratt WB (March 1992). "Association of the transformed glucocorticoid receptor with a cytoskeletal protein complex ... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ... resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), ...
"The junctional multidomain protein AF-6 is a binding partner of the Rap1A GTPase and associates with the actin cytoskeletal ... The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitous actin monomer-binding protein belonging to the profilin family. It is thought ... "The junctional multidomain protein AF-6 is a binding partner of the Rap1A GTPase and associates with the actin cytoskeletal ... Yayoshi-Yamamoto S, Taniuchi I, Watanabe T (September 2000). "FRL, a novel formin-related protein, binds to Rac and regulates ...
... cytoskeletal polarization and cytoskeletal motors play in RNA localization. Further, the roles of non-canonical RNA binding ... During transport, translation of oskar is repressed by the RNA-binding protein Bruno, which is in turn released by the binding ... After proper localization, oskar RNA is translated and organizes germ plasm by recruiting other proteins such as Vasa. Her ... Breitwieser, W; Markussen, F H; Horstmann, H; Ephrussi, A (1996). "Oskar protein interaction with Vasa represents an essential ...
Protein folded gastrulation (Fog), a secreted protein and Concertina, a G alpha protein, are members of the same pathway that ... Apical constriction occurs primarily through the contraction of cytoskeletal elements. The specific mechanism depends on the ... The transmembrane protein T48 is part of a redundant pathway that is also needed for coordination of apical constriction. Both ... Because Shroom3 is an actin-binding protein and accumulates on the apical side, the most likely mechanism is that Shroom3 ...
Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2018-01-01). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein ... targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255 (1): 297-357. doi:10.1007/s00709- ...
MAP-2 proteins are located in the dendrites and in the body of neurons, where they bind with other cytoskeletal filaments. The ... MAP-1 proteins consists of a set of three different proteins: A, B and C. The C protein plays an important role in the ... including the motor proteins dynein and kinesin, microtubule-severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for ... Plus end tracking proteins are MAP proteins which bind to the tips of growing microtubules and play an important role in ...
September 1997). "A novel proline-rich motif present in ActA of Listeria monocytogenes and cytoskeletal proteins is the ligand ... Protein enabled homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ENAH gene. ENAH has been shown to interact with ABI1, ZYX ... SLP-76-associated protein (SLAP), Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins and the Arp2/3 complex link T cell ... Ermekova KS, Zambrano N, Linn H, Minopoli G, Gertler F, Russo T, Sudol M (December 1997). "The WW domain of neural protein FE65 ...
... cytoskeletal protein - cytoskeleton - cytosol - cytotoxic T cell dactinomycin - decarboxylation reaction - delta opioid ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Mangeat PH (1989). "Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells". Biol. Cell. 64 (3): ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
It was observed that Hirano bodies are a specific site of a C-terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor proteins. University of ... Bamburg, James R.; Bloom, George S. (2009-08-01). "Cytoskeletal pathologies of Alzheimer disease". Cell Motility and the ... More specifically the actin and actin binding proteins seen in Hirano bodies are a significant feature of an Alzheimer's ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ...
... * By Cytoskeleton Inc. - Signal-Seeker News ... offers a wide range of kits and products for drug screening, signal transduction and cytoskeletal research. We specialize in ... the production of purified proteins and easy-to-use kits to study biochemical and cellular processes. ...
Protein phosphatases-1 and -2A regulate tumor cell migration, invasion and cytoskeletal organization. Adv Exp Med Biol 407: 311 ... Protein content of the lysates was measured using a BCA protein assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA) to equalize protein content ... Interrelationship Between Protein Phosphatase 1 and TGF-β in Regulating Motility and Cytoskeletal Architecture of Endothelial ... Interrelationship Between Protein Phosphatase 1 and TGF-β in Regulating Motility and Cytoskeletal Architecture of Endothelial ...
Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ... Thus cytoskeletal components, Rho-GTPases and ND proteins work in concert to maintain the specialized nephrocyte architecture ... Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ... Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ...
Changes in the amounts of cytoskeletal proteins within the perikarya and axons of regenerating frog motoneurons. D V Sinicropi, ... D V Sinicropi, D L McIlwain; Changes in the amounts of cytoskeletal proteins within the perikarya and axons of regenerating ... Genetics, evolution, and expression of the 68,000-mol-wt neurofilament protein: isolation of a cloned cDNA probe. ...
protein coding gene. Chr9:64868114-64894263 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0034946. protein coding gene. Chr9:64655206- ... protein coding gene. Chr9:62127498-62154050 (+). CAST/EiJ MGP_CASTEiJ_G0033950. protein coding gene. Chr9:64650105-64682473 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr9:64476986-64503141 (+). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0035438. protein coding gene. Chr9:66432703-66461135 ... protein coding gene. Chr9:64935569-64963597 (+). NOD/ShiLtJ MGP_NODShiLtJ_G0034743. protein coding gene. Chr9:69993971-70020995 ...
"Cytoskeletal Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cytoskeletal Proteins" was a major or minor topic of ... "Cytoskeletal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cytoskeletal Proteins" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cytoskeletal Proteins". ...
Cytoskeletal Proteins. Blum CA, Tanaka T, Zhong X, Li Q, Dashwood W-M, Pereira C, Xu M, Dashwood RH. 2003. Mutational analysis ...
Tag: cytoskeletal protein LIM-Nebulette. Virtual Remote Conference Tools Keep Us Connected. May 21, 2020. June 2, 2020. ...
Cytoskeletal Proteins (50) Endoplasmic Reticulum Markers (12) Endosomal Markers (2) Enzymes and Regulators (585) Fc Receptors ( ... Phospho-Proteins (464) Postsynaptic proteins (213) Presynaptic proteins (161) Prion (CD230) (24) Proteases (174) Protein ... Protein Misfolding and Aggregation (424) Protein Purification (2) Protein Synthesis (112) Protein Trafficking and Clearance ( ... Gap Junction Proteins (10) Golgi Markers (12) GPCR (1062) Growth Factors (849) GTPases (12) Heat Shock Proteins (9) Hormones (9 ...
Many important proteins are expressed at low levels7,8, and are thus inaccessible by current genomic and proteomic techniques. ... We observe that protein production occurs in bursts, with the number of molecules per burst following an exponential ... We show that the two key parameters of protein expression-the burst size and frequency-can be either determined directly from ... The assay, tested in Escherichia coli, yeast and mouse embryonic stem cells, shows that protein molecules are produced in ...
... which is part of the tropomyosin protein family. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The TPM3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called slow muscle alpha (α)-tropomyosin, ... cytoskeletal tropomyosin TM30. *FLJ41118. *heat-stable cytoskeletal protein 30 kDa. *hscp30. *TM-5 ... by controlling the binding of two muscle proteins, myosin and actin. In non-muscle cells, tropomyosin proteins play a role in ...
... but Cytoskeletal and Extracellular would not hear after a way. 6 amplitude of waters in maltreatment of cause. This had kind ... Cytoskeletal And Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions And Assembly The 2Nd International Ebsa Symposium. by Sara 3 ... The Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The 2nd is applications from all States in ... Oxford, in the Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly of Oxford, on Tliurs- manfeci. ...
One online Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and believed at the Assault on Fort Wagner, South ... Your online Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The 2nd International EBSA Symposium ... stand to the milliseconds online Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The to contact ... repulsing federal online Cytoskeletal and with a cart, ISSA were me the action to continue on my costs with this 8 sense file, ...
However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV- … ... Cytoskeletal Proteins * DEAD-box RNA Helicases / genetics * DEAD-box RNA Helicases / metabolism ... To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins ... A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011 Dec;10(12):M111.012187. doi: ...
FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the main cytoskeletal proteins. * Post author By healthanddietblog ... FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the main cytoskeletal proteins in bacterial cell department. resolution microscopy ... Perhaps most obviously is the capability to particularly label the proteins of interest also to visualize proteins in live ... History Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important signaling → SHARPIN is a ubiquitin-binding and ...
Pages that link to "A quantitative analysis of contractility in active cytoskeletal protein networks". ← A quantitative ... The following pages link to A quantitative analysis of contractility in active cytoskeletal protein networks: View (previous ...
Carbon disulfide inhalation increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in the rat ... The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins was studied in brain supernatants prepared from ... Animal studies; Animals; Proteins; Central nervous system; Inhalation studies; Author Keywords: Carbon disulfide; CaM kinase II ... There also was an observed increase in the autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). ...
1] Filaggrin helps aggregate cytoskeletal proteins that form the cornified cell envelope. In its absence, the barrier is ... Haptens or haptenated self-proteins are recognized by innate immune mechanisms in the skin, and this leads to the elaboration ... Go to Irritant Contact Dermatitis, Pediatric Contact Dermatitis, and Protein Contact Dermatitis for complete information on ... These DCs, which may have been directly haptenated or could have acquired haptenated proteins from their surroundings, migrate ...
Comparison of human platelet membrane-cytoskeletal proteins with the plasma proteome: Towards understanding the platelet-plasma ... Comparison of human platelet membrane-cytoskeletal proteins with the plasma proteome: Towards understanding the platelet-plasma ... Co-identified proteins (41) were further analysed with respect to their relative abundances (exponentially modified protein ... Both platelet membrane/ cytoskeletal and plasma proteome reference datasets, comprising both processed and unprocessed MS/MS ...
Categories: Cytoskeletal Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999. 17:905- ... 12] Further research is underway to identify WASp-associated proteins, such as WASp-interacting protein (WIP) and several ... protein. WASp is a cytosolic protein expressed on all hematopoietic cell lineages and is essential for normal antibody function ... WIP: a multifunctional protein involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Apr. 85(3-4):295-304. [QxMD ...
Dive into the research topics of Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas ... Distribution of pancreatic hormones, neuropeptides and cytoskeletal proteins in the pancreas of the one-humped camel. ...
Such a job is also in keeping with the multiple linkages between proteins and p130Cas affecting cytoskeletal actin remodeling27 ... Such a job is also in keeping with the multiple linkages between proteins and p130Cas affecting cytoskeletal actin remodeling27 ... 1). Using the recombinant FAK kinase website like a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in an in vitro kinase assay ... PND-1186 is definitely water-soluble, exhibits beneficial microsome stability, is definitely highly protein DLin-KC2-DMA bound ...
The role of cytoskeletal proteins in cardiomyopathies. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1998;10:131-9. [PubMed: 9484605] ... Dystrophin is therefore part of a protein complex that links the cytoskeleton with membrane proteins that in turn bind with ... Protein. Locus-Specific Databases. HGMD. ClinVar. DMD Xp21. ​.2-p21.1 Dystrophin DMD homepage - Leiden Muscular Dystrophy pages ... Testing for deficiency of proteins from the transmembrane sarcoglycan complex and of other proteins is indicated in individuals ...
protein coding gene. Chr11:87649022-87676754 (+). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0018911. protein coding gene. Chr11:89392775- ... protein coding gene. Chr11:88515809-88546266 (+). BALB/cJ MGP_BALBcJ_G0018851. protein coding gene. Chr11:86347937-86373306 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr11:88758439-88783785 (+). PWK/PhJ MGP_PWKPhJ_G0017990. protein coding gene. Chr11:86349703-86375156 (+) ... protein coding gene. Chr11:88317535-88342841 (+). WSB/EiJ MGP_WSBEiJ_G0018271. protein coding gene. Chr11:88649491-88676505 (+) ...
New Frontiers for the Cytoskeletal Protein LASP1. Front. Oncol. 8:391.. *Chen Q, Morris Z, Morris B. 2018. Fission yeast ... RNase L Induces Expression of A Novel Serine/ Threonine Protein Kinase, DRAK1, to Promote Apoptosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20(14). ... The CXCR4-LASP1-eIF4F Axis Promotes Translation of Oncogenic Proteins in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. Front Oncol. 2019 ...
Cytoskeletal Proteins. 2. 2010. 1435. 0.250. Why? Usher Syndromes. 2. 2015. 43. 0.240. Why? ... Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3. 1. 2015. 31. 0.140. Why? ...
Cytoskeletal Proteins. Orner GA, Dashwood W-M, Blum CA, G Díaz D, Li Q, Dashwood RH. 2003. Suppression of tumorigenesis in the ...
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (
  • Utilizing a regular assay for the dimension of actin binding by purified recombinant advillin and villin, we display Guanabenz acetate that like villin, advillin can be an actin binding proteins (Fig.?5a)44. (
  • At a higher PND-1186 concentration (1 M), FAK and Flt3 experienced negligible activity and additional kinases including ACK1 (triggered Cdc42-connected tyrosine kinase 1), Aurora-A, CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2)/ cyclin A, insulin receptor (IR), Lck (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase), and TrkA (tropomyosin-related kinase A) were inhibited greater than 50% (Fig. 1). (
  • Vertebrate protein kinases LIMK-1 and LIMK-2. (
  • Yerramilli VS, Ross AH, Scarlata S, Gericke A. IQGAP1 scaffolding links phosphoinositide kinases to cytoskeletal reorganization. (
  • Using the nucleotide-binding sites of proteins TNR kinases specifically at heart as drug-targets, several chemical libraries have already been curated that consist of substances either knownor forecasted and purified to homogeneity [8]. (
  • Catalytic domain of the Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase, Atypical Protein Kinase C. Serine/Threonine Kinases (STKs), Atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) subfamily, catalytic (c) domain. (
  • The aPKC subfamily is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other protein STKs, protein tyrosine kinases, RIO kinases, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, choline kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. (
  • Cytoskeleton, Inc. offers a wide range of kits and products for drug screening, signal transduction and cytoskeletal research. (
  • Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous protein post-translational modification that regulates a plethora of fundamental cell processes such as signal transduction pathways, cell cycle and apoptosis [ 1 ]. (
  • Many cell functions and aspects of cell configuration are linked with changes in cytoskeletal proteins, by intracellular signal transduction. (
  • Studies initiated to determine how PP-1 might regulate motility showed its role in maintaining cytoskeletal organization and its capacity to directly dephosphorylate the focal adhesion scaffolding protein paxillin. (
  • This family is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including cytoskeletal reorganization, regulation of transcription, cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis. (
  • Certain couplings have been defined, such as PLCγ and actin modifying proteins being involved in cytoskeletal reorganization and lamellipod extension and MEK being implicated in detachment from substratum. (
  • Engagement of GPI-linked CD48 contributes to TCR signals and cytoskeletal reorganization: a role for lipid rafts in T cell activation. (
  • Its phosphorylation occurs on tyrosine, serine and threonine residues, although tyrosine phosphorylation has been more extensively studied as it appears to be important in coordination of paxillin with focal adhesion kinase and other kinase and second messenger proteins with functional consequences on cellular cytoskeleton and adhesiveness ( 14 ). (
  • Carbon disulfide inhalation increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in the rat central nervous system. (
  • There also was an observed increase in the autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). (
  • The finding of large increases in the autophosphorylation and calmodulin-binding to CaM kinase II with only slight increases in the amount of antibody-binding suggests that CS2 exposure results in increased Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by inducing an increase in kinase activity. (
  • Using the recombinant FAK kinase website like a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in an in vitro kinase assay (Supplemental Fig. 1), PND-1186 inhibited FAK activity with IC50 of 1 1.5 nM. (
  • RNase L Induces Expression of A Novel Serine/ Threonine Protein Kinase, DRAK1, to Promote Apoptosis. (
  • Primary focus is on the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (
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  • One online Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and believed at the Assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina. (
  • stand to the milliseconds online Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The to contact or trial topics. (
  • Recombinant small G-proteins and human platelet extract were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane according to the method given in this datasheet. (
  • Distal transcript of the dystrophin gene initiated from an alternative first exon and encoding a 75-kDa protein widely distributed in nonmuscle tissues. (
  • Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. (
  • The complete sequence of dystrophin predicts a rod-shaped cytoskeletal protein. (
  • Actin binding domains present in duplicate at the N-termini of spectrin-like proteins (including dystrophin, alpha-actinin). (
  • The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins was studied in brain supernatants prepared from rats exposed via inhalation to 600 or 800 ppm carbon disulfide (CS2) for 14 days. (
  • Exposure to CS2 resulted in increased phosphorylation of endogenous MAP-2 and exogenously added neurofilament triplet proteins. (
  • Protein phosphorylation can be a potentially significant mechanism to explain rapid and multiple physiological and biochemical changes linked to PSS-dependent muscle-to-meat conversion. (
  • Noticeable and statistically significant differences in the extent of protein phosphorylation were detected between sample groups at the qualitative and quantitative levels. (
  • However, fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 followed by troponin T, F-actin-capping and small heat shock proteins showed the greatest phosphorylation change, and therefore they were the most important phosphoproteins underlying LT muscle conversion to DFD meat in the Rubia Gallega breed. (
  • My thesis seeks to determine whether cytoskeletal crosslinking proteins (proteins that bind actin and microtubules) contribute to the positioning of the nucleus in intracellular space, which may ultimately affect cellular shape and migration. (
  • Here we review that biochemical and molecular biological properties of the microtubules and microfilaments and the relationships between these cytoskeletal proteins and the toxic effects of drugs and toxins. (
  • The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules, made visible by fluorescently tagging a protein called doublecortin (orange). (
  • Though the researchers are using a breast cancer cell line, their primary interest is in the doublecortin protein, which is normally found in association with microtubules in the developing brain. (
  • In addition, the CH domain occurs also in a number of proteins not known to bind actin, a notable example being the vav protooncogene. (
  • We specialize in the production of purified proteins and easy-to-use kits to study biochemical and cellular processes. (
  • To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. (
  • Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. (
  • My group integrates approaches in structural biology, cellular biology, and protein engineering to study developmental receptor signaling. (
  • aPKCs are involved in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, apoptosis, polarity maintenance and cytoskeletal regulation. (
  • In nearly half of glioblastoma patients, the gene that codes for EGFR is amplified, causing glioblastoma cells to produce far more molecular signals spurred by this protein and causing tumor cells to proliferate. (
  • This modification of the viral genome enables us to maintain the function of ICP34.5, an HSV protein that allows virus replication even in the presence of a suppressive interferon response, under a strict control and only in tumor cells. (
  • In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking. (
  • Assembly, Regulation, and Roles of Cytoskeletal. (
  • Correlating β-catenin nuclear dynamics to cyclin D1 transcriptional activation showed that the nuclear accumulation rate of change of the signaling factor, and not actual protein levels, correlated with the transcriptional output of the pathway. (
  • Mammalian LH-2, a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in the control of cell differentiation in developing lymphoid and neural cell types. (
  • From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. (
  • Rhombotin 1 (RBTN1 or TTG-1) and rhombotin-2 (RBTN2 or TTG-2) are proteins of about 160 amino acids whose genes are disrupted by chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia. (
  • Among the ~20,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome, it has been determined that a remarkably small number of conserved signaling systems (Notch, Wnt, Shh, Jak/Stat, RTK, TGF-β, NF-κB) control the vast majority of cell fate decisions. (
  • This domain occurred 318 times on human genes ( 726 proteins). (
  • The TPM3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called slow muscle alpha (α)-tropomyosin, which is part of the tropomyosin protein family. (
  • Formin-binding protein 1 (617 aa, ~71 kDa) is encoded by the human FNBP1 gene. (
  • FNBP2 gene on human chromosome 1q32.1 encodes ARHGAP family protein with FCH, FBH, RhoGAP and SH3 domains. (
  • Vertebrate insulin gene enhancer binding protein isl-1. (
  • Isl-1 binds to one of the two cis-acting protein-binding domains of the insulin gene. (
  • In fact, in people with mutations in the gene that encodes this protein, neurons fail to migrate properly during development. (
  • The function of the focal adhesion complex relies on the coordinated participation of a multitude of proteins such as FAK, paxillin, p130Cas, Src, and many others ( 4 ). (
  • Paxillin, however, has been of interest as it is a crucial focal adhesion scaffold, coordinating with signaling and cytoskeletal networks. (
  • Vertebrate paxillin, a cytoskeletal focal adhesion protein. (
  • Further, ND proteins Sns and Duf also localize to this cluster and regulate organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. (
  • Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. (
  • EBV-miR-BART12 accelerates migration and invasion in EBV-associated cancer cells by targeting tubulin polymerization-promoting protein 1. (
  • These stochastic events of protein production are difficult to observe directly with measurements on large ensembles of cells owing to lack of synchronization among cells. (
  • Measurements so far on single cells lack the sensitivity to resolve individual events of protein production. (
  • We show that the two key parameters of protein expression-the burst size and frequency-can be either determined directly from real-time monitoring of protein production or extracted from a measurement of the steady-state copy number distribution in a population of cells. (
  • Steady-state protein copy number distributions in a population of cells. (
  • In non-muscle cells, tropomyosin proteins play a role in controlling cell shape. (
  • We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. (
  • Perhaps most obviously is the capability to particularly label the proteins of interest also to visualize proteins in live neglected cells using GFP fusions. (
  • The CXCR4-LASP1-eIF4F Axis Promotes Translation of Oncogenic Proteins in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells. (
  • Wnt is one protein that animal cells release to control how nearby cells grow and divide. (
  • This will be accomplished by generating and characterizing vinculin variants with specific defects in actin binding, actin-induced vinculin dimer formation and PIP2 association in vitro, and then expressing the full length wild type protein and mutants in vinculin null cells. (
  • Researchers have long considered the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a protein that sits on the surface of cells, as a driver of this cancer, Dr. Habib explained. (
  • EGFR on glioblastoma cells can send these signals in two ways: either without prompting, a state known as constitutive signaling, or when stimulated with proteins called ligands. (
  • a protein required for the asymmetric division of vulval blast cells. (
  • Nestin is a cytoskeletal protein that is overexpressed in glioma cells, but it is absent in the healthy adult brain. (
  • Using Virtual Stations to obtain multichannel confocal pictures, we show that three protein, PTGS1, DCLK1 and advillin are localized towards the same cells (Fig.?4a). (
  • Even more notably, in mouse enteroids like in the mouse intestine, advillin expressing cells usually do not communicate villin proteins (Fig.?4c). (
  • And so, the researchers tagged doublecortin with an orange fluorescent protein, engineered its expression in the breast cancer cells, and van Haren started taking pictures. (
  • This video is certainly a good example of the illuminating power of fluorescent proteins: enabling us to see cells and their cytoskeletons as incredibly dynamic, constantly moving entities. (
  • RV202 is a mouse monoclonal IgG1 antibody derived by fusion of SP2/0-Ag14 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with a cytoskeletal vimentin extract of calf lens. (
  • Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. (
  • Liver function enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities including total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and globulin were not changed by BV supplementation. (
  • Formin homology proteins with FH1 and FH2 domains are signaling effectors for assembly and polarization of actin filaments. (
  • Tropomyosin proteins regulate the tensing of muscle fibers (muscle contraction) by controlling the binding of two muscle proteins, myosin and actin. (
  • Subcutaneous administration of neutralizing antibodies to endothelial monocyte-activating protein II attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in mice. (
  • FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the main cytoskeletal proteins in bacterial cell department. (
  • Needlessly Guanabenz acetate to say, in mouse enteroids advillin co-localizes using the cytoskeletal protein F-actin and tubulin (Fig.?4b). (
  • Cytoskeletal vimentin is a significant intermediate filament (IF) protein, and is concerned in quite a few capabilities, together with cell signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, intracellular group and cell migration. (
  • Vimentin(57kDa)은 주로 정상 중간엽세포에서 발견되는 세포골격계 제3형 중간필라멘트 단백질 (intermediate filament protein, IFP)입니다. (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal is focused on vinculin, a cytoskeletal protein that is a prominent component of focal adhesions and adherens junctions. (
  • Data demonstrated are representative of research had been performed with similar degrees of recombinant villin and advillin protein. (
  • A soluble multimeric recombinant CD2 protein identifies CD48 as a low affinity ligand for human CD2: divergence of CD2 ligands during the evolution of humans and mice. (
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • We observe that protein production occurs in bursts, with the number of molecules per burst following an exponential distribution. (
  • This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection. (
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling and cytoskeletal organization. (
  • Segregation of cell fate determinants to the daughter GMC is regulated by the reciprocal localization of four protein complexes: two complexes are localized to the apical cortex and two to the basal cortex (see Figure 1 ). (
  • Molecular engineering strategies for visualizing low-affinity protein complexes. (
  • Thus, the role of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP-1 in regulating endothelial cell motility and cytoskeletal architecture was studied. (
  • Our results showed that all dosages induced no significant alterations in growth parameters and the seric levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, when compared to the control group. (
  • Care4Rare Canada Consortium, Boycott KM, Bastin P and Sheridan EG (2018) Biallelic Mutations in LRRC56, Encoding a Protein Associated with Intraflagellar Transport, Cause Mucociliary Clearance and Laterality Defects. (
  • However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. (
  • To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. (
  • These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. (
  • Membrane-associated protein that interacts with Vps21p to facilitate soluble vacuolar protein locali. (
  • Contraction of muscles is an example of how the motor protein _______ interacts with the cytoskeletal elements called _____________ to produce movement. (
  • Global analysis of protein expression in yeast. (
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) rho-type GTPase activating protein RGA1/DBM1. (
  • Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes. (
  • Oct 2020 FKBPL and SIRT-1, key angiogenesis proteins, are downregulated by diabetes in pregnancy. (
  • Proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. (
  • Lck 5 , fyn 5 , LAT 6 and G protein subunits. (
  • The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes. (
  • These mutations replace the protein building block (amino acid) arginine with the amino acids cysteine or histidine at position 168 of the protein sequence, written as Arg168Cys or Arg168His (also written as R168C or R168H). (
  • A The Cold War: A New prevented a heritage of area Recommended by both data and tissues in cytoskeletal levels. (
  • Listed below are up to the top 10 sequence alignment matches, by species, for the PSI-BLAST search against the protein sequence for VPS8 . (
  • The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. (
  • STKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine residues on protein substrates. (
  • The intracellular signaling pathway makes use of cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Mammalian cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP), a small protein which seems to have a role in zinc absorption and may function as an intracellular zinc transport protein. (
  • Jensen VL and Leroux MR (2017) Gates for soluble and membrane proteins, and two trafficking systems (IFT and LIFT), establish a dynamic ciliary signaling compartment. (
  • Cytoskeletal Components Define Protein Location to Membrane Microdomains. (
  • We also utilize a selection of model membrane systems, to which we anchor cytoskeletal elements and other membrane-transforming protein machineries. (
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (
  • His discoveries paved the way for the first Alzheimer's drugs and uncovered the startling complexity of the tau protein and its role in Alzheimer's and other tauopathies. (
  • Histochemical and pathophysiological changes caused by toxins or drugs affect on dynamic aspects of cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Mammalian and avian cysteine-rich protein (CRP), a 192 amino-acid protein of unknown function. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) protein apterous, required for the normal development of the wing and halter imaginal discs. (
  • S. cerevisiae hypothetical protein YKR090w. (