Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. The subtype was originally identified in a cell line derived from MEGAKARYOCYTES.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Identification of APC2, a homologue of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor. (1/9127)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor protein controls the Wnt signalling pathway by forming a complex with glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), axin/conductin and betacatenin. Complex formation induces the rapid degradation of betacatenin. In colon carcinoma cells, loss of APC leads to the accumulation of betacatenin in the nucleus, where it binds to and activates the Tcf-4 transcription factor (reviewed in [1] [2]). Here, we report the identification and genomic structure of APC homologues. Mammalian APC2, which closely resembles APC in overall domain structure, was functionally analyzed and shown to contain two SAMP domains, both of which are required for binding to conductin. Like APC, APC2 regulates the formation of active betacatenin-Tcf complexes, as demonstrated using transient transcriptional activation assays in APC -/- colon carcinoma cells. Human APC2 maps to chromosome 19p13.3. APC and APC2 may therefore have comparable functions in development and cancer.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/9127)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/9127)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/9127)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (5/9127)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (6/9127)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (7/9127)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (8/9127)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

Since their discovery in the 20th century, antibiotics have been prescribed for patients with bacterial infections. The first commercially available antibiotic was penicillin, which was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming in St. Marys Hospital, UK. Penicillin was effective to inhibit the growth of disease-causing microorganisms. However, in 1947, four years after the mass-production of penicillin, the first penicillin resistance case was identified. Since then, scientists have been looking for new targets to inhibit the bacterial growth. Among them, the bacterial cell division protein, filament temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ), is a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. FtsZ protein is an essential protein in bacterial cytoplasmic division. A GTPase active site is formed when two FtsZ monomers are joined together in head-to-tail manner. The presence of GTP induces the polymerization of FtsZ in the middle of the cell. FtsZ polymers act as a platform to recruit other cell ...
FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division by polymerizing to form the Z ring at the site of cytokinesis. Phytochemicals are known to disrupt bacterial cell division through inhibition of FtsZ assembly. In the present study phytochemicals like eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, 4-formyl cinnamic acid, naringenin and caffeic acid were were tested for their potential to inhibit cell division. Effect of these antimicrobial compounds on the growth of E. coli was determined and the inhibition of FtsZ assembly in vitro was investigated. The present study revealed trans-cinnamic acid as the most potent inhibitor of FtsZ assembly ...
We have characterized the self-association of FtsZ in its GDP-bound state (GDP-FtsZ) and the heteroassociation of FtsZ and a soluble recombinant ZipA (sZipA) lacking the N-terminal transmembrane domain by means of composition gradient−static light scattering (CG−SLS) and by measurement of sedimentation equilibrium. CG−SLS experiments at high ionic strengths and in the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ show that, while FtsZ self-associates in a noncooperative fashion, sZipA acts as a monomer. CG−SLS data obtained from mixtures of FtsZ (A) and sZipA (B) in the presence of Mg2+ are quantitatively described by an equilibrium model that takes into account significant scattering contributions from B, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A1B, A2B, A3B, and A4B. However, in the absence of Mg2+ (with EDTA), the data are best explained by an equilibrium model in which only B, A1, A2, A3, A1B, and A2B contribute significantly to scattering. The best-fit molecular weights of monomeric A and B are in good agreement with ...
A wide variety of drug-resistant microorganisms are continuously emerging, restricting the therapeutic options for common bacterial infections. Antimicrobial agents that were originally potent are now...
Suprastructures and dynamic properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Global Markets Directs, Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) targeted pipeline therapeutics. The
Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset of kinases that phosphorylate ezrin closely co-distributes with apical recycling endosome marker rab11a in the subapical domain. Expression of dominant-negative rab11a mutant or depletion of the rab11a-binding motor protein myosin Vb prevents the subapical enrichment of rab11a and these kinases and inhibits ezrin phosphorylation and microvilli development, without affecting the polarized distribution of ezrin itself. We observe a similar loss of the subapical enrichment of rab11a and the kinases and reduced phosphorylation of ezrin in Microvillus inclusion disease, which is associated with MYO5B mutations, intestinal microvilli atrophy and mal-absorption. Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation ...
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase activity.
The FtsZ protein forms a dynamic polymeric ring structure, which functions as the guiding scaffold for septal invagination at the mid-cell site during cytokinesis in bacterial cells (Bi & Lutkenhaus, 1991). FtsZ forms polymers in a GTP-dependent manner in vivo and under different cationic conditions in vitro (Andreu et al., 2002; Beuria et al., 2003;Bi & Lutkenhaus, 1991; Bramhill & Thompson, 1994; Caplan & Erickson, 2003; Diaz et al., 2001; Erickson et al., 1996; Lu et al., 1998; Mingorance et al., 2001; Mukherjee & Lutkenhaus, 1994, 1999; Rivas et al., 2000; Romberg et al., 2001; Scheffers et al., 2001; Wang et al., 1997; White et al., 2000; Yu & Margolin, 1997). The rate of polymerization of the FtsZ protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MtFtsZ) is remarkably slow when compared to that of the Escherichia coli FtsZ protein (EcFtsZ) (Bramhill & Thompson, 1994; Mukherjee & Lutkenhaus, 1999; White et al., 2000). While polymerization of EcFtsZ reaches steady state in 30 s after the addition ...
Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and ...
The earliest stage in bacterial cell division is the formation of a ring, composed of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ, at the division site. Tight spatial and temporal regulation of Z-ring formation is required to ensure that division occurs precisely at midcell between two replicated chromosomes. However, the mechanism of Z-ring formation and its regulation in vivo remain unresolved. Here we identify the defect of an interesting temperature-sensitive ftsZ mutant (ts1) of Bacillus subtilis. At the nonpermissive temperature, the mutant protein, FtsZ(Ts1), assembles into spiral-like structures between chromosomes. When shifted back down to the permissive temperature, functional Z rings form and division resumes. Our observations support a model in which Z-ring formation at the division site arises from reorganization of a long cytoskeletal spiral form of FtsZ and suggest that the FtsZ(Ts1) protein is captured as a shorter spiral-forming intermediate that is unable to complete this reorganization ...
Therapeutic irradiation can induce cognitive impairments without necessarily causing the gross histologic disruption classically associated with exposure to high radiation doses ( 1). Given that postmitotic neurons are generally considered to be relatively radioresistant, new approaches/techniques have been used to identify other targets that may ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury. Data now exist regarding neurogenesis ( 14, 15), specific genetic factors ( 33) or receptor expression ( 34), and show that changes in these end points can be associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Still, there is considerable uncertainty regarding how molecular and cellular events within specific neuronal populations are translated into changes that affect behavioral performance. Understanding such changes will be critical to the development of strategies or approaches necessary to prevent or treat the cognitive changes induced by therapeutic irradiation of ...
FtsZ has a GTPase activity that is associated with assembly and required for the dynamics of FtsZ polymers (24). In this study, we have investigated the properties of FtsZ2 that can support cell division despite having a dramatically reduced GTPase activity. We found that FtsZ2 is unable to assemble in vitro; however, it copolymerized upon addition of FtsZ, provided FtsZ is above the critical concentration. This supports a model for cooperative assembly of FtsZ polymers. Significantly, the stability of the copolymers increased with increasing FtsZ2 incorporation, implying FtsZ2 polymers, if formed, would be stable. Since FtsZ2 can support viability, our results suggest that stable FtsZ filaments are able to function in cell division. This result has important implications for the role of the Z ring in cell division, because it argues that constriction of the Z ring can occur through forces acting on FtsZ filaments.. FtsZ2 was isolated as an allele of ftsZ that was resistant to the cell division ...
In vivo characterization of Escherichia coli ftsZ mutants: effects on Z-ring structure and function.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic derivatives of totarol. AU - Kim, Michelle B.. AU - OBrien, Terrence E.. AU - Moore, Jared T.. AU - Anderson, David E.. AU - Foss, Marie H.. AU - Weibel, Douglas B.. AU - Ames, James B.. AU - Shaw, Jared T.. PY - 2012/10/11. Y1 - 2012/10/11. N2 - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic analogues of the diterpenoid totarol are described. An advanced synthetic intermediate with a ketone on the A-ring is used to attach fused heterocycles, and a carbon-to-nitrogen atom replacement is made on the B-ring by de novo synthesis. A-ring analogues with an indole attached exhibit, for the first time, enhanced antimicrobial activity relative to the parent natural product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that the indole analogues do not target the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ as had been hypothesized for totarol.. AB - The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic analogues of the diterpenoid ...
In neurons certain mRNA transcripts are transported to synapses through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Here we report that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein CBF-A (CArG Box binding Factor A) facilitates dendritic transport and localization of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII alpha) mRNAs. We discovered that, in the adult mouse brain, CBF-A has a broad distribution. In the nucleus, CBF-A was found at active transcription sites and interchromosomal spaces and close to nuclear pores. In the cytoplasm, CBF-A localized to dendrites as well as pre- and postsynaptic sites. CBF-A was found in synaptosomal fractions, associated with Arc, BDNF, and CaMKII alpha mRNAs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated a direct interaction mediated via their hnRNP A2 response element (A2RE)/RNA trafficking sequence (RTS) elements located in the 3 untranslated regions. ...
Cooperativity in the structuring equilibria of FtsZ and Z-ring disassembly.The model that emerges out of the in vitro work led us to determine the amount of SulA required to inhibit Z-ring formation in vivo. SulA inhibited Z-ring formation in vivo with somewhat lower stoichiometry compared to what we observed in vitro. Quantitative immunoblotting revealed that MalE-SulA resulted in Z-ring disassembly when it reached ≤50% of the total cellular level of FtsZ. A previous study likewise found that a reduction in FtsZ levels by as little as 30 to 40% was sufficient to block cell division in E. coli (15). Why do Z rings disappear when the level of FtsZ decreases by only 30 to 50%?. It has been estimated that 30% of cellular FtsZ in E. coli is actually present in the Z ring (2). The estimates for intracellular concentration of FtsZ vary between strains but are generally 6 to 7 μM as we determined here (38, 61). This means that 2 μM of FtsZ is present in the ring with another 0.9 μM free in the ...
Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in both developed and developing nations. It is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Ezrin is involved in maintaining cell structure and cell motility. Expression levels of the ezrin gene correlate with numerous human malignancies. Material and Methods: Ezrin expression was evaluated in fifty one cases of colorectal carcinoma by using two methods; objective and quantitative method to determine the statistical relation between ezrin objective analysis score and clinicopathological parameters and to do a comparative study between both methods of analysis. Results: Ezrin was expressed in 92.2% of cases, and it showed a statistical significant relation with tumor grade. A statistically significant relation was found between ezrin objective analysis score and ezrin quantitative analysis score (P-value |0.05). A strong positive Pearson correlation exists between both
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix ...
Cell division in bacteria is facilitated by a polymeric ring structure, the Z ring, composed of tubulin-like FtsZ protofilaments. Recently it has been shown that in Bacillus subtilis, the Z ring forms through the cell cycle-mediated remodelling of a helical FtsZ polymer. To investigate how this occurs in vivo, we have exploited a unique temperature-sensitive strain of B. subtilis expressing the mutant protein FtsZ(Ts1). FtsZ(Ts1) is unable to complete Z ring assembly at 49°C, becoming trapped at an intermediate stage in the helix-to-ring progression. To determine why this is the case, we used a combination of methods to identify the specific defect of the FtsZ(Ts1) protein in vivo. Our results indicate that while FtsZ(Ts1) is able to polymerize normally into protofilaments, it is defective in the ability to support lateral associations between these filaments at high temperatures. This strongly suggests that lateral FtsZ association plays a crucial role in the polymer transitions that lead to ...
Distribution of ezrin expression in primary and recurrent tumours. Bar charts visualizing the distribution of mean A) cytoplasmic and B) membranous ezrin expres
The high-resolution visualization of FtsZ polymerization and depolymerization on a lipid membrane allowed us to directly observe its assembly/disassembly characteristics and its spatial regulation by the Min proteins. In particular, we could assemble dynamic FtsZ filament bundles that anneal and branch, resulting in a dynamic network on supported bilayers. By using a minus end-capping fragment, NZ, we can show that the protofilament ends are generated, and the proteins may be exchanged, constantly throughout the length of the filament bundles. This specific dynamic turnover, quite distinct from the dynamics observed in microtubules, constitutes the basis for Z-ring positioning by the Min protein machinery.. The Z-ring presumably consists laterally of 6-10 protofilaments (7, 21, 49, 50). FtsZ first polymerizes into single-stranded short protofilaments and subsequently interacts laterally and longitudinally to settle into longer, staggered bundles. The exchange of subunits is occurring not only ...
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Congratulations to Jan Lowe (MCR Cambridge), Joen Luirink (VU Amsterdam) and their teams! Great collaboration!. Structural analysis of the interaction between the bacterial cell division proteins FtsQ and FtsB. D Kureisaite‑Ciziene, A Varadajan, SH McLaughlin, M Glas, AM Sliva, R Luirink, C Mueller, T den Blaauwen, TN Grossmann, J Luirink*, J Löwe* DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01346-18; bioRxiv ...
Sample immunohistochemical images. Images representing A) a primary tumour with strong membranous and moderate cytoplasmic ezrin expression in nearly 100% of ce
FtsZ is a widely conserved tubulin-like GTPase that directs bacterial cell division. This protein assembly machine works cooperatively polymerizing into single-stranded filaments, by means of self-switching between inactive and actively associating monomer conformations ...
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Gabriella M. Nepomuceno, Katie M. Chan, Valerie Huynh, Kevin S. Martin, Jared T. Moore, Terrence E. Obrien, Luiz A E Pollo, Francisco J. Sarabia, Clarissa Tadeus, Zi Yao, David E. Anderson, James B. Ames, Jared T. Shaw ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins differentially regulate endothelial hyperpermeability after thrombin. AU - Adyshev, Djanybek M.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. AU - Moldobaeva, Nurgul. AU - Kim, Kyung mi. AU - Ma, Shwu Fan. AU - Kasa, Anita. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Verin, Alexander D.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption induced by inflammatory agonists such as thrombin leads to potentially lethal physiological dysfunction such as alveolar flooding, hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema. Thrombin stimulates paracellular gap and F-actin stress fiber formation, triggers actomyosin contraction, and alters EC permeability through multiple mechanisms that include protein kinase C (PKC) activation. We previously have shown that the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) actin-binding proteins differentially participate in sphingosine-1 phosphate-induced EC barrier enhancement. Phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the COOH-terminus of ERM proteins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration. AU - Ramirez-Amaya, Victor. AU - Angulo-Perkins, Arafat. AU - Chawla, Monica K.. AU - Barnes, Carol A.. AU - Rosi, Susanna. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in~2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ~8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats~50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in ...
Bacterial cell division is restricted to the middle of the cell. This, say Kyoko Suefuji, Regina Valluzzi, and Debabrata RayChaudhuri (Tufts University, Boston, MA), can be explained by polymerization events that oscillate between the two ends of the cell.. The polymerization process forms filaments of MinD at one end of the cell, which sequester MinC from the middle of the cell, thus leaving the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ to do its job. An additional component, MinE, forms a cap on the MinCD crescent so that the inhibitor, MinC, cannot reach the central FtsZ.. These proteins must inhibit division at both ends, and they do so by oscillating from one end of the cell to the other every 50 seconds. In several existing models, self-assembly is a key part of this oscillation. Joe Lutkenhaus (University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS) has recently seen self-assembly of MinD on lipid vesicles, with diffraction patterns suggesting a regular structure.. But the Tufts team is the first to visualize ...
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Cell division protein FtsZ; Essential cell division protein that forms a contractile ring structure (Z ring) at the future cell division site. The regulation of the ring assembly controls the timing and the location of cell division. One of the functions of the FtsZ ring is to recruit other cell division proteins to the septum to produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. Binds GTP and shows GTPase ...
Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia ...
Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell
The major cause of death in pancreatic cancer is due to metastases; therefore, it is important to study the mechanism by which the pancreatic cancer cells migrate and invade. This would help advance therapeutics and ultimately help prolong survival. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the regulation of actin microfilament formation, which ultimately leads to cell migration and invasion. CAP1 binds to G-actin inhibiting polymerization. We first tested whether CAP1 binds to adenylyl cyclase (AC) by performing co-immunoprecipitation. We found that CAP1 not only interacts with G-actin, but also with a number of AC isoforms: AC1, AC3, AC4 and AC7. Further studies need to be done to determine how CAP1/AC/G-actin interact and the impact of these interactions on the invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells ...
EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery - EzrA contains a single transmembrane helix at its N-terminus followed by the 540 amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The structure of the B. subtilis EzrA cytoplasmic domain reveals an extended rod with three alpha helices packed together along its length. The rod comprises five repeats of a ~100 amino acid triple helical bundle, connected in a (...)
NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum. Related
Rabbit polyclonal Ezrin / Radixin / Moesin antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed binary fission, that requires the microbial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. of VX-765 manufacture the unipolar development and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid patient. This system of cell department offers not really been recorded in additional human being microbial pathogens recommending the potential for developing is definitely the leading microbial trigger of sexually sent attacks. will not really communicate FtsZ, which is definitely required for the extremely conserved procedure of binary fission that most bacterias use to separate. non-etheless, it provides been believed that this microbial virus splits by binary fission. We Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 present right here that splits VX-765 manufacture by a polarized cell department procedure that can be identical to the flourishing procedure of some various other bacterias that absence FtsZ, such as the Planctomycetes. This story setting of cell ...
In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. The divisome is thought to facilitate many of the steps required to make two cells out of one. FtsQ and FtsB are part of the divisome, with FtsQ being a central hub, interacting with most... ...
A download the cytoskeleton part a cytoskeletal proteins isolation per use a nonprotein la zoccola 2011, Dir. A Traves de la Ventana 2005, Dir. A dekat CAPEX peritonitis prolactin noi 2011, Dir.
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Jung, H.K., F. Ishino, M. Matsuhashi 1989. Inhibition of growth of ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ mutant cells of Escherichia coli by amplification of a chromosomal region encompassing closely aligned cell division and cell growth genes. J.Bacteriol. 171:6379- ...
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View all contributions by Dr. Filip Casselman from AalstBelgium in the field of interventional cardiology and cardiovascular disease on PCRonline.
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Nytt S-CCS konsept for oppdrett av laks - Postsmoltproduksjon i FishGLOBE. Espmark, Åsa Maria Olofsdotter; Stiller, Kevin Torben; Shahzad , Khurram; Reiten, Britt Kristin Megård; Marchenko, Yuriy; Gerwins, Jascha; Radonjic, Filip Strand; Eckel, Bernhard; Lazado, Carlo C.; Berge, Arne ...
Das, KM; Dasgupta, A; Mandal, A; Geng, X (1993). "Autoimmunity to cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin. A clue to the pathogenetic ... and one of the most ancient systems is based on filamentous polymers of the protein actin. A polymer of a second protein, ... such as the Human Genome Project and EST data of expressed proteins that many eukaryotes produce a range of proteins from a ... These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin ...
Tanaka K (2000). "Formin family proteins in cytoskeletal control". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 267 (2): 479-81. doi:10.1006/ ... proteins in these processes. The protein encoded by this gene contains FH domains and belongs to a novel FH protein subfamily ... Liu W, Sato A, Khadka D, Bharti R, Diaz H, Runnels LW, Habas R (Jan 2008). "Mechanism of activation of the Formin protein Daam1 ... X. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (3): 169-76 ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RDX gene. Radixin is a cytoskeletal protein that may be important in ... Hoeflich KP, Ikura M (2005). "Radixin: cytoskeletal adopter and signaling protein". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 36 (11): 2131-6 ... "Interaction of radixin with Rho small G protein GDP/GTP exchange protein Dbl". Oncogene. 16 (25): 3279-84. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... Yonemura S, Hirao M, Doi Y, Takahashi N, Kondo T, Tsukita S, Tsukita S (1998). "Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM) Proteins Bind to a ...
"Actin Binding Proteins: Regulation of Cytoskeletal Microfilaments". Physiological Reviews. 83 (2): 433-473. doi:10.1152/physrev ... This is due to the constant removal of the protein subunits from these filaments at one end of the filament while protein ... The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic part of a cell and cytoskeletal filaments constantly grow and shrink through addition and ... Treadmilling is a phenomenon observed in many cellular cytoskeletal filaments, especially in actin filaments and microtubules. ...
... a novel outer nuclear membrane protein, associates with the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... Nesprin proteins connect cytoskeletal filaments to the nucleoskeleton. Nesprin-mediated connections to the cytoskeleton ... All four nesprin proteins (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat proteins) present in mammals are expressed in the outer nuclear ... KASH domain proteins of Nesprin-1 and -2 are part of a LINC complex (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) and can bind ...
DNase I binds to the cytoskeletal protein actin. It binds actin monomers with very high (sub-nanomolar) affinity and actin ... This protein is stored in the zymogen granules of the nuclear envelope and functions by cleaving DNA in an endonucleolytic ... A recombinant form of this protein is used to treat one of the symptoms of cystic fibrosis by hydrolyzing the extracellular DNA ... 2001). "Interaction of ADP-ribosylated actin with actin binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 508 (1): 131-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01 ...
subscription required) Cullum, Nichola Anne (1989). Nerve cytoskeletal proteins in diabetes mellitus (PhD thesis). University ...
Feng Y, Walsh CA (June 2001). "Protein-protein interactions, cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal migration". Nature Reviews. ... Lp-PLA2 is a 45-kDa protein of 441 amino acids. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. In the blood Lp-PLA2 travels mainly ...
It was the first prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein identified. TubZ (Q8KNP3; pBt156) was identified in Bacillus thuringiensis as ... as well as the bacterial protein TubZ, the archaeal protein CetZ, and the FtsZ protein family widespread in Bacteria and ... December 2002). "Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter". Proceedings of the ... Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member ...
Manta P, Mamali I, Zambelis T, Aquaviva T, Kararizou E, Kalfakis N (2006). "Immunocytochemical study of cytoskeletal proteins ... Similarly, the protein typically produced by that gene is called "myotubularin".[citation needed] There are several global ... MTM1 codes for the myotubularin protein, a highly conserved lipid phosphatase involved in cellular transport, trafficking and ...
Xu, K.; Zhong, G.; Zhuang, X. (2013-01-25). "Actin, Spectrin, and Associated Proteins Form a Periodic Cytoskeletal Structure in ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. Measuring ... Dickinson RB, Caro L, Purich DL (October 2004). "Force generation by cytoskeletal filament end-tracking proteins". Biophysical ... Filament-severing proteins like gelsolin. Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin. The actin filament network in non- ...
Briggs MW, Sacks DB (June 2003). "IQGAP proteins are integral components of cytoskeletal regulation". EMBO Rep. 4 (6): 571-4. ... or poly-proline protein-protein domain, so named because of two functionally conserved tryptophans, W, is a protein-protein ... IQGAP1 is a 190 kDa protein with 5 domains. A protein domain is a subsection of a protein that shows up multiple times in ... "IQGAP1: Gene and protein summary". The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 2011-05-31. Stradal T, Kranewitter W, Winder SJ, Gimona M ...
Several different proteins can be affected, and the specific protein that is absent or defective identifies the specific type ... Among the proteins affected in LGMD are α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycanopathies could be possibly amenable to gene ... Protein MYOT (also known as TTID one of the many genes whose mutations are responsible for this condition). ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
Cytoskeletal Proteins Actin Tubulin myosin Multiple myosin II molecules generate force in skeletal muscle through a power ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... In the periactive zone, scaffolding proteins such as intersectin 1 recruit proteins that mediate endocytosis such as dynamin, ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... Cytoskeletal defects. *Syndromes affecting the nervous system. Hidden categories: *Articles with short description ... Some mutations affect the gene MFN2, on chromosome 1, which codes for a mitochondrial protein. Mutated MFN2 causes the ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
See also: cytoskeletal proteins. *v. *t. *e. Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator ...
ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling". The Journal of Cell Biology. 145 (4): 851-63. doi:10.1083/jcb.145.4.851. ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ... Lineage for Protein: Focal adhesion kinase 1 Q00944 "Entrez Gene: PTK2 PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2". Guan JL, Shalloway D ( ...
Ott DE, Coren LV, Kane BP, Busch LK, Johnson DG, Sowder RC, Chertova EN, Arthur LO, Henderson LE (1996). "Cytoskeletal proteins ... "Cofilin Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase Testicular Protein Kinase 1 and Its Role in Integrin-mediated Actin Reorganization ... Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K, Hatayama T (Feb 2004). "Screening of Hsp105alpha-binding proteins using yeast and ... Davidson MM, Haslam RJ (1994). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+ ...
... belongs to the spectrin family of cytoskeletal proteins. SPTBN5 contains the following domains: actin-binding domain ... Spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 5 also known as SPTBN5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPTBN5 gene. ...
Gilmore AP, Wood C, Ohanian V, Jackson P, Patel B, Rees DJ, Hynes RO, Critchley DR (Jul 1993). "The cytoskeletal protein talin ... Gilmore AP, Ohanian V, Spurr NK, Critchley DR (Aug 1995). "Localisation of the human gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein ... Critchley DR (Nov 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion" (PDF). Biochemical Society ... Critchley DR (2009). "Biochemical and structural properties of the integrin-associated cytoskeletal protein talin". Annual ...
"The cytoskeletal protein Ndel1 regulates dynamin 2 GTPase activity". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e14583. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014583 ... HECT, C2 and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HECW1 gene. In ... Li Y, Ozaki T, Kikuchi H, Yamamoto H, Ohira M, Nakagawara A (June 2008). "A novel HECT-type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase NEDL1 ... Harvey KF, Dinudom A, Cook DI, Kumar S (March 2001). "The Nedd4-like protein KIAA0439 is a potential regulator of the ...
Kaech S, Ludin B, Matus A (1996). "Cytoskeletal plasticity in cells expressing neuronal microtubule-associated proteins". ... First use of green fluorescent protein-tagged proteins in transfected cells and for live imaging in neurons. Description of ... "Application of novel vectors for GFP-tagging of proteins to study microtubule-associated proteins". Gene. 173: 107-111. doi: ... Development of Western blotting technique to detect proteins. Publication of two protocols for plant transgenesis, which were ...
Ott DE, Coren LV, Kane BP, Busch LK, Johnson DG, Sowder RC, Chertova EN, Arthur LO, Henderson LE (1996). "Cytoskeletal proteins ... Moesin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSN gene. Moesin (for membrane-organizing extension spike protein) is a ... Lankes WT, Furthmayr H (Oct 1991). "Moesin: a member of the protein 4.1-talin-ezrin family of proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... two putative membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (22): 10846-50. Bibcode:1993PNAS... ...
Vale, Ronald; Kreis, Thomas (1999). Guidebook to the Cytoskeletal and Motor Proteins (2nd ed.). Sambrook & Tooze Partnership. ... Its size, structure, and sequence/location of protein motifs is similar to other type III intermediate filament proteins such ... glial fibrillary acidic protein, and desmin. All intermediate filament proteins share a common secondary structure consisting ... This protein in humans is encoded by the PRPH gene. Peripherin is thought to play a role in neurite elongation during ...
ParM produces two important cytoskeletal proteins, MreB, and actin. ParM is directed to move the plasmid copies to opposite ...
It belongs to the talin protein family. This gene encodes a protein related to talin 1, a cytoskeletal protein that plays a ... Critchley DR (Nov 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion". Biochemical Society ... "Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (28): 16995-9. ... protein, which binds talin2 mRNAs directly and represses translation. Knockout of FXR1 upregulates talin-2 protein, which ...
... is a 117-kDa cytoskeletal protein with 1066 amino acids. The protein contains an acidic N-terminal domain and a basic ... Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one ... In mammalian cells, vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques that is involved in linkage of ... Critchley DR (November 2004). "Cytoskeletal proteins talin and vinculin in integrin-mediated adhesion". Biochemical Society ...
Not only have analogues for all major cytoskeletal proteins in eukaryotes been found in prokaryotes, cytoskeletal proteins with ... Izard J (2006). "Cytoskeletal cytoplasmic filament ribbon of Treponema: a member of an intermediate-like filament protein ... Gitai Z (February 2006). "Plasmid segregation: a new class of cytoskeletal proteins emerges". Current Biology. 16 (4): R133-6. ... One of these gradient-forming systems consists of MinCDE proteins (see below). MreB is a bacterial protein believed to be ...
In addition, cytoskeletal proteins can also be measured using LD. The insertion of membrane proteins into a lipid membrane has ... Fibrous proteins, such as proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease and prion proteins fulfil the requirements for UV LD in that ... For example, CD tells us when a membrane peptide or protein folds whereas LD tells when it inserts into a membrane. ... been monitored using LD, supplying the experimentalist with information about the orientation of the protein relative to the ...
The regulation of transcription factors, effector proteins, molecular chaperones, and cytoskeletal proteins by acetylation and ... 1999). Guidebook to the cytoskeletal and motor proteins (2nd ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0198599560. Lodish H ... Ribosome proteins play an important role in the protein synthesis, which could also be N-terminal acetylated. The N-terminal ... Protein N-terminal acetylation has also been proved to relate with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis with protein knockdown ...
Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... Buda A, Pignatelli M (December 2011). "E-cadherin and the cytoskeletal network in colorectal cancer development and metastasis ...
A Kingdom-level phylogeny of Eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290 (5493): 972-977. [1] ... Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota). International ...
Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ... Mangeat PH (1989). "Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells". Biol. Cell. 64 (3): ... Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (1998). "Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS- ...
The immunofluorescence following the increase of vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins, at the intracellular face of ... It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ... In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ... In 1986, Hall helped uncover properties of the human p21 protein, which is encoded by N-ras. GTPase activity of different ...
At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ... The virus factory is often enclosed by a membrane derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or by cytoskeletal elements. In ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... An aggresome is a perinuclear site where misfolded proteins are transported and stored by the cell components for their ...
... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks.[58] Actins have a variety of roles in ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
... and signalling by cross-linking the protein actin to allow direct communication between the cell membrane and cytoskeletal ... identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ...
There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a ... Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit protein degradation. Cytoplasmic aggregations of wild-type ( ... Once these mutant RNA-binding proteins are misfolded and aggregated, they may be able to misfold normal protein both within and ... the main component is SOD1 protein or FUS protein, respectively.[27] The gross pathology of ALS, which are features of the ...
The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a ... G protein. A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are implicated in transmitting signals from a ... A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to the proteins, which allow fats to move through the ... protein. A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building nutrient.. protist. psychobiology. Also called behavioral ...
Snapper SB, Rosen FS (1999). "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling and cytoskeletal organization". ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ...
A Lewy body is composed of the protein alpha-synuclein associated with other proteins, such as ubiquitin,[10] neurofilament ... Dickson DW, Feany MB, Yen SH, Mattiace LA, Davies P (1996). Cytoskeletal pathology in non-Alzheimer degenerative dementia: new ... Tau proteins may also be present, and Lewy bodies may occasionally be surrounded by neurofibrillary tangles.[11][12] Lewy ... Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells, contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD), the ...
"Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Given the likely conserved CAS-family cytoskeletal function of CASS4, it has been speculated that it may have a role in axonal ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ... Protein family[edit]. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family contains four members: p130Cas/BCAR1, NEDD9/HEF1, EFS and CASS4. ...
For discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable ... For discoveries concerning the nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth.[ ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ... For the discovery and recognition of the broad significance of the ubiquitin system of regulated protein degradation, a ...
The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the ... "Activating WASP mutations associated with X-linked neutropenia result in enhanced actin polymerization, altered cytoskeletal ... Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets the Arp2/3 complex functions normally, ... Alleles that produce no or truncated protein have more severe effects than missense mutations.[12] Although autoimmune disease ...
identical protein binding. • cytoskeletal protein binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • cadherin binding. Cellular ... Cadherin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH8 gene.[5][6][7] ... Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a ... This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium- ...
cytoskeletal protein binding. • protein C-terminus binding. • ionotropic glutamate receptor binding. • kinase binding. • ... protein binding. • protein complex scaffold activity. • protein kinase binding. • L27 domain binding. • ligand-gated ion ... SAP97 is a mammalian MAGUK-family member protein that is similar to the Drosophila protein Dlg1 (the protein is alternatively ... Discs large homolog 1 (DLG1), also known as synapse-associated protein 97 or SAP97, is a scaffold protein that in humans is ...
... a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and cytoskeletal proteins". J. ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ... and Dicer protein. *A PLAT domain within its C2-like domain; this domain, by analogy to other PLAT domain-bearing proteins, may ...
Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Lancaster OM, Baum B (October 2014). "Shaping up to divide: coordinating actin and microtubule cytoskeletal remodelling during ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ...
... regimens for PD restrict proteins during breakfast and lunch, allowing protein intake in the evening.[11] ... Cytoskeletal defects. *Psychiatric diagnosis. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value. *CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[51][57] According to the Braak ... Levodopa and proteins use the same transportation system in the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, thereby competing for ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... Neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is ... protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process controlling balance. • neurofilament ... protein binding, bridging. • structural molecule activity. • structural constituent of cytoskeleton. • ...
Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins ... issues in movement of vesicles along cytoskeletal tracks, and fusion at the target membrane. Since the life cycle of the cell ... This process is propelled by motor proteins such as dynein. Motor proteins connect the transport vesicles to microtubules and ... This fusion event allows for the delivery of the vesicles contents mediated by proteins such as SNARE proteins. SNAREs are ...
The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins,[1] principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ... These proteins are thought to provide the cellular scaffolding necessary for the actin-myosin complex to undergo contraction. ... Elastic filaments, 1 nm in diameter, are made of titin, a large springy protein. They run through the core of each thick ...
"Intracellular fibril formation, calcification, and enrichment of chaperones, cytoskeletal, and intermediate filament proteins ... "The Non-Protein Amino Acid BMAA Is Misincorporated into Human Proteins in Place of l-Serine Causing Protein Misfolding and ... BMAA can be misincorporated into nascent proteins in place of L-serine, possibly causing protein misfolding and aggregation, ... Neurotoxic non-protein amino acid BMAA in brain from patients dying with ALS and Alzheimer's disease[permanent dead link] ...
Hou, S.Y.; Wu, S.; Chiang, C. (2002). "Transcriptional activity among high and low risk human papillomavirus E2 proteins ... Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells with cytoskeletal microtubules (magenta) and DNA (cyan). Nikon RTS2000MP custom ... Multiphoton fluorescence image of cultured HeLa cells with a fluorescent protein targeted to the Golgi apparatus (orange), ... "Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression". Virus Research. 149 (1 ...
"Interaction of focal adhesion kinase with cytoskeletal protein talin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270 (28): 16995-9. ( ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein phosphatase binding. 細胞の構成要素. • 細胞質. • 細胞質基質. • 膜. • 焦点接着. • extrinsic component of ... positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • 胎座. • 脈管形成. • protein ... "Paxillin LD4 motif binds PAK and PIX through a novel 95-kD ankyrin repeat, ARF-GAP protein: A role
"Protein kinase Calpha-induced p115RhoGEF phosphorylation signals endothelial cytoskeletal rearrangement". The Journal of ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • insulin receptor substrate binding. • ATP binding. • ... protein phosphorylation. • inflammatory response. • innate immune system. • cell chemotaxis. • G-protein coupled receptor ... also called p110α protein, is a class I PI 3-kinase catalytic subunit. The human p110α protein is encoded by the PIK3CA gene.[5 ...
cytoskeletal protein binding. • نشاط الببتيداز. • cysteine-type peptidase activity. • نشاط هيدرولاز. • SNARE binding. • calcium ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 8 (2): 85-95. doi: ...
"Process outgrowth of oligodendrocytes is promoted by interaction of fyn kinase with the cytoskeletal protein tau". Departments ... Protein tau (bahasa Inggris: microtubule-associated protein tau, MAPT) adalah protein yang membuat mikrotubula menjadi stabil. ... Proses fosforilasi juga dikatalisasi oleh cAMP-dependent protein kinase setelah protein tau terikat pada protein 14-3-3zeta.[3] ... Sinuklein-alfa kemudian menstimulasi protein kinase A untuk menginduksi fosforilasi protein tau.[2] ...
Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... "Ephrin-B3 reverse signaling through Grb4 and cytoskeletal regulators mediates axon pruning". Nature Neuroscience. 12 (3): 268- ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ... This suggests that pruning is triggered once the ligand reaches threshold protein levels within a few days after detectable ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cytoskeletal protein binding All GO annotations for Trak2 (39) ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for cytoskeletal protein binding All GO annotations for Ampd1 (13) ...
Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter. Cheryl Jenkins, Ram Samudrala, Iain Anderson ... Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter. Cheryl Jenkins, Ram Samudrala, Iain Anderson ... Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter. Cheryl Jenkins, Ram Samudrala, Iain Anderson ...
The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl.. Betschinger J1, Mechtler K, ... We show here that a principal function of this complex is to phosphorylate the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae ( ... The Par protein complex has a conserved function in establishing cell polarity but how it directs proteins to the opposite side ... Lgl; also known as L(2)gl). Phosphorylation by Drosophila atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the Par protein complex ...
News and Events , Meetings , 2014 Stetten Lecture -- The Mechanisms of Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins ... 2014 Stetten Lecture -- The Mechanisms of Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins Location: Masur Auditorium Clinical Center (Building 10) ... microtubule regulatory proteins and the T-cell receptor, as well as in how collections of protein machines interact to generate ... At the smallest scale, Vale and his colleagues seek to understand the functioning of protein machines, with a particular focus ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P08729. F6SKV2. U3E7V9. UPI000809A80F. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P08729. F6SKV2. UPI000809A80F. U3E7V9. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226. IF_ROD_1. 1 hit. PS51842. IF_ ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in SMART. SM01391 Filament, 1 hit. PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226 IF_ROD_1, 1 hit. PS51842 IF_ROD_2 ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226 IF_ROD_1, 1 hit. PS51842 IF_ ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
... pylori attachment to gastric cells induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins. E D ... Immunoblot analysis showed that binding of H. pylori to AGS cells induced tyrosine phosphorylation of two host cell proteins of ... H. pylori attachment resulted in (i) effacement of microvilli at the site of attachment, (ii) cytoskeletal rearrangement ... pylori attachment to gastric cells induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins ...
We present a framework for quantification of cytoskeletal protein localization from high-content microscopic images. Analyses ... We present a framework for quantification of cytoskeletal protein localization from high-content microscopic images. Analyses ... The knowledge of subcellular localization of proteins is crucial for understanding how proteins function within a cell. ... The knowledge of subcellular localization of proteins is crucial for understanding how proteins function within a cell. ...
What is Cytoskeletal proteins? Meaning of Cytoskeletal proteins medical term. What does Cytoskeletal proteins mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cytoskeletal proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Cytoskeletal proteins explanation free. ... Cytoskeletal proteins , definition of Cytoskeletal proteins by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ... redirected from Cytoskeletal proteins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. cytoskeleton. [si″to-skel´ĕ-ton] a ...
... Mol Microbiol. 2008 Nov;70(4):1037- ... Furthermore, the IF-like protein FilP formed cytoskeletal structures in the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor and was ... protein architecture is a versatile design that is generally present in bacteria and utilized to perform diverse cytoskeletal ... First, we show that 21 genomes of 26 phylogenetically diverse species encoded uncharacterized proteins with a central segmented ...
We further show that KRT8 protein binds to annexin A2, a protein known to mediate apoptosis as well as the redox pathway. ... have been suggested to have a role in cell biology beyond that of structural cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we provide evidence ... Carcinomas arising from diverse tissues exhibit KRT8 mRNA and protein overexpression when compared to normal tissue levels. ... Elevated keratin-8 (KRT8) protein expression is an established diagnostic cancer biomarker in several epithelial cancers (but ...
Probes for Tubulin and Other Cytoskeletal Proteins-Section 11.2. *Fluorescent Tubulin and Other Fluorescent Cytoskeletal ...
Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ... Actin and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletal Cues Direct Polarized Targeting of Proteins in Neurons ...
Downregulation of Cytoskeletal Muscle LIM Protein by Nitric Oxide. Impact on Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy. Jörg Heineke, Tibor ... Downregulation of Cytoskeletal Muscle LIM Protein by Nitric Oxide. Impact on Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy ... Downregulation of Cytoskeletal Muscle LIM Protein by Nitric Oxide. Impact on Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy ... Downregulation of Cytoskeletal Muscle LIM Protein by Nitric Oxide. Impact on Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy ...
Bni1p implicated in cytoskeletal control is a putative target of Rho1p small GTP binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. ... Using the two-hybrid screening system, we cloned a gene encoding a protein which interacted with the GTP-bound form of Rho1p. ... We have recently shown that Pkc1p, a yeast homolog of mammalian protein kinase C, and glucan synthase are targets of Rho1p. ... The RHO1 gene encodes a homolog of mammalian RhoA small GTP binding protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rho1p is ...
We have constructed fusion proteins consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with either the entire cross-linking protein ... Actin binding domains direct actin-binding proteins to different cytoskeletal locations. BMC Cell Biology 9: 10. ... The full-length fusion proteins, but not the ABDs complemented the defects of cells lacking both endogenous proteins ... Although these two proteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about what regulates their binding to F-actin ...
The cytoskeletal protein ezrin regulates EC proliferation and angiogenesis via TNF-α-induced transcriptional repression of ... The cytoskeletal protein ezrin regulates EC proliferation and angiogenesis via TNF-α-induced transcriptional repression of ... The cytoskeletal protein ezrin regulates EC proliferation and angiogenesis via TNF-α-induced transcriptional repression of ... Using primary ECs, we show that ezrin, previously considered to act primarily as a cytoskeletal protein and in cytoplasmic ...
SFKs control AChR-cytoskeletal interactions. Unstability of AChR-protein interactions is sufficient to explain the ... In addition, they control rapsyn protein levels and AChR-cytoskeletal linkage.. SFKs hold together the postsynaptic apparatus. ... Mohamed AS, Swope SL (1999) Phosphorylation and cytoskeletal anchoring of the acetylcholine receptor by Src class protein- ... Src-Family Kinases Stabilize the Neuromuscular Synapse In Vivo via Protein Interactions, Phosphorylation, and Cytoskeletal ...
... ... "Cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development and disease: actin associated proteins in periventricular heterotopia." Frontiers ... Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. ... The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of ...
ced-12 encodes a protein with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an SH3 binding … ... The C. elegans PH domain protein CED-12 regulates cytoskeletal reorganization via a Rho/Rac GTPase signaling pathway Dev Cell. ... ced-12 encodes a protein with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an SH3 binding motif, both of which are important for ced- ... We propose that through interactions with membranes and with a CED-2/CED-5 protein complex, CED-12 regulates Rho/Rac GTPase ...
... adhesion proteins, adaptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and chaperones) are comparably phosphorylated in response to growth factors ... Because phosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones mediate cell motility and apoptotic resistance, respectively, these ... Conclusions: Identification of cytoskeletal and stress proteins as the most abundant tyrosine phosphoproteins in breast tumors ... Selective Tyrosine Hyperphosphorylation of Cytoskeletal and Stress Proteins in Primary Human Breast Cancers. Implications for ...
Protein (His tag). Species: Rat. Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1473812. ... Palladin, Cytoskeletal Associated Protein (PALLD) (AA 1-603) protein (His tag) Protein PALLD Origin: Rat Source: Yeast ... Palladin, Cytoskeletal Associated Protein (PALLD) (AA 1137-1383) protein (T7 tag,His tag) Protein ... Palladin, Cytoskeletal Associated Protein (PALLD) (AA 1-1383) protein (His tag) Protein ...
... Malmqvist, Ulf LU ; Arner, Anders ... The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to ... The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to ... Contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in smooth muscle during hypertrophy and its reversal}, volume = {260}, year = {1991}, } ...
We conclude that CR+ interneurons appear to be more resistant than NF+ neurons to AD-mediated cytoskeletal pathology. ... Neurofilament triplet proteins belong to the type IV intermediate filament protein family, and, in the neocortex of many ... Neurites containing the neurofilament-triplet proteins are selectively vulnerable to cytoskeletal pathology in Alzheimers ... Neurites containing the neurofilament-triplet proteins are selectively vulnerable to cytoskeletal pathology in Alzheimers ...
Paxillin suppresses the proliferation of HPS rat serum treated PASMCs by up-regulating the expression of cytoskeletal proteins ... Paxillin suppresses the proliferation of HPS rat serum treated PASMCs by up-regulating the expression of cytoskeletal proteins ... Little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression or the molecular mechanisms of PVR associated with HPS. ... After silencing paxillin with siRNA, we found that the down-regulation of cytoskeletal protein expression, induced by the HPS ...
EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells.. A. M. Clore, J. M. ... EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells. ... EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells. ... EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells. ...
Cotranslational assembly of some cytoskeletal proteins: implications and prospects Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Taken together, these findings present evidence of various cytoskeletal proteins - especially in the spectrin superfamily - as ... The importance of the cytoskeletal network to spectrin function was also demonstrated in mutant, 4.1R-null red blood cells, ... Substrate stiffness sets the load on these spontaneously contracting cells, and differences in load lead to cytoskeletal ... Changes in tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins within the actin cytoskeletal network are a likely way cells read ...
  • Tubulins, the protein constituents of the microtubule cytoskeleton, are present in all known eukaryotes but have never been found in the Bacteria or Archaea. (
  • Phosphorylation by Drosophila atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the Par protein complex, releases Lgl from its association with membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Analyses of high content images of cells transfected by cytoskeleton genes involve individual cell segmentation, intensity transformation of subcellular compartments, protein segmentation based on correlation coefficients, and colocalization quantification of proteins in subcellular components. (
  • Delivery of proteins to axons or dendrites depends on interactions between molecular motors and the cytoskeleton. (
  • The data also support the hypothesis that the cytoskeleton plays a role in storage protein deposition. (
  • The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is comprised of a complex network of distinct but interconnected filament systems that function in cell division, cell motility, and subcellular trafficking of proteins and organelles. (
  • We previously discovered a family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that includes GAS11 , a candidate human tumor suppressor upregulated in growth-arrested cells, and trypanin, a component of the flagellar cytoskeleton of African trypanosomes. (
  • Although these proteins are intimately associated with the cytoskeleton, their function has yet to be determined. (
  • Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that trypanin is located along the flagellum/flagellum attachment zone and electron microscopic analysis revealed that cytoskeletal connections between the flagellar apparatus and subpellicular cytoskeleton are destabilized in trypanin(−) mutants. (
  • A better understanding of these cytoskeletal linker proteins therefore represents a key to understanding cytoskeleton organization and function ( Klymkowsky, 1999 ). (
  • These single-celled eukaryotes possess a canonical (9 + 2) microtubule-based flagellum and a unique subpellicular cytoskeleton that is comprised of a parallel array of interconnected microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins ( Gull, 1999 ). (
  • The giardins are a family of approximately 30000 Mr structural proteins found in microribbons attached to microtubules in the disc cytoskeleton of Giardia. (
  • Two [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins (actin and filamin) were identified as elements of the cytoskeleton involved in endocytosis, both of which were down-regulated in CP-r cell lines. (
  • Tyrosine kinase activity and similar phosphotyrosine-containing proteins are associated with the Triton cytoskeleton. (
  • Because of the dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton in the cell, GFP has naturally been a vital part of the studies of the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. (
  • This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein that is required for organizing the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • We therefore identify TBCCD1 as an essential protein associated with at least two filament-based structures in the trypanosome cytoskeleton. (
  • The 4.1 proteins are part of the spectrin-associated cytoskeleton, promote mechanical stability of plasma membranes and are required for cell surface expression of several ion transporters. (
  • The true disabled download the cytoskeleton part a cytoskeletal proteins isolation and characterization 1982 finds the neural, plain septicemia with a effeminate Art cord as a place mania. (
  • We determined the identity of 111 differentially expressed proteins, 32 (29%) of which are known to be cytoskeleton-related. (
  • Forces are transmitted by the cytoskeleton, a dynamic scaffold of protein filaments throughout the cytoplasm connected to the plasma membrane. (
  • Cytoskeletal protein required for organization of normal actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Techniques for localizing structural proteins in situ at high resolution in Dictyostelium, where cell behavior and morphogenetic stage can be defined with precision, are extremely valuable in defining the role of the cytoskeleton in signal transduction and morphogenetic cell movements. (
  • We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II,reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. (
  • The 'Pombe Cdc15 homology' (PCH) family of adaptor proteins has recently been shown to coordinate the membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics involved in these processes by curving membranes, recruiting dynamin and controlling the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • These type of organelles are collectively known as the cytoskeleton, and one of the most ancient systems is based on filamentous polymers of the protein actin. (
  • Cell motility, adhesion, and cytokinesis, and other functions of the cell cortex are mediated by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and recent evidence suggests a role for formin homology (FH) proteins in these processes. (
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (
  • The RVS167 gene product displays significant homology with the Rvs161 protein and contains a SH3 domain at the C-terminal end. (
  • The gene RVS167 therefore could be implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization in response to environmental stresses and could act in the budding site selection mechanism. (
  • Gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human adipose tissue. (
  • Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. (
  • Mouse models have been a very valuable tool in characterizing cellular gene activation and protein-expression profiles as well as elucidating the signaling pathways involved. (
  • During the past eight years since the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was first used as a marker for the exogenous gene expression, it has been an especially booming era for live cell observations of intracellular movement of many proteins. (
  • Along this line of thinking, we used SERT KO rats (SERT(+/-) and SERT(-/-)) to investigate abnormalities in the expression and function of the activity-regulated gene Arc (Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein) and the early inducible gene Zif-268, (zinc finger binding protein clone 268), which are important players in neuronal plasticity. (
  • Using an innovative exome sequencing strategy, a team of international scientists led by John Landers, PhD, professor of neurology, has shown that TUBA4A , the gene encoding the Tubulin Alpha 4A protein, is associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurological disorder also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (
  • In 20th Cytoskeletal and Extracellular's Independent on Sunday, UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, who a number very decided also homologous of the 0,000 of GE rates that he developed been Backcrossing a GE area himself, often saw his gene and here leads GE may clipboardCite both Physical delivery and protection( 28). (
  • Cytoskeletal protein filamin A is a nucleolar protein that suppresses ribosomal RNA gene transcription. (
  • In direct contrast of the 'one gene, one polypeptide' rule, we now know from a combination of genomic sequencing, such as the Human Genome Project and EST data of expressed proteins that many eukaryotes produce a range of proteins from a single gene. (
  • From a mechanistic point of view, it is much easier for an organism to expand on a current gene/protein family (creating protein isoforms) than it is to create an entirely new gene. (
  • Disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAAM1 gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains FH domains and belongs to a novel FH protein subfamily implicated in cell polarity. (
  • Activation requires Dvl-Rho complex formation, an assembly mediated by this gene product, which is thought to function as a scaffolding protein. (
  • These observations suggest that TNF-α regulates angiogenesis via Rho kinase induction of a transcriptional repressor function of the cytoskeletal protein ezrin and that ezrin may represent a suitable therapeutic target for processes dependent on EC proliferation. (
  • Identification of cytoskeletal and stress proteins as the most abundant tyrosine phosphoproteins in breast tumors implicates these molecules, rather than promitogenic effectors, as the prime stoichiometric substrates for kinase-inhibitory anticancer drugs in vivo . (
  • Because phosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones mediate cell motility and apoptotic resistance, respectively, these data raise the intriguing possibility that small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be of greatest value either as adjuvant antimetastatic/-invasive drugs or as chemo-/radiosensitizers. (
  • This latter observation is of concern given that the ErbB3 protein, a constitutively kinase-inactive (23) and down-regulation-deficient molecule (24) , functions in vitro as a promitogenic oncoprotein (25) via its affinity for dimerizing with heterologous ligand-activated receptors. (
  • Several likely protein candidates involved in this signaling cascade have been identified, including proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), which may phosphorylate the Kv1.2 channel protein and protein kinase C (PKC) family members, which may phosphorylate PYK2. (
  • Okadaic acid was effectively antagonized by the general protein kinase inhibitors K-252a and KT-5926, the calmodulin antagonist W-7, and by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). (
  • Here, we demonstrate that the enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) are in a transient complex at M phase with the mitotic kinase Aurora B and protein phosphatase 1. (
  • SSeCKS is a major protein kinase C substrate which has tumour suppressor activity in models of src- and ras-induced oncogenic transformation. (
  • Interleukin-17F-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability via the protein kinase C pathway. (
  • Involvement of the protein kinase C substrate, SSeCKS, in the actin-based stellate morphology of mesangial cells. (
  • Activation of glomerular mesangial cells by hepatocyte growth factor through tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C. (
  • Control of cytoskeletal architecture by the src-suppressed C kinase substrate, SSeCKS. (
  • Protein kinase C promotes cytoskeletal and membrane association of cytosolic oxidase components. (
  • Intestinal crypt stem cells possess high levels of cytoskeletal-associated phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and tyrosine kinase activity relative to differentiated enterocytes. (
  • Growth and differentiation of stem cells is thought to be regulated by growth factors and responding protein tyrosine kinase activities. (
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal structure, membrane trafficking, and G protein-coupled receptor internalization. (
  • Kinase assays with immunocomplexes of heat-treated giant proteins show that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. (
  • The main breast-tumor-specific tyrosine phosphoproteins are cytoskeletal molecules (actin, tubulin, and vimentin) and molecular chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc71, and Grp75). (
  • Investigation of single and combined UV-A (360 nm), (UV-B 320 nm) and blue light (470 nm) stress on porcine lens epithelial cell growth, formation α-tubulin and vimentin cytoskeletal elements (stress fibers) and the distribution of β-integrin as well as pan-cadherin as trans-membrane proteins (cell coupling). (
  • Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is an M phase substrate for both Aurora B and OGT. (
  • Protein is also validated by Western Blot using specific cytoskeletal protein biomarker, Vimentin. (
  • Confluent cultures of arachnoidal cells expressed the intermediate filament protein vimentin. (
  • This was associated with an increased phosphorylation of tau in brain and an impaired dephosphorylation of vimentin demonstrating that both cytoskeletal proteins are in vivo substrates of distinct PP2A holoenzyme complexes. (
  • We propose that through interactions with membranes and with a CED-2/CED-5 protein complex, CED-12 regulates Rho/Rac GTPase signaling and leads to cytoskeletal reorganization by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. (
  • Substrate stiffness sets the load on these spontaneously contracting cells, and differences in load lead to cytoskeletal reorganization with significant effects on cardiogenic development. (
  • Our results suggested that HBx was directly involved, via the SH3 binding domain, in the cytoskeletal reorganization leading to alterations in the cell adhesion process. (
  • To determine the functional significance on HBV replication, structural analysis by Atomic Force Microscopy and fluorescent microscopy was carried out in cells supporting HBV replication and those expressing Rho p21 proteins which are key players in cellular cytoskeletal reorganization. (
  • Since dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization plays key roles both in osteoblast differentiation and in the maintenance of osteoclast polarity during bone resorption, we hypothesized that skeletal physiology would be altered in GIT2 -/- mice. (
  • Our results together assume 1 that a cytoskeletal reorganization induced by a disturbance in the physico-chemical features of sperm plasma membrane, and potentially mediated by ezrin, Cdc 42 and tetraspanin CD9, could have a role in idiopathic asthenozoospermia. (
  • the changes in cytoskeletal proteins play an essential role in the proliferation of PASMCs. (
  • In most cases, these diseases are also associated with changes in cytoskeletal proteins and microtubule stability. (
  • At present, the leading candidate for an evolutionary precursor of tubulin in the bacterial/archaeal domains is the cell division protein, FtsZ. (
  • Although there is strong evidence from their 3D structures that tubulin and FtsZ are homologous proteins ( 5 , 6 ), they share only very low sequence identity, most of which is confined to the GTP-binding region ( 7 ). (
  • The strikingly low sequence identity is difficult to reconcile with the fact that tubulins and FtsZs are among the slowest-evolving proteins known and raises the question of whether any more closely related homologs of tubulin exist in members of the Bacteria or Archaea ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • In this study, we found that HPS rat serum from a common bile duct ligation (CBDL) rat model decreased the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, and destrin) and enhanced the expression levels of paxillin mRNA and protein in PASMCs. (
  • Results: O-GlcNAcylated proteins that changed significantly in the degree of O-GlcNAcylation were identified as cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, α-actinin 4, myosin) and mitochondrial proteins (ATP synthase β, pyruvate carboxylase). (
  • TBCCD1 is an enigmatic member of the tubulin-binding cofactor C (TBCC) family of proteins required for mother-daughter centriole linkage in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and nucleus-centrosome-Golgi linkage in mammalian cells. (
  • TUBA4A encodes for the Tubulin Alpha 4A protein and is found in all human tissue, with its highest levels of expression in the brain. (
  • There were dramatic changes in cytoskeletal protein levels, with actin levels increased and α-/γ-tubulin levels reduced. (
  • In Drosophila neuroblasts, the Par protein complex localizes apically and directs localization of the cell fate determinants Prospero and Numb and the adaptor proteins Miranda and Pon to the basal cell cortex, to ensure their segregation into the basal daughter cell. (
  • The knowledge of subcellular localization of proteins is crucial for understanding how proteins function within a cell. (
  • We present a framework for quantification of cytoskeletal protein localization from high-content microscopic images. (
  • Results: We have constructed fusion proteins consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with either the entire cross-linking protein or its actin-binding domain (ABD) and examined the localization of these fluorescent proteins in living cells under a variety of conditions. (
  • Surprisingly, the localization of the GFP-actin-binding domain fusion proteins precisely reflected that of their respective full length constructs, indicating that the localization of the protein was determined by the actin-binding domain alone. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy showed major differences in topological distribution of these three proteins, though they partially share a common localization at the anterior end of the cell body skeleton. (
  • Ultrastructural localization of erythrocyte cytoskeletal and integral membrane proteins in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. (
  • Little is known about the relevance of cytoskeletal protein expression or the molecular mechanisms of PVR associated with HPS. (
  • This unknown protein in the PYK2 immunoprecipitate was identified as actin based on the apparent molecular weight (43 kDa), and subsequently confirmed by Western blot analysis using an antibody specific for smooth muscle α-actin. (
  • The identification of actin and filamin as [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins and decreased expression and disorganization of several cytoskeletal proteins in CP-r cells provide a molecular and cellular basis for the known defect in endocytosis in these cells. (
  • Yoon, Y , Pitts, K & McNiven, M 2002, ' Studying cytoskeletal dynamics in living cells using green fluorescent protein ', Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part B Molecular Biotechnology , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 241-250. (
  • Promastigote forms of Phytomonas serpens, Leptomonas samueli, and Leishmania tarentolae express cytoskeletal giant proteins with apparent molecular masses of 3,500 kDa (Ps 3500), 2,500 kDa (Ls 2500), and 1,200 kDa (Lt 1200). (
  • A brief discussion was presented of the cytoskeletal proteins including microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. (
  • The internal framework of a eukaryotic cell, composed of protein filaments that provide structural support and drive the movement of the cell and its internal components, typically divided into three categories (microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules) based on the diameter and composition of the filaments. (
  • Although these two proteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about what regulates their binding to F-actin filaments in the cell. (
  • Conclusion: These observations strongly suggest that the regulation of the binding of these proteins to actin filaments is built into the actin-binding domains. (
  • The critical importance of these cytoskeletal linker proteins is evidenced by severe neurological and skin blistering diseases that result from defects in plakins, a family of coiled-coil proteins that physically link intermediate filaments with actin microfilaments and microtubules ( Klymkowsky, 1999 ). (
  • Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules are three major cytoskeletal systems providing cells with stability to maintain proper shape. (
  • Experiments have shown that contraction is accelerated by proteins that crosslink the actin filaments, but systematic and quantitative investigation of contraction is difficult because of the complexity of the system. (
  • [5] Previous research indicated that the active zone of glutamatergic neurons contained a highly regular array of pyramid shaped protein dense material and indicated that these pyramids were connected by filaments. (
  • Recent data shows that the glutamatergic active zone does contain the dense protein material projections but these projections were not in a regular array and contained long filaments projecting about 80 nm into the cytoplasm. (
  • A polymer of a second protein, tropomyosin, is an integral part of most actin filaments in animals. (
  • These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin filaments. (
  • Background: Filamin (FLN) and non-muscle α-actinin are members of a family of F-actin cross-linking proteins that utilize Calponin Homology domains (CH-domain) for actin binding. (
  • ced-12 encodes a protein with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an SH3 binding motif, both of which are important for ced-12 function. (
  • Chitu, V & Stanley, ER 2007, ' Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) proteins: coordinators of membrane-cytoskeletal interactions ', Trends in Cell Biology , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 145-156. (
  • Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. (
  • Recent studies have suggested that AVP signal transduction may involve dynamic protein-protein interactions, ultimately leading to the phosphorylation and inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium channels (Kv1.2). (
  • Following these treatments, protein-protein interactions were examined by immunoprecipitation of PYK2 and by Western blot analysis to identify proteins that become associated with PYK2 during the time course of the treatments. (
  • Additional new evidence of protein-protein interactions was observed in AVP treated A7r5 cells where an unknown protein band was visible on a Ponceau red stain of a Western blot membrane. (
  • Consistent with the idea that such dominant effects are normally balanced by interactions within the full-length molecule, protein interactions of N-terminal fragments expressed in tumour cells can be altered by binding to C-terminal regions of APC commonly lost in tumours. (
  • He is to create those activities above defects and Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The. (
  • The common Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions too does that there have susceptible responsible years considered with the connection of the CaMV element. (
  • All GM crops and flights silencing the CaMV Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, Interactions and Assembly The 2nd should still look used both from same Brassica and from fact herbicides unless and until they can fill Cast to be algebraic. (
  • Here, we review the nature, actions and disease associations of the vertebrate PCH family members, highlighting their fundamental roles in the regulation of processes involving membrane-cytoskeletal interactions. (
  • The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development. (
  • After silencing paxillin with siRNA, we found that the down-regulation of cytoskeletal protein expression, induced by the HPS rat serum, was reversed. (
  • These findings suggest that the up-regulation of cytoskeletal protein expression, induced by the paxillin, may cause the dysregulation of PASMC proliferation as well as play a fundamental role in PVR associated with HPS. (
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of paxillin by siRNA results in the inhibition of the dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins and proliferation of PASMCs, suggesting a potential therapeutic effect on PVR associated with HPS. (
  • These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex. (
  • To study the role of AGs in CSF egress, we have grown cells from human AG tissue in vitro and have characterized their expression of those cytoskeletal and junctional proteins that may function in the regulation of CSF outflow. (
  • In this study, we investigated the organization and expression of these genes and conducted a comparative analysis of the bacterial and eukaryotic protein sequences, focusing on their phylogeny and 3D structures. (
  • Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab , Bcl6 and ZBTB7A , which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. (
  • We find specific isotypes of spectrin and protein 4.1 genes are differentially compartmentalised in cardiomyocytes at the plasma membrane, intercalated discs and nuclei as well as within the contractile machinery of the muscle sarcomere. (
  • We have postulated that the spectrin network provides the basis for an „accumulation machine" [1], able to select and draw protein binding partners together locally into a functional unit, the location a- and b-spectrin isoforms probably being governed by the differentially spliced C-termini of the b-spectrin genes. (
  • Exome sequencing, in contrast to whole genome sequencing, relies on sequencing only the protein-coding genes in a genome and has been an effective and cost-efficient strategy for identifying disease-causing genetic mutations. (
  • TUBA4A is one of several cytoskeletal genes that are associated with ALS. (
  • This plays a crucial role in the functionality of higher eukaryotes, with humans expressing more than 5 times as many different proteins (isoforms) through alternative splicing than they have genes. (
  • Preparation of Enriched Plasma Membrane Proteins and Whole Cell Lysates. (
  • Crucial to a cell's ability to migrate is the organization of its plasma membrane and associated proteins in a polarized manner to interact with and respond to its surrounding environment. (
  • Our laboratory isolated a heavy detergent resistant membrane fraction from neutrophils, called DRM-H, that contains at least 23 plasma membrane proteins. (
  • To assess the physicochemical characteristics of sperm plasma membrane and to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of transmembrane and cytoskeletal proteins in spermatozoa isolated from normospermic fertile donors and asthenozoospermic infertile patients. (
  • Schild, A , Ittner, LM & Götz, J 2006, ' Altered phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in mutant protein phosphatase 2A transgenic mice ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 343, no. 4, pp. 1171-1178. (
  • Ls 2500, and it 1200 are in vivo phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, whereas, in vitro phosphorylation of cytoskeletal fractions reveal that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. (
  • In this study we tested in vitro the hypothesis that paxillin, a key cytoskeletal adaptor protein, regulates UM metastasis to the liver by upregulation of the alpha-4 (α4) subunit in VLA-4 regulating UM proliferation, migration and invasion. (
  • Elevated keratin-8 (KRT8) protein expression is an established diagnostic cancer biomarker in several epithelial cancers (but not ATC). (
  • We demonstrated that these cells in vitro continue to express some of the cytoskeletal and junctional proteins characterized previously in human AG tissue, such as proteins involved in the formation of gap junctions, desmosomes, epithelial specific adherens junctions, as well as tight junctions. (
  • To generate different cell types, some cells can segregate protein determinants into one of their two daughter cells during mitosis. (
  • Vale is also interested in the mechanisms of action of other proteins, including the microtubule nucleating factor augmin, microtubule regulatory proteins and the T-cell receptor, as well as in how collections of protein machines interact to generate complex behavior in living cells. (
  • Immunoblot analysis showed that binding of H. pylori to AGS cells induced tyrosine phosphorylation of two host cell proteins of 145 and 105 kDa. (
  • The full-length fusion proteins, but not the ABD's complemented the defects of cells lacking both endogenous proteins indicating that they are functional. (
  • The overall cytoskeletal link of AChRs was weak but still strengthened by agrin in mutant cells, consistent with the normal formation but decreased stability of AChR clusters. (
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (
  • EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells. (
  • In older interphase cells actively forming starch grains and protein bodies, the protein bodies are enmeshed in EF-1[alpha] and actin and are found juxtaposed with a multidirectional array of microtubules. (
  • We observed that in young cells before the accumulation of starch and storage protein, EF-1[alpha], actin, and microtubules are found mainly in the cell cortex or in association with nuclei. (
  • Changes in tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins within the actin cytoskeletal network are a likely way cells read mechanical signals from their environment. (
  • The importance of the cytoskeletal network to spectrin function was also demonstrated in mutant, 4.1R-null red blood cells, where the intrinsic properties of spectrin remain intact but the network integrity is compromised by absence of 4.1R. Loss of network integrity was evident in a decrease in spectrin unfolding under stress. (
  • RSV-induced changes of nuclear proteins of A549 cells by 2-D DIGE. (
  • Depleting APC from cultured cells leads to changes in cytoskeletal organization. (
  • Cisplatin resistant (CP-r) cells often show decreased uptake of cisplatin in association with reduced cell surface proteins and decreased endocytosis. (
  • Transfection of a wild-type actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression vector into 7404-CP20 cells resulted in a nonfilamentous actin-EGFP distribution compared with a normal distribution in the cisplatin-sensitive BEL-7404 cells, suggesting that cytoskeletal organization is disturbed in the CP-r cells. (
  • Comparing mitotic stem cells from the adult intestinal epithelium, isolated from the crypts of Lieberkuhn, with isolated differentiated absorbtive cells we find major differences in the levels of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. (
  • Using 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis, we identified differences in proteome expression profiles in cells transfected with constructs expressing distinct genotypes of the smallest HBV protein, HBx, which has been linked to oncogenic development. (
  • Solid-phase binding assays indicated that synemin can bind to desmin and to [alpha]-actinin;These results, taken in toto, indicate that synemin (or a homolog) exists in mammalian muscles, that synemin copolymerizes with, or binds along the length of, desmin IFs, and suggest that synemin may serve as a cytoskeletal crosslinking component between IFs and myofibrils in muscle cells. (
  • To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice, and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. (
  • Arachnoidal cells were tested using immunocytochemical methods for the expression of several common cytoskeletal and junctional proteins. (
  • These junctional proteins in particular may be important in allowing these arachnoidal cells to regulate CSF outflow. (
  • We have investigated supposed maturational arrest of muscle in centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) by characterizing the expression of dystrophin, other cytoskeletal proteins, and fetal myosin in the muscle fibers of 9 CNM patients (4 sporadic, 3 familial, 2 adult sporadic). (
  • Neurobehavioral deficits in mice lacking the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4. (
  • The function of APC in cytoskeletal organization is related to its effect on microtubules and F-actin. (
  • At the smallest scale, Vale and his colleagues seek to understand the functioning of protein machines, with a particular focus on motor proteins. (
  • More recently, Vale has shifted his attention to understanding the mechanisms by which motor proteins in the dynein family power the beating of cilia and flagella, transport intracellular cargoes and help to construct the mitotic spindle. (
  • Cellular Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins: A Biochemical Society/Wellcome Trust Focused Meeting held at Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, U.K., 30 March-1 April 2011. (
  • Levels of anterograde transport motor proteins (KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2A, and KIF3A) were decreased in the striatum, whereas retrograde motor proteins (dynein, dynamitin, and dynactin1) were increased. (
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • In addition, it has been identified that paxillin could influence the cytoskeletal protein expression by some important signaling pathways in many diseases, including lung cancer and liver cancer. (
  • Here we use double-stranded RNA interference to block trypanin expression in Trypanosoma brucei , and demonstrate that this protein is required for directional cell motility. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis allowed us to measure the effects of paxillin inhibition on cell surface protein expression, actin polymerization and cellular proliferation. (
  • We performed the scratch-wound assay to investigate cellular migration and Western blot analyses for protein expression and phosphorylation of paxillin. (
  • A specific pattern of expression of sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric proteins in the myocardium is thought to be essential for normal myocardial function. (
  • Western blotting and immunoprobing were used to quantitate changes in the expression of sarcomeric and cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Expression of trans-membrane proteins is less prominently affected by UV-B. Blue light alone has little effect on the parameters investigated. (
  • Decreased expression of these two proteins was found in two different human CP-r cell lines (KB-CP20 and 7404-CP20), in comparison with their parental cell lines (KB-3-1 and BEL-7404), respectively. (
  • We demonstrate the cell-free expression of the actin-like protein MreB and observed its preference to localize and aggregate at the membrane interface of a water-in-oil-in-water droplet as happens in vivo. (
  • Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. (
  • We are investigating the expression and function of cytoskeletal protein homologues of the red blood cell membrane-associated skeleton, which we have found occur in heart, an organ in which all cell membranes require mechanisms that provide them with resilience against the forces of continuous beating. (
  • Altered expression and modulation of activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) in serotonin transporter knockout rats. (
  • It is ideal for many downstream applications such as Western blotting, protein assays, enzyme-activity assays, gel electrophoresis, immunoprecipitation, protein-protein interaction analysis, and tissue specific expression identification. (
  • Accordingly, the current study examined changes in hippocampal protein expression following chronic administration of paroxetine in drinking water (target dose = 10 mg/kg for 22 days) to adult and adolescent rats. (
  • Results indicated age-specific changes in protein expression, with paroxetine significantly altering expression of 8 proteins in adolescents only and 10 proteins solely in adults. (
  • Metavinculin deficiency was associated with normal cardiac expression of the cytoskeletal proteins vinculin, α-actinin, and dystrophin. (
  • Cornelio, F. / Fetus-like dystrophin expression and other cytoskeletal protein abnormalities in centronuclear myopathies . (
  • This chapter describes immunocytochemical and actin decoration techniques for use with Dictyostelium amoebae at the electron microscope level of resolution that are useful for investigating the function of actin-binding proteins in vivo during morphogenetic cell movements. (
  • Third, the in vivo interaction of these two proteins was revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. (
  • Hence, a study of arachnoidal cell cultures and their proteins will help in the understanding of CSF dynamics. (
  • Interaction of iodinated vinculin, metavinculin and alpha-actinin with cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Iodinated vinculin, metavinculin and alpha-actinin were used to probe the interaction of these proteins with electrophoretically separated cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Double-immunofluorescence studies revealed that the cytoskeletal components actin, alpha-actinin, and talin are involved in the process. (
  • α-Actinin 4 will be a good marker protein to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy. (
  • actinin, a protein expressed in contractile cytoskeletal assemblies, for example muscle myofibrils. (
  • In the present study, we reported the identification of α-actinin-2, an actin-crosslinking protein, as a potential angiogenin-interacting partner by yeast two-hybrid screening. (
  • Recent work from our laboratory suggests that inhibiting the upregulation of cytoskeletal signaling could offer potential therapeutic targets for metastasis control. (
  • CST offers a diverse catalog of validated antibodies to better understand ECM proteins in support of your fibrosis research. (
  • CaMK-II, or a closely related enzyme, would thus seem to play a role in the control of autophagy as well as in the control of cytoskeletal organization. (
  • Thus mutations in APC lead to the accumulation of β-catenin, which causes changes in differentiation, and they also produce changes in cytoskeletal organization, which results in altered cell migration and disrupted mitotic spindles. (
  • DRM-H also contains proteins implicated in both raft organization and membrane-mediated signaling. (
  • in addition, there is also evidence that Ps 3500 and is 2500, in contrast to it 1200, seem to be autophosphorylating serine and threonine protein kinases, suggesting that they might play regulatory roles in the cytoskeletal organization. (
  • We conclude that CR + interneurons appear to be more resistant than NF + neurons to AD-mediated cytoskeletal pathology. (
  • associated with neurodegeneration and the formation of intraneuronal protein inclusions in surviving neurons. (
  • This thesis investigates the levels and localisation of cytoskeletal proteins in mouse cortical neurons following 26S proteasome dysfunction (Psmc1fl/fl;CaMKIIα-Cre). (
  • We further show that KRT8 protein binds to annexin A2, a protein known to mediate apoptosis as well as the redox pathway. (
  • Binds to proteins that bind to either monomeric or filamentous actin. (
  • Contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in smooth muscle during hypertrophy and its reversal. (
  • The results suggest that the turnover of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins is fast and can be regulated in response to changes in the functional demands in smooth muscle. (
  • We conclude that 4.1 proteins are located in heart at major internal cardiomyocyte scaffold loci, possibly providing counteraction to contractile strain. (
  • abstract = "Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of heterotrimeric enzymes with diverse functions under physiologic and pathologic conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The mitogenic regulatory activity of SSeCKS is likely manifested by its ability to bind key signalling proteins such as protein kinases C and A and calmodulin, and to control actin-based cytoskeletal architecture. (
  • From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster , we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab). (
  • Downregulation of Cytoskeletal Muscle LIM Protein by Nitric Oxide. (
  • In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. (
  • The protein is a component of actin-containing microfilaments, and it is involved in the control of cell shape, adhesion, and contraction. (
  • Metavinculin, a cardiac isoform of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin, connects actin microfilaments to the intercalated disk and membrane costameres of the heart. (
  • A novel adaptor protein orchestrates receptor patterning and cytoskeletal polarity in T-cell contacts. (
  • First, we show that 21 genomes of 26 phylogenetically diverse species encoded uncharacterized proteins with a central segmented coiled coil rod domain, which we regarded as a key structural feature of IF proteins and crescentin. (
  • Several keratins, including KRT8, have been suggested to have a role in cell biology beyond that of structural cytoskeletal proteins. (
  • Weinberger, P.M. Cytokeratin-8 in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: More Than a Simple Structural Cytoskeletal Protein. (
  • Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical, coiled coil protein found in actin-based cytoskeletons. (
  • Taken together, these findings present evidence of various cytoskeletal proteins - especially in the spectrin superfamily - as mediators of mechanical signaling within cell. (
  • The distributions of ankyrin, spectrin, band 3, and glycophorin A were examined in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes by immunoelectron microscopy to determine whether movement of parasite proteins and membrane vesicles between the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and erythrocyte surface membrane involves internalization of host membrane skeleton proteins. (
  • Monospecific rabbit antisera to spectrin, band 3 and ankyrin and a mouse monoclonal antibody to glycophorin A reacted with these erythrocyte proteins in infected and uninfected human erythrocytes by immunoblotting. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Coccoid H. pylori, which are thought to be terminally differentiated bacterial forms, are capable of binding and inducing cellular changes of the same sort as spiral H. pylori, including tyrosine phosphorylation of host proteins. (
  • It also affected cytoskeletal fragmentation and cellular migration. (
  • Furthermore, the IF-like protein FilP formed cytoskeletal structures in the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor and was needed for normal growth and morphogenesis. (
  • A gap in our understanding of this dynamic network is the identification of proteins that connect subsets of cytoskeletal structures. (
  • Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory by Vincent D. Books enter introduced surely for structures but for low of that Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Proteins: Structure, they opened very available to the 35S plant. (
  • A T-lymphoma transmembrane glycoprotein (gp180) is linked to the cytoskeletal protein, fodrin. (
  • The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl. (
  • The Par protein complex has a conserved function in establishing cell polarity but how it directs proteins to the opposite side is unknown. (
  • Cytoskeletal proteins function as dynamic and complex components in many aspects of cell physiology and the maintenance of cell structure. (
  • TNF-α is known to downregulate cyclin A, a key cell cycle regulatory protein, but little else is known about how TNF-α modulates EC cell cycle and angiogenesis. (
  • A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. (
  • These results indicate that trypanin functions as a cytoskeletal linker protein and offer insights into the mechanisms of flagellum-based cell motility. (
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (
  • O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic intracellular protein modification responsive to stress, hormones, nutrients, and cell cycle stage. (
  • The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. (
  • Defects in cytoskeletal proteins can cripple cell strength and may cause cardiomyopathy. (
  • Involved in the control of morphological and cytoskeletal changes associated with dendritic cell maturation. (
  • Desmin was the dominating intermediate filament protein. (
  • The primary purposes of this study were to: (1) examine selected properties of the intermediate filament-associated protein (IFAP), synemin, (2) identify synemin (or a synemin homolog) in adult mammalian muscle, and (3) examine synemin's ability to interact with proteins located at the myofibrillar Z-line. (
  • Proteins within the CAZ tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic membrane and mediate synaptic vesicle fusion , thereby allowing neurotransmitter to be released reliably and rapidly when an action potential arrives. (
  • Alteration of a yeast SH3 protein leads to conditional viability with defects in cytoskeletal and budding patterns. (
  • In this report, two major [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins were identified as filamin and actin by photoaffinity labeling and mass spectrometry. (
  • Using primary ECs, we show that ezrin, previously considered to act primarily as a cytoskeletal protein and in cytoplasmic signaling, is a TNF-α-induced transcriptional repressor. (
  • Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signaling protein associated with major depressive disorder, was also downregulated (-6.5-fold) in adult rats. (
  • Patterns of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins are similar among normal tissues of the same origin but vary markedly between different tissues. (
  • The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular protein homeostasis by degrading unwanted proteins. (
  • However, no particular intracellular protein is known to interact directly with angiogenin. (