Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/3814)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (2/3814)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (3/3814)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (4/3814)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (5/3814)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (6/3814)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (7/3814)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Coupling of coat assembly and vesicle budding to packaging of putative cargo receptors. (8/3814)

COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to their native counterparts with respect to diameter, buoyant density, morphology, and the requirement for an elevated temperature for budding. These results suggest that a bivalent interaction of coatomer with membrane-bound ARF[GTP] and with the cytoplasmic tails of cargo or putative cargo receptors is the molecular basis of COPI coat assembly and provide a simple mechanism to couple uptake of cargo to transport vesicle formation.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic granules are small, membrane-bound organelles or inclusions found within the cytoplasm of cells. They contain various substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and genetic material. Cytoplasmic granules have diverse functions depending on their specific composition and cellular location. Some examples include:

1. Secretory granules: These are found in secretory cells and store hormones, neurotransmitters, or enzymes before they are released by exocytosis.
2. Lysosomes: These are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion of waste materials, foreign substances, and damaged organelles.
3. Melanosomes: Found in melanocytes, these granules produce and store the pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
4. Weibel-Palade bodies: These are found in endothelial cells and store von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, which play roles in hemostasis and inflammation.
5. Peroxisomes: These are single-membrane organelles that contain enzymes for various metabolic processes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances.
6. Lipid bodies (also called lipid droplets): These are cytoplasmic granules that store neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. They play a role in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling.
7. Glycogen granules: These are cytoplasmic inclusions that store glycogen, a polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals.
8. Protein bodies: Found in plants, these granules store excess proteins and help regulate protein homeostasis within the cell.
9. Electron-dense granules: These are found in certain immune cells, such as mast cells and basophils, and release mediators like histamine during an allergic response.
10. Granules of unknown composition or function may also be present in various cell types.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Granzymes are a group of proteases (enzymes that break down other proteins) that are stored in the granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. They play an important role in the immune response by inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in target cells, such as virus-infected or cancer cells. Granzymes are released into the immunological synapse between the effector and target cells, where they can enter the target cell and cleave specific substrates, leading to the activation of caspases and ultimately apoptosis. There are several different types of granzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Annexin A3 is a type of protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Specifically, annexin A3 is involved in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and signal transduction. It has been found to play a role in the regulation of blood clotting, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. Annexin A3 can be found on the surface of various cells, including platelets, neutrophils, and tumor cells. In addition, annexin A3 has been identified as a potential biomarker for certain types of cancer, such as ovarian and prostate cancer.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

'Staining and labeling' are techniques commonly used in pathology, histology, cytology, and molecular biology to highlight or identify specific components or structures within tissues, cells, or molecules. These methods enable researchers and medical professionals to visualize and analyze the distribution, localization, and interaction of biological entities, contributing to a better understanding of diseases, cellular processes, and potential therapeutic targets.

Medical definitions for 'staining' and 'labeling' are as follows:

1. Staining: A process that involves applying dyes or stains to tissues, cells, or molecules to enhance their contrast and reveal specific structures or components. Stains can be categorized into basic stains (which highlight acidic structures) and acidic stains (which highlight basic structures). Common staining techniques include Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), which differentiates cell nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm and extracellular matrix; special stains, such as PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) for carbohydrates or Masson's trichrome for collagen fibers; and immunostains, which use antibodies to target specific proteins.
2. Labeling: A process that involves attaching a detectable marker or tag to a molecule of interest, allowing its identification, quantification, or tracking within a biological system. Labels can be direct, where the marker is directly conjugated to the targeting molecule, or indirect, where an intermediate linker molecule is used to attach the label to the target. Common labeling techniques include fluorescent labels (such as FITC, TRITC, or Alexa Fluor), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase), and radioactive labels (such as ³²P or ¹⁴C). Labeling is often used in conjunction with staining techniques to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of detection.

Together, staining and labeling provide valuable tools for medical research, diagnostics, and therapeutic development, offering insights into cellular and molecular processes that underlie health and disease.

Perforin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to virally infected or cancerous cells. It is primarily produced and released by cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells, two types of white blood cells involved in defending the body against infection and disease.

Perforin functions by creating pores or holes in the membrane of target cells, leading to their lysis or destruction. This process allows for the release of cellular contents and the exposure of intracellular antigens, which can then be processed and presented to other immune cells, thereby enhancing the immune response against the pathogen or abnormal cells.

In summary, perforin is a vital component of the immune system's cytotoxic activity, contributing to the elimination of infected or malignant cells and maintaining overall health and homeostasis in the body.

Pore-forming cytotoxic proteins are a group of toxins that can create pores or holes in the membranes of cells, leading to cell damage or death. These toxins are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, as a defense mechanism or to help establish an infection.

The pore-forming cytotoxic proteins can be divided into two main categories:

1. Membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins: These are found in many organisms, including humans. They form pores by oligomerizing, or clustering together, in the target cell membrane. An example of this type of toxin is the perforin protein, which is released by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells.
2. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs): These are mainly produced by gram-positive bacteria. They bind to cholesterol in the target cell membrane, forming a prepore structure that then undergoes conformational changes to create a pore. An example of a CDC is alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, which can lyse red blood cells and damage various other cell types.

These pore-forming cytotoxic proteins play a significant role in host-pathogen interactions and have implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Basophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are granulocytes, which means they contain granules filled with chemicals that can be released in response to an infection or inflammation. Basophils are relatively rare, making up less than 1% of all white blood cells.

When basophils become activated, they release histamine and other chemical mediators that can contribute to allergic reactions, such as itching, swelling, and redness. They also play a role in inflammation, helping to recruit other immune cells to the site of an infection or injury.

Basophils can be identified under a microscope based on their characteristic staining properties. They are typically smaller than other granulocytes, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and have a multi-lobed nucleus with dark purple-staining granules in the cytoplasm.

While basophils play an important role in the immune response, abnormal levels of basophils can be associated with various medical conditions, such as allergies, infections, and certain types of leukemia.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important role in the body's immune response. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they can travel to different tissues and organs throughout the body. Eosinophils are characterized by their granules, which contain various proteins and enzymes that are toxic to parasites and can contribute to inflammation.

Eosinophils are typically associated with allergic reactions, asthma, and other inflammatory conditions. They can also be involved in the body's response to certain infections, particularly those caused by parasites such as worms. In some cases, elevated levels of eosinophils in the blood or tissues (a condition called eosinophilia) can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as a parasitic infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer.

Eosinophils are named for their staining properties - they readily take up eosin dye, which is why they appear pink or red under the microscope. They make up only about 1-6% of circulating white blood cells in healthy individuals, but their numbers can increase significantly in response to certain triggers.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

Chromaffin granules are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells, which are a type of neuroendocrine cell. These cells are located in the adrenal medulla and some sympathetic ganglia and play a crucial role in the body's stress response.

Chromaffin granules contain a variety of substances, including catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), as well as proteins and other molecules. When the chromaffin cell is stimulated, the granules fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space, where they can bind to receptors on nearby cells and trigger a variety of physiological responses.

The name "chromaffin" comes from the fact that these granules contain enzymes that can react with chromium salts to produce a brown color, which is why they are also sometimes referred to as "black-brown granules."

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Immunologic cytotoxicity refers to the damage or destruction of cells that occurs as a result of an immune response. This process involves the activation of immune cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which release toxic substances, such as perforins and granzymes, that can kill target cells.

In addition, antibodies produced by B cells can also contribute to immunologic cytotoxicity by binding to antigens on the surface of target cells and triggering complement-mediated lysis or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating immune effector cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity plays an important role in the body's defense against viral infections, cancer cells, and other foreign substances. However, it can also contribute to tissue damage and autoimmune diseases if the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells or tissues.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Secretory vesicles are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that store and transport secretory proteins and other molecules to the plasma membrane for exocytosis. Exocytosis is the process by which these molecules are released from the cell, allowing them to perform various functions, such as communication with other cells or participation in biochemical reactions. Secretory vesicles can be found in a variety of cell types, including endocrine cells, exocrine cells, and neurons. The proteins and molecules contained within secretory vesicles are synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where they are processed, modified, and packaged into the vesicles for subsequent release.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

The cerebellum is a part of the brain that lies behind the brainstem and is involved in the regulation of motor movements, balance, and coordination. It contains two hemispheres and a central portion called the vermis. The cerebellum receives input from sensory systems and other areas of the brain and spinal cord and sends output to motor areas of the brain. Damage to the cerebellum can result in problems with movement, balance, and coordination.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Exocytosis is the process by which cells release molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, to the extracellular space. This process involves the transport of these molecules inside vesicles (membrane-bound sacs) to the cell membrane, where they fuse and release their contents to the outside of the cell. It is a crucial mechanism for intercellular communication and the regulation of various physiological processes in the body.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The dentate gyrus is a region of the brain that is located in the hippocampal formation, which is a part of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It is characterized by the presence of densely packed granule cells, which are a type of neuron. The dentate gyrus is involved in the formation of new memories and the integration of information from different brain regions. It is also one of the few areas of the adult brain where new neurons can be generated throughout life, a process known as neurogenesis. Damage to the dentate gyrus has been linked to memory impairments, cognitive decline, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ... This is usually in the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. However, it is flipped to the outer membrane to be used during blood ... and secretory vesicles (including synaptosome, acrosomes, melanosomes, and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological ...
Terry RD, Korey SR (Dec 1960). "Membranous cytoplasmic granules in infantile amaurotic idiocy". Nature. 188 (4755): 1000-2. ...
Gomori-positive cytoplasmic granules are derived from damaged mitochondria engulfed within lysosomes. Cytoplasmic granules ... These are a subset of protoplasmic astrocytes that contain numerous cytoplasmic inclusions, or granules, that stain positively ... Astrocytes of this subtype possess prominent cytoplasmic granules that are intensely stained by Gomori's chrome alum ... It is now known that these granules are formed from the remnants of degenerating mitochondria engulfed within lysosomes, Some ...
Chang WL, Tarn WY (October 2009). "A role for transportin in deposition of TTP to cytoplasmic RNA granules and mRNA decay". ... Iannilli F, Zalfa F, Gartner A, Bagni C, Dotti CG (2013). "Cytoplasmic TERT Associates to RNA Granules in Fully Mature Neurons ... Nover L, Scharf KD, Neumann D (March 1989). "Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are ... Weissbach R, Scadden AD (March 2012). "Tudor-SN and ADAR1 are components of cytoplasmic stress granules". RNA. 18 (3): 462-471 ...
Volutin granules are cytoplasmic inclusions of complexed inorganic polyphosphate. These granules are called metachromatic ... Sulfur is most often stored as elemental (S0) granules which can be deposited either intra- or extracellularly. Sulfur granules ... The plasma membrane or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and thus has all of the general ... Because of its location between the cytoplasmic and outer membranes, signals received and substrates bound are available to be ...
Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula (2017-04-01). "Cytoplasmic stress granules: Dynamic modulators of cell signaling and disease ... G3BP1 can initiate stress granule formation and labeled G3BP1 is commonly used as a marker for stress granules. G3BP1 has been ... 2003). "The RasGAP-associated endoribonuclease G3BP assembles stress granules". J. Cell Biol. 160 (6): 823-31. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... and cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein (p137) individually or as a heterodimer". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (50): ...
These cytoplasmic granules contain positively charged proteins that characterize the cells. ECP is one of the four highly basic ... Eosinophil cationic protein is localized to the granule matrix of the eosinophil. The ribonuclease activity of ECP is not ... Nielsen LP, Peterson CG, Dahl R (2009). "Serum eosinophil granule proteins predict asthma risk in allergic rhinitis". Allergy. ... Parwez Q, Stemmler S, Epplen JT, Hoffjan S (2008). "Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic ...
The asci initials are cytoplasmic containing lipid droplets and glycogen granules. Mature asci develop from the initials by ... Chloroplasts become large and irregular with large starch granules inside of them as well as other internal alterations to the ... Healthy epidermal cells contain a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic layer with endoplasmic reticulum, ... chloroplasts with well-developed grana, starch granules, and osmophilic globules. Other organelles are infrequently present as ...
During aging, FABP7+ astrocytes develop cytoplasmic granules derived from degenerating mitochondria. This mitochondrial ...
Cytoplasmic granules may be pushed to the periphery of the cell. If the cell count is high, cells may be distorted due to ...
Numerous cytoplasmic granules are present in the more mature forms of myelocytes. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic granules are ... The nucleus is fairly regular in contour (not indented), and seems to be 'buried' beneath the numerous cytoplasmic granules. ( ... peroxidase-positive, while basophilic granules are not. The nuclear chromatin is coarser than that observed in a promyelocyte, ...
Specification of germ line P granules were identified as the cytoplasmic determinants. While uniformly present at fertilization ... Localization of cytoplasmic determinants The autonomous specification of C. elegans arises from different cytoplasmic ... these granules become localized in the posterior P1 cell prior to the first division. These granules are further localized ... The cytoplasmic determinant macho-1 was isolated as the necessary and sufficient factor for muscle cell formation. Similar to ...
In the cell, RPTOR is present in cytoplasm, lysosomes, and cytoplasmic granules. Amino acid availability determines RPTOR ... In stressed cells, RPTOR associates with SPAG5 and accumulates in stress granules, which significantly reduces its presence in ... Astrin recruits RPTOR to stress granules, inhibiting mTORC1 association and preventing apoptosis induced by mTORC1 ... "Inhibition of mTORC1 by astrin and stress granules prevents apoptosis in cancer cells". Cell. 154 (4): 859-74. doi:10.1016/j. ...
This pool is likely to be different than that of the cytoplasmic nucleotides. In some animals it has been shown that the ... Dense granules are found only in platelets and are smaller than alpha granules. The origin of these dense granules is still ... Dense granules play a major role in Toxoplasma gondii. When the parasite invades it releases its dense granules which help to ... The dense granule is very important in the coagulation cascade because of the bleeding disorders caused by a dense granule ...
Lin, WJ; Duffy, A; Chen, CY (2007). "Localization of AU-rich element-containing mRNA in cytoplasmic granules containing exosome ... One of those is the cytoplasmic Ski complex, which includes an RNA helicase (Ski2) and is involved in mRNA degradation. In the ... van Dijk, EL; Schilders, G; Pruijn, GJ (2007). "Human cell growth requires a functional cytoplasmic exosome, which is involved ... but can form part of the cytoplasmic exosome complex as well. Apart from these two tightly bound protein subunits, many ...
In stressed cells, Rbfox1 has been demonstrated to localize to cytoplasmic stress granules. Alternative splicing RNA-binding ... Lee JA, Damianov A, Lin CH, Fontes M, Parikshak NN, Anderson ES, Geschwind DH, Black DL, Martin KC (2016). "Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 ... Rbfox1 cytoplasmic variants modulate mRNA stability and translation. ... "ATPase-Modulated Stress Granules Contain a Diverse Proteome and Substructure". Cell. 164 (3): 487-498. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
The isolation and properties of the specific cytoplasmic granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J. Exp. Med. 112:983- ... They isolated granules from the rest of the cell contents, used phase and electron microscopy to visualize them, and determined ... The influence of phagocytosis on the intracellular distribution of granule‑associated components of polymorphonuclear ... and Pinocytosis and Granule Formation in Macrophages (1967). The Journal of Experimental Medicine later noted that Hirsch and ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules which contain serotonin, ADP and thromboxane A2, all of which increase the effect of ... Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ... When platelets come across the injured endothelium cells, they change shape, release granules and ultimately become 'sticky'. ...
The uptake of PAS diastase stain by the tumor's carcinoma cells' cytoplasmic granules can aid in making the diagnosis. PACB is ... 1 and 2). The tumor cells' cytoplasmic granules test positive when treated with the PAS diastase stain. Binucleated cells, i.e ... They have abundant eosinophilic (i.e. pink due to the uptake of the eosin dye) cytoplasm which contain numerous granules and ... the abnormal cytoplasmic, nuclear, and nucleolar features found in PACB (see Fig 4). Unlike PACB, the apocrine carcinoma cells ...
... stain highlights cytoplasmic elements such as mucins, fat droplets and neurosecretory granules. Extracellular ... The primary use of Romanowsky-type stains in cytopathology is for cytoplasmic detail, while Papanicolaou stain is used for ...
"Mammalian Smaug is a translational repressor that forms cytoplasmic foci similar to stress granules". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (52): ...
April 2016). "Pur-alpha regulates cytoplasmic stress granule dynamics and ameliorates FUS toxicity". Acta Neuropathologica. 131 ... "Stress Granules Need Pur-alpha to Come Together". Research ALS.[permanent dead link] Barbe MF, Krueger JJ, Loomis R, Otte J, ... isolation and characterization of an RNA-transporting granule". Neuron. 43 (4): 513-25. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.022. PMID ...
It is also present in cytoplasmic granules of the macrophages and the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Large amounts of ...
"The precrystalline cytoplasmic granules of alveolar soft part sarcoma contain monocarboxylate transporter 1 and CD147". The ...
These proteins all localize to cytoplasmic structures called P-bodies. Notably in yeast there are no translation factors or ... Chantarachot T, Bailey-Serres J (January 2018). "Polysomes, Stress Granules, and Processing Bodies: A Dynamic Triumvirate ... Controlling Cytoplasmic mRNA Fate and Function". Plant Physiology. 176 (1): 254-269. doi:10.1104/pp.17.01468. PMC 5761823. PMID ...
Granules differ between species, with rat uterine natural killer cells displaying an increased number of small granules than ... On microscopic examination, they may have one or more cytoplasmic projections and/or be binucleate. Characteristically they ... These granules usually appear regular (but some can be irregularly shaped), and they grow in size and number until ... uterine natural killer cell morphology also differs from the mouse due to the common occurrence of myelin within the granules. ...
... s contain large cytoplasmic granules which obscure the cell nucleus under the microscope when stained. However, when ... Histamine and proteoglycans are pre-stored in the cell's granules while the other secreted substances are newly generated. Each ... although there are less than that found in mast cell granules. Mast cells were once thought to be basophils that migrated from ...
... which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules.[citation needed] Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are ... Neutrophils have two types of granules; primary (azurophilic) granules (found in young cells) and secondary (specific) granules ... The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied amount of granules; these granules are usually numerous enough to partially ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ...
"Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments". Experimental ... A cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (28): 25233-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202556200. PMID ... Isoform 1 is also implicated with other RBPs in the cytoplasmic de-adenylation and translational and decay interplay of c-Fos ... Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP), also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein ( ...
... called these cytoplasmic granules "corpus chromatoides" (chromatoid bodies). The name CB derives from the fact that this ... These non-membranous structures are called germinal granules, germline granules, or germ granules, or Nuage (meaning "cloud", ... It is composed mainly of RNA and RNA-binding proteins and is thus a type of RNP granule. Chromatoid body-like granules first ... However, due to similarities with RNP granules found in somatic cells - such as stress granules and processing bodies - ...
The cytoplasmic components are assumed to be similar to what other diatoms have. In C. meneghiniana, there are granules ... Shirokawa, Y., Shimada, M. (2016). Cytoplasmic inheritance of parent-offspring cell structure in the clonal diatom Cyclotella ...
Brown lipofuscin granules are also observed (with increasing age) together with irregular unstained areas of cytoplasm; these ... correspond to cytoplasmic glycogen and lipid stores removed during histological preparation. The average life span of the ...
A fraction isolated from the anterior pituitary glands of rats castrate for 8 weeks contained essentially a single cytoplasmic ... Isolation of Cytoplasmic Pituitary Granules with Gonadotropic Activity Marshall W. Hartley, Marshall W. Hartley ... Marshall W. Hartley, W. H. McShan, Hans Ris; Isolation of Cytoplasmic Pituitary Granules with Gonadotropic Activity . J Biophys ... The cytoplasmic material containing the gonadotropic hormone activity passed through the filter paper and this activity was ...
Cytoplasmic inclusions Cytoplasmic inclusions are diverse structures found within the cytoplasm of cells. They are non-living, ... 5) Pigment Granules: Apart from melanin granules, other types of pigment granules can also be found within the cytoplasm of ... Cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoplasmic inclusions are diverse structures found within the cytoplasm of cells. They are non-living ... Overview of Secretory granules. Secretory granules are specialized vesicles found in cells that store and release various ...
Bunyaviral N Proteins Localize at RNA Processing Bodies and Stress Granules: The Enigma of Cytoplasmic Sources of Capped RNA ... Bunyaviral N Proteins Localize at RNA Processing Bodies and Stress Granules: The Enigma of Cytoplasmic Sources of Capped RNA ... Bunyaviral N Proteins Localize at RNA Processing Bodies and Stress Granules : The Enigma of Cytoplasmic Sources of Capped RNA ... Bunyaviral N Proteins Localize at RNA Processing Bodies and Stress Granules: The Enigma of Cytoplasmic Sources of Capped RNA ...
... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ... This is usually in the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. However, it is flipped to the outer membrane to be used during blood ... and secretory vesicles (including synaptosome, acrosomes, melanosomes, and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological ...
Eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils, on the other hand, all have visible cytoplasmic granules. These granules contain ... Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that lack visible cytoplasmic granules. ...
Myelodysplastic syndrome with single lineage dysplasia (MDS-SLD). Neutrophil with abnormal cytoplasmic granules. View Media ... Myelodysplastic syndrome with single lineage dysplasia (MDS-SLD). Neutrophil with abnormal cytoplasmic granules. ... Myelodysplastic syndrome with single lineage dysplasia (MDS-SLD). Erythroid dysplasia: cytoplasmic vacuolization. View Media ... In addition to nuclear and cytoplasmic atypia, the erythroid series may show megaloblastoid features (ie, dyssynchronous ...
Formation of cytoplasmic RNA-protein structures called stress granules (SGs) is a highly conserved cellular response to stress ... ALS-linked cytoplasmic FUS assemblies are compositionally different from physiological stress granules and sequester hnRNPA3, a ... Mutant FUS variants have high affinity to SGs and also spontaneously form de novo cytoplasmic RNA granules. Mutant FUS- ... ALS-linked cytoplasmic FUS assemblies are compositionally different from physiological stress granules and sequester hnRNPA3, a ...
Cytoplasmic Granules / physiology * Exocytosis* * Fluorescent Dyes * Green Fluorescent Proteins * HeLa Cells * Hippocampus / ...
located_in cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ...
Cytoplasmic Granules. *-Fats and Lipids. *-Hematologic and Nuclear Elements. *-Nerve Cells and Fibers ...
Cells with Cytoplasmic Granules: The most important type among cells with cytoplasmic granules is the mast cell, given that ... These tyrosine granules are very small, low in number, and can be difficult to see. Larger black granules are associated with ... Eosinophils have segmented nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. They vary slightly between species and are generally ... cytoplasmic content such as melanin, metachromatic granules, fat, etc. Classification of the cell type and likely behavior may ...
cytoplasmic stress granule. ISO. J:155856. Cellular Component. GO:0030425. dendrite. ISO. J:155856. Cellular Component. GO: ...
... wrinkled nucleus surrounded by a clear cytoplasmic halo. ...
Cytoplasmic granule. Cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils.. * Target information above from: UniProt accession P20160. The ... This is a neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte- and fibroblast-specific chemotactic glycoprotein. Binds ...
Categories: Cytoplasmic Granules Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Cellular stress induces cytoplasmic RNA granules in fission yeast.. Nilsson D, Sunnerhagen P.. RNA. 2011 Jan;17(1):120-33. ... Anomalous subdiffusion is a measure for cytoplasmic crowding in living cells. Weiss M, Elsner M, Kartberg F, Nilsson T. ... Trillo-Muyo, S., Nilsson, H. E., Recktenwald, C. V., Ermund, A., Ridley, C., Meiss, L. N., . . . Hansson, G. C. (2018). Granule ... tubulin and the proteasome in the cytoplasmic droplet/Hermes body of epididymal sperm.. Au CE, Hermo L, Byrne E, Smirle J, ...
Small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.. Rough endoplasmic reticulum ( ...
... localizes to cytoplasmic stress granule; subunit of eukaryotic 43S and 48S pre-initiation complex. View computational ... involved in formation of cytoplasmic translation initiation complex (IMP, IGI) * involved in formation of translation ... Double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in formation of cytoplasmic translation initiation, translation pre-initiation and ...
Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process that delivers cytoplasmic materials to the lysosome for degradation. ... Fedorko M . Effect of chloroquine on morphology of cytoplasmic granules in maturing human leukocytes-an ultrastructural study. ... On the other hand, the Atg16L1 hypomorph mice exhibited aberrant granule formation in Paneth cells, which play an important ... Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process that delivers cytoplasmic materials to the lysosome for degradation. ...
Perforin is a 70 kD cytolytic protein that is expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and ... CTL, NK (cytoplasmic granules). Function Mediates targeted cell lysis Cell Type NK cells, T cells Biology Area Cell Biology, ... Perforin is a 70 kD cytolytic protein that is expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and ... Purified granules from the human lymphoma cell line Formulation Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium ...
GO:0031234 extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. GO:0035579 specific granule membrane. GO:0042995 cell ... R-HSA-6799350 Exocytosis of specific granule membrane proteins. R-HSA-6798747 Exocytosis of tertiary granule membrane proteins ... GO:0070821 tertiary granule membrane. GO:1990031 pinceau fiber. GO:0005874 microtubule. ...
These granules are physically associated with stabilized microtubules and are spatially segregated from eIF4E-enriched granules ... These granules are physically associated with stabilized microtubules and are spatially segregated from eIF4E-enriched granules ... Here we report a class of mRNA granules in human neuronal processes that are enriched in the nuclear cap-binding protein ... Here we report a class of mRNA granules in human neuronal processes that are enriched in the nuclear cap-binding protein ...
Neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus have unique cytoplasmic processes that promote privileged access to circulating factors ... a major shaft extending through the adjacent granule cell layer (GCL) and terminating in a dense network of fine cytoplasmic ... GC-granule cells. (d and e) TEM images of the inner molecular layer (apical side) showing two representative examples of a ... R-RGL; GC-granule cell; E-endothelial cell, RBC-red blood cell; L-blood vessel lumen; P-pericyte. ...
... and cytoplasmic stress granule. View computational annotations. Molecular Function. Manually Curated. * enables DNA replication ...
... a poorly differentiated mesenchymal tumor with a multifocal giant cell component and evidence of neurosecretory-granules. ... b) The granules resemble neurosecretory granules, diameter approx. 200 nm (not typical "dense core" granules), orig. mag. × ... The cells displayed some short RER profiles, few mitochondria, dispersed cytoplasmic filaments of intermediate type; in some of ... In terms of ultrastructural features, neurosecretory granules were found similar to a neuroendocrine tumor [9, 29-31]. However ...
... apple-green fluorescent cytoplasmic granules). ...
2002) Trapping of messenger RNA by Fragile X Mental Retardation protein into cytoplasmic granules induces translation ... 2007) The fragile X mental retardation protein-RNP granules show an mGluR-dependent localization in the post-synaptic spines. ... 2009) Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein regulates neurotrophin-3-dependent beta-catenin mRNA translation in ... 2005) The fragile X mental retardation protein and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors regulate levels of mRNA granules in ...
Nuclear vs cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43 staining were measured as follows. For nuclear TDP-43 levels, the region of interest ... TDP-43 is directed to stress granules by sorbitol, a novel physiological osmotic and oxidative stressor. Mol Cell Biol 31, 1098 ... First, in patients, cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions occur concomitantly with depletion of TDP-43 protein from the nucleus8. ... A few of these mutations have been shown to impair the trafficking of TDP-43-containing RNP granules in axons41. In addition, ...
Mast cell cytoplasmic granules. * Enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL). * H2 receptor antagonists competitively inhibit histamine ...
NK cells contain preformed cytoplasmic granules that resemble secretory lysosomes and contain perforin and granzymes (18). ... The granule membrane then fuses with the plasma membrane, externalizes, and releases the cytotoxic granule contents, triggering ... Rapid lytic granule convergence to the MTOC in natural killer cells is dependent on dynein but not cytolytic commitment. Mol ... Lytic granules, secretory lysosomes and disease. Curr Opin Immunol (2003) 15:516-21. doi:10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00113-4 ...
  • The neutrophil azurophil granule constituent proteinase 3 (PR3) is the principal antigen for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in Wegener's granulomatosis. (
  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have become important diagnostic markers of small vessel vasculitides characterized by focal necrotizing lesions of vessel walls and accumulation of lymphocytes an. (
  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies against various lysosomal enzymes (2). (
  • A novel class of autoantigens of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis: the lysosomal membrane glycoprotein h-lamp-2 in neutrophil granulocytes and a related membrane protein in glomerular endothelial cells. (
  • For instance, defects in insulin granule exocytosis contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. (
  • There is a growing body of evidence that T cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic a. (
  • Cytoplasmic inclusions are diverse structures found within the cytoplasm of cells. (
  • Within the cytoplasm, glycogen is stored in the form of glycogen granules or particles. (
  • Apart from melanin granules, other types of pigment granules can also be found within the cytoplasm of cells. (
  • In summary, cytoplasmic inclusions encompass a wide range of structures with diverse compositions and functions within the cytoplasm of cells. (
  • Inset-Higher-magnification image of neoplastic myelocytes with abundant cytoplasm filled with eosinophilic granules. (
  • The tumor cells were arranged in focal acinar or follicular pattern with a round-to-oval nucleus, moderate anisonucleosis, fine nuclear chromatin, and moderate-to-abundant fragile cytoplasm with the focal presence of fine granules. (
  • Once formed, these granules are transported to the cell periphery where they await signals for exocytosis, the process by which their contents are released into the extracellular space or targeted intracellular compartments. (
  • Clearance of small intestinal crypts involves goblet cell mucus secretion by intracellular granule rupture and enterocyte ion transport. (
  • Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process that delivers cytoplasmic materials to the lysosome for degradation. (
  • We provide evidence that continued expression of Hnf6 impairs GSIS by altering insulin granule biosynthesis, resulting in a reduced response to secretagogues. (
  • During viral infections, certain viruses can induce the formation of distinct cytoplasmic inclusions within infected cells. (
  • Figures 353 (upper) and 354 (lower) from Chapter 15 (Cytoplasmic Inclusions) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Glycogen deposits tend to accumulate in dense regions, such as shown in thes. (
  • Secretory granules are specialized vesicles found in cells that store and release various substances, such as hormones, enzymes, or neurotransmitters. (
  • Secretory granules are essential for the storage and regulated release of bioactive molecules within cells. (
  • The formation of secretory granules involves a complex process of protein sorting, packaging, and maturation within the Golgi apparatus and other cellular compartments. (
  • The content of secretory granules varies depending on the cell type. (
  • For example, in endocrine cells, secretory granules store and release peptide hormones such as insulin or glucagon. (
  • The regulated release of these bioactive molecules from secretory granules is critical for maintaining homeostasis and coordinating physiological responses. (
  • When linked to a vesicle membrane protein, pHluorins were sorted to secretory and synaptic vesicles and reported transmission at individual synaptic boutons, as well as secretion and fusion pore 'flicker' of single secretory granules. (
  • This is a neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte- and fibroblast-specific chemotactic glycoprotein. (
  • Trilobed neutrophil contains large, well-defined, basophilic, peripherally placed cytoplasmic inclusion body (resembling Döhle body). (
  • It is established that ANCA are specific for soluble enzymes of granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) or protease 3 (PR3). (
  • Staining by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) shows two main staining patterns: cytoplasmic (c-ANCA) and perinuclear (p-ANCA) (2,3). (
  • Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) is frequently associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA). (
  • Kinetics of fusion of the cytoplasmic granules with phagocytic vacuoles in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (
  • Mast cells are cells that reside in the connective tissue and contain a large number of granules, rich in histamine, heparin, chymase, serotonin, and also cytokines. (
  • The glands were homogenized in an 0.25 M sucrose + 7.3 per cent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution and fractionated by differential centrifugation to give a heterogeneous small granule fraction which contained almost all the gonadotropic hormone activity. (
  • Heterogeneous population of RNA granules serve as motile units to translocate, store, translate, and degrade mRNAs in the dendrites contain cis -elements and trans -acting factors such as RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs to convey stimulus-, transcript-specific local translation. (
  • In this image, a neoplastic myelocyte with heterogeneous granules of variable size (maximum dimension, 0.25 to 1.9 μm) is visible. (
  • TSWV and RSV N proteins also co-localized with Ran GTPase-activating protein 2 (RanGAP2), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling factor, in the perinuclear region, and partly in the nucleus when co-expressed with its WPP domain containing a nuclear-localization signal. (
  • Formation of cytoplasmic RNA-protein structures called stress granules (SGs) is a highly conserved cellular response to stress. (
  • Small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis. (
  • Perforin is a 70 kD cytolytic protein that is expressed in the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. (
  • Here we report a class of mRNA granules in human neuronal processes that are enriched in the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC) and exon junction complex (EJC) core components, Y14 and eIF4AIII. (
  • The Proteinase-3 (PR-3) antigen is 29 kD protein found in the primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes. (
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying secretory granule biogenesis, trafficking, and exocytosis is an active area of research with implications for therapeutic interventions targeting endocrine disorders, neurological conditions, and immune-related diseases. (
  • In certain cells, particularly melanocytes, melanin is stored in specialized cytoplasmic organelles called melanosomes. (
  • This effect is due to the depth and density of the pigmented cells (or melanin granule dispersion) and the physical properties of light absorption and reflection described by the Tyndall light phenomenon or effect. (
  • Cytoplasmic granules of cytolytic T-lymphocytes. (
  • This is usually in the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. (
  • All N proteins localized to PBs as well as stress granules (SGs), but extensively to docking stages of PB and SG. (
  • Earlier reports have pointed towards cytoplasmic-RNA processing bodies (P body, PB), although several questions have remained unsolved. (
  • The source of host mRNAs from which the cytoplasmic NSVs snatch capped-RNA leader sequences has remained elusive. (
  • Our nuclear transfer experiment showed that the phenotype is attributable to cytoplasmic rather than nuclear defects of the zygotes. (
  • Three layers were obtained and the pellet from the active bottom layer was sectioned, examined with the electron microscope, and found to contain 200 mµ granules, mitochondria, ergastoplasm, and other cellular debris. (
  • Because of the heterogeneity of this fraction, due to the contamination of the 200 mµ granules with mitochondria and other cellular debris, the active layer and the resuspended active pellet, obtained by centrifuging this layer first at 17,000 g then diluting the supernatant and centrifuging at 30,000 g for 1 hour, were filtered through Millipore HA paper with a pore size of 0.45 µ. (
  • Intriguingly, cytoplasmic lattices were disorganized, and mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and components of the subcortical maternal complex were mislocalized. (
  • These granules are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including hormone secretion, neurotransmission, immune response modulation, and digestive enzyme release. (
  • Clone dG9 primarily recognizes perforin associated with cytotoxic granules 9 . (
  • Correlation between functional assays, presence of perforin and granzyme transcripts, and cytoplasmic granules. (
  • In neurons, these granules contain neurotransmitters like dopamine or serotonin. (
  • A fraction isolated from the anterior pituitary glands of rats castrate for 8 weeks contained essentially a single cytoplasmic constituent with which the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity was associated. (
  • and large, well-defined, basophilic, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in granulocytes that resemble Döhle bodies (see the image below). (
  • Leader-Containing Uncapped Viral Transcript Activates RIG-I in Antiviral Stress Granules. (
  • Impaired Antiviral Stress Granule and IFN-β Enhanceosome Formation Enhances Susceptibility to Influenza Infection in COPD Epithelium. (
  • The granules are spherical with moderate to high electron density. (
  • These granules play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular processes and communication between cells. (
  • Disruptions in secretory granule function have been implicated in various diseases. (
  • This tennis racquet shaped cytoplasmic organelle has an unknown function. (
  • Thus, maternal UHRF1 regulates the proper cytoplasmic architecture and function of oocytes and preimplantation embryos, likely through a mechanism unrelated to DNA methylation. (
  • Similarly, abnormalities in neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles (a type of secretory granule) have been linked to neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. (
  • For instance, hemosiderin granules contain aggregates of ferritin and represent a storage form of iron within cells. (
  • Langerhans cell histiocytoses are all defined by the presence of a unique ultrastructural organelle, the Birbeck granule. (
  • Gp170/80-110 was localized primarily in granule membranes of resting PMNs, and was translocated to the cell surfaces by activation with FMLP. (
  • Most cytoplasmic-replicating negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) initiate genome transcription by cap snatching. (
  • Electron microscopy demonstrated a poorly differentiated mesenchymal tumor with a multifocal giant cell component and evidence of neurosecretory-granules. (
  • Half a century ago, Christian de Duve coined the term "autophagy" (literally, "self-eating" in Greek) to describe a process where the cell digests its cytoplasmic materials within lysosomes 1 . (
  • Altogether, the results implicate a more complex situation in which, besides PB, additional cytoplasmic sources are used during transcription/cap snatching of cytoplasmic-replicating and segmented NSVs. (
  • They are also able to secrete additional mediators, which are not performed by their granules such as interleukins (IL) 5 . (
  • The active supernatant containing this small granule fraction was separated into layers by isopycnic gradient centrifugation on a continuous 6 to 45 per cent sucrose + 17.5 per cent "diodrast" + 5 x 10 -4 M "versene" gradient at 100,000 g for 2 hours. (
  • Mutant FUS variants have high affinity to SGs and also spontaneously form de novo cytoplasmic RNA granules. (
  • These active pellets consisted almost entirely of 200 mµ granules with a minimum amount of contamination, and they contained the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity with practically none remaining in the supernatant fraction. (
  • Results of our study support a pathogenic role for cytoplasmic FUS assemblies in ALS-FUS. (