Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa30p catalytic subunit, and the Naa35p and Naa38p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either LEUCINE; PHENYALANINE; ISOLEUCINE; or TRYPTOPHANE.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/3814)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (2/3814)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (3/3814)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (4/3814)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (5/3814)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (6/3814)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (7/3814)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Coupling of coat assembly and vesicle budding to packaging of putative cargo receptors. (8/3814)

COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to their native counterparts with respect to diameter, buoyant density, morphology, and the requirement for an elevated temperature for budding. These results suggest that a bivalent interaction of coatomer with membrane-bound ARF[GTP] and with the cytoplasmic tails of cargo or putative cargo receptors is the molecular basis of COPI coat assembly and provide a simple mechanism to couple uptake of cargo to transport vesicle formation.  (+info)

Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. It has been linked to a defect in the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) epsilon. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in SMARCD2 were identified from SGD patients. SMARCD2 is chromatin-remodeling factor, that interacts with CEBP epsilon ...
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency
Mediators pre-stored in neutrophil azurophilic granules are central to the acute inflammatory response and tissue degradation and damage through their proteolytic activity. Different granule populations mobilize and release their content via distinct and hierarchical molecular mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms by which mediators pre-stored in azurophilic granules are mobilized and released to the extracellular space remain largely unknown. We used a number of complementary techniques including; confocal laser scanning microscopy, subcellular fractionation, flow cytometric analyses, Western blot analyses and electron microscopy to examine the ultrastructural and molecular nature of mediator release in neutrophil azurophilic granules. We found that following IL-8 activation, neutrophil azurophilic granules undergo piecemeal degranulation (selective mediator release) leading to altered granule content. Piecemeal degranulation of azurophilic granules is characterized by budding of small secretory ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons, a cell type that is intrinsically more vulnerable than other cell types to exogenous stress. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures to toxins has long been thought to be relevant to ALS. One cellular mechanism to overcome stress is the formation of small dense cytoplasmic domains called stress granules (SG) which contain translationally arrested mRNAs. TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) is an ALS-causative gene that we have previously implicated in the regulation of the core stress granule proteins G3BP and TIA-1. TIA-1 and G3BP localize to SG under nearly all stress conditions and are considered essential to SG formation. Here, we report that TDP-43 is required for proper SG dynamics, especially SG assembly as marked by the secondary aggregation of TIA-1. We also show that SG assembly, but not initiation, requires G3BP. Furthermore,
Purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocytes (LGL) tumors were cytolytic to erythrocytes, splenocytes, and a number of different lymphoid tumor cells. Granule concentrations of approximately 1 microgram/ml granule protein were adequate to lyse 100% of the erythrocytes, while the nucleated cells required up to 100 micrograms/ml granule protein to achieve complete lysis. Cytoplasmic granules purified from noncytotoxic lymphoid cells did not contain detectable cytolytic activity; purified granules from rat mast cells and rat liver lysosomes likewise failed to display cytolytic activity. However, granules prepared from normal rat peripheral blood LGL were cytolytic. Granule-mediated lysis of erythrocytes and nucleated cells was complete within 3 min at room temperature. The lytic activity required calcium at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-2) M; magnesium or barium failed to replace calcium, while strontium could replace calcium at 10(-3)-10(-2) M when nucleated cells ...
article{31e5f1bd-a4e6-4a4d-9882-e8e6db59f82f, abstract = {Glucose-evoked insulin secretion exhibits a biphasic time course and is associated with accelerated intracellular granule movement. We combined live confocal imaging of EGFP-labelled insulin granules with capacitance measurements of exocytosis in clonal INS-1 cells to explore the relation between distinct random and directed modes of insulin granule movement, as well as exocytotic capacity. Reducing the temperature from 34 °C to 24 °C caused a dramatic 81% drop in the frequency of directed events, but reduced directed velocities by a mere 25%. The much stronger temperature sensitivity of the frequency of directed events (estimated energy of activation ~ 135 kJ/mol) than that of the granule velocities (~ 22 kJ/mol) suggests that cooling-induced suppression of insulin granule movement is attributable to factors other than reduced motor protein adenosine 5-triphosphatase activity. Indeed, cooling suppresses random granule diffusion by ~ ...
Targeting of the granule membrane or its cargo with a photoactivatable/photoconvertible protein allows in-depth visualisation and tracking of single insulin granules in dependence upon glucose. This technique may also open the way to elucidating the regulation of granule movement velocity within the …
Non-hydrolysable analogues of GTP, such as GTP gamma S and GMP-PNP, have previously been shown to inhibit the formation of constitutive secretory vesicles (CSVs) and immature secretory granules (ISGs) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using a cell-free system, we show here that the formation of these vesicles is also inhibited by [A1F4]-, a compound known to act on trimeric G-proteins. Addition of highly purified G-protein beta gamma subunits stimulated, in a differential manner, the cell-free formation of both CSVs and ISGs. ADP-ribosylation experiments revealed the presence of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein alpha subunit in the TGN. We conclude that trimeric G-proteins regulate the formation of secretory vesicles from the TGN.
Author summary Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily through mosquito bites, but there have also been cases of sexual, perinatal, and suspected blood transfusion transmission. It has been associated with fetal malformations and neurological disorders in adults. The rising concern about this pathogen led the World Health Organization to declare it as a public health emergency of international concern regarding neurological disorders. There is an urgent global scientific effort underway to better understand ZIKV biology and define interactions that occur between the virus and the host cell. We evaluated how ZIKV infection counteracts the assembly of dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins called stress granules (SGs). We observed that ZIKV blocks SG assembly induced by sodium arsenite (Ars), but not by sodium selenite or Pateamine A. We demonstrate that this difference is related to the ability of ZIKV to modulate the dephosphorylation of eIF2α via its phosphatase. Our work demonstrates
Dense core granules of exocrine cells are a potential source of calcium, and results to date have been controversial regarding whether the calcium in these organelles is involved in controlling the cytosolic calcium concentration. Mitchell et al. developed a fusion protein between the dense core transmembrane protein VAMP and the calcium-sensitive bioluminescent protein aequorin in order to visualize calcium in the dense core granules of a pancreatic β cell line. Vesicular free [Ca2+] was approximately 50 μM, significantly lower than endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi free [Ca2+]. Vesicular [Ca2+] increased when calcium was reintroduced to the cells following calcium depletion. Uptake required adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and was inhibited by high concentrations of orthovanadate, but not by the ER Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or by agents that altered intravesicular pH or elevations in Na+ concentration, suggesting that the uptake does not occur through a Ca2+/H+ exchanger or through a ...
Background: The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority of the studies that have considered granule types analyse them based on a size threshold rather than chemical composition ...
Lately, we have identified two polypeptides of 92-94 kDa (GRL1) and 45-60 kDa (GRL2), expressed in cytoplasmic granules of chicken granulocytes and thrombocytes. Here, we report that GRL1 and GRL2 are widely distributed in all exocrine and several endocrine cell types, but not in neurons of the central nervous system, during late stages of embryonic development, as well as in newly hatched and two-month-old chickens. Immunogold studies in ultrathin frozen sections of pancreatic acinar cells show that GRL1 and GRL2 are co-localized at the periphery of zymogen granules, in granules fused with apical acinar membranes and on apical membranes of acini, while the pregranular compartments of the secretory pathway are weakly or not labeled. Semiquantitative morphometric studies indicate that GRL1 and GRL2 are equally distributed in secretory granules. A variety of physical and metabolic studies reveal that GRL2, a highly N-glycosylated polypeptide, is an intrinsic membrane protein, while GRL1 is a ...
A critical component of the regulated exocytosis machinery is the secretory granule; these specialized organelles contain cargo proteins surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer embedded with secretory granule membrane fusion proteins. Regulated exocytosis begins with the biogenesis of secretory granules at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Nascent secretory granules initially bud from the TGN as immature granules; these immature granules then undergo a maturation process that renders them competent for exocytosis (Bonnemaison et al., 2013; Kögel and Gerdes, 2010). The specific processes that occur during maturation vary; however, several key steps occur in nearly all professional secretory cells, including homotypic fusion of immature granules to generate larger granules of a defined size (Bonnemaison et al., 2013; Tooze et al., 1991; Urbé et al., 1998; Wendler et al., 2001) and refinement of secretory granule cargo and membrane content (Bonnemaison et al., 2013; Kögel and Gerdes, 2010; Tooze and ...
Model version description */ // Quick simulation cvode.active(1) cvode.use_daspk(1) // Temperature celsius = 25 // Soma Granule[0].soma.gkbar_GRC_KIR = 0.002 Granule[0].soma.gl_GRC_LKG1 = 0.0000916 Granule[0].soma.gkbar_GRC_KA = 0.04 Granule[0].soma.gkbar_GRC_KM = 0.006 Granule[0].soma.gkbar_GRC_KCA = 0 Granule[0].soma.gnabar_GRC_NA = 0 // Dendrites for i = 0,3 {Granule[0].dend_1[i].gkbar_GRC_KCA(0.5) = 0.0014} for i = 0,3 {Granule[0].dend_2[i].gkbar_GRC_KCA(0.5) = 0.0014} for i = 0,3 {Granule[0].dend_3[i].gkbar_GRC_KCA(0.5) = 0.0014} for i = 0,3 {Granule[0].dend_4[i].gkbar_GRC_KCA(0.5) = 0.0014} // Hillock for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].gl_GRC_LKG1(0.5) = 0} for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].gnabar_GRC_NA(0.5) = 0.13} for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].gkbar_GRC_KV(0.5) = 3} for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].Aepsilon_GRC_NA(0.5) = 0} for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].Aalpha_n_GRC_KV(0.5) = -0.00222} for i = 0,4 {Granule[0].hillock[i].Abeta_n_GRC_KV(0.5) = 0.0285} for i = 0,4 ...
When confronted with environmental stress, cells either activate defence mechanisms to survive, or initiate apoptosis, depending on the type of stress. Certain types of stress, such as hypoxia, heatshock and arsenite (type 1 stress), induce cells to assemble cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs), a majo …
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain. In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles. Azurophils may contain myeloperoxidase, phospholipase A2, acid hydrolases, elastase, defensins, neutral serine proteases, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, lysozyme, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and proteoglycans. Azurophil granules are also known as primary granules. Furthermore, the term azurophils may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with abundant cytoplasm that is finely to coarsely granular and may sometimes contain vacuoles. Granules may impart a purplish hue to the cytoplasm, particularly to the outer region. Occasionally, azurophils are observed with vacuolated ...
G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1 Gene Context Sentence Table 2. Analysis of context sentence of G3BP1 gene in 2 abstracts. PMID Gene Context Sentence 33479198 In cells, N forms condensates that recruit the stress granule protein G3BP1, highlighting a potential role for N in G3BP1 sequestration and stress granule inhibition.
Indicated (A) P-body or (B) stress granule markers were grown for 4 days in Tein E (apoE) gene to families with a higher risk of glucose-containing media and
The prototypic long PTX3 has long been known to be produced by diverse cell types on demand, i.e., in a gene expression-dependent fashion in response to extracellular signals (e.g., LPS, IL-1β, TNFα, and TLR agonists) (3). The finding that PTX3 is stored in neutrophil granules is therefore unexpected. PTX3 is not stored in MPO+ granules (primary or azurophilic). By confocal analysis among the MPO− granules, PTX3 was found to localize in lactoferrin+ and in lactoferrin+/gelatinase+ (specific) but not in gelatinase+ (tertiary) granules. Storage of PTX3 in neutrophil granules is selective, inasmuch as short PTXs are absent and other granulated circulating elements (eosinophils, basophils, and NK cells) do not contain preformed PTX3. In addition to the diversity generated during granulopoiesis, granules are secreted in a targeted manner, with a timing hierarchy in granule exocytosis (50, 51). PTX3 is localized in granules that are rapidly mobilized and secreted upon stimulation, in agreement ...
Regulated, stimulus-dependent secretion via the exocytosis of dense core granule content provides a mechanism for controlling delivery of hormones, enzymes, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters to a target cell or organ in a timely and quantified manner (Burgoyne and Morgan, 2003; Loh et al., 2004; Lou et al., 2005). In this study, we have investigated the contributions of cholesterol, 7-DHC and lathosterol to granule biogenesis and regulated secretion in exocrine and endocrine tissues of mouse models of SLOS and lathosterolosis. We report here that cholesterol is necessary for the correct formation of granules in vivo. In the formation of regulated secretory vesicles in animals with inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol cannot be substituted by other lipids with structural similarity. We also show deregulated secretion of cargo in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas, owing to the absence of cholesterol, which suggests impairment of cellular function.. It has been reported that ...
Concentrated deposits of certain substances which are presented/located in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria are known as cytoplasmic granules or inclusion bodies.They serves as storage areas for nutrients, e.g. volutin granules are reserve of high energy stored in the form of polymerized metaphosphate. ...
A key cellular stress granule protein, G3BP1, is critical for efficient norovirus infection, representing the first pan-norovirus, pro-viral factor identified to date.
The dense granules of human platelets contain adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ionized calcium (which is necessary for several steps of the coagulation cascade), and serotonin.[6] Dense granules are similar to lysosomes with an acidic pH and even some lysosomal proteins like CD63.[7] There is a granular adenine nucleotide pool within the dense granule. It is thought that it is made up of system of insoluble calcium. This pool is likely to be different than that of the cytoplasmic nucleotides. In some animals it has been shown that the platelets contain histamine.[3] During exocytosis, the pool of ATP within the dense granule is released. Serotonin is picked up by the dense granules where it interacts with ATP and calcium.[3] The serotonin that is then released by the dense granule, recruits other platelets and helps play a major role in stoping the loss of blood at the injury. The calcium from a dense granule accounts for the majority of the calcium within the platelets ...
Building on previous work which showed that the small molecule ISRIB potently blocks the integrated stress response (Sidrauski et al., 2013), we report on ISRIBs remarkable specificity and fast action in vivo, underscoring its proposed direct effect on translation.
View more ,Immune-modulating therapies have revolutionized the treatment of chronic diseases, particularly cancer. However, their success is restricted and there is a need to identify new therapeutic targets. Here, we show that natural killer cell granule protein 7 (NKG7) is a regulator of lymphocyte granule exocytosis and downstream inflammation in a broad range of diseases. NKG7 expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells played key roles in promoting inflammation during visceral leishmaniasis and malaria-two important parasitic diseases. Additionally, NKG7 expressed by natural killer cells was critical for controlling cancer initiation, growth and metastasis. NKG7 function in natural killer and CD8+ T cells was linked with their ability to regulate the translocation of CD107a to the cell surface and kill cellular targets, while NKG7 also had a major impact on CD4+ T cell activation following infection. Thus, we report a novel therapeutic target expressed on a range of immune cells with functions in ...
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. Neutrophils of affected individuals lack lactoferrin and show abnormal nuclear segmentation, bilobed nuclei, low alkaline phosphatase, and increased number of neutrophil mitochondria and ribosomes ...
cytoplasmic stress granule, extracellular exosome, extracellular matrix, extracellular space, nucleus, plasma membrane, secretory granule, heparin binding, peptidase activity, serine-type endopeptidase activity
Reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal latency is a common and potentially devastating cause of disease worldwide. Now Knickelbein et al. demonstrate the use of the lytic granule components perforin and granzyme B by HSV-specific CD8+ T cells in maintaining HSV-1 latency in sensory neurons both in vivo and in vitro. Lytic granules polarized to T cell/neuron junctions during immunosurveillance of latently infected neurons, which are selectively resistant to apoptosis induction by HSV-specific CD8+ T cells. The lytic granule component, granzyme B, inhibited viral gene expression through cleavage of a viral immediate early protein required for expression of early and late genes. Thus, lytic granules can function in a noncytotoxic manner, and granzyme B targets a viral protein that is required for further viral gene expression.. J. E. Knickelbein, K. M. Khanna, M. B. Yee, C. J. Baty, P. R. Kinchington, R. L. Hendricks, Noncytotoxic lytic granule-mediated CD8+ T cell inhibition of ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
RNA granules are protein/RNA condensates proposed to form by liquid-liquid phase separation, a process akin to the separation of oil and vinegar in salad dressing. Studying the P granules of C. elegans, we have found that RNA granules are stabilized in the cytoplasm by a gel-like coat. The coat is made by. intrinsically-disordered proteins that are stimulated by RNA to form gels in vitro. Similar proteins exist across eukarya, raising the possibility that protein gels may be a common strategy to stabilize liquid condensates in eukaryotic cells.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27914198. ...
The origin, content, and fate of azurophil granules of blood monocytes were investigated in several species (rabbit, guinea pig, human) by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. The life cycle of monocytes consists of maturation in bone marrow, transit in blood, and migration into tissues where they function as macrophages. Cells were examined from all three phases. It was found that: azurophil granules originate in the Golgi complex of the developing monocyte of bone marrow and blood, and ultimately fuse with phagosomes during phagocytosis upon arrival of monocytes in the tissues. They contain lysosomal enzymes in all species studied and peroxidase in the guinea pig and human. These enzymes are produced by the same pathway as other secretory products (i.e., they are segregated in the rough ER and packaged into granules in the Golgi complex). The findings demonstrate that the azurophil granules of monocytes are primary lysosomes or storage granules comparable to the azurophils of ...
Hi there, I have run an experiment which is about stress granules formation in yeast using leica sp8 confocal microscope and microfluidics device custom made for the confocal images - its a time lapse with z slices, …
The localization of mRNA forms a key facet of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression and recent evidence suggests that it may be considerably more widespread than previously anticipated. For example, defined mRNA-containing granules can be associated with translational repression or activation. Furthermore, mRNA P-bodies (processing bodies) harbour much of the mRNA decay machinery and stress granules are thought to play a role in mRNA storage. In the present review, we explore the process of mRNA localization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, examining connections between organellar mRNA localization and the response to stress. We also review recent data suggesting that even where there is a global relocalization of mRNA, the specificity and kinetics of this process can be regulated. ...
We use high-field NMR spectroscopy, scattering methods, AUC, fluorescence methods, light microscopy, biochemical assays and cell biology. (But not all of these in a single project!). We are collaborating with several other groups in the field. Please contact me for more information at. [email protected] A. Molliex, J. Temirov, J. Lee, M. Coughlin, A.P. Kanagaraj, H.J. Kim, T. Mittag*, J.P. Taylor*. (2015) Phase Separation by Low Complexity Domains Promotes Stress Granule Assembly and Drives Pathological Fibrillization. Cell. 163 (1): 123-33. PMID: 26406374. M. Marzahn, S. Marada, J. Lee, A. Nourse, S. Kenrick, H. Zhao, G. Ben-Nissan, R.M. Kolaitis, J.L. Peters, S. Pounds, W.J. Errington, G.G. Prive, J.P. Taylor, M. Sharon, P. Schuck, S.K. Ogden*, T. Mittag*. (2016) Higher-order oligomerization promotes localization of SPOP to liquid nuclear speckles. EMBO J. 35 (12): 1254-75.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Core formation and the acquisition of fusion competence are linked during secretory granule maturation in Tetrahymena. AU - Bowman, Grant R.. AU - Elde, Nels C.. AU - Morgan, Garry. AU - Winey, Mark. AU - Turkewitz, Aaron P.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - The formation of dense core secretory granules is a multi-stage process beginning in the trans Golgi network and continuing during a period of granule maturation. Direct interactions between proteins in the membrane and those in the forming dense core may be important for sorting during this process, as well as for organizing membrane proteins in mature granules. We have isolated two mutants in dense core granule formation in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, an organism in which this pathway is genetically accessible. The mutants lie in two distinct genes but have similar phenotypes, marked by accumulation of a set of granule cargo markers in intracellular vesicles resembling immature secretory granules. Sorting to ...
RNA granules play diverse role in controlling the turnover and translation of specific mRNAs. FMRP is one of the major components of RNA granules including neuronal granules (Barbee et al., 2006), stress granules (Mazroui et al., 2002), and in vitro assembled granules (Han et al., 2012; Kato et al., 2012). Overexpression of FMRP induces formation of FMRP granules that are reminiscent of RNA granules. Here we used FMRP granules formed in Drosophila cells as a model to investigate how FMRP could promote formation of RNA granules and to define the determinants of FMRP involved in its trafficking in and out RNA granules.. During the past few years, several mammalian SG nucleating factors have been shown to induce the formation of SG-like RNA granules based on the effect of their overexpression. Formation of these SG-like granules was reported to occur through mechanisms which involve the phosphorylation of eIF2α, a key event essential for the triggering of SG formation upon stress (Kedersha et al., ...
How is Large Granule-Containing Lymphocytes abbreviated? LGCL stands for Large Granule-Containing Lymphocytes. LGCL is defined as Large Granule-Containing Lymphocytes very rarely.
Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other ...
Looking for online definition of specific granules in the Medical Dictionary? specific granules explanation free. What is specific granules? Meaning of specific granules medical term. What does specific granules mean?
A partially purified secretory granule fraction, isolated from rat islets of Langerhans by differential centrifugation, was used for investigating the stability of the beta granules during incubation in various conditions. Effects of pH, temperature, and time were studied; the granules possessed optimal stability at 4° and pH 6.0, and could be solubilized at pH 4.0 or 8.5, or in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, but not by phospholipase c, ouabain, or alloxan. Incubation with glucose or some of its metabolites, or with tolbutamide, ATP, or cyclic 3,5-AMP did not alter the stability of the beta granules Exogenous insulin-131I was not bound by the isolated granules under the conditions used; no specific insulin-degrading activity could be detected in subcellular fractions of the islets. These findings indicate that intracellular solubilization of the granules with subsequent diffusion of the insulin into the extracellular space is not a likely mode of insulin secretion in vivo, and suggest ...
article{f429a20c-cc6f-41ca-9f07-404d5d006fd6, abstract = {Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3; also known as SGP28) was originally discovered in human neutrophilic granulocytes. We have recently developed a sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for CRISP-3 and demonstrated the presence of CRISP-3 in exocrine secretions. To investigate the subcellular localization and mobilization of CRISP-3 in human neutrophils, we performed subcellular fractionation of resting and activated neutrophils on three-layer Percoll density gradients, release-studies of granule proteins in response to different secretagogues, and double-labeling immunogold electron microscopy. CRISP-3 was found to be localized in a subset of granules with overlapping characteristics of specific and gelatinase granules and mobilized accordingly, thus confirming the hypothesis that peroxidase-negative granules exist as a continuum from specific to gelatinase granules regarding protein content and mobilization. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Currently, my lab addresses the following questions:. How does the pseudophophatase MK-STYX inhibit stress granule formation?. Environmental cues such as heat shock, UV irradiation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress initiate many eukaryotic cellular responses, including protective responses to ensure their survival. One of the most rapid of these responses is to prevent mRNA translation to into protein to allow cells to adapt to stress. This stalled mRNA is sequestered to specific cytosolic compartments known as stress granule. Stress granules represent a complex assemblage of translational initiation factors, proteins involved in translational control, the microtubule array, and chaperone proteins such as G3BP-1 (Ras-GTPase-activating protein Src homology 3 domain-binding protein-1). We have shown that MK-STYX binds G3BP-1 and inhibit stress granule formation. However, how MK-STYX accomplishes this inhibition is unclear. Thus, we seek to elucidate the mechanism required by MK-STYX to inhibit stress ...
Background: Grass pollen is one of the most important aeroallergens in Europe. It highly contributes to respiratory allergic diseases, mainly allergic rhinitis. In contact to water or airborne pollutants, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs) containing allergens. Because of their size (| 5 mu m), PCGs may penetrate deeper into the lungs to induce higher allergic responses, such as asthma. They have been associated with thunderstorm-related asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate, with Brown Norway rats, the allergenic potential of isolated PCGs and to compare it with the allergenicity of whole timothy grass pollen. Methods: Rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21), in controlled comparative conditions, with pollen grains (0.5 mg) or PCGs (4.5 x 10(7) and 0.5 mg). At day 25, blood samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and bronchial lymph node were collected. IgE and IgG1 levels in sera were assessed by ELISA. Alveolar cells, protein and cytokine
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers a rapid induction of host innate immune responses. The type I interferon (IFN) signal pathway is a central aspect of host defense which induces a wide range of antiviral proteins to control infection of incoming pathogens. In some cases, viral invasion also induces DNA damage response, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cytoplasmic stress granules and other innate immune responses, which in turn affect viral infection. However, HSV-1 has evolved multiple strategies to evade host innate responses and facilitate its infection. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to counteract host antiviral innate immune responses with specific focus on the type I IFN signal pathway.
The acoustic properties of the silica aerogel (SA) granules of various sizes from 0.50 to 3.35 mm, distributed into six groups of nominal sizes and measured via a two-microphone impedance tube, are presented. The absorption coefficients of the SA granules were evaluated at ultra- to super-low frequency range from 50-1600 Hz. It was observed that nominal SA granules with sizes of 1.2 mm (AG2) and 1.7 mm (AG3) displayed the best absorption coefficients. When tested with granules filled at 5 cm depth, AG2 and AG3 absorption coefficients peaked at 980 Hz with values of 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. A novel approach to measure transmission loss (TL) by using
The antimicrobial capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the presence of dextran sulfate (DS) and heparin, which are similar to naturally occurring mucosubstance in rabbit PMN granules was investi~ gated. The cytochemical activity of PMN granules in phagocytosing and nonphagocytosing cells with and without DS or heparin were also evaluated. No evidence for uptake of DS or heparin was obtained when either phagocytosing or nonphagocytosing PMN were incubated in the presence of these two mucosubstances. Specifically, they did not affect cytochemical reactivity of acid phosphatase in cytoplasmic granules or phagocytic vacuoles at the ultrastructural level. The sulfated acid mucosubstance did not affect reactivity of cytoplasmic granules for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase ,I (DAP I) or acid mucosubstance at the light microscopic or ultrastructural level. DAP I activity was demonstrated in the primary granules of PMN for the first time and ...
The antimicrobial capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the presence of dextran sulfate (DS) and heparin, which are similar to naturally occurring mucosubstance in rabbit PMN granules was investi~ gated. The cytochemical activity of PMN granules in phagocytosing and nonphagocytosing cells with and without DS or heparin were also evaluated. No evidence for uptake of DS or heparin was obtained when either phagocytosing or nonphagocytosing PMN were incubated in the presence of these two mucosubstances. Specifically, they did not affect cytochemical reactivity of acid phosphatase in cytoplasmic granules or phagocytic vacuoles at the ultrastructural level. The sulfated acid mucosubstance did not affect reactivity of cytoplasmic granules for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase ,I (DAP I) or acid mucosubstance at the light microscopic or ultrastructural level. DAP I activity was demonstrated in the primary granules of PMN for the first time and ...
Detailed model of Cerebellar Granular Cell model // Multicompartmental model - Initiation script // Last updated 07-Jan-2009 // Model developer: Shyam Diwakar M. // Developed at Egidio DAngelos Lab at Univ of Pavia // Code contributors: Thierry Nieus, Sergio Solinas // Dept. of Gen. Physiology (Univ. of Pavia, Italy) // School of biotech (Amrita University, India) // Email:[email protected] /* Model published as [Diwakar et al, J.Neurophysiology] Shyam Diwakar, Jacopo Magistretti, Mitchell Goldfarb, Giovanni Naldi, and Egidio DAngelo. Axonal Na+ channels ensure fast spike activation and back-propagation in cerebellar granule cells, J Neurophysiol (December 10, 2008). doi:10.1152/jn.90382.2008 */ xopen($(NEURONHOME)/lib/hoc/noload.hoc) // ***** General settings ***** tstop=200 //default simulation stop time in ms v_init = -70 //init voltage xopen(Grc_Cell.hoc) // load Granule cell template objref Granule[1] //create Granule cell Granule[0] = new GrC() // ***** Synapses **** objref ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits neuropeptide hormone activity (ortholog); INVOLVED IN anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process (ortholog); cellular senescence (ortholog); G1 to G0 transition (ortholog); FOUND IN apical plasma membrane (ortholog); cytoplasm (ortholog); dense core granule (ortholog)
Morphological analysis of transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat has revealed a continuum of cells from those which totally lack mature secretory granules to cells with abundant well-formed secretory granules. This tumor is easily dissociable into single cells which incorporate [3H]thymidine and [3H]leucine into DNA and protein at a linear rate for 3 to 4 hr. The number of cells synthesizing DNA, as assessed by light microscope autoradiography, was about 17%. Dissociated neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells are classified into four cell types (types I to IV) on the basis of nuclear morphology, degree of polarization, and the extent of specialization of cytoplasmic organelles. Type IV cells possess all the characteristics of mature pancreatic acinar cells, such as abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, prominent Golgi apparatus, and numerous secretory granules. Cell types III, II, and I are progressively less differentiated. An analysis of the cytological features of 285 dissociated tumor ...
Large populations (up to 600/cell) of spherical, electron-opaque granules ∼0.3 to 0.4 µ in diameter are characteristically found in muscle fibers of mammalian atria. They are absent in muscle fibers of the ventricles. The granules are concentrated in the sarcoplasmic core and occur in lesser numbers in the sarcoplasmic layers between myofibrils and under the plasma membrane. Their intimate association with a central voluminous Golgi complex and the frequent occurrence of material reminiscent of the granular content within the cisternae of the Golgi complex suggest that the latter is involved in the formation of the atrial granules. Atrial granules are larger and more numerous in smaller species (rat, mouse), and generally smaller and less numerous in larger mammals (dog, cat, human); they are absent from the atrial fibers of very young fetuses (rat) but are present in those of newborn animals. A small population of bodies containing glycogen particles and remnants of the endoplasmic reticulum ...
This is our premium product! Our Grass-Fed Collagen Granules are made from the hides of cattle raised in pastures in Argentina. It tested at 90% protein and provides both type I and type III collagen which are the major components in skin, hair, nails, muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, gum, teeth, eyes and blood vessels.. Our Collagen Granules are 100% pure containing no additives, preservatives or fillers. Collagen Granules are a superior product to a Collagen Powder. The Collagen Granules are a granulated product and as such dissolve rapidly into liquids. This makes this product a superb addition to coffee and tea, juices and even water. This product has a neutral flavour and is therefore amazing to add into yoghurt or cereal or even into your cooking or baking.. Mix 2 tablespoons per serving into coffee, water, a shake or your favourite smoothie. You can enjoy more than one serving a day.. Our Refill Bags are made from wood fibre cellulose and are 100% Compostable according to European ...
A process is disclosed for preparing dispersant-free iron oxide pigment granules by spraying or atomizing an iron oxide black pigment suspension and heating the resulting granules at a temperature of 400 -800 C. The granules are useful for coloring building materials such as concrete.
Monitorujeme aktuální akční letáky Kauflan Lidl, Tesco, . Krmivo Rasco hovězí pro psy 10kg. NovaEqui vzniklo ve spolupráci tří českých fireBODIT TACHOV s. Kompletní krmivo pro dospělé psy. Mléčné granule pod názvem Axcelera-C (A-C) a doplňkové krmivo Novanel, které.. Porovnání cen bodie granule pro psy, srovnání cen bodie granule pro psy na portálu HLEDEJCENY. FROLIC s hovězím masem a zeleninou 500g. Poloměkké masové granule pro dospělé psy všech plemen . Dentální pochoutka jako odměna pro Vašeho psa s kuřecím masem.. In cell biology, lamellar bodies are secretory organelles found in type II alveolar cells in the. Bodit NOVAEQUI Classic 20kg. Involvement of corneodesmosome degradation and lamellar granule transportation in the desquamation process. Medical Molecular Morphology. Akční ceny výrobky a krmivo pro psy 25.. Granule pro psy Bono 17Kč, platí pouze do 20. ...
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The doctor will perform a physical exam. Examination may show signs of a swollen spleen or liver or jaundice.. A blood smear shows giant granules in the white blood cells. Giant granules are also found in cells from biopsy of skin, muscle, and nerves.. Blood platelet or white blood cell counts are abnormally low. Genetic testing may show mutations in the CHS1 gene.. EEG may show seizures. Brain MRI or CT scan may show small brain due to atrophy.. EMG or nerve conduction velocity testing may show delayed nerve signaling. There may be decreased color (pigmentation) seen in the front and back of the eye.. ...
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NB1, a new neutrophil-specific antigen involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal neutropenia: A new human antigen is reported which is present only on blood neut
Granule exocytosis is an essential platelet function, contributing not only to hemostasis and thrombosis, but also to inflammation, wound healing, malignancy, a...
There is provided a cellulosic-based fiber granule with added non self-associating particulates or fibers. The resulting granule is free-flowing with a densified outer surface and is capable of removing substantially all oil or other fluids from a flat surface such as a floor. The granule is also capable of being incinerated by being formed substantially of organic materials. Cellulosic plant fibers form at least 10 percent up to 99 percent of the granule. There is also provided a method for forming the incineratable absorbent, free-flowing granules.
Solidifi-ER absorbent granules solidify all liquids instantly to clean up vomit, blood, urine, all bodily fluids and can also soak up oil, cream and water based spills. 10g of granules will absorb approximately 1 litre of fluid! The absorbent granules are ready to use and non hazardous so can be used on practically any surface....
Buy Lactiz 10gm/3.5gm Granules - sachet of 100 gm Granules at online at 1mg.com. Know the uses, side effects, price, composition, substitutes, How it works, Precautions and Expert Advice for Lactiz 10gm/3.5gm Granules manufactured by Ferring Pharmaceuticals
Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future ...
Concept and experimental design We hypothesized that fusing address tags from proteins that are naturally sent to the granule may work to send GFP to the granule as well. 1. N-terminal signal peptides Proteins should be translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) first in order to be further sorted to granule. Since it is not sure whether the signal sequence would play some role in the granule sorting, we decided to use the signal sequences from the granzymes. Each Granzyme has an individual signal peptide sequence that delivers it to the Endo Reticulum. Every signal sequence is distinct in size and amino acid content. 2. C-terminal address tag sequences We have two strategies to send our cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the granule: 1. Directly fuse our cargo to the granule specific transporters. 2. Fuse our cargo to some address tag which can bind to the transporter. Strategy 1 The proteins listed below all have granule localization motif on their cytoplasmic tails. Y-motif: ...
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According to the present invent, effervescent granules having a controllable rate of effervescence are provided. Such granules comprise an acidic agent, an alkaline agent, a hot-melt extrudable binder capable of forming a eutectic mixture with the acidic agent and, optionally, a plasticizer. The effervescent granules are made by a hot-melt extrusion process.
Bax −/− cerebellar granule cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to K+ deprivation. Cerebellar granule cells from Bax +/+ (a, b, e, and f) and Bax −
Fructose is sugar. It is a very simple sugar that occurs naturally in foods and what gives fruits a sweet taste, hence the name. Fructose is quite a bit sweeter than your average white table sugar (a combination of fructose and sucrose) but fructose contributes far fewer calories. These Fructose Granules can be used as a sugar alternative in cooking or desserts.
Granulocytes are released from the bone marrow and make up the major group of leukocytes in the blood. They represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid innate immune cells characterized by the presence of intracellular granules as well as segmented and lobed nuclei of various shapes. Therefore, they are also referred to as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC). Recently, along with their well described involvement in inflammation, they have also been shown capable of antigen presentation. Miltenyi Biotec provides numerous tools for granulocyte research, including standardized and automated enrichment of viable and fully functional cells, a pre-requisite to obtain high quality and reproducible data ...
Mammalian stress granules (SGs) harbor untranslated mRNAs that accumulate in cells exposed to environmental stress. Drugs that stabilize polysomes (emetine) inhibit the assembly of SGs, whereas drugs that destabilize polysomes (puromycin) promote the assembly of SGs. Moreover, emetine dissolves preformed SGs as it promotes the assembly of polysomes, suggesting that these mRNP species (i.e., SGs and polysomes) exist in equilibrium. We used green flourescent protein-tagged SG-associated RNA-binding proteins (specifically, TIA-1 and poly[A] binding protein [PABP-I]) to monitor SG assembly, disassembly, and turnover in live cells. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shows that both TIA-1 and PABP-I rapidly and continuously shuttle in and out of SGs, indicating that the assembly of SGs is a highly dynamic process. This unexpected result leads us to propose that mammalian SGs are sites at which untranslated mRNAs are sorted and processed for either reinitiation, degradation, or packaging into ...
Jason Christopher Dugas (jcdugas at uclink.berkeley.edu) wrote: : HARRY R. ERWIN (herwin at osf1.gmu.edu) wrote: : : Experimentally, do olfactory granule cells have active conductances or are : : they passive? : In this article it states : that the granule cells do in fact spike when stimulated, in a manner : similar to the amicrine cells of the retina. Using active conductances results in really exquisite sensitivity to input levels. A 3 mV increase in the spiking threshold (from -55 to -58 mV) results in the granule cells going from quiet to madly overshooting. The periglomerular cells and tufted/mitral cells appear to go mildly chaotic at the same time. -- Harry Erwin Internet: herwin at gmu.edu ...
Granzyme B is a cysteine protease found in the cytoplasmic granules of cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. Granzyme
This volume covers overviews of neutrophil biology, function, and disorders. Chapters discuss topics such as methods to isolate neutrophils; investigating chemotaxis, transmigration, and bactericidal activity; apoptosis; cytoplasmic granules; and the function of neutrophil extracellular traps.
The supernatant, containing the granules, was decanted and managed at 4uC. The pellet, that contains mobile debris and nonbroken cells, was resuspended in BSSA, resonicated and centrifuged at two hundred g for five min at 4uC. The resulting supernatant was merged with that acquired following the initial round of sonication, and the total suspension was then centrifuged at 2100 g for 20 min at 4uC. The resulting pellet, consisting of a crude granule fraction, was carefully resuspended in .5 mL of icecold BSSA for every 56106 authentic mast cells. The .5 mL was then layered on leading of 2.five mL of 90% Percoll resolution, that contains one hundred fifty mM NaCl, 2.seven mM KCl, ,9 mM CaCl2 and 10 mM HEPES, and modified to a closing pH of 7.2. Centrifugation was performed at 27,000 g for twenty min (Beckman Optima XL-90 ultracentrifuge, SW forty-Ti rotor Beckman-Coulter, Usa). Following centrifugation, one solitary band containing the granules was obtained. This granule portion was cautiously ...
... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ... This is usually in the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. However, it is flipped to the outer membrane to be used during blood ... and secretory vesicles (including synaptosome, acrosomes, melanosomes, and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological ...
Terry RD, Korey SR (Dec 1960). "Membranous cytoplasmic granules in infantile amaurotic idiocy". Nature. 188 (4755): 1000-2. ...
Volutin granules are cytoplasmic inclusions of complexed inorganic polyphosphate. These granules are called metachromatic ... Sulfur is most often stored as elemental (S0) granules which can be deposited either intra- or extracellularly. Sulfur granules ... The plasma membrane or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and thus has all of the general ... Because of its location between the cytoplasmic and outer membranes, signals received and substrates bound are available to be ...
Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula (2017-04-01). "Cytoplasmic stress granules: Dynamic modulators of cell signaling and disease ... G3BP1 can initiate stress granule formation and labeled G3BP1 is commonly used as a marker for stress granules. G3BP1 has been ... 2003). "The RasGAP-associated endoribonuclease G3BP assembles stress granules". J. Cell Biol. 160 (6): 823-31. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... and cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein (p137) individually or as a heterodimer". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (50): ...
These cytoplasmic granules contain positively charged proteins that characterize the cells. ECP is one of the four highly basic ... Eosinophil cationic protein is localized to the granule matrix of the eosinophil. The ribonuclease activity of ECP is not ... Nielsen LP, Peterson CG, Dahl R (2009). "Serum eosinophil granule proteins predict asthma risk in allergic rhinitis". Allergy. ... Parwez Q, Stemmler S, Epplen JT, Hoffjan S (2008). "Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic ...
The asci initials are cytoplasmic containing lipid droplets and glycogen granules. Mature asci develop from the initials by ... Chloroplasts become large and irregular with large starch granules inside of them as well as other internal alterations to the ... Healthy epidermal cells contain a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic layer with endoplasmic reticulum, ... chloroplasts with well-developed grana, starch granules, and osmophilic globules. Other organelles are infrequently present as ...
Cytoplasmic granules may be pushed to the periphery of the cell. If the cell count is high, cells may be distorted due to ...
... pigment granules in certain cells of skin and hair, and crystals of various types. Cytoplasmic inclusions are an example of a ... Inclusions are cytoplasmic molecular aggregates such as pigments organic polymers and crystal. Fat droplets and glycogen ... Examples of inclusions are glycogen granules in the liver and muscle cells, lipid droplets in fat cells, ... Inclusions are stored nutrients/deutoplasmic substances, secretory products, and pigment granules. ...
Numerous cytoplasmic granules are present in the more mature forms of myelocytes. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic granules are ... The nucleus is fairly regular in contour (not indented), and seems to be 'buried' beneath the numerous cytoplasmic granules. ( ... peroxidase-positive, while basophilic granules are not. The nuclear chromatin is coarser than that observed in a promyelocyte, ...
Specification of germ line P granules were identified as the cytoplasmic determinants. While uniformly present at fertilization ... Localization of cytoplasmic determinants The autonomous specification of C. elegans arises from different cytoplasmic ... these granules become localized in the posterior P1 cell prior to the first division. These granules are further localized ... The cytoplasmic determinant macho-1 was isolated as the necessary and sufficient factor for muscle cell formation. Similar to ...
In the cell, RPTOR is present in cytoplasm, lysosomes, and cytoplasmic granules. Amino acid availability determines RPTOR ... In stressed cells, RPTOR associates with SPAG5 and accumulates in stress granules, which significantly reduces its presence in ... Astrin recruits RPTOR to stress granules, inhibiting mTORC1 association and preventing apoptosis induced by mTORC1 ... "Inhibition of mTORC1 by astrin and stress granules prevents apoptosis in cancer cells". Cell. 154 (4): 859-74. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In stressed cells, Rbfox1 has been demonstrated to localize to cytoplasmic stress granules. Alternative splicing RNA-binding ... Lee JA, Damianov A, Lin CH, Fontes M, Parikshak NN, Anderson ES, Geschwind DH, Black DL, Martin KC (2016). "Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 ... Rbfox1 cytoplasmic variants modulate mRNA stability and translation. ... "ATPase-Modulated Stress Granules Contain a Diverse Proteome and Substructure". Cell. 164 (3): 487-498. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Lin, WJ; Duffy, A; Chen, CY (2007). "Localization of AU-rich element-containing mRNA in cytoplasmic granules containing exosome ... One of those is the cytoplasmic Ski complex, which includes an RNA helicase (Ski2) and is involved in mRNA degradation. In the ... van Dijk, EL; Schilders, G; Pruijn, GJ (2007). "Human cell growth requires a functional cytoplasmic exosome, which is involved ... but can form part of the cytoplasmic exosome complex as well. Apart from these two tightly bound protein subunits, many ...
The isolation and properties of the specific cytoplasmic granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J. Exp. Med. 112:983- ... They isolated granules from the rest of the cell contents, used phase and electron microscopy to visualize them, and determined ... The influence of phagocytosis on the intracellular distribution of granule‑associated components of polymorphonuclear ... and Pinocytosis and Granule Formation in Macrophages (1967). The Journal of Experimental Medicine later noted that Hirsch and ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules which contain serotonin, ADP and thromboxane A2, all of which increase the effect of ... Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ... When platelets come across the injured endothelium cells, they change shape, release granules and ultimately become 'sticky'. ...
"Mammalian Smaug is a translational repressor that forms cytoplasmic foci similar to stress granules". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (52): ...
April 2016). "Pur-alpha regulates cytoplasmic stress granule dynamics and ameliorates FUS toxicity". Acta Neuropathologica. 131 ... "Stress Granules Need Pur-alpha to Come Together". Research ALS. Barbe MF, Krueger JJ, Loomis R, Otte J, Gordon J (November 2016 ... isolation and characterization of an RNA-transporting granule". Neuron. 43 (4): 513-25. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.022. PMID ...
It is also present in cytoplasmic granules of the macrophages and the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Large amounts of ...
"The precrystalline cytoplasmic granules of alveolar soft part sarcoma contain monocarboxylate transporter 1 and CD147". The ...
These proteins all localize to cytoplasmic structures called P-bodies. Notably in yeast there are no translation factors or ... Chantarachot T, Bailey-Serres J (January 2018). "Polysomes, Stress Granules, and Processing Bodies: A Dynamic Triumvirate ... Controlling Cytoplasmic mRNA Fate and Function". Plant Physiology. 176 (1): 254-269. doi:10.1104/pp.17.01468. PMC 5761823. PMID ...
Granules differ between species, with rat uNK cells displaying an increased number of small granules than murine cells. Rat uNK ... On microscopic examination, they may have one or more cytoplasmic projections and/or be binucleate. Characteristically they ... These granules usually appear regular (but some can be irregularly shaped), and they grow in size and number until ... morphology also differs from the mouse due to the common occurrence of myelin within the granules. In all species, as active ...
... s contain large cytoplasmic granules which obscure the cell nucleus under the microscope when stained. However, when ... Histamine and proteoglycans are pre-stored in the cell's granules while the other secreted substances are newly generated. Each ... although there are less than that found in mast cell granules. Mast cells were once thought to be basophils that migrated from ...
... cytoplasmic granules; cell vesicles (phagosome, autophagosome, clathrin-coated vesicles, COPI-coated and COPII-coated vesicles ... In the bilayer of red blood cells is phosphatidylserine.[8] This is usually in the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. However, ... and secretory vesicles (including synaptosome, acrosomes, melanosomes, and chromaffin granules). Different types of biological ...
The cytoplasmic components are assumed to be similar to what other diatoms have. In C. meneghiniana, there are granules ... Shirokawa, Y., Shimada, M. (2016). Cytoplasmic inheritance of parent-offspring cell structure in the clonal diatom Cyclotella ...
Brown lipofuscin granules are also observed (with increasing age) together with irregular unstained areas of cytoplasm; these ... correspond to cytoplasmic glycogen and lipid stores removed during histological preparation. The average life span of the ...
... which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant ... Neutrophils have two types of granules; primary (azurophilic) granules (found in young cells) and secondary (specific) granules ... The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied amount of granules; these granules are usually numerous enough to partially ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ...
"Human hnRNP Q re-localizes to cytoplasmic granules upon PMA, thapsigargin, arsenite and heat-shock treatments". Experimental ... A cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (28): 25233-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202556200. PMID ... Isoform 1 is also implicated with other RBPs in the cytoplasmic de-adenylation and translational and decay interplay of c-Fos ... Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP), also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein ( ...
... increased cytoplasmic basophilia and/or the presence of cytoplasmic granules; eosinophilia (in cases of CMML with eosinophilia ...
5. The association of acid phosphatase with a special class of cytoplasmic granules in rat liver". The Biochemical Journal. 59 ... de Duve, D (1969). "The peroxisome: a new cytoplasmic organelle". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 173 (1030): 71- ...
... abundant cytoplasm and fine eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. The tumor cells stain positively for S-100 as they are of ... high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, pleomorphism, and necrosis. Multiple granular cell tumors may seen in the context of ...
cytoplasmic vesicle. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule ...
de Duve C (Apr 1969). "The peroxisome: a new cytoplasmic organelle". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, ...
specific granule membrane. • tertiary granule membrane. • cytosol. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • cellular defense ... Structurally MDL-1 is a type II transmembrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail and without signaling motifs, therefore it ...
Neutrophil granules contain a variety of toxic substances that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. Similar to ... When the cytoplasmic receptors MDA5 and RIG-I recognize a virus the conformation between the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) ... are known as granulocytes due to the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, or as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) due to their ... mast cells rapidly release characteristic granules, rich in histamine and heparin, along with various hormonal mediators and ...
Microautophagy, on the other hand, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material into the lysosome.[33] This occurs by ... Autophagy allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.[4][5] In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic ... "focal cytoplasmic degradation," which referenced a 1955 German study of injury-induced sequestration. The study recognized ... "Cytoplasmic components in hepatic cell lysosomes". The Journal of Cell Biology. 12 (1): 198-202. doi:10.1083/jcb.12.1.198. PMC ...
... concluding that granule-targeting sequences are localized in the mature chain of TNF and that the cytoplasmic tail is ... 2007). "TNF Trafficking to Human Mast Cell Granules: Mature Chain-Dependent Endocytosis". The Journal of Immunology. 178 (9): ... Olszewski MB, Groot AJ, Dastych J, Knol EF (May 2007). "TNF trafficking to human mast cell granules: mature chain-dependent ... In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we constructed additional fusion proteins and ...
platelet alpha granule membrane. • platelet dense granule membrane. • external side of plasma membrane. • extracellular space. ... P-selectin is anchored in transmembrane region that is followed by a short cytoplasmic tail region.[16] ... In unactivated platelets P-selectin is stored in α-granules. Other names for P-selectin include CD62P, Granule Membrane Protein ... and dense granules and the inner walls of the granules are exposed on the outside of the cell. The P-selectin then promotes ...
secretory granule lumen. • endosome membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • clathrin-coated vesicle ... cytoplasmic vesicle. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Biological process. • positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis ...
Cytoplasmic localization of mRNA is thought to be a function of the 3' UTR. Proteins that are needed in a particular region of ... Steward, Oswald (1982). "Preferential localization of polyribosomes under the base of dendritic spines in granule cells of the ... The balance between translation and decay is reflected in the size and abundance of cytoplasmic structures known as P-bodies[25 ...
... which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long ... Neutrophils have two types of granules; primary (azurophilic) granules (found in young cells) and secondary (specific) granules ... The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied amount of granules; these granules are usually numerous enough to partially ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also ...
... and an absence of cytoplasmic granules. However these morphologic distinctions are not absolute and a definitive diagnoses ...
Granule cell precursors (GCPs) of the cerebellum, after undergoing symmetric cell division[47] in the external granule-cell ... Each subunit has an extensive cytoplasmic domain, which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein ... "Timing neurogenesis and differentiation: insights from quantitative clonal analyses of cerebellar granule cells". The Journal ... layer (EGL), migrate into the internal granule-cell layer (IGL) where they downregulate GluN2B and activate GluN2C, a process ...
cytoplasmic stress granule. • سيتوبلازم. • عصارة خلوية. العمليات الحيوية. • regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA processing body ... "Ataxin-2 interacts with the DEAD/H-box RNA helicase DDX6 and interferes with P-bodies and stress granules.". Mol. Biol. Cell. ...
... is colocalized with cytoplasmic cytochrome c in vulnerable hippocampal neurons after 4 hours of reperfusion following 10-minute ... "Inhibition of ribosome recruitment induces stress granule formation independently of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha ...
This includes cytoplasmic filaments in muscle cells, intracellular membranes, and extracellular fibers. ... such as keratohyalin granules and calcified material, which turns blue when exposed to alkaline water (blueing solution). The ...
Cytoplasmic: characterized by the formation of large vacuoles that eat away organelles in a specific sequence prior to the ... "Elimination of Bax expression in mice increases cerebellar Purkinje cell numbers but not the number of granule cells". Journal ... is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein ...
Necrosis is characterised by cytoplasmic swelling, irreversible damage to the plasma membrane, and organelle breakdown leading ... fragmentation of the nucleus and break up of the chromatin into unstructured granules, and karyolysis; dissolution of the cell ...
Cytoplasmic granule *Melanosome. *Microbody. *Glyoxysome. *Peroxisome. *Weibel-Palade body. Cytoskeleton. *Microfilament. * ...
White blood cells are divided into granulocytes and agranulocytes, distinguished by the presence or absence of granules in the ... Cytoplasmic fragments; survives 5 to 9 days Enables clotting; releases serotonin which causes vasoconstriction ...
Cytoplasmic granules *Melanosome. *Microbody. *Glyoxysome. *Peroxisome. *Weibel-Palade body. Cytoskeleton. *Microfilaments. * ...
The edible Coprinellus bisporus is nearly identical but lacks the yellowish cap granules and only has two spores per basidium. ... to slowly change form and position by altering the relative volumes of the vacuoles enclosed by the numerous thin cytoplasmic ... Coprinellus truncorum is also covered with glistening granules and is said to be almost indistinguishable from C. micaceus in ...
secretory granule. • neuronal cell body. • cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule. • mitotic spindle. • leading edge membrane. • ...
single = 'mitochondrion'; from Greek mitos, a thread + khondrion, granule *↑ Henze K. & Martin W. 2003. Evolutionary biology: ... Mogensen H.L. (1996). "The hows and whys of cytoplasmic inheritance in seed plants". American Journal of Botany 83 (3): 247. ...
platelet alpha granule membrane. • integrin alphav-beta3 complex. • extracellular exosome. • lamellipodium membrane. • cell ... The talin n-terminal head domain interacts with the membrane-proximal region of the beta(3) cytoplasmic tail". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Identification of a novel calcium-binding protein that interacts with the integrin alphaIIb cytoplasmic domain". J. Biol. Chem ... "Beta 3-endonexin, a novel polypeptide that interacts specifically with the cytoplasmic tail of the integrin beta 3 subunit". J ...
cytoplasmic vesicle. • cytosol. • plasma membrane. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mast cell granule. ... extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. • ...
... refers to an increase in the total mass of a cell, including both cytoplasmic, nuclear and organelle volume.[1] ... or by internalisation of nutrient storage granules (yolk granules) by endocytosis (frogs). ... The fourth phase, M phase, consists of nuclear division (karyokinesis) and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis), accompanied by ... The large size of some eggs can be achieved either by pumping in cytosolic components from adjacent cells through cytoplasmic ...
... or by internalization of nutrient storage granules (yolk granules) by endocytosis (frogs). ... The fourth phase, M phase, consists of nuclear division (karyokinesis) and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis), accompanied by ... Their large size can be achieved either by pumping in cytosolic components from adjacent cells through cytoplasmic bridges ( ... the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) ...
Cytoplasmic tRNA genes can be grouped into 49 families according to their anticodon features. These genes are found on all ... participate in the formation of stress granules,[40] displace mRNAs from RNA-binding proteins[41] or inhibit translation.[42] ... For example, in yeast, the splicing is not carried out in the nucleus but at the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial membranes.[ ... Both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs can produce fragments.[36] There are at least four structural types of tRFs believed ...
Radoja S, Frey A, Vukmanovic S (2006). "T-cell receptor signaling events triggering granule exocytosis". Crit Rev Immunol. 26 ( ... structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli". Biochem J. 372 (Pt 2): ...
Platelets release cytoplasmic granules which contain serotonin, ADP and thromboxane A2, all of which increase the effect of ... Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and thromboxane A2. Adenosine diphosphate ... When platelets come across the injured endothelium cells, they change shape, release granules and ultimately become 'sticky'. ...
Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions ... the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. 2Apro, which ... infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses ... Multiple Poliovirus Proteins Repress Cytoplasmic RNA Granules by Jonathan D. Dougherty †, Wei-Chih Tsai and Richard E. Lloyd * ...
cytoplasmic mRNP granule, stress granule View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO ... Gene Ontology Term: cytoplasmic stress granule. GO ID. GO:0010494 Aspect. Cellular Component. Description. A dense aggregation ...
Kinesin-1 and Cytoplasmic Dynein Transport dFMR-Containing RNP Granules. FMRP has been shown to be colocalized with kinesin-1 ... Based on these findings, we conclude that dFMR-containing RNP granules are moved by both kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein and ... Transport of Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein-containing ribonucleoprotein granules by kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic ... Transport of Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein-containing ribonucleoprotein granules by kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic ...
The formation of these cytoplasmic granules is dependent on determinants located in the RGG domain. We also provide evidence ... Trapping of messenger RNA by Fragile X Mental Retardation protein into cytoplasmic granules induces translation repression.. ... The FMRP-containing mRNPs are dynamic structures that oscillate between polyribosomes and cytoplasmic granules reminiscent of ... FMRP is a cytoplasmic protein associated with mRNP complexes containing poly(A)+mRNA. As a step towards understanding FMRP ...
Three peptides with pore-forming activity were isolated from the cytoplasmic granules of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica by ... Amoebapores, a family of membranolytic peptides from cytoplasmic granules of Entamoeba histolytica: isolation, primary ... They also are capable of perturbing the integrity of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes and thereby kill Gram-positive bacteria. ... structure, and pore formation in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes.. Leippe M1, Andrä J, Nickel R, Tannich E, Müller-Eberhard HJ. ...
Cytoplasmic granules purified from noncytotoxic lymphoid cells did not contain detectable cytolytic activity; purified granules ... Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors.. P A Henkart, P J ... Purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocytes (LGL) tumors were cytolytic to erythrocytes, ... Granule cytolytic activity was heat and Pronase sensitive, and could be solubilized by 2 M salt. Examination of granules ...
Methods to Classify Cytoplasmic Foci as Mammalian Stress Granules. J. Vis. Exp. (123), e55656, doi:10.3791/55656 (2017). ... Gilks, N., et al. Stress granule assembly is mediated by prion-like aggregation of TIA-1. Mol Biol Cell. 15, (12), 5383-5398 ( ... Kedersha, N., et al. Dynamic shuttling of TIA-1 accompanies the recruitment of mRNA to mammalian stress granules. J Cell Biol. ... Bley, N., et al. Stress granules are dispensable for mRNA stabilization during cellular stress. Nucleic Acids Res. 43, (4), e26 ...
In this review, we discuss the biogenesis and maturation of piRNAs in various cytoplasmic granules such as Yb and nuage bodies ... piRNA biogenesis is different in somatic and germ cells and involves the role of cytoplasmic granules in addition to ... Deciphering piRNA biogenesis through cytoplasmic granules, mitochondria and exosomes.. Sep 28, 2020 ... Also, we review the role of P bodies, stress granules, and P granules, and membrane-bound compartments such as mitochondria and ...
Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8 … ... Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ CTL clones and in vivo activated CTL ... Localization of Fas ligand in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells: participation of ... Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that FasL was localized on outer membrane of the cytoplasmic granules, while perforin was ...
... Anna ... this included cells with a few granules, but mostly with multiple granules. The relative number of cells with a few granules ... Gaillard H, Aguilera A. A novel class of mRNA-containing cytoplasmic granules are produced in response to UV-irradiation. Mol ... Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress ...
Regulation of cytoplasmic stress granules by apoptosis-inducing factor. Cande, C.; Vahsen, N.; Metivier, D.; Tourriere, H.; ... Stress granules (SG) are dynamic cytoplasmic foci in which stalled translation initiation complexes accumulate. In conditions ...
Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs.. L Nover, ... Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs. ... Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs. ... Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs. ...
Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci. Jelke J. Fros, Natalia E. ... Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci ... Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci ... Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci ...
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains ... BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains ... Intratracheal instillation of cytoplasmic granules from Phleum pratense pollen induces IgE- and cell-mediated responses in the ... Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.. Authors:. ...
THE ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF THE SPECIFIC CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES OF RABBIT POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUCOCYTES Zanvil A. Cohn, Zanvil ... Zanvil A. Cohn, James G. Hirsch; THE ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF THE SPECIFIC CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES OF RABBIT POLYMORPHONUCLEAR ... Disruption of the granules was associated with the release of the majority of granule protein and enzymes in a non-sedimentable ... A method has been described for isolation of the specific cytoplasmic granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. ...
... we analyzed the molecular composition and dynamics of single cytoplasmic YBX1_IMP1 mRNP granules in live cells. Granules ... Small cytoplasmic mRNP granules are implicated in mRNA transport, translational control, and decay. Using super-resolution ... Single mRNP Analysis Reveals that Small Cytoplasmic mRNP Granules Represent mRNA Singletons. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift ... Taken together, we conclude that small cytoplasmic mRNP granules are mRNA singletons, thus depicting the cellular transcriptome ...
Cytoplasmic granules/inclusion bodies stain characteristically with certain dyes;. *Volutin granules appears as "metachromatic ... Cytoplasmic Granules of Bacteria and their significance 4/5 (5) April 29, 2013. by Tankeshwar Acharya in Bacteriology, ... polyphosphate granules: a storage form for inorgnic phosphates (volutin granules, also known as metachromatic granules, are ... Metachromatic granules of Corynebacterium spp. *Polysaccharide granules (glycogen): a storage form of glucose and ...
Changes in neutrophil granule protein and cytoplasmic fibrils in human acute myeloid leukemias. , Biotechnic & histochemistry ... Changes in neutrophil granule protein and cytoplasmic fibrils in human acute myeloid leukemias. H C Mutasa 5/1/1995 ... Changes in neutrophil granule protein and cytoplasmic fibrils in human acute myeloid leukemias. Biotech Histochem. 1995;70(3): ... Granule protein deficiencies in morphologically mature neutrophil cells of peripheral blood from human patients with acute ...
Kinase-mediated RAS signaling via membraneless cytoplasmic protein granules *Asmin Tulpule. *, Juan Guan ...
... and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress ... and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress ... ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, UPR pathway, ... ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, UPR pathway, ...
In unstressed cerebellar granule neurons, JNK and MKK4 are localized predominantly in the cytoplasmic compartment.A, After ... Cerebellar granule neurons are typically grown in elevated potassium, resulting in elevated cytoplasmic calcium levels ( ... Bulk JNK activity resides in the cytoplasmic fraction in resting cells. We have established that cerebellar granule neuron JNK ... B, The developmental increase in JNK activity occurs in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Nuclear and cytoplasmic ...
hnRNP A2 protein was implicated as the cognate trans-acting factor: it was colocalized with RNA in cytoplasmic granules, and ... hnRNP A2 is present in cytoplasmic granules in neurons. Previous studies have established that hnRNP A2, which was originally ... A typical granule was selected manually, and the other granules in this channel were selected automatically by the software, ... hnRNP A2 is located in the nucleus and in large granules distributed along the neurites (Fig. 1A). These granules are similar ...
The Parkinsons Disease-Linked Protein DJ-1 Associates with Cytoplasmic mRNP Granules During Stress and Neurodegeneration. ...
Electron Microscopical Morphology of Cytoplasmic Granules from Horse Eosinophil Leucocytes. Stockert, J. C. / Trigoso, C. I. / ...
Cytoplasmic Granules / metabolism* * Cytoplasmic Granules / physiology * Exocrine Glands / metabolism * Mice * Pituitary Gland ... The exocrine protein trypsinogen is targeted into the secretory granules of an endocrine cell line: studies by gene transfer J ... In the alternate, "regulated" pathway, proteins are stored in secretory granules until the cells are stimulated to secrete with ...
Methods to Classify Cytoplasmic Foci as Mammalian Stress Granules. Anaïs Aulas*1,2, Marta M. Fay*1,2, Witold Szaflarski1,2,3, ... Assessment of Neuronal Viability Using Fluorescein Diacetate-Propidium Iodide Double Staining in Cerebellar Granule Neuron ...
... ALS ... Stress granule formation was altered in cells strongly expressing GFP-TDP-△NLS, or untagged TDP-43-△NLS in the cytoplasm but ... Stress granule formation was impaired in cells expressing GFP-TDP-43 (WT or G348C) in the cytoplasm. Overall, these results ... with ALS in stress-granule formation. TDP-43 (WT, △NLS, or G348C), with or without a GFP-tag, was expressed in SH-SY5Y ...
Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells. In: Cell Calcium ... Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Cell Calcium. ... Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells. / Nicholls, ... title = "Interactions between mitochondrial bioenergetics and cytoplasmic calcium in cultured cerebellar granule cells", ...
Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic repositories containing translationally silenced mRNAs. November 16, 2016. Stress ... Launch Tension granules (SGs) are powerful cytoplasmic foci filled with translationally silenced messenger RNP (mRNP) ... We present that a lot of the antiviral activity of tension granules is normally contingent over the function NVP-BAW2881 of PKR ... granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic repositories containing translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble upon cellular ...
Cells were cotransfected with tPA-Venus as a granule marker and with CFP as a cytoplasmic marker. Where the volume of a granule ... Phogrin and tPA were used as markers of postexocytic granules or granule remnants. By imaging the volume excluded by a granule ... The granules in E and F had previously undergone exocytosis, whereas the granule in G had not. (E-G) Plotted as rolling ... 4 A, B, and D, the granules first brightened and then dimmed. NH4Cl caused the granules to brighten again (Fig. 4 E and F) and ...
  • Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been shown to be involved in translational regulation and is found in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules that travel along dendrites of neurons. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, ZBP/IMP-1, a protein that is involved in recognition of localized mRNA, and FMRP are able to recruit each other into RNP granules ( 32 ), suggesting that FMRP may be involved in RNA trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • Trapping of messenger RNA by Fragile X Mental Retardation protein into cytoplasmic granules induces translation repression. (nih.gov)
  • FMRP is a cytoplasmic protein associated with mRNP complexes containing poly(A)+mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Granule concentrations of approximately 1 microgram/ml granule protein were adequate to lyse 100% of the erythrocytes, while the nucleated cells required up to 100 micrograms/ml granule protein to achieve complete lysis. (rupress.org)
  • HSP12 mRNA that gave rise to highly elevated protein levels was not observed in granules under these stress conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Round cytoplasmic granules of various sizes (i) contained nsP3 and stress granule assembly factors 1 and 2 (G3BP1/2), (ii) were next to double-stranded RNA foci and nsP1-positive structures, and (iii) were close to the nuclear membrane and the nuclear pore complex protein Nup98. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of protein turnover and mobility by live-cell microscopy revealed that the granules could persist for hours to days, accumulated newly synthesized protein, and moved through the cytoplasm at various speeds. (asm.org)
  • Chemical analysis disclosed that the granule pellet contained protein and phospholipid with only traces of nucleic acids. (rupress.org)
  • Disruption of the granules was associated with the release of the majority of granule protein and enzymes in a non-sedimentable form. (rupress.org)
  • Changes in neutrophil granule protein and cytoplasmic fibrils in human acute myeloid leukemias. (docphin.com)
  • Granule protein deficiencies in morphologically mature neutrophil cells of peripheral blood from human patients with acute myeloid leukemia was demonstrated using post-embedding immunocytochemistry. (docphin.com)
  • Nonetheless, most of the immature myeloid cells from peripheral blood of leukemic patients showing neutrophil protein immunoreactivity abnormalities in one or more granule markers often and randomly displayed one or more unusual ultrastructural features. (docphin.com)
  • The clinical and pathological significance of neutrophil granule protein deficiencies and the abundance of fibrillar structures in malignant myeloid cells presently is uncertain. (docphin.com)
  • Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. (frontiersin.org)
  • hnRNP A2 protein was implicated as the cognate trans -acting factor: it was colocalized with RNA in cytoplasmic granules, and RNA trafficking in neurites was compromised by A2RE mutations that abrogate hnRNP A2 binding. (jneurosci.org)
  • In an attempt to determine and demarcate the effects of protein malnutrition from those produced by alcoholism and to evaluate the precise effect of alcohol per se on cytochemical and ultrastructural properties of rat polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) granules, we investigated the influence of chronic protein malnutrition or chronic alcoholism alone and in combination, in rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, these results suggest that stress-granule formation may be inhibited by high levels of TDP-43 protein in the cytoplasm. (omgcb.com)
  • The G3BP1-interacting protein Caprin1 also directly interacts with PKR regulates efficient PKR activation at the stress granule and is also integral for the release of active PKR into the cytoplasm to engage in NVP-BAW2881 substrate recognition. (researchreportone.com)
  • Launch Tension granules (SGs) are powerful cytoplasmic foci filled with translationally silenced messenger RNP (mRNP) condensates which type in response to a wide range of cellular tensions that inhibit protein synthesis through the activation of any of four α subunit of eukaryotic initiation element 2 (eIF2α) kinases (1 2 SGs contain many translation initiation factors 40 ribosomal subunits mRNAs and dozens of RNA binding proteins. (researchreportone.com)
  • Lin, JC & Tarn, WY 2009, ' RNA-binding motif Protein 4 translocates to cytoplasmic granules and suppresses translation via argonaute2 duringmuscle cell differentiation ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 284, no. 50, pp. 34658-34665. (elsevier.com)
  • When HeLa cells are starved or treated with a proteasome inhibitor, Alfy relocalizes to characteristic filamentous cytoplasmic structures located close to autophagic membranes and ubiquitin-containing protein aggregates. (biologists.org)
  • Whereas neuro-peptide Y was lost from granules in seconds, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and the membrane protein phogrin remained at the granule site for over 1 min, thus providing markers for postexocytic granules. (pnas.org)
  • When tPA was imaged simultaneously with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a cytosolic marker, the volume occupied by the granule appeared as a dark spot where it excluded CFP. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, treatments expected to interfere with the endocytic protein dynamin caused amperometric spikes to broaden and their charge to increase, suggesting that dynamin caused granules to reseal before they discharged all their catecholamine ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that TSC22D4, a protein encoded by the TGF-β1-activated gene Tsc22d4 ( Thg-1pit ) and highly expressed in postnatal and adult mouse cerebellum with multiple post-translationally modified protein forms, moves to nucleus when in vitro differentiated cerebellum granule neurons (CGNs) are committed to apoptosis by hyperpolarizing KCl concentrations in the culture medium. (springer.com)
  • Instead, Oskar protein nucleates the formation of polar granules from cytoplasmic pools of the components shared with nuage. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, Syt IV CD binds specifically to ISGs and not to mature secretory granules (MSGs), and Syt IV binds to syntaxin 6, a SNARE protein that is involved in ISG maturation. (rupress.org)
  • The stress granule protein DDX3X interacts with NLRP3 to drive inflammasome activation. (nature.com)
  • Wolozin, B. Regulated protein aggregation: stress granules and neurodegeneration. (nature.com)
  • FUS is a DNA/RNA-binding protein (RBP) that forms cytoplasmic inclusions in ALS and frontotemporal lobular degeneration (FTLD) patients' brains and spinal cords. (mendeley.com)
  • showed that IL-4 was present in cytoplasmic granules and found that a previously unrecognized pool of the IL-4 receptor protein IL-4Rα was also present in the granules. (sciencemag.org)
  • 731 FT /note="Polyadenylate-binding protein, cytoplasmic and FT nuclear" FT /id="PRO_0000295381" FT DOMAIN 54. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • In the new paper, Corinna Giorgi from the Moore lab demonstrated that eIF4AIII, a protein that anchors the EJC to the mRNA and is sometimes found in P-bodies, is present in neuronal mRNA granules. (scienceblogs.com)
  • She isolated eIF4AIII derived from neuronal extracts, and discovered that this protein is bond to many particular mRNAs previously described as residing in these granules. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We have previously reported that the phosphorylated form of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-SAPK/JNK) accumulates in granules within hippocampal pyramidal cell bodies in AD tissue at the time that hyperphosphorylated tau begins to aggregate into early-stage NFTs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In diseased neurons, this protein hangs out in cytoplasmic stress granules, a familiar compartment for scientists interested in ALS. (alzforum.org)
  • In particular, it may regulate the interactions between soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) located on granules/vesicles (v-SNAREs) and the plasma membrane (t-SNAREs) ( 1 , 2 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutations in Fus cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the mutant protein forms inclusions that appear to correspond to stress granules. (rupress.org)
  • Instead, we show that translation occurs within cytoplasmic Fus granules leading to local protein production from APC-RNPs. (rupress.org)
  • G3BP readily localized to these typical SGs, displayed as irregularly shaped granules that converge around the nucleus and extend from there into the cytoplasm and are often smaller when located farther away from the nucleus ( Fig. 1A , right). (asm.org)
  • Concentrated deposits of certain substances which are presented/located in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria are known as cytoplasmic granules or inclusion bodies.They serves as storage areas for nutrients, e.g. volutin granules are reserve of high energy stored in the form of polymerized metaphosphate. (microbeonline.com)
  • Stress granule formation was altered in cells strongly expressing GFP-TDP-△NLS, or untagged TDP-43-△NLS in the cytoplasm but not the negative controls, GFP or GFP-UtrCH. (omgcb.com)
  • Stress granule formation was impaired in cells expressing GFP-TDP-43 (WT or G348C) in the cytoplasm. (omgcb.com)
  • Cytoplasmic nuage particles move rapidly in nurse cell cytoplasm and passage into the oocyte where their movements parallel that of the bulk cytoplasm. (biologists.org)
  • These granules are found in the germ plasm, a specialized region of the cytoplasm that contains the determinants of the germline ( Mahowald, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Large granules in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids were stained for BRUNOL2 but not for the nuage proteins. (scirp.org)
  • There are numerous inclusion bodies, or granules , in the bacterial cytoplasm. (britannica.com)
  • Within cells, p-SAPK/JNK granules are distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a manner similar to the distribution of GVDs and a subset of granules co-localize with GVD markers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These were much smaller than typical cytoplasmic stress granules, Bowser said, and did not co-localize with TDP-43 or ubiquitin, common markers for pathological aggregates in the cytoplasm. (alzforum.org)
  • GFP-dFMR form granules that contain both endogenous dFMR and mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • We speculate that, in neurons, FMRP plays a role as a mRNA repressor in incompetent mRNP granules that have to be translocated from the cell body to distal locations such as dendritic spines and synaptosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Using the MS2L mRNA reporter system UFO1 mRNA was observed in granules that colocalized with P-bodies and stress granules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • UFO1 mRNA is stored in P-bodies and stress granules. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Small cytoplasmic mRNP granules are implicated in mRNA transport, translational control, and decay. (regionh.dk)
  • Granules appeared elongated and branched, with patches of IMP1 and YBX1 distributed along mRNA, reflecting the attachment of the two RNA-binding proteins in cis. (regionh.dk)
  • Taken together, we conclude that small cytoplasmic mRNP granules are mRNA singletons, thus depicting the cellular transcriptome. (regionh.dk)
  • Functions by recruiting the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex and components of the cytoplasmic RNA decay machinery to the bound ARE-containing mRNAs, and hence promotes ARE-mediated mRNA deadenylation and decay processes (PubMed:15687258, PubMed:18326031, PubMed:25106868). (genecards.org)
  • Processing bodies (PBs) are specialized cytoplasmic foci where mRNA turnover and translational repression can take place. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Gallon, J.* and Hilliker, A.K. (2013) Control of gene expression through regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA. (richmond.edu)
  • Here we describe the first known function of nsP3, to inhibit stress granule assembly by recruiting G3BP into cytoplasmic foci. (asm.org)
  • Together, our data demonstrate the role of DDX3X in driving NLRP3 inflammasome and stress granule assembly, and suggest a rheostat-like mechanistic paradigm for regulating live-or-die cell-fate decisions under stress conditions. (nature.com)
  • Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions with mCherry and expressing them individually in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression of viral proteins separately revealed that the capsid region P1, 2A pro , 3A, 3C pro , the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. (mdpi.com)
  • Abnormal immunoreactivity of granule proteins was detected in seven of nine patients. (docphin.com)
  • In the alternate, "regulated" pathway, proteins are stored in secretory granules until the cells are stimulated to secrete with 8-Br-cAMP. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses from different family members disrupt or subvert SG proteins by a variety of methods (8 16 19 -24) suggesting that stress granules or parts play antiviral tasks against these viruses. (researchreportone.com)
  • Three granule proteins were labeled with fluorescent proteins in different colors, and two-color evanescent-field microscopy was used to view single granules during and after exocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • May act as a linker molecule between the submembranous matrix on the luminal side of zymogen granule membrane (ZGM) and aggregated secretory proteins during granule formation in the TGN. (uniprot.org)
  • [6] Dense granules are similar to lysosomes with an acidic pH and even some lysosomal proteins like CD63 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The calcium from a dense granule accounts for the majority of the calcium within the platelets and plays a role in the binding of different proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of proteins that are within the dense granule membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human neutrophils contain four distinct types of granules, which, upon stimulation, are transported to and fuse with the phagosome or the plasma membrane, allowing the release of their content and providing plasma membrane with functional proteins and receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • A range of SNARE proteins has been identified in neutrophils, and there is much evidence that indicates their implication in the regulation of granule fusion ( 13 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • By utilizing a granule exocytosis inhibitor (TN16), we demonstrated that FasL translocated onto cell surface upon degranulation of anti-CD3-stimulated CD8+ CTL clones. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggested a substantial contribution of FasL to granule exocytosis-mediated target cell lysis by CD8+ CTL and NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • The spot remained even after tPA reported exocytosis, indicating that granules failed to flatten into the cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • When exocytosis caused the acidic granule interior to neutralize, GFP-phogrin at first brightened and later dimmed again as the interior separated from the extracellular space and reacidified. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, for the stimulated exocytosis of secretory granules it has been proposed that granules release their contents through a fusion pore and then reseal again once cargo has been released ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the first, exocytosis of single granules was detected as step increases in membrane capacitance, an assay of cell surface area. (pnas.org)
  • In lactotropes, exocytosis caused granule matrices to bind the externally applied dye FM1-43, and some granules retained the dye after it was washed from the cell ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • In PC-12 cell membrane patches, exocytosis caused some granules to take up and sequester an extracellular marker, indicating that the interior of the granule had transiently connected to the external space ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • [3] During exocytosis, the pool of ATP within the dense granule is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in cytoplasmic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, is thought to be the trigger for secretory exocytosis in many cells1-3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Secretory granule exocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulated exocytosis of its granules and release of antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances are key events to limit the spread of pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms that control exocytosis of neutrophil granules are ill-defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, down-regulation of Munc13-4 using small interfering RNA decreases exocytosis of tertiary granules in PLB-985 cells, whereas overexpression of Munc13-4 enhances secretion of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) from tertiary granules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granule exocytosis is a critical event in converting inactive, circulating neutrophils to fully activated cells capable of chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and destruction of pathogens ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory mechanisms underlying mobilization of neutrophil granules and control of exocytosis are complex and ill-defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • Neutrophil activation in vitro by a stimulus like the bacterial peptide N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) 3 leads to the exocytosis of secondary and tertiary granules as well as secretory vesicles, whereas release of primary granule contents requires a pretreatment with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin filament formation that acts as a priming reagent in neutrophils ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have tested whether this view applies to secretory granules in intact PC-12 cells. (pnas.org)
  • Secretory granules. (abcam.com)
  • In neuroendocrine PC12 cells, immature secretory granules (ISGs) mature through homotypic fusion and membrane remodeling. (rupress.org)
  • to become mature secretory granules (MSGs). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, it is apparent that the salmon Dahlgren cells start their secretory activity (production of the secretory granules) in early larval stages and that, thereafter, NPYergic afferent innervation of the caudal neurosecretory system becomes evident. (bioone.org)
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. (openrepository.com)
  • Under some meteorological factors, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contact to water or airborne pollutants, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs) containing allergens. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Surprisingly, however, JNK does not respond characteristically to stress in cultured cerebellar granule (CBG) neurons, a widely exploited CNS model for studies of death and development, despite the regulation of its substrate c-Jun. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the major pool of total activity is cytoplasmic, residing largely in the neurites, suggesting a non-nuclear role for JNK in neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • RBM45 also condenses into cytoplasmic inclusions in the motor neurons of ALS patients. (alzforum.org)
  • We have now studied TSC22D4 cytoplasmic/nuclear localization in CGNs and Purkinje cells: (1) during CGN differentiation/maturation in vivo, (2) during CGN differentiation in vitro, and (3) by in vitro culturing ex vivo cerebellum slices under conditions favoring/inhibiting CGN/Purkinje cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • A. N. Ladd and T. A. Cooper, "Multiple Domains Control the Subcellular Localization and Activity of ETR-3, a Regulator of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic RNA Processing Events," Journal of Cell Science, Vol. 117, No. 16, 2004, pp. 3519-3529. (scirp.org)
  • Stress granules (SG) are dynamic cytoplasmic foci in which stalled translation initiation complexes accumulate. (cnrs.fr)
  • G3BP is an essential factor in the assembly of stress granules (SGs) ( 1 ), which are nonmembranous cytoplasmic focal structures (foci) containing cytoplasmic mRNPs. (asm.org)
  • During CHIKV RNA replication, nsP3 localizes to punctate cytoplasmic foci concurrently with G3BP. (asm.org)
  • Stress granules are related cytoplasmic foci. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we show that AtTZF1 can traffic between the nucleus and cytoplasmic foci. (plantphysiol.org)
  • AtTZF1 colocalizes with markers of PBs, and the morphology of these cytoplasmic foci resembles that of mammalian PBs and stress granules. (plantphysiol.org)
  • AtTZF1-associated cytoplasmic foci are dynamic and tissue specific. (plantphysiol.org)
  • purified granules from rat mast cells and rat liver lysosomes likewise failed to display cytolytic activity. (rupress.org)
  • The properties and composition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocyte granules seem to be analogous to those of liver lysosomes. (rupress.org)
  • These membranous granules are called lysosomes and contain the various bactericidal and digestive enzymes which can destroy bacterial cells after engulfment. (textbookofbacteriology.net)
  • Thus, FMRP is a good marker for RNP granules because it appears to be involved in both transport and translation of a specific subset of mRNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The FMRP-containing mRNPs are dynamic structures that oscillate between polyribosomes and cytoplasmic granules reminiscent of the Stress Granules that contain repressed mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules for future regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • under stress conditions mRNAs may be transferred to stress granules for storage and return to translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Granules of two mRNAs transported prior to translation, ASH1-MS2L and OXA1-MS2L , docked with P-bodies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mRNAs have a complex lifecycle and non-translating mRNAs can be stored in cytoplasmic granules, processing P-bodies, and stress granules for decay or future translation, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytoplasmic heat shock granules are formed from precursor particles and are associated with a specific set of mRNAs. (asm.org)
  • Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic repositories containing translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble upon cellular stress. (researchreportone.com)
  • Component of specific cytoplasmic RNA granules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of specific genes: probably acts by binding to specific mRNAs and regulating their translation. (uniprot.org)
  • When cells undergo stress certain mRNAs are first targeted to larger aggregates called stress granules that then pass its transcripts to P-bodies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A method has been described for isolation of the specific cytoplasmic granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. (rupress.org)
  • We used a morphometric and autoradiographic approach to analyze changes in specific cytoplasmic granules and cytoplasmic lipid bodies associated with human lung mast cell degranulation. (northwestern.edu)
  • By contrast, the specific cytoplasmic granules contained no detectable 3 H-label. (northwestern.edu)
  • This result stands in striking contrast to the behavior of specific cytoplasmic granules, the great majority of which (77% according to aggregate volume) exhibited ultrastructural alterations during the first 20 min of mast cell activation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Deciphering piRNA biogenesis through cytoplasmic granules, mitochondria and exosomes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • piRNA biogenesis is different in somatic and germ cells and involves the role of cytoplasmic granules in addition to mitochondria. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Also, we review the role of P bodies, stress granules, and P granules, and membrane-bound compartments such as mitochondria and exosomes in piRNA biogenesis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the 8,200 g pellet was composed of intact granules as well as occasional mitochondria. (rupress.org)
  • The cultured cerebellar granule cell provides a model in which knowledge gained from studies on isolated mitochondria can be applied to study the role played by the organelles in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis in the cell under resting, stimulated and pathophysiological conditions. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In addition, many non-nuage structures such as ER-attached small granules, less dense material surrounding connecting piece of flagellum, reticulated body, mitochondria-associated granules (MAG), granulated body, ribosome aggregate, and manchette, were stained for BRUNOL2 with different staining intensities. (scirp.org)
  • We used GFP-tagged versions of Vasa and Aubergine to characterize and track nuage particles and polar granules in live preparations of ovaries and embryos. (biologists.org)
  • These particles do not appear to be anchored at the posterior or incorporated into polar granules, which argues for a model where nuage particles do not serve as the precursors of polar granules. (biologists.org)
  • During cellularization early in embryogenesis the polar granules are largely sequestered into the pole cells, the progenitors of the germline, and begin to coalesce into a smaller number of large particles ( Mahowald, 1968 ). (biologists.org)
  • With completion of the germ-band-extension phase of embryogenesis, the polar granule particles disappear and nuage appears ( Mahowald, 1971 ). (biologists.org)
  • By adapting and developing the most advanced biophysical and biochemical methods, such as differential high speed centrifugation, electron microscopy, and enzyme mapping, Claude characterized a class of small cytoplasmic particles, the microsomes, demonstrating that cells are endowed with a pervasive network of membranes, the endoplasmic reticulum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that FasL was localized on outer membrane of the cytoplasmic granules, while perforin was localized in internal vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • When cells were stimulated with eotaxin, immunoelectron microscopy showed that IL-4Rα, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-4 receptor, moved along with IL-4 to vesicles that appeared to bud off of the cytoplasmic granules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Primary (azurophil) granules, secondary (specific) granules, tertiary (gelatinase) granules, and secretory vesicles differ in their respective contents and mobilization hierarchy ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Using super-resolution microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we analyzed the molecular composition and dynamics of single cytoplasmic YBX1_IMP1 mRNP granules in live cells. (regionh.dk)
  • Cytochemical & ultrastructural alteration of cytoplasmic granules of rat peripheral blood neutrophils induced by chronic alcoholism & malnutrition. (bvsalud.org)
  • In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. (fpnotebook.com)
  • As stress granules serve a protective function, their deregulation may promote neurodegeneration due to an aberrant stress response. (omgcb.com)
  • He also tried to isolate the eosinophilic granules of leukocytes, but failed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examination of granules exposed to calcium in the electron microscope using negative staining showed that calcium treatment of granules results in the formation of ring-shaped structures previously described to be associated with LGL-mediated cytotoxicity. (rupress.org)
  • Each of these components is also present in polar granules, structures that are assembled in the oocyte and specify the formation of embryonic germ cells. (biologists.org)
  • Bacteria can also have internal membranous structures that form as outgrowths of the cytoplasmic membrane. (britannica.com)
  • We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Intratracheal instillation of cytoplasmic granules from Phleum pratense pollen induces IgE- and cell-mediated responses in the Brown Norway rat. (openrepository.com)
  • We show that TSC22D4 displays both nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations in undifferentiated, early postnatal cerebellum CGNs, irrespectively of CGN proliferation/migration from external to internal granule cell layer, and that it specifically accumulates in the somatodendritic and synaptic compartments when CGNs mature, as indicated by TSC22D4 abundance at the level of adult cerebellum glomeruli and apparent lack in CGN nuclei. (springer.com)
  • Stress granules are cytoplasmic compartments that enable cells to survive various stressors. (nature.com)
  • Decreased immunoreactivity patterns were found more for the primary granule markers elastase and myeloperoxidase than for the secondary granule marker lactoferrin. (docphin.com)
  • Cytolytic activity of purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocyte tumors. (rupress.org)
  • Purified cytoplasmic granules from cytotoxic rat large granular lymphocytes (LGL) tumors were cytolytic to erythrocytes, splenocytes, and a number of different lymphoid tumor cells. (rupress.org)
  • These results provide support for the hypothesis that the cytotoxic processes mediated by LGL are a secretory event characterized by the release of cytolytic material from the cytoplasmic granules after triggering by a surface receptor. (rupress.org)
  • Mice with MRP4-/- will have dysfunctional platelets from cAMP not being takin up from the cytosol and placed into the dense granule. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Patients and mice with dense granule deficiency have a harder time forming a hemostatic plug and therefore have a longer bleed time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granule-mediated lysis of erythrocytes and nucleated cells was complete within 3 min at room temperature. (rupress.org)
  • Studies with isolated granules demonstrated their lysis by a variety of weak acids and surface-active agents. (rupress.org)
  • When buffered solutions were employed between the ranges of pH 2.0 and 9.0, granule lysis began at pH 5.5 and was complete at pH 4.0. (rupress.org)
  • As a step towards understanding FMRP function(s), we have established the immortal STEK Fmr1 KO cell line and showed by transfection assays with FMR1-expressing vectors that newly synthesized FMRP accumulates into cytoplasmic granules. (nih.gov)
  • White, J. P. & Lloyd, R. E. Regulation of stress granules in virus systems. (nature.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the biogenesis and maturation of piRNAs in various cytoplasmic granules such as Yb and nuage bodies. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • These observations establish that mast cell cytoplasmic granules and cytoplasmic lipid bodies are distinct organelles that differ in ultrastructure, biochemistry, and behavior during mast cell activation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Dense granules (also known as dense bodies or delta granules ) are specialized secretory organelles . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the one hand these RNA-bodies serve as a vault, where you would keep your most precious items, and on the other hand these granule is the trash compactor where you would dump anything you needed to get rid of. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Hilliker, A.K. (2012) Analysis of RNA helicases in P-bodies and stress granules. (richmond.edu)
  • Relation of hippocampal phospho-SAPK/JNK granules in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies to granulovacuolar degeneration bodies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We now report that p-SAPK/JNK granules are found within the hippocampal CA1 region of PSP, CBD and PiD cases as well and that these granules are likely GVD bodies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Several RNA granule types exist that share common components and are either constitutively present (such as neuronal transport granules and P-bodies) or form in response to stress (stress granules). (rupress.org)
  • However, granules prepared from normal rat peripheral blood LGL were cytolytic. (rupress.org)
  • Following disruption, the sucrose lysate was separated into three fractions by differential centrifugation, i.e . 400 g or nuclear pellet, 8,200 g or granule pellet and the postgranule supernate. (rupress.org)
  • Anderson, P. & Kedersha, N. RNA granules: post-transcriptional and epigenetic modulators of gene expression. (nature.com)
  • Ultrastructural changes of neutrophil granules including reduction, redistribution and atypical accumulation as well as appearance of autophagic vacuoles , confirmed their alteration which was emphasised by the additive pathophysiological interaction of alcoholism and chronic hypoprotein malnutrition . (bvsalud.org)
  • The fMLF-mediated transient increase in cytosolic calcium is required for the mobilization of neutrophil granules ( 4 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Volutin, or metachromatic granules, contains polymerized phosphate and represents a storage form for inorganic phosphate and energy. (britannica.com)
  • In this study, GFP-tagged Drosophila homologue of FMRP (dFMR) was used to visualize RNP granule movement in Drosophila S2 cells. (pnas.org)
  • Live fluorescence microscopy revealed that dFMR-containing RNP granules move bidirectionally in thin processes formed by S2 cells in the presence of cytochalasin D. Knocking down the heavy chains of either kinesin-1 (kinesin heavy chain) or cytoplasmic dynein (dynein heavy chain) by RNA interference blocks the movement of the dFMR granules. (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian cells, FMRP forms granules that contain its own RNA ( 13 ) and moves along the neurites of differentiated PC12 cells ( 31 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we show that in Drosophila S2 cells, GFP-tagged dFMR is able to form RNP granules that are moved by kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein. (pnas.org)
  • Exposure of LGL tumor granules to calcium before the addition of target cells resulted in an inactivation of granule cytolytic activity over the course of 20 min at room temperature. (rupress.org)
  • Immunocytochemical staining showed that FasL was stored in cytoplasmic granules of CD8+ CTL clones and in vivo activated CTL and NK cells, where perforin and granzyme A also resided. (nih.gov)
  • Leukemias with a predominant myeloid component, in contrast to those with a predominant monocytoid component, had more neutrophil cells showing immunodeficiencies for one or more granule markers. (docphin.com)
  • In addition, no correlation could be found between any of the immunoreactivity deficiencies for the neutrophil granule glycoproteins elastase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase and the abundance of a particular set of ultrastructural features in the circulating leukemic cells from any of the nine patients. (docphin.com)
  • TDP-43 (WT, △NLS, or G348C), with or without a GFP-tag, was expressed in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma or HeLa cells and stress granules induced by oxidative stress or heat shock. (omgcb.com)
  • In contrast, there was no reduction in stress-granule formation by cells that expressed untagged TDP-43 (WT or G348C) in the nucleus upon stress induction. (omgcb.com)
  • In chromaffin cells, horseradish peroxidase appeared in organelles indistinguishable from granules soon after the stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • These cells show many catecholamine containing granules. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytoplasmic granules in myogenic cells. (google.it)
  • The occurrence of cytoplasmic granules in the immature Dahlgren cells became evident by the 14th day after hatching. (bioone.org)
  • Quantitatively, p-SAPK/JNK granules and GVDs are found in comparable numbers of CA1 cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recently, it was shown that Munc13-4 is essential for the priming of granules in several hematopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Stress Granules: No Incubator for Inclusions, After All? (alzforum.org)
  • This paper shows some evidence that the TDP-43 in stress granules remains dynamic, and does not seem to have features of irreversible aggregates, whereas TDP-43 inclusions outside of SGs may be causing the real problems. (alzforum.org)
  • [7] There is a granular adenine nucleotide pool within the dense granule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PKR-G3BP1-Caprin1 complicated undergoes powerful transitioning within and outside tension granules to perform PKR activation and translational repression. (researchreportone.com)
  • Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules can be stained with lipid soluble dyes such as Nile blue. (microbeonline.com)
  • The dense granules of human platelets contain adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ionized calcium (which is necessary for several steps of the coagulation cascade ), and serotonin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin is picked up by the dense granules where it interacts with ATP and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The calcium levels within the dense granule allows for no extra staining when viewing the dense granule with an electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the secretion of dense granules occurs along with platelet activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both, ADP and collagen can cause the secretion of dense granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of dense granules can be detected by seeing how much ATP/ADP is being released with luciferase-based luminescence . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The relationship to ATP/ADP released can be used to then determine the secretion of dense granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, storage granules are produced under favourable growth conditions and are consumed after the nutrients have been depleted from the medium. (britannica.com)
  • Three peptides with pore-forming activity were isolated from the cytoplasmic granules of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica by acidic extraction, gel filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • GVDs are defined as electron-dense granules within double membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Notably, RBM4 is transiently deposited into cytoplasmic granules containing microtubule assembly factors as well as poly(A) + RNAs. (elsevier.com)
  • Mycobacterial infection has been linked to the generation of autoantibodies, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), in clinical studies and small animal models. (usda.gov)
  • Amoebapores, a family of membranolytic peptides from cytoplasmic granules of Entamoeba histolytica: isolation, primary structure, and pore formation in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. (nih.gov)
  • They also are capable of perturbing the integrity of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes and thereby kill Gram-positive bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Dense granules are found only in platelets and are smaller than α-granules . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The origin of these dense granules is still unknown, however, it is thought that may come from the mechanism involving the endocytotic pathway . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Dense granules are a sub group of lysosome -related organelles (LRO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dense granules play a major roll in Toxoplasma gondii . (wikipedia.org)
  • When the parasite invades it releases its dense granules which help to create the parasitophorous vacuole . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] The serotonin that is then released by the dense granule, recruits other platelets and helps play a major role in stoping the loss of blood at the injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] The patients with this disease show signs of abnormal dense granules and melanosomes which can cause prolonged bleeding and albinism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder where patients platelets are have a deficient amount of dense granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dense granule is very important in the coagulation cascade because of the bleeding disorders caused by a dense granule deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Dense granules have their components sent to maturing dense granules using vesicular nucleotide transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is what is thought to cause the build up of ADP/ATP in dense granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] This mechanism is also responsible for the build up of MRP4 which picks up cAMP for the dense granule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The true function of a dense granule is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dense granules' matrix is dense with electrons that allow them to be detected through whole mount electron microscopy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Volutin granules appears as "metachromatic" granule, stains intense reddish-purple color with methylene blue dye (instead of blue, as one would expect) and can be observed by light microscopy. (microbeonline.com)
  • When observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), these granules are osmophilic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Amoebapores, a family of membranolytic peptides from cytoplasmic granules of Entamoeba histolytica: isolation, primary structure, and pore formatio. (nih.gov)
  • Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy. (openrepository.com)
  • Stress granules and the NLRP3 inflammasome compete for DDX3X molecules to coordinate the activation of innate responses and subsequent cell-fate decisions under stress conditions. (nature.com)
  • In inflammatory conditions, most neutrophil responses are dependent on the mobilization of cytoplasmic granules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Based on these findings, we conclude that dFMR-containing RNP granules are moved by both kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein and that KLC is not essential and is likely missing from RNP-transporting kinesin-1. (pnas.org)
  • We conclude that Syt IV is an essential component for secretory granule maturation. (rupress.org)
  • The bone marrow aspirate was hypercellular with blasts of medium-large size, with nucleoli, without cytoplasmic granules, and with occasional "hand mirror" forms (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • This procedure liberated the cytoplasmic contents of the cell and dissolved a considerable proportion of the nuclei. (rupress.org)
  • Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the total cellular antimicrobial agent phagocytin was present in the granule fraction. (rupress.org)
  • 4. Biology A cellular or cytoplasmic particle, especially one that stains readily. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although both stress granules and inflammasomes can be triggered by the sensing of cellular stress, they drive contrasting cell-fate decisions. (nature.com)