Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Secretory Pathway: A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Blastocystis: A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCentrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough: A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Weibel-Palade Bodies: Rod-shaped storage granules for VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR specific to endothelial cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm." See the Organelles category of Wikipedia. "All of the contents of a cell ... "membrane organelle" "Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a ... including anabolism and catabolism. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular ... Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope." "The external ...
Dynein transports vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle ... Kinesin is involved in the transport of a variety of intracellular cargoes, including vesicles, organelles, protein complexes, ... Roles of the microtubule cytoskeleton include mechanical support, organization of the cytoplasm, transport, motility and ... including the movement of secretory vesicles, organelles, and intracellular macromolecular assemblies (see entries for dynein ...
The cytoplasm appears dense, and the organelles appear tightly packed. Chromatin undergoes condensation into compact patches ... Early alterations include: Cell shrinkage and rounding occur because of the retraction lamellipodia and the breakdown of the ... In addition to the destruction of cellular organelles, mRNA is rapidly and globally degraded by a mechanism that is not yet ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ...
In humans, virtually all of the cytoplasm is inherited from the egg of the mother. For this reason, organelle DNA, including ... In multicellular animals, including humans, the circular mtDNA chromosome contains 13 genes that encode proteins that are part ... Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus ... extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles ...
Flagella are organelles for cellular mobility. The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) ... They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus. Prokaryotes include ... All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Some eukaryotic organelles such ... Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all ...
They are formed and connected with the cytoplasm by a unique organelle called a sagenogen or bothrosome. The cells are ... They also include some parasites of marine invertebrates. Although they are outside the cells, the filaments are surrounded by ... Test of Amphitrema, a testate amoeba recently included in the group Leon Cienkowski, polish botanist who in 1867 described ...
... -myosin systems act as molecular motors that permit the transport of vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. It ... They possess a number of accessory proteins including ADF/cofilin, which has a molecular weight of 16kDa and is coded for by a ... Other enzymes or organelles such as cilia can be anchored to this scaffolding in order to control the deformation of the ... For example, this type of organelle is present in the Organ of Corti, which is located in the ear. The main characteristic of ...
Cytoplasm - A gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that fills most cells, it includes all cytosol, organelles and cytoplasmic ... Cytokinesis - The process cells use to divide their cytoplasm and organelles. Meiosis - The process of cell division used to ... Lysosome - The organelles that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food ... Molecular biology - the study of biology at a molecular level, including the various systems of a cell, including the ...
In eukaryotes the organelles of the endomembrane system include: the nuclear membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi ... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a synthesis and transport organelle that branches into the cytoplasm in plant and animal ... The organelles of the endomembrane system are related through direct contact or by the transfer of membrane segments as ... There is also an organelle known as the Spitzenkörper that is only found in fungi, and is connected with hyphal tip growth. In ...
In the case of plants and certain protozoa, the biosynthesis of IPP/DMAPP takes place in plastid organelles. Plants synthesise ... Bacteria that use the pathway include important pathogens such Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The reactions of the non-mevalonate ... isoprenoid precursors using the mevalonate pathway in the cytoplasm and using the MEP pathway in their chloroplasts. ...
Other organelles in a plasma cell include ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. Terminally ... Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles (EM ... They have basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus with heterochromatin in a characteristic cartwheel or clock face ... Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a characteristic appearance on light ...
It retains its cytoplasm, nucleus and plastid, while other organelles including mitochondria, Golgi body, cytoskeleton, and ... But, unlike a fully integrated organelle, the Nephroselmis alga does not divide along with the host cell. When the host cell ...
Septa have pores that allow cytoplasm, organelles, and sometimes nuclei to pass through; an example is the dolipore septum in ... The bacteria were also included in fungi in some classifications, as the group Schizomycetes. The Rozellida clade, including ... including polar, alpine, and semiarid desert regions. They are able to grow on inhospitable surfaces, including bare soil, ... The latter genus includes the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the death cap (A. phalloides), the most common cause of deadly ...
Certain proteins of the cytoplasm and organelles act as buffers by binding Ca2+. Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated ... These include muscle contraction, neuronal transmission as in an excitatory synapse, cellular motility (including the movement ... Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric ... The resting concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm is normally maintained around 100 nM, variously reported as 20,000- to ...
... is localized in the Birbeck granules, organelles present in the cytoplasm of Langerhans cells and consisting of ... It is also expressed in several other dendritic cell types including dermal CD103+ DCs and splenic CD8+ DCs. ...
... are also found in the membranes of organelles including the nucleus, mitochondria and lysosome. ... The channels are formed by large protein complexes that run across the membrane connecting the cytosol, or cytoplasm, to the ... Diseases caused by ion channel malfunctions include cystic fibrosis where the channel for the chloride ion will not open or is ... Additional disorders resulting from malfunctions in ion channels include forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, certain types ...
Organelles in the microbody family include peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, glycosomes and hydrogenosomes. In vertebrates, microbodies ... Microbodies are found in the cytoplasm of a cell, but they are only visible with the use of an electron microscope. They are ... de Duve C (1969). "The peroxisome: a new cytoplasmic organelle". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 173 (30): 71-83. doi:10.1098/ ... A microbody is a type of organelle that is found in the cells of plants, protozoa, and animals. ...
Not to be confused with the cytoplasm, the cytosol is only the gel matrix of the cell which does not include many of the ... It is the site of most cellular processes as it houses the organelles that make up the endomembrane system, as well as those ... The endoplasm is necessary for most metabolic activities, including cell division. The endoplasm, like the cytoplasm, is far ... These organelles breakdown simple sugars like glucose to create a multitude of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules. ATP ...
N. scintillans is also placed within a classification scheme that has a class Diniferea, or Dinophyceae, which includes ... Its bioluminescence is produced throughout the cytoplasm of this single-celled protist, by a luciferin-luciferase reaction in ... thousands of spherically shaped organelles, called scintillons. Nonluminescent populations within the genus Noctiluca lack ... N. scintillans is a heterotroph (nonphotosynthetic) that engulfs, by phagocytosis, food which includes plankton, diatoms, other ...
... including one located in the promoter region of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene. Ribosomes, the organelles that ... It is located in the cytoplasm. An ~18kbp deletion, encompassing the entire Rpl38 locus underlies the phenotype in the Tail- ...
The consistent features of chromatolysis included the condensation of the cytoplasm and chromatin, cell shrinkage, formation of ... Changes can also occur in other organelles such as the Golgi apparatus and neurotubules. However, the exact significance of ... These symptoms included tremor, lack of muscle movement coordination, anxiety and weight loss. At the cellular level, IBNC is ... These stages included chromatin condensation, which Flemming described as "half-moon" shaped and appearing as "chromatin balls ...
In this technique, cytoplasm including proteins, mRNA, mitochondria and other organelles, is taken from a donor egg, and ... some of cytoplasm comes with it, so some mitochondria are likely included. The spindle-chromosome complex is inserted into a ... As with MST, a small amount of cytoplasm from the donor egg may be transferred, and as with MST, the fertilized egg is allowed ... In polar body transfer, a polar body (a small cell with very little cytoplasm that is created when an egg cell divides) from ...
... on the mechanisms responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of organelles and macromolecules within the neuronal cytoplasm ... Experimental systems include mouse models, cultured neurons, large model synapses, isolated synaptic preparations and cell free ... including unicellular organisms. Thus, cellular neurobiology has become an important chapter of cell biology. Studies of ...
These TGs are in the cytoplasm, encapsulated by a phospholipid monolayer in configurations or organelles that have been given ... A generally acknowledged model of the creation of a lipid droplet includes the construction of a center or lens of TGs that are ... This TG center is flanked by the leaflets of the membrane in the ER that sprouts off with the leaflet in the cytoplasm of the ... This leads to the budding lipid droplets growing into the cytoplasm space. There are two different groups of lipid droplets ...
... including the cytoplasm, within organelles, or associated with the plasma or organelle membranes, but it is always found ... It does this by binding various targets in the cell including a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other ... Calcium pumps take calcium out of the cytoplasm and/or store it in the endoplasmic reticulum and this control helps regulate ...
Microscopic anatomy and organelles[edit]. Plasma cells are large lymphocytes with a considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and ... Other organelles in a plasma cell include ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. ... Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles (EM ... They have basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus with heterochromatin in a characteristic cartwheel or clock face ...
In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm." See the Organelles category of Wikipedia. "All of the contents of a cell ... "membrane organelle" "Double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a ... including anabolism and catabolism. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular ... Includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope." "The external ...
Dynein transports vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle ... Kinesin is involved in the transport of a variety of intracellular cargoes, including vesicles, organelles, protein complexes, ... Roles of the microtubule cytoskeleton include mechanical support, organization of the cytoplasm, transport, motility and ... including the movement of secretory vesicles, organelles, and intracellular macromolecular assemblies (see entries for dynein ...
Organelles in the Cytoplasm. For the longest time, scientists couldnt imagine how simple cells managed to perform so many ... Key words include: electrons, positive charge, negative charge, current, amp, voltage, short circuit, and circuit. Run time 05: ... Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Membrane. What constitutes a cell? More than any other structures, its the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ... The podcast includes biography information, music, and reviews. Facts about Antonio Vivaldi along with pictures are presented ...
The cytoplasm appears dense, and the organelles appear tightly packed.. *Chromatin undergoes condensation into compact patches ... Early alterations include:. *Cell shrinkage and rounding occur because of the retraction lamellipodia and the breakdown of the ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein.[95] Some ... These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, ...
The cytoplasm of dinoflagellates contains typical eukaryotic organelles including; rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ... It may also contain one or several distinctive organelles which include:. *The pusule which has been suggested may function in ... Light sensitive organelles, the eyespot and more complex ocellus.. *Chloroplasts bounded by three rather than the usual two ... Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are known to feed on algae (including other dinoflagellates) eggs and larvae of other marine ...
Some of the organelles that are held within the cytoplasm include the mitochondria, the golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic ... Cytoplasm vs. Cytosol[edit]. There is often much confusion between the cytoplasm and the cytosol. The cytoplasm is the fluid ... It is separate from certain cell organelles such as the nucleus and the mitochondria. In eukaryotes, the cytoplasm is the ... The organelle does this by co-importing tRNA along with mitochondrial precursor proteins that intercepts the organelles pathway ...
It includes the cytoplasm, the nucleus in eukaryotes, and organelles such as mitochondria. ... All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for ...
Cytoplasm has several functions, including moving materials around in the cell and dissolving cellular... ... The jelly-like substance found within a cell is cytoplasm, sometimes referred to as cytosol. ... including the cytosol. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes organelles like ribosomes and mitochondria. The cytoskeleton ... The jelly-like substance found within a cell is cytoplasm, sometimes referred to as cytosol. Cytoplasm has several functions, ...
In humans, virtually all of the cytoplasm is inherited from the egg of the mother. For this reason, organelle DNA, including ... In multicellular animals, including humans, the circular mtDNA chromosome contains 13 genes that encode proteins that are part ... Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus ... extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles ...
B) Intact organelles in the cytoplasm, including mitochondria and plasmids. (C,D) Cortical cells at the early pre-cavity stage ... organelle retention in the cytoplasm, and cell wall degradation were observed during lysigenous aerenchyma formation under ... occasionally containing organelle material, were observed in the cytoplasm (Figure 2G). Characteristic membranous structures, ... 2011). The role of the Golgi apparatus in oxidative stress: is this organelle less significant than mitochondria? Free Radic. ...
12.D: differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, ... nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole;. Cell Structure. RNA and Protein Synthesis. ... 5.C: diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.. Food Chain. ... 12.C: recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;. ...
organelles include ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and lysosomes.. *The nucleus controls the ... The Cytoplasm[edit]. Within the plasma membrane is the cytoplasm. It consists of a clear jelly-like fluid called the a) cytosol ... c) Organelles[edit]. Organelles are the "little organs" of the cell - like the heart, kidney and liver are the organs of the ... The cytoplasm consists of cytosol in which are suspended cell inclusions and organelles. ...
... cytoplasm and organelles; transport of materials within the cell and secretion; intercellular communication and programmed cell ... Topics covered include a short review of mechanics, simple harmonic motion, mechanical waves, sound, wave optics and geometric ... 4. Electives must include 9-12 credits in at least two disciplines outside Science (other than English). The remaining ... Topics include mechanics, fluid mechanics, waves, and thermodynamics. Prerequisite: Math Pre-Calculus 12 or equivalent with a ...
The main components of animal and plant cells include plasma membrane, cell wall, ribosome and cytoplasm. The main function of ... Ribosomes are cell organelles that function in protein synthesis. Ribosomes in plant and animals cells are larger than those ... These include proteins used in the cytosol and the supportive structure known as the cytoskeleton, as well as those used by the ... It is different because it is not bound within the cells nucleus or one of its many organelles. Ribosomes make proteins out of ...
During differentiation, virtually all of the subcellular organelles disappear, including the nucleus [3,4]. The cytoplasm is ... Vitamin C derivatives, including the magnesium phosophate ascorbyl derivative, have been shown to decrease melanin synthesis ... Chemical insults including exposure to oxidising beauty and cleansing products (hair dyes, soaps, detergents, bleaches). ... In contrast, the dermal skin layer provides strength and elasticity, and includes the vascular, lymphatic and neuronal systems ...
It includes the cytosol and all organelles. It is found in both animal and plant cells. The cytoplasm is like the atmosphere ... 6: Centriole: Only found in animal cells, pair of small organelles, each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules. They ... Please enter your namePlease include your first and last nametranslation missing: en.simple_form.js_errors.remote ... 3: Cytoplasm: The material found between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. ...
Organelles in the cytoplasm remained intact. Neutrophils incubated with high concentrations of secreted pore-forming toxins ... 6). The lack of NADPH oxidase activity might have different effects, including the reduction in the direct antimicrobial ... 2) start to separate from each other, but the morphology of cytoplasm and organelles seem intact. At later time points, the ... 4 c), the nuclear membranes remained intact and clearly separated nucleoplasm from cytoplasm. The structure of organelles was ...
The cytoplasm is in the region between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals. ... Contains no membrane enclosed organelles. The cytoplasm is bound by the plasma membrane. ... This system carries out a variety of tasks in the cell, including synthesis of proteins, transport of proteins into membranes ... 1. Synthesizes lipids, including oils, steroids, and new membrane phospholipids. 2. Metabolizes carbohydrates. 3. ...
1. very simple-there are no organelles and most everything functions in the cytoplasm B. Eukaryotic cells 1. all contain the ... 2. includes unicellular algae and protists (e.g. ameba) that live alone or in colonies 3. includes multicellular organisms - ... 3. organelles - sub-compartments within the cell which provide different functions. Each organelle is surrounded by a membrane ... A solid discussion of organelles, great diagrams The Cell: Excellent review An imaginary trip through a piece of a cell: In ...
... including the cells organelles, around the cell. The cytoplasm is in both animal and plant cells.. Endoplasmic Reticulum. Found ... The cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance, that helps to hold the cells organelles in place. It also helps the cell move ... Cytoplasm As you travel through the cell membrane and enter the cell, you will find yourself floating in the cytoplasm. ... The organelle responsible for energy production inside a cell is called a mitochondrion. The mitochondrion is a pill shaped ...
Video includes the modern cell theory and pl... ... prokaryote cells and eukaryote cells before exploring organelle ... We highly encourage you to explore these to discover more! Cell organelles and structures discussed include the cytoplasm, ... Compares and contrasts prokaryote cells and eukaryote cells before exploring organelle structures and functions! Video includes ... Organelles of the Cell (updated) - Duration: 29:52. Beverly Biology 1,072,920 views ...
... quality and quantity of organelles through organelle degradation. The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants ... During developmental aging or starvation, plants actively degrade organelles in old organs and reuse the released molecules to ... Overall, various types of organelle turnover systems must cooperate throughout plant development to complete their life cycle. ... since organelle degradation allows the recycling of derived small molecules, such as amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. ...
Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h ... This study included 50 patients with confirmed diagnosis of HCC, 30 patients with chronic liver disease, and 20 normal persons ... Specimens included 9 normal thyroid tissues and 27 tumour tissues consisting of 9 follicular adenomas (FA), 8 follicular ... perinuclear region of cytoplasm - phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding - phospholipase inhibitor activity - plasma ...
... not including the nucleus. [e]. * Cytosol: The portion of the cytoplasm that is not inside membrane-bound organelles. [e] ... Prokaryote [r]: Single celled organism with no membrane-bound organelles. [e]. * Eukaryote [r]: An organism that is composed of ... Pros: Includes all information in title. Cons: Name is long. Would require redirects from the common name, as few users know ... Endoplasmic reticulum [r]: "a network of biological membranes inside the cytoplasm of a cell, some of which may have ribosomes ...
... or cytoplasm. Organelles include mitochondria, which are responsible for the energy transactions necessary for cell survival; ... Between all these organelles is the space in the cytoplasm called the cytosol. The cytosol contains an organized framework of ... Animal cells and plant cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a distinct nucleus. In contrast, bacterial cells do ... One major organelle, the nucleus, contains the genetic information necessary for cell growth and reproduction. Each cell ...
  • These membraneless organelles were also dynamic, readily exchanging their TDP-43 with that in their surroundings. (alzforum.org)
  • Preliminary evidence already suggests that these so-called membraneless organelles, which form through a process called liquid-liquid phase separation, are important in health and disease. (nature.com)
  • Does the diffusion of drugs into these membraneless organelles affect exposure? (nature.com)
  • It's not quite cosmology, but there are a lot of unknowns," says Cliff Brangwynne, a biophysical engineer at Princeton University whose work has helped to revitalize interest in liquid-liquid phase separation and membraneless organelles. (nature.com)
  • Membraneless organelles have been popping up in the literature for over a century. (nature.com)
  • Linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus Borrelia (to which the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease belongs), several species of the gram positive soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces, and in the gram negative species Thiobacillus versutus, a bacterium that oxidizes sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entering quiescence, the bacterial cytoplasm displays signatures of the colloidal glass transition, with increasingly slow and heterogeneous diffusion. (europa.eu)
  • The complex state behavior of the bacterial cytoplasm is therefore important for their survival, but the physical nature of each of these processes is poorly understood. (europa.eu)
  • Students examine the molecular basis of cellular processes including energy transfer and the storage and use of genetic information. (tru.ca)
  • This stems from several platelet characteristics, including their ability to bind infectious agents and secrete many immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as their expression of receptors for various immune effector and regulatory functions, such as TLRs, which allow them to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns. (jimmunol.org)
  • Movements of organelles are powered by molecular motors. (northwestern.edu)
  • Examples of these genetic disorders include heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • Examples of protists include the microscopic organism called Paramecium and the single-celled alga called Chlamydomonas . (encyclopedia.com)