The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The area within CELLS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (1/19290)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/19290)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/19290)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (4/19290)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (5/19290)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (6/19290)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (7/19290)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/19290)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic determinants are special molecules which play a very important role during oocyte maturation, in the females ovary. During this period of time, some regions of the cytoplasm accumulate some of these cytoplasmic determinants, whose distribution is thus very heterogenic. They play a major role in the development of the embryos organs. Each type of cell is determined by a particular determinant or group of determinants. Thus, all the organs of the future embryo are distributed and operating well thanks to the right position of the cytoplasmic determinants. The action of the determinants on the blastomeres is one of the most important ones. During the segmentation, cytoplasmic determinants are distributed among the blastomeres, at different times depending on the species and on the type of determinant. Therefore, the daughter cells resulting from the first divisions are totipotent : they can, independently, lead to a complete individual. That is not possible after the cytoplasmic ...
Define cytoplasmatic. cytoplasmatic synonyms, cytoplasmatic pronunciation, cytoplasmatic translation, English dictionary definition of cytoplasmatic. Adj. 1. cytoplasmatic - of or relating to cytoplasm cytoplasmic
Presence or absence of the nucleus is the main difference between cells cytoplasm and protoplasm. As cytoplasm does not have the nucleus, which is present in the protoplasm. Even the cytoplasm consists of the organelles like mitochondria, Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., on the other hand, protoplasm consists of the cytoplasm, nucleus, and the plasma membrane.
MORE than forty years have now passed away since the French naturalist, Dujardin, drew attention to the fact that the bodies of some of the lowest members of the animal kingdom consist of a structureless, semi-fluid, contractile substance, to which he gave the name of Sarcode. A similar substance occurring in the cells of plants was afterward studied by Hugo von Mohl, and named by him Protoplasm. It remained for Max Schultze to demonstrate that the sarcode of animals and the protoplasm of plants were identical.. The conclusions of Max Schultze have been in all respects confirmed by subsequent research, and it has further been rendered certain that this same protoplasm lies at the base of all the phenomena of life, whether in the animal or the vegetable kingdom. Thus has arisen the most important and significant generalization in the whole domain of biological science.. Within the last few years protoplasm has again been made a subject of special study; unexpected and often startling facts have ...
Within tumors, macrophage infiltration can promote cancer cell invasiveness and consequently, metastatic dissemination. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Roh-Johnson et al. (2017) reveal that cytoplasmic transfer from macrophages to melanoma cells correlates with melanoma invasion and arises as a
Biology Assignment Help, Physical state of protoplasm, PHYSICAL STATE OF PROTOPLASM Several theories have been given about its physical structure - (i ) Granular Theory (Proposed by Altman, Hanstein, 1886) - Granules embedded in a fluid, those are known as bioplast/cytoplast . Henle & Meg
Protoplasm, the essential property of creation and the fundamental essence in living matter is more than 50% water. If any large fraction of this water is removed from protoplasm, the protoplasm dies. Protoplasm is a very complicated structure of tiny threads and granules and compartments much like the work rooms of a factory. Organic micro-chips of the future might be modeled after protoplasm because they are the simplest of all living things. Protoplasm take us nearer than any to the earlier forms of life. When we get to the story of the human mind we deal with the most efficient part of the bodily machine. Certain electrical and chemical changes take place in the mind and we call them thoughts. Similar electrical or chemical changes are what direct the movements of the body and governs human action. The science of psychology as described in this article, has been built up around the idea that the mind can often act unconsciously.. The outside layer or grey matter does all the real thinking ...
process, whatever it may be, a process of physiological induction, we may apply a similar name to a process which seems closely analogous to, if it is not really identical with, the process we are now considering. I refer to some highly remarkable observations which were published a year or two ago in Mr. Darwins work on Insectivorous Plants. It is there stated that, while looking at a linear series of excitable cells with the microscope, Mr. Darwin could observe the passage of a stimulus along the series, the protoplasm in the cells immediately stimulated first undergoing aggregation, then the protoplasm in those next adjacent doing the same, and so on. Now, the protoplasm in each cell was separated from the protoplasm in the adjacent cell by the walls of both the cells; yet, notwithstanding there was no observable anatomical continuity between these masses of protoplasm, a disturbance set up in any one of the series of masses immediately set up, by some process of physiological induction, a ...
Protoplasm can define as the living component of the cell, which is a collective term used for the combination of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
Rats were given radioactive L-leucine intravenously. At various times after injection, the livers were removed and separated into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions by a nonaqueous technique. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and lactic dehydrogenase were isolated from each cell fraction by antibody precipitation followed by gel electrophoresis, and the specific radioactivities of the isolated enzymes were determined. In all three cases, the onset of labeling and the rate of incorporation were the same for the nuclear enzyme as for the corresponding enzyme from the cytoplasm. If we assume that equilibration of the enzymes between the cytoplasmic and nuclear pools occurs slowly relative to the labeling times employed, we may conclude that the labeled nuclear enzymes either were synthesized in the nucleus or moved into the nucleus from a cytoplasmic site of synthesis without first passing into the cytoplasmic pool of enzyme. Treatment with puromycin, an antibiotic which depresses ...
An electrical current passing through a living plant flows partly through the cell wall and partly through the protoplasm. The relative amounts of these two portions of the current can be calculated.. The outcome of such calculations shows that the conclusions drawn from the study of the resistance of the tissue as a whole apply also to the resistance of the protoplasm, and consequently to the permeability of the protoplasm to ions.. ...
Cytoplasmic DNA detection by cGAS is involved in the immune response to a growing number of pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis [2], [3], [4]. cGAS engagement results in cGAMP synthesis and the rapid activation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), ultimately leading to type I interferon (IFN) production and the regulation of thousands of genes facilitating pathogen clearance. Safeguarding against sensing of endogenous nuclear DNA, cGAS resides in the cytoplasm of non‐dividing cells, where it should principally encounter pathogenic DNA. Nonetheless, it is now evident that cGAS can also detect cytoplasmic self‐DNA and that a specific machinery aiming at limiting the accumulation of such cytoplasmic DNA operates to protect from aberrant cGAS activation.. Deletion of the exonuclease TREX1 leads to the cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous … ...
On the other hand, the correlative functions, so long as they are exerted by a simple undifferentiated morphological unit or cell, are of the simplest character, consisting of those modifications of position which can be effected by mere changes in the form or arrangement of the parts of the protoplasm, or of those prolongations of the protoplasm which are called pseudopodia or cilia. But, in the higher animals and plants, the movements of the organism and of its parts are brought about by the change of the form of certain tissues, the property of which is to shorten in one direction when exposed to certain stimuli. Such tissues are termed contractile; and, in their most fully developed condition, muscular. The stimulus by which this contraction is naturally brought about is a molecular change, either in the substance of the contractile tissue itself, or in some other parts of the body; in which latter case, the motion which is set up in that part of the body must be propagated to the ...
✅ Answered - [new cell walls] [new shoot cells] [new protoplasm] [new cytoplasm] are the options of mcq question Amino acids are assimilated to form realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 05, 2019 05:20
Every cell in an organism is comprised of a fluid that fills the cell and is surrounded by a cell membrane. This fluid is called the cytoplasm or the cytosol. Explore the cytoplasm functions, its types, processes, constituents and physical & chemical features of the Cytoplasm in detail.
2. All cells have the same shape and size. 3. All cells have a plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. 4. Protoplasm consists of a plasma membrane and
A longstanding question in molecular biology is the extent to which the behavior of macromolecules observed in vitro accurately reflects their behavior in vivo. A number of sophisticated experimental techniques now allow the behavior of individual types of macromolecule to be studied directly in viv …
H-Ras activation promotes cytoplasmic accumulation and phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase association of beta-catenin in epidermal keratinocytes.
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|Understand the definition and components of cytoplasm |/p|
consist almost entirely of bodies exactly resembling the nuclei of the cells; some of these intercellular nuclei contain two nucleoli, and seem to be undergoing division, while round others a young cell may be seen in various stages of formation.. These different stages may be satisfactorily followed, and afford a very interesting example of cytogenetic action. The first thing observed is the accumulation round the nucleus of a little mass of granular protoplasm. In the midst of this a minute vacuola next shows itself; this becomes the cell-cavity, and gradually increases in size with the enlarging cell; the nucleus is persistent, remaining attached to the cell-wall.. For reasons to be presently mentioned, it is highly probable that the endocyst is pervaded by a system of canals of extreme delicacy, which constitute an irregular network in its substance.. Besides the structure now described, peculiar fibres (PI. II, fig. 10) are also developed in the endocyst. These are situated on its inner ...
consist almost entirely of bodies exactly resembling the nuclei of the cells; some of these intercellular nuclei contain two nucleoli, and seem to be undergoing division, while round others a young cell may be seen in various stages of formation.. These different stages may be satisfactorily followed, and afford a very interesting example of cytogenetic action. The first thing observed is the accumulation round the nucleus of a little mass of granular protoplasm. In the midst of this a minute vacuola next shows itself; this becomes the cell-cavity, and gradually increases in size with the enlarging cell; the nucleus is persistent, remaining attached to the cell-wall.. For reasons to be presently mentioned, it is highly probable that the endocyst is pervaded by a system of canals of extreme delicacy, which constitute an irregular network in its substance.. Besides the structure now described, peculiar fibres (Pl. II, fig. 10) are also developed in the endocyst. These are situated on its inner ...
View Notes - After the from BIOLOGY bi 101 at Montgomery. Meanwhile, the mRNA molecule passes through a pore in the nucleus and proceeds into the cellular cytoplasm where it moves toward the
In an animal cell, the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also acts as a repository for amino acids, sugars and other important nutrients...
What constitutes a cell? More than any other structures, it is the nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane. Explore the form and function of these three crit…
In a study that may guide drug design, MIT researchers find organelles encounter varying levels of resistance, depending on their size and speed, as they move through a cells cytoplasm.
Question - FNAC test says dycohesive clusters with variable cytoplasm, irregular nuclei with moderate anisokaryosis with isolated bizarre cells. Suggestions?. Ask a Doctor about Epithelial cells, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
The cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a viscous fluid, with organelles and proteins jiggling against one another and drifting at random. Yet a new biophysical study finds that those drifting objects are subject to a very different type of environment than what we have thought.
Learn all about the functions of cytoplasm, the clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane-bound cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cobalt ions cross an electrotonic synapse if cytoplasmic concentration is low. AU - Politoff, A.. AU - Pappas, G. D.. AU - Bennett, Michael V. L.. PY - 1974/8/16. Y1 - 1974/8/16. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. DO - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 4844459. AN - SCOPUS:0016138697. VL - 76. SP - 343. EP - 346. JO - Brain Research. JF - Brain Research. SN - 0006-8993. IS - 2. ER - ...
The latest advocates of the socalled race doctrine take great pains to give a scientific appearance to their views and appeal especially to the laws of heredity, which play such an important part in modern natural science, and are still the subject of so much controversy. By heredity, biology means chiefly the fact, firmly established by common observation, that plants and animals resemble their parents and that this resemblance is apparently traceable to the fact that the descendants arise from bits of the same protoplasm and so develop from the same or similar hereditary primordia. From this it follows that in protoplasm there reside peculiar forces which by the separation of the tiniest portions can transmit the whole to the descendants. Thus men came to recognise that the real cause of inheritance must be sought in a particular condition of the living cellstuff which we call protoplasm.. However valuable this recognition may be, it has hardly brought us nearer to the real solution of the ...
Calcium is a universal second messenger present in all eukaryotic cells. The mobilization and storage of Ca2+ ions drives a number of signaling-related processes, stress-responses, or metabolic changes, all of which are relevant for the development of immune cells and their adaption to pathogens. Here, we introduce the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-reporter mouse YellowCaB expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator TN-XXL in B lymphocytes. Calcium-induced conformation change of TN-XXL results in FRET-donor quenching measurable by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging. For the first time, using our novel numerical analysis, we extract absolute cytoplasmic calcium concentrations in activated B cells during affinity maturation in vivo. We show that calcium in activated B cells is highly dynamic and that activation introduces a persistent calcium heterogeneity to the lineage. A characterization of absolute calcium concentrations present at any time within the cytosol is ...
0029] Under normal conditions (in the absence of neoplasias), the APC gene is localized on the chromosome 5 and encodes a cytoplasmatic protein (APC protein) which plays a key role in the regulation of the apoptosis of the cell cycle, inter-cellular interaction and adhesion, migration processes in addition to the metastatization of tumours. The most well-known function of the APC protein is its association with the GSK-3β protein (glycogen-synthetase kinase 3 β protein) for the regulation of the quantity of free β-catenin present in the cytoplasm and therefore in the nucleus: the above proteins, in fact, by phosphorylating the free β-catenin on a cytoplasmatic level, promotes its degradation. β-catenin is a protein capable of binding itself to the cytoplasmatic domain of a membrane protein, E-cadherin, involved in the cellular adhesion process. The destruction of the E-cadherin-β-catenin intra-cellular complex (an event associated with the conversion of a non-tumoral cell into a neoplastic ...
Development of capillaries in the regenerating tail of a tadpole. a b c d, sprouts and cords of protoplasm. The sprouts and cords of protoplasm have become channeled out into capillaries.. ...
For nearly a century, countless doctors and medical researchers have pursued the now substantiated link between disease and morphological and molecular cell changes in patients. As early as 1931 in Switzerland, Dr. Paul Niehan pioneered cell and organ-lysate therapies, providing diseased organ with elements taken from identical healthy organs. In the last 50 years, Professor Karl Theurer of Germany furthered the work of Dr. Niehans, ultimately leading to the effective use of biological macromolecules.. More recently, advances in modern medicine and cell research have given birth to Cytoplasmatic Therapy. Distinct in nature from other organ-extract and cell-therapy techniques, Cytoplasmatic Therapy embraces a holistic approach to safely and effectively reverse cell defects. Patients are treated with relevant refined components extracted from healthy cells, thereby enabling diseased organs to again function properly.. Cytoplasmatic Therapy employs an internationally patented method for processing ...
CELLS (Cytoplasm(major cell component) (Inclusions (stored nutrients and…: CELLS (Cytoplasm(major cell component) , Plasma membrane(major cell component) , Cytoskeletal elements(Organelle) , Endoplasmic reticulum (Organelle) , Nucleus(major cell component & organelle) , Ribosomes(Organelle) , Golgi apparatus (Organelle) , Lysosome(Organelle) , Mitochondria(Organelle) , Peroxisome(Organelle) )
Cytoplasmic Compartmentalization of the Protein and Ribonucleic Acid Species of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: The cytoplasmic sites of synthesis in L cells of the
The image represents the life of a single set of columnar cells showing a progressioon of generations as the cell lives dies and is regenerated. The orange secretions of the cell are seen in the background of the pink cytoplasm and the purple nucleus. The nucleus of the newesest generation and cell is seen as a clock that has become distorted and time has become disordered. This process is abnormal and is a forerunner of a malignant process. The background is a collage of cytopatholagical specimens obtained from the liver representing a variety of metastases from different primary sites but all matked by large nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio.. 03183c05.8s cell hyperchromatic increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio disordered time cytopathology blue malignant cancer Davidoff art Copyright 2009 ...
The nuclear‐encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype h ...
A mere glance at figures 1 and 2 is enough to demonstrate, in a schematic way, how different our present understanding of cell structure is from that of E. B. Wilson, some 40 years ago: while the essential constituents of the cell nucleus were already known, the cytoplasm had an alveolar (or fibrillar) structure, where no cell organelles (besides the centrosomes) could be seen. This over-cautious representation of cytoplasmic structure was due to the fear of fixation and staining artifacts, as a consequence of the work of J. Loeb and his followers on the properties of colloids. Nowadays, we think in terms of macromolecules rather than miscellae, and we have good reasons to think that microscopy can give a fairly accurate picture of cell structure. When I was a student, our professors did not believe in Golgi bodies, in nuclear membranes, in spindle and aster fibres; even mitochondria were considered as possible artifacts. Everything has changed, within a few decades, thanks to the introduction ...
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p||span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;|Did you know that much of the space |/span|in between|span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;| different organelles in a cell is actually the cytoplasm? This tutorial is designed to focus what and where the cytoplasm is inside a cell, and what role it plays in the functions of the organelles within a cell.|/span||/p|
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional file 1 Flow citometry of unstained BMCs controls elucidating gates for further analysis of treated cells. ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the GW788388 biological activity number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, lot of cytoplasmatic increase and projections of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a higher degree of LC3b appearance by treated cells was discovered by stream cytometry, recommending an autophagic procedure. Cell surface appearance of F4/80 and Compact disc11b also indicated GW788388 biological activity that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone tissue marrow cells generally into macrophages. Furthermore, AEPa ...
TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected w
1. The fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum , which is the cell-free portion of the blood from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. See blood plasma . 2. The lymph deprived of its corpuscles or cells. 3. A glycerite of starch used in preparing ointments. 4. Cytoplasm or protoplasm.
Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host. The viral DNA is then transported into the nucleus and incorporated into... more
Cytoplasm is a clear liquid that fills the cells of both plants and animals. All cytoplasm contains three parts: the cytosol, the...
In turn, bacteria and viruses are even smaller. And the reason is that your body functions best by evolving with both human cells and bacteria. Morphologically, bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that are small in size and lack membrane bound organelles.A majority of these organisms also have a cell wall and capsule that protects the inner contents of the cell where the nucleoid, ribosome, plasmid, and cytoplasm are found. [code]Cell [/code]human cells: are in a group and not isolated. In any human body there are around 30 trillion human cells, but our microbiome is an estimated 39 trillion microbial cells including bacteria, viruses and fungi that live on and in us. Red blood cells, which dont need to divide and replicate are only about 8 microns in diameter, while many muscle and nerve cells are thin, spindly and extremely long. Most fungi are multicellular with complex cellular structures. Length: 20 - 1500 nm. are pathogenic for humans. Their cell sizes range from 10 through ...
The rate of entrance of electrolyte and of water into impaled cells of Halicystis Osterhoutii is unaffected by raising the pH of the sea water to 9.2 or lowering it to 7.0. It is quite possible that sodium enters by combining with an organic acid HX produced by the protoplasm. If the pK of this acid is sufficiently low the change in external pH would not produce much effect on the rate of entrance of sodium.. The rate of entrance of electrolytes is affected by light. In normal light (i.e. natural succession of daylight and darkness) the rate is about twice as great as in darkness.. ...
The best 52 synonyms for muscle, including: fiber, flesh, protoplasm, meat, brawn, beefcake, horseflesh, kinesthetic, proprioceptive, beef, biceps and more... Find another word for muscle at YourDictionary.
Do you know that sulfur disinfects the blood, helps the body resist bacteria, and protects the protoplasm of cells? It also aid in necessary oxidation reaction in the body, stimulates bile secretion,
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence gene expression - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Purpose. They cytoplasm is everything in the cell that is not an organelle.. Function. This contains many of the protiens, molecules, and important substances that the cell needs, as well as keeping the organelles seperate. It is similar to air for us; it has many essential ingredients for continued existence; it provides a medium in which the organelles can exist (living in a vacum is not very easy), and pretty much fills up space.. Location. Inside the cell wall and cell membrane, around the all the organelles.. ...
Learn about the similarities and differences between in both animals and plants, cells generally become specialized to perform certain functions. © © all rights reserved. Animal cell model diagram project parts structure labeled. It is a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the entire cell with cytoplasm and the organelles in the cell cytoplasm.. ...
Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol.: A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lip
The cytosol consists mainly of water in which various molecules are dissolved or suspended. These molecules include proteins, fats and carbohydrates as well as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Many of the reactions that take place in the cell occur in the cytosol. Insert here: W/S Cell Q 4 ...
உயிரணு உயிரியலில் உயிரணுக்கணிகம் அல்லது கலக்கணிகம் அல்லது குழியவுரு (Cytoplasm) என்பது உயிரணு ஒன்றின் உள்ளடக்கத்தில், உயிரணுக் கரு தவிர்ந்த மிகுதியாக உள்ள பகுதியாகும். இது உயிரணு நீர்மம் (en:Cytosol) எனும் நீர்மக் கரைசலையும் (இந்த நீர்மக் கரைசல் உயிரணு மென்சவ்விற்கு உள்ளாக இருக்கும் கூழ்மப் பொருள்), உயிரணுக்களின் உள்ளே காணப்படும் நுண்ணுறுப்புக்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய பகுதி ஆகும். இந்த ...
nuclear extract - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi! I am trying to assay by western blotting NFkB, a trascription factor that translocate to the nucleus, in the brain. I need both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts. I have always problems of contamination of the nuclear extract with cytoplasmic fraction. What can I do? and what is the critical step? thanks
Filled with cytoplasm, pseudopodia primarily consist of actin filaments and may also contain microtubules and intermediate ... "Pseudopodium , cytoplasm". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-12-16. Chengappa P; et al. (2018). "Chapter Seven - ... thin pseudopods supported by complex microtubule arrays enveloped with cytoplasm; they respond rapidly to physical contact. ... are narrow pseudopodia containing complex arrays of microtubules enveloped by cytoplasm. Axopodia are mostly responsible for ...
Cytoplasm. Vertical: parental; sex; blood Structure[edit]. Viruses in Hepadnaviridae are enveloped, with spherical geometries, ... Cytoplasm. Vertical: parental; sex; blood Orthohepadnavirus. Humans; mammals. Hepatocytes. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. ... The virus binds to specific receptors on cells and the core particle enters the cell cytoplasm. This is then translocated to ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Passive diffusion, direct contact. Evolution[edit]. The most recent common ancestor of the four extant ...
cytoplasm. KTU. nucleus. GLIS2. intraflagellar transport. IFT80. other. AHI1. ARL13B. BRCC3. INPP5E. KIF3A. LRRC50. SDCCAG8. ... cytoplasm. • ciliary basal body. • centrosome. • photoreceptor outer segment. • cell projection. • sperm flagellum. • cilium. • ...
cytoplasm. KTU. nucleus. GLIS2. intraflagellar transport. IFT80. other. AHI1. ARL13B. BRCC3. INPP5E. KIF3A. LRRC50. SDCCAG8. ...
cytoplasm. Biological process. • negative regulation of MDA-5 signaling pathway. • regulation of innate immune response. • ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Contact Aquabirnavirus. Salmonid fish. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. ... Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Unknown Entomobirnavirus. Insects: diptera. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. ...
b = bacteria (+organelle); e = eukarya cytoplasm; u = universal. Older nomenclature often have the order reversed, so that "bS1 ... " becomes S1b or S1p (for "prokaryote"). B = bacteria (+organelle); A = archaea; E = eukarya cytoplasm Alpha operon ribosome ...
ISBN 978-0-19-857344-9. Harris, Henry (1968). Nucleus and Cytoplasm. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-854125-7. Harris, ...
The plasma (cytoplasm; the main part of the capsule) half-life of Tepoxalin is 4-8 hours, although the inflammatory entire ... After consumption, Zubrin has a half-life of 120 minutes in the plasma (cytoplasm; the main part of the capsule) itself, ...
It has been revised by Landau et al and currently contains only those species with a white/blue globule in the cytoplasm. ... They contain scanty cytoplasm. Gametocytes are elongated. Sexual stages in this subgenus resemble those of Haemoproteus. ... can be found in the cytoplasm. Corradetti A.; Garnham P. C. C.; Laird M. (1963). "New classification of the avian malaria ...
They contain scanty cytoplasm. Gametocytes are elongated. Sexual stages in this subgenus resemble those of Haemoproteus. A ... Bennettinia Schizonts contain scant cytoplasm, are often round, do not exceed the size of the host nucleus and stick to it. ... Giovannolaia Schizonts contain plentiful cytoplasm, are larger than the host cell nucleus and frequently displace it. They are ... Huffia Mature schizonts, while varying in shape and size, contain plentiful cytoplasm and are commonly found in immature ...
It has abundant cytoplasm. This parasite occurs in the United States. Hosts of this species include the bald eagle (Haliaeetus ...
Cytoplasm Endoplasm "Paramecium Coloring". Retrieved 23 April 2018. Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall. ... is the non-granulated outer part of a cell's cytoplasm, while endoplasm is its often granulated inner layer. It is clear, and ...
... "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. Prior to this, other terms, ... The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. This excludes any part of the ... The viscosity of cytoplasm is roughly the same as pure water, although diffusion of small molecules through this liquid is ... In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the ...
Sonneborn TM (April 1950). "The cytoplasm in heredity". Heredity. 4 (1): 11-36. doi:10.1038/hdy.1950.2. PMID 15415003. Bertani ...
Preer JR (March 2006). "Sonneborn and the cytoplasm". Genetics. 172 (3): 1373-7. PMC 1456306. PMID 16554410. Preer JR (February ... or the liquid cytoplasm, but in the cortical structure of the surface of the ciliates. Preexisting cell surface structures ...
cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • external side of plasma membrane. • cell surface. • ...
Presence of cytoplasm. *Glandular (secretory) vs. Eglandular. *Tortuous, Simple (unbranched and unicellular), Peltate (scale- ...
The cytoplasm is full of granules that assume a characteristic pink-orange color with eosin staining. Play media Basophils are ... The cytoplasm may look transparent because of fine granules that are pale lilac when stained. Neutrophils are active in ... They also possess abundant cytoplasm. Some leucocytes migrate into the tissues of the body to take up a permanent residence at ... and by their cytoplasm granules (present or absent, or more precisely, visible on light microscopy or not thus visible). The ...
Replication is within the cytoplasm. Viruses with segmented genomes for which replication occurs in the cytoplasm and for which ... This may take place in the cell's nucleus, cytoplasm, or at plasma membrane for most developed viruses. The viruses, now being ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm. Viruses multiply only in living ... These viruses consist of two types, however both share the fact that replication is primarily in the cytoplasm, and that ...
The cytoplasm of the hepatocyte near canaliculi is rich in actin filaments, and they are probably capable of modifying the ... Their cytoplasm is mostly acidophilic. Basophilic regions correspond to the RER and free ribosomes. Mitochondria are abundant ... Since they are metabolically active cells, their cytoplasm has many organelles. Hepatocytes are the main cells of the liver. ...
... localizes to the cytoplasm. The presence of potential DNA-binding and dimerization-transactivation domains suggests that ...
Golding, Ido (2006). "Physical Nature of Bacterial Cytoplasm". Physical Review Letters. 96 (9): 098102. Bibcode:2006PhRvL.. ... and particles introduced in the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Additionally, single-particle tracking has been extensively used in ... molecules in the nucleus and cytoplasm, organelles and molecules therein, lipid granules, vesicles, ...
They are round or nearly round and have a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm (N:C) ratio. Cytoplasm is dense and basophilic. The nucleus ... The cytoplasm may develop small vacuoles as the cells age. Cornification is the degeneration process into these large, flat, ... They are small cells with round nuclei, and a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm (N:C) ratio. They are rarely observed. Parabasal cells ... The cells are smaller, have basophilic cytoplasm, and large round nuclei. There may be some neutrophils, but no red blood cells ...
"Cytoplasm Pixel entry". Retrieved 2011-06-23. "Noah23 interview". 2008-09-07. Archived ... Kingston contributed production to Noah23's debut album Cytoplasm Pixel in 1999, and the two collaborated closely until Jupiter ...
He works on aspects of mesoscale biology including the self-organization of the cytoskeleton and of cytoplasm. He collaborates ... Mitchison, Timothy J. (15 November 2010). "Remaining mysteries of the cytoplasm". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 21 (22): 3811- ... the self-organised cytoplasm and nucleoplasm". BMC Biophysics. 8 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/s13628-015-0018-6. ISSN 2046-1682. PMC ...
"Targeting antibodies to the cytoplasm". mAbs. 3 (1): 3-16. doi:10.4161/mabs.3.1.14110. ISSN 1942-0862. PMC 3038006. PMID ...
... are characterized as amoeboid flagellates with hyaline cytoplasm. The hyaline cytoplasm is clear. Mastigamoeba are ... Mastigamoeba was described as a genus of species characterized by an ameboid body with a hyaline based cytoplasm and a ... amoeboid flagellates with hyaline based cytoplasm, a direct connection between the flagellum and the nucleus, lateral ...
The structure of cortical cytoplasm. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B. 1982; 299:275-289. 53. Lind S, Stossel TP. The microfilament ... Actin gelation and the structure of cortical cytoplasm. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol. 1981; 46:569- 578. 43. Stossel TP, ... An example of cell surface-to- cytoplasm communication. Fed Proc. 1977; 36: 2181-2184. 18. Stossel TP. Motile functions of ... Actin gelation and the structure and movement of cortical cytoplasm. Cell Surface Reviews. In: Cytoskeletal Elements and Plasma ...
The cytoplasm, mitochondria and most organelles are contributions to the cell from the maternal gamete. Contrary to the older ... In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus ... A papers suggested that at length scale smaller than 100 nm, the cytoplasm acts like a liquid, while in a larger length scale, ... The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm. Due to this network of fibres and high ...
... temporary or semipermanent extension of the cytoplasm, used in locomotion and feeding by all sarcodine protozoans (i.e., those ... of the cytoplasm, called a pseudopod ("false foot"), flows outward, deforms the cell boundary, and is followed by the rest of ... Pseudopodium, also called pseudopod, temporary or semipermanent extension of the cytoplasm, used in locomotion and feeding by ... These organisms have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia in locomotion (called ...
They cytoplasm is everything in the cell that is not an organelle. ...
The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. Lynch-Day MA ... Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. Under vegetative conditions it delivers ...
Cytoplasm definition, the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, ... cytoplasm in Culture Expand. cytoplasm [(seye-tuh-plaz-uhm)]. The material within a biological cell that is not contained in ... are contained in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the cells protoplasm. See more at cell.. ... It can develop vacuoles, or rather fine bubbles of carbonic acid gas in its cytoplasm, to float up to the surface of the water ...
Intercellular cytoplasm transport during Drosophila oogenesis.. Mahajan-Miklos S1, Cooley L. ...
cytoplasm synonyms, cytoplasm pronunciation, cytoplasm translation, English dictionary definition of cytoplasm. n. The ... sarcoplasm - the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber. syncytium - a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei and enclosed ... Cytoplasm - definition of cytoplasm by The Free Dictionary ... cytoplasm. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cy·to·plasm. (sī′tə-plăz′əm). n.. The protoplasm ...
Anomalous diffusion of single particles in cytoplasm.. Regner BM1, Vučinić D, Domnisoru C, Bartol TM, Hetzer MW, Tartakovsky DM ... Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these ...
... Date: Tue Mar 9 23:47:02 2004. Posted By: Dr. Nagesh N Bhat, Post-doc/Fellow ... Cytoplasm is a general term used to describe the aqueous content of cell inside the plasma membrane. It includes various ... Cytosol is the general liquid area of the cytoplasm excluding the compartments. For further details, refer Genes V (page 30) or ...
All cytoplasm contains three parts: the cytosol, the... ... Cytoplasm is a clear liquid that fills the cells of both plants ... A cell containing cytoplasm. The most basic part of cytoplasm is the the cytosol. The cytosol is the basic liquid part of the ... How would the cytoplasm repair itself if had been damaged? anon354199 November 6, 2013 How would the cytoplasm repair itself if ... Animal and plants cells are filled with cytoplasm. All of the parts of the cell, with the exception of the nucleus, are held ...
Purchase Microcompartmentation and Phase Separation in Cytoplasm, Volume 192 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Cytoplasm and Phase Separation: D.E. Brooks, Can Cytoplasm Exist Without Undergoing Phase Separation? H. Walter, Consequences ... Microcompartmentation and Phase Separation in Cytoplasm, Volume 192 1st Edition. A Survey of Cell Biology. 0.0 star rating ... Physicochemical Properties of Cytoplasm: H.-O. Johansson, D.E. Brooks, and C.A. Haynes, Macromolecular Crowding and Its ...
Sera from 105 HIV-infected patients were tested for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence ... Savige J.A., Chang L., Crowe S.M. (1993) Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasm Antibodies in HIV Infection. In: Gross W.L. (eds) ANCA- ... Four sera were positive in the neutrophil cytoplasm extract ELISA but not in the specific ELISAs. None of these patients had ... Sera from 105 HIV-infected patients were tested for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) pre-mRNA was present in the cytoplasm of quiescent platelets (and in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes ... Thus, pre-mRNA splicing not only takes place in the cytoplasm of platelets but also provides a mechanism for regulating ... and functional spliceosomes are found in the cytoplasm of platelets and, further, that splicing of this cytoplasmic pre-RNA is ... were present not only in the cytoplasm of human megakaryocytes but also in circulating platelets. ...
The Fanconi anemia polypeptide FACC is localized to the cytoplasm. T Yamashita, D L Barber, Y Zhu, N Wu, and A D DAndrea ... cell fractionation and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the FACC polypeptide localizes to the cytoplasm. In ...
It is equally plausible that the exceptional male fertility is the result of occasional transfer of normal cytoplasm through ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ...
Simulated diffusion of phosphorylated CheY through the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 187(1):45-53, 2005CrossRef ... to be considered in experiments using fluorescent probes and could in principle encode spatial information in the cytoplasm. ...
Video articles in JoVE about cytoplasm include Single-Molecule Imaging of Nuclear Transport, Determination of Plasma ... Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the Cytosol and small structures excluding the Cell nucleus; Mitochondria; and ...
Composed of a gelatinous liquid known as cytosol, the cytoplasm fills the interior of the cell. According to... ... The primary function of cytoplasm is to hold the cells various organelles in place. ... A: Fermentation takes place in the cells cytoplasm. In prokaryotic cells, all metabolic processes take place in the cytoplasm ... the cytoplasm fills the interior of the cell. According to Hartnell College, cytoplasm is a common feature of all cells ...
cytoplasm (n.). protoplasm, organic substance forming the essential constituent of cells, 1870, from cyto- cell + -plasm. ...
Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm ... How cytoplasm feels to a cells components. Under a microscope, a cells cytoplasm can resemble a tiny underwater version of ... The contents of the cell nucleus are not part of the cytoplasm and are instead called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is the ... The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of ...
Lack of Spem1 impairs the process of cytoplasm removal probably by preventing the cytoplasm from detaching from the spermatid ... We show that lack of Spem1 causes failure of the cytoplasm to become loose and detach from the head and the neck region of the ... Ubiquitin (29) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) (30) have been detected in CDs and are suggested to have a role in the cytoplasm ... In fact, ubiquitin, 15-LOX, and SPEM1 are all highly expressed in the cytoplasm of late spermatids and can all be detected in ...
... the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also acts as a repository ... The cytoplasm comprises three main parts. The main part, which makes up more than 50 percent of a cells volume, is the cytosol ... In an animal cell, the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also ... Finally, the cytoplasm contains indissoluble elements, such as starches and lipid droplets, that help store important chemicals ...
hnRNPs Relocalize to the Cytoplasm following Infection with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Elizabeth L. Pettit Kneller, John H. ... Host Shutoff Is a Conserved Phenotype of Gammaherpesvirus Infection and Is Orchestrated Exclusively from the Cytoplasm Sergio ...
Apoptosis propagates through the cytoplasm as trigger waves Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The apoptotic control network includes several positive feedback loops that may allow apoptosis to spread through the cytoplasm ... waves of apoptotic signals can be seen passing through the egg cytoplasm. The pathways that trigger cell death have positive ...
Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host ... Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host ... What happens when the HIV virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host?. Updated: Mar 05, 2020 ...
This disrupted the localization of Ran, with less in the nucleus and more in the cytoplasm than normal. The authors found ... Cells derived from C9ORF72 mutation carriers tended to have more TDP-43 in the cytoplasm, and less in the nucleus. Donnelly ... ALS Gene Repeats Obstruct Traffic Between Nucleus and Cytoplasm Quick Links. *Article ... the Rothstein and Robertson teams showed that TDP-43 mislocalization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm correlated with defects ...
Author Summary The interior of a typical bacterial cell is a highly crowded place in which molecules must jostle and compete with each other in order to carry out their biological functions. The conditions under which such molecules are typically studied in vitro, however, are usually quite different: one or a few different types of molecules are studied as they freely diffuse in a dilute, aqueous solution. There is therefore a significant disconnect between the conditions under which molecules can be most usefully studied and the conditions under which such molecules usually
If you take the cytoplasm of the frog egg -- note that the cytoplasm has been homogenized, so whatever spatial structure that ... Cytoplasm of ruptured Xenopus frog eggs reorganizes into cell-like compartments, study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Biochemistry, Cancer, Cell, Cell Cycle, Cell Death, Children, Childrens Health, Cytoplasm, Dynein, Education, Embryonic ... The cytoplasm of ruptured Xenopus frog eggs spontaneously reorganizes into cell-like compartments, according to a study by ...
Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, ... It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, ... It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic ... hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1-0.2 µm3 (possibly less if a ...
Simons, K. J., S. B. Gehlar, S. S. Maan and S. F. Kianian, 2003 Detailed mapping of the species cytoplasm specific (scs) gene ... Maan, S. S., 1992 Transfer of a species specific cytoplasm (scs) from Triticum timopheevii to T. turgidum. Genome 35: 238-243. ... An alloplasmic durum wheat line with the cytoplasm of Aegilops longissimum [(lo) durum] was developed (Maan 1992; Maan et al. ... Radiation Hybrid Mapping of the Species Cytoplasm-Specific (scsae) Gene in Wheat. Khwaja G. Hossain, Oscar Riera-Lizarazu, ...
  • Thus, pre-mRNA splicing not only takes place in the cytoplasm of platelets but also provides a mechanism for regulating cytokine production after platelet activation. (
  • According to Hartnell College, cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and inside the mitochondria. (
  • Important cellular functions, such as cell division, glycolysis and protein synthesis, take place in the cytoplasm, and it is also host to the cytoskeleton, which provides structure to the animal cell. (
  • On the contrary large scale cellular activities including glycolis, cell division and other metabolic paths take place in the cytoplasm. (
  • The synthesis of fatty acids take place in the cytoplasm instead of the mitochondrial matrix where degradation occurs. (
  • Sera from 105 HIV-infected patients were tested for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), by specific ELISAs using target proteins of ANCA and by a neutrophil cytoplasm extract ELISA. (
  • Savige J.A., Chang L., Crowe S.M. (1993) Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasm Antibodies in HIV Infection. (
  • Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and renal limited vasculitis are associated with circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies and are an important cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. (
  • Consideration is given to recent clinical trials in the management of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. (
  • These antibodies, known as anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA), are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) that is present in the primary granules of neutrophils and monocytes. (
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (WG) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) are syndromes of primary systemic vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA). (
  • One of the most important of these was the recognition of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) as a diagnostic marker. (
  • Today, microbiologists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, and at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg (Germany) provide additional evidence that these two processes are intrinsically related and show that a protein complex called Ccr4-Not plays a key role in gene expression by acting as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (
  • To do so, a very efficient communication within the cell, between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is essential. (
  • This complex acts as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to ensure that both transcription and translation levels are well adapted. (
  • The picture is now complete: gene expression actually depends on a constant dialogue between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and the Ccr4-Not complex is a key player in orchestrating regulatory processes within and in between these different compartments", indicates Zoltan Villanyi, first author of this study. (
  • A yeast RNA-binding protein shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (
  • According to the Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology, bacterial cytoplasm must hold the genetic material as it is not enclosed in the nucleus. (
  • The cytoplasm also contains proteins that control the replication of DNA in bacterial cells. (
  • Yong Wang, assistant professor of physics, and graduate student Asmaa Sadoon have been studying how molecules travel through bacterial cytoplasm in order to understand more about how these tiny organisms function. (
  • This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. (
  • Diffusion in the bacterial cytoplasm is regarded as the primary method of intracellular protein movement and must play a major role in controlling the rates of cell processes. (
  • A number of recent studies have used green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging and fluorescence microscopy to probe the movement and distribution of proteins in the bacterial cytoplasm. (
  • The bacterial cytoplasm is a complex, crowded environment ( 5 ). (
  • There are several terms and functions to keep track of when studying bacterial cytoplasm and cell membranes. (
  • Keep studying bacterium by reviewing the accompanying lesson called Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components. (
  • The apparent diffusion coefficient for GFP in bacterial cytoplasm is 7.7 ± 2.5 μm^2/s, about 11 times lower than in water (87 μm^2/s) (refs 25, 26) and significantly lower than in eukaryotic cells (∼27 μm^2/s) (ref 25) and mitochondria (20 to 30 μm^2/s) (ref 19). (
  • The cytoplasm also holds and contains a structure called the cytoskeleton, according to (
  • Recent experimental evidence suggests that cytoplasmic rheology can be described using a poroelastic formulation in which the cytoplasm is considered a biphasic material constituted of a porous elastic solid meshwork (cytoskeleton, organelles, macromolecules) bathed in an interstitial fluid (cytosol). (
  • Our results show that water redistribution through the solid phase of cytoplasm (cytoskeleton and crowders) plays a fundamental role in setting cellular rheology. (
  • But energetic processes elsewhere in the cell-in the cytoskeleton, especially-create random but powerful waves in the cytoplasm, pushing on proteins and organelles alike. (
  • In a eukaryotic cell, the cytoplasm is made up of the cytosol , the vesicles , the cytoskeleton , the inclusions and the organelles except for the nucleus . (
  • And the cytoskeleton is a part of the cell contained in the cytoplasm that acts as structure and support for the cell. (
  • So this lesson has been an overview on the structure and function of the cytoplasm, as well as an introduction into the structure and function of the cytoskeleton. (
  • The cytoplasm includes the cytosol, the cytoskeleton, and organelles (other than the nucleus and its contents). (
  • This contains dissolved molecules like proteins, as well as cytoskeleton filaments.The filaments located in the cytoplasm hold together the organelles suspended within the cytoplasm. (
  • Little is known about the etiologies of diseases associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA), such as primary vasculitides and inflammatory bowel diseases. (
  • Most cellular activities take place within the cytoplasm, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. (
  • And many of these reactions and processes will actually take place within the cytoplasm, as I mentioned earlier. (
  • made the unexpected discovery that precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) and functional spliceosomes are found in the cytoplasm of platelets and, further, that splicing of this cytoplasmic pre-RNA is regulated by signals deriving from platelet activation. (
  • The organelles are suspended within the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells and in prokaryotic cells, all the cell contents are found in the cytoplasm. (
  • The irregular dynamics of such particles have given rise to various theories on the nature of the cytoplasm. (
  • There has been research examining the motion of cytoplasmic particles independent of the nature of the cytoplasm. (
  • Therefore, understanding the fundamental physical nature of the cytoplasm is critical to understanding the basic physiology of cells. (
  • Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) pre-mRNA was present in the cytoplasm of quiescent platelets (and in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes extending the proplatelets that give rise to platelets), whereas platelets activated by adhesion to fibrinogen in the presence of thrombin contained mature IL-1β mRNA and protein. (
  • Prof. Collart explains the process in details: "During transcription in the nucleus, this complex controls the production of the machinery which produces the proteins in the cytoplasm. (
  • The main components of the cytoplasm are cytosol (a gel-like substance), the organelles (the cell's internal sub-structures), and various cytoplasmic inclusions. (
  • There has been certain disagreement on the definition of cytoplasm, as some authors prefer to exclude from it some organelles, especially the vacuoles and sometimes the plastids. (
  • citation needed] It remains uncertain how the varied components of the cytoplasm interact to allow movement of particles[clarification needed] and organelles while maintaining the cell's structure. (
  • The three major elements of the cytoplasm are the cytosol, organelles and inclusions. (
  • The cytosol is the portion of the cytoplasm not contained within membrane-bound organelles. (
  • The organelles of eukaryotic cells, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, and (in green plants) chloroplasts, are contained in the cytoplasm. (
  • Maintaining the shape of the cell and suspension of organelles is the most important task of cell cytoplasm, but it also serves in several other roles. (
  • Cytoplasm acts as a storage space for the chemical building blocks of the body, storing protein, oxygen and other substances until they can be used by the organelles, and storing the waste byproducts of metabolic reactions, such as carbon, until they can be disposed of. (
  • By squeezing organelles to a particular part of the cell, cytoplasm can cause the cell to move within the blood flow. (
  • Now engineers at MIT have found that these organelles and other intracellular components may experience the surrounding cytoplasm as very different environments as they travel. (
  • Certain organelles may have to work harder to make their way through cytoplasm, and may therefore feel more resistance. (
  • In the case of living cells, Guo wondered whether the surrounding cytoplasm would have a similar crowding effect on the movement of major organelles such as mitochondria and lysosomes. (
  • The primary function of cytoplasm is to hold the cell's various organelles in place. (
  • The maternal gamete, or egg cell, contributes the cytoplasm, mitochondria and most of the other organelles to the cell. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm contains organelles, such as mitochondria, which are filled with liquid that is kept separate from the rest of the cytoplasm by biological membranes. (
  • The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. (
  • In an animal cell, the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cell's organelles except the nucleus. (
  • The second major component of the cytoplasm is the cell's organelles. (
  • Did you know that much of the space in between different organelles in a cell is actually the cytoplasm? (
  • This tutorial is designed to focus what and where the cytoplasm is inside a cell, and what role it plays in the functions of the organelles within a cell. (
  • is a multilingual dictionary translation offered in , Malayalam മലയാളം In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus.The material inside the nucleus and contained within the nuclear membrane is termed the nucleoplasm.The main components of the cytoplasm are cytosol (a gel-like substance), the organelles (the cell's internal sub-structures), and various cytoplasmic inclusions. (
  • Kannada ಕನ್ನಡ , Marathi मराठी Cytoplasm is composed mainly of water but also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. (
  • The cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a viscous fluid, with organelles and proteins jiggling against one another and drifting at random. (
  • Within the cytoplasm, fluctuating forces enhance the intracellular transport of proteins and organelles. (
  • Led by David A. Weitz, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), a team of applied physicists and cell biologists have put forth this new model of the cytoplasm and demonstrated a way to quantify the aggregate forces felt by particles and organelles in the cell. (
  • Cytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that is not held by any of the organelles in the cell. (
  • All the cell organelles in eukaryotic cells are contained within the cytoplasm. (
  • On the other hand, cytoplasm is made of three chief elements including the cytosol, the cell organelles and the inclusions. (
  • Even though the substance that make up cytoplasm can easily be acquired--water, dissolved nutrients such as starch and glycogen, etc--lack of adequate technology that would allow the combining forcing synthesized cytoplasm to perform tasks that a natural cytoplasm would do--dissolve waste products, provides a place where organelles could be suspended, and help materials move around--isn't available. (
  • Think of it: cytoplasm contains mRNAs that change as genes are turned on and off, it contains enzymes that depend on the stage in the cell cycle, it contains organelles whose number and distribution changes according to environmental conditions. (
  • A mere glance at figures 1 and 2 is enough to demonstrate, in a schematic way, how different our present understanding of cell structure is from that of E. B. Wilson, some 40 years ago: while the essential constituents of the cell nucleus were already known, the cytoplasm had an alveolar (or fibrillar) structure, where no cell organelles (besides the centrosomes) could be seen. (
  • The neoplastic cells were polyhedral in shape with pale blue cytoplasm with anisocytosis and anisokaryosis (Fig.1) were also seen. (
  • uniform finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm seen in hepatocytes in carriers of hepatitis B virus, and also in epidermal cells in keratoacanthoma. (
  • Cytoplasm is the clear liquid that fills the cells of both plants and animals. (
  • Animal and plants cells are filled with cytoplasm. (
  • It is equally plausible that the exceptional male fertility is the result of occasional transfer of normal cytoplasm through the male germ cells of maintainer parents. (
  • According to Hartnell College, cytoplasm is a common feature of all cells regardless of the type of organism the cells come from. (
  • Unlike in plant cells, the cytoplasm in animal cells does not contain chloroplasts. (
  • By using fluorescent probes and microscopy, Cheng and Ferrell show that in frog eggs (which are very large cells), waves of apoptotic signals can be seen passing through the egg cytoplasm. (
  • Based on the prior RNA-binding study in human cells and the fly screen, one of the strongest hits was RanGAP1, activator of Ran GTPase, an enzyme that cycles between the nucleus and cytoplasm to direct traffic ( Joseph, 2006 ). (
  • Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s) capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth. (
  • However, the significance of the GlgA secretion into host cell cytoplasm remains unclear since, while expression of chlamydial GlgA in HeLa cells increased glycogen stores, it did not affect a subsequent infection with C. trachomatis. (
  • Cytoplasm can be found in both plant and animal cells. (
  • In this study, using P19 cells as a differentiation model, we showed that ADNP expression and cytoplasm/nucleus distribution is unique in neuronal-differentiated cells compared to cardiovascular and nondifferentiated pluripotent cells. (
  • Our research provides the first real physical understanding of the cytoplasm in mammalian cells," says lead author Ming Guo, Ph.D. '14, a former graduate student in applied physics at Harvard SEAS who is now continuing as a postdoctoral fellow to further explore the fundamental biophysics of cells. (
  • They also developed a new procedure for measuring the overall magnitude of the fluctuating forces within the cytoplasm of live cells, as well as the dependence of these forces on frequency. (
  • The use of fluorescence microscopic techniques to monitor macromolecular diffusion in eukaryotic (HeLa) cells showed that the diffusion of DNA is strongly size dependent but also that two fluorescently labeled dextrans (70 kDa and 580 kDa) can diffuse freely in the cytoplasm and nucleus ( 16 ). (
  • In prokaryotic cells that do not have a well-defined nucleus , the cytoplasm is simply everything enclosed by the cell membrane . (
  • The cytoplasm of living mammalian cells is a crowded, yet dynamic environment(1). (
  • Here I would like to discuss a few topics that may provide a comprehensive picture of the cytoplasm of living mammalian cells, from a mechanics and materials standpoint. (
  • Recently, it has also been suggested that the cytoplasm of living cells may behave like a poroelastic gel, whose property instead strongly depends on the length scale of the probe(19). (
  • However, in contrast to these elasticity-based models, there were also studies claiming that the cytoplasm of living mammalian cells behaves like a viscous fluid, rather than an elastic solid, and the viscosity of the cytoplasm is of several hundred times greater than that of water(26). (
  • In interphasic eukaryotic cells the genetic material, the DNA, is segregated from the rest of the cell by the double membrane of the nuclear envelope which separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. (
  • We have previously shown that the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP22 localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm of expressing cells. (
  • We have also shown that VP22 has the unusual property of intercellular spread, which involves the movement of VP22 from the cytoplasm of these expressing cells into the nuclei of nonexpressing cells. (
  • We have previously studied the subcellular localization of VP22 using immunofluorescence of transiently transfected cells and have shown that, consistent with the lack of an NLS, transiently expressed VP22 localizes primarily in the cytoplasm of expressing cells ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • In light of the outstanding attributes of DP , including a large fluorescence ratio variation, ultrafast detection of SO 2 , and excellent reversibility, it was successfully employed to track the variation of endogenous SO 2 and FA in the cytoplasm and nucleolus regions of live cells. (
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae and specialized plastids can also be abundant within the cytoplasm of suspensor cells. (
  • Discrete bodies which may be designated cytochondria occupy the greater part of the cytoplasm of liver cells. (
  • Conversely, bolstering DNA content via the creation of diploid cells rescued many of the defects associated with excessive cell size in haploid cells, indicating that the DNA:cytoplasm ratio defines the range in which RNA and protein biosynthesis can scale with growth. (
  • In human cells, prolonged arrest also increased cell size, decreased the DNA:cytoplasm ratio, and induced senescence. (
  • Free access of solutions to the cytoplasm was achieved by popping and stripping the plasma membrane from cells using 7-10 strokes of a Dounce homogenizer. (
  • Tel: 612 9845 3306 Fax: 612 9845 3318 -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On Behalf Of Guillermo Palao Sent: Wednesday, 5 April 2006 4:59 AM To: Histonet Subject: [Histonet] Sirius red with low contrast between cells cytoplasm andstained fibers Hello all: I would really appreciate any suggestions to improve sirius red staining of kidney samples. (
  • Although collagen fibers in tissue nicely stain red, cells cytoplasm do not stain yellow, but sort of pinkish, making it very difficult to separate from red-stained extracellular fibers for quantification purposes. (
  • Cytoplasm is a general term used to describe the aqueous content of cell inside the plasma membrane. (
  • The cytoplasm is contained within the confines of the plasma membrane or cell wall. (
  • The three main parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the region containing the DNA and the cytoplasm. (
  • The cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. (
  • Examples include studies of the mobility of signal transduction proteins in the E. coli cytoplasm ( 22 ), the mobility and distribution of transporters and respiratory complexes in the plasma membrane ( 14 , 15 ), and the dynamic assembly/disassembly of the flagellar motor ( 13 ). (
  • So the cytoplasm is the part of the cell that fills the space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. (
  • We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. (
  • Staining was located throughout the cytoplasm of the enterocytes, of both villi and crypts, and in the basolateral plasma membrane. (
  • Re: Very confused about cytosol and cytoplasm! (
  • It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1-0.2 µm 3 (possibly less if a nanocell) prior to the first cell division. (
  • The reason is that the composition of cytoplasm is not static, but rather dynamic. (
  • In this picture, the rate of cellular deformation is limited by the rate at which intracellular water can redistribute within the cytoplasm. (
  • The jelly-like fluid of the cytoplasm is called the cytosol. (
  • If we're discussing just the jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell as part of the cytoplasm, it is called the cytosol. (
  • Some RNA-binding proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and are thought to bind to RNA transcripts in the nucleus and remain bound during translocation to the cytoplasm. (
  • The phenotype switch to fibroblasts was associated with translocation of p21 Cip1/WAF1 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. (
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- Under a microscope, a cell's cytoplasm can resemble a tiny underwater version of New York's Times Square: Thousands of proteins swarm through a cytoplasm's watery environment, coming together and breaking apart like a cytoskeletal flash mob. (
  • The cell's cytoplasm is usually clear even though it contains numerous dissolved salts and other substances. (
  • Fermentation takes place in the cell's cytoplasm. (
  • Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. (
  • The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. (
  • Atg19p ubiquitination and the cytoplasm to vacuole trafficking pathway in yeast. (
  • The cytoplasm to vacuole (Cvt) trafficking pathway in S. cerevisiae is a constitutive biosynthetic pathway required for the transport of two vacuolar enzymes, aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p), to the vacuole. (
  • Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants in the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. (
  • Bodo बड़ो Also get the Hindi definition and the synonyms of the word cytoplasm. (
  • Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. (
  • This volume provides an overview of major cytoplasmic properties and events which including cytoarchitecture and the physical properties of cytoplasm, molecular compartmentation and gradients, channeling, sorting, and trafficking. (
  • It also addresses physicochemical events, both measured and anticipated, which attend solutions under conditions prevailing in cytoplasm: molecular crowding. (
  • In addition to providing a dramatic, qualitative description of the crowded cytoplasm, this first atomically detailed computational model of E. coli innards is also a tool for quantitative predictions of molecular conduct within the cell. (
  • The more complex simulations performed surprisingly well when asked to predict molecular behaviors, such as diffusion and stability, in the E. coli cytoplasm. (
  • Cytoplasm on the other hand is made of water up to 80% nucleic acids, enzymes, lipids, non-organic ions, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lightweight molecular compounds. (
  • Using molecular dynamics simulations of a comprehensive atomistic model cytoplasm we found that protein-protein interactions may destabilize native protein structures, whereas metabolite interactions may induce more compact states due to electrostatic screening. (
  • For instance, a cell's nucleus may "feel" the cytoplasm as a fluid, honey-like material, while mitochondria may experience it more like toothpaste. (
  • The ultrastructure of mitochondria was investigated for 8 quantitative characters in 16 maize lines with nuclei of the lines WF9, A-632, B-37, B-73, cytoplasms of N, M, C, T-type and J. Rb sources. (
  • Helminthosporium maydis Race T toxin caused the expected changes in freshly isolated mitochondria from T cytoplasm corn, namely complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, pronounced stimulation of succinate and NADH respiration, complete inhibition of malate respiration, and increased mitochondrial swelling. (
  • Excessive cell growth causes cytoplasm dilution and contributes to senescence. (
  • These old observations prompted us to investigate whether a decrease in DNA:cytoplasm ratio causes senescence. (
  • A) Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of adult mouse testis probed by Western blot for SPAG16 (C-terminal antibody recognizing both isoforms) or markers of cytoplasm (α-tubulin) or nucleus (Lamin B). (B) Sections of adult mouse testis immunolabeled with SPAG16 C-terminal antibody or pre-immune serum (negative control). (
  • In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. (
  • The contents of the cell nucleus are not part of the cytoplasm and are instead called the nucleoplasm. (
  • The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm. (
  • The central, granular mass in the cytoplasm is the endoplasm while the surrounding lucid layer is known as the cell cortex or the ectoplasm. (
  • A method of determining the mechanical behaviour of living cell mammalian cytoplasm with the aid of optical tweezers has been described. (
  • They call it force spectrum microscopy (FSM), because it uses a combination of microscopy, microrheology, and optical tweezers to measure the stiffness of the cytoplasm and the movement of an injected, inert particle. (
  • My group has been using optical tweezers to perform active microrheology measurement(3, 21, 23, 24) to directly characterize mechanical behaviors of living mammalian cytoplasm. (
  • In a recent study(24), we use optical tweezers to drag a plastic bead in the cytoplasm of a living mammalian cell, and directly measure the force and displacement relationship, which reflects the mechanical behavior of the cytoplasm. (
  • Role of Light and Malate in the Decreased Sensitivity of cms-T Cytoplasm Maize Leaves to Bipolaris maydis Race T Toxin. (
  • ABSTRACT Leaf segments from Texas male sterile (cms-T) cytoplasm maize isolines exposed to light (50 muM s(-1) m(-2)) for 8 h or more before or after being infiltrated with the Bipolaris maydis race T toxin (T-toxin) leaked significantly less electrolytes when immersed in distilled water (DW) for 24 to 48 h than did dark-treated leaf segments. (
  • Substantial damage to protoplasts with nonmale-sterile (N) cytoplasm occurred only at a 1:20 dilution. (
  • However, the dynamic behavior of indigenous proteins must be controlled by a complex mixture of specific interactions, combined with the basic physical constraints imposed by the viscosity and macromolecular crowding of the cytoplasm. (
  • The movement of proteins within the cytoplasm must be constrained by a combination of viscosity, macromolecular crowding, and specific interactions of the protein with other cell components (e.g., other proteins, nucleic acids, and the cytoplasmic membrane). (
  • The relatively low water content and high level of trehalose in ascospores of T. macrosporus might create a high viscosity in the spore cytoplasm and thus provide the physical conditions for low metabolism, which relate to dormancy and high stress tolerance. (
  • To resolve these problems, we have carried out a systematic study of the size dependence of protein diffusion coefficients in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm, using engineered GFP multimers (from 2 to 6 covalently linked GFP molecules). (
  • Elowitz MB, Surette MG, Wolf PE, Stock JB, Leibler S. Protein mobility in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. (
  • The model was able to match experimental observations of how quickly green fluorescent protein diffuses in the E. coli cytoplasm. (
  • A computational box of 1008 proteins is still a far stretch from the complex E. coli cytoplasm, says Allen Minton, PhD , a pioneer in the study of crowding effects and researcher of physical biochemistry at the National Institutes of Health. (
  • The diffusion of fluorescent proteins in the E. coli cytoplasm can conveniently be measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) ( 6 , 11 , 18 ). (
  • To resolve the question of the size dependence of protein diffusion in the E. coli cytoplasm, FRAP was used to measure diffusion coefficients ( D ) for a series of engineered GFP oligomers, ranging in size from 30 kDa (GFP monomers) to 165 kDa (six linked GFP molecules). (
  • Anomalous diffusion of single particles in cytoplasm. (
  • The cytoplasm is actually an elastic gel, it turns out, so it puts up some resistance to simple diffusion. (
  • Until now, cell biologists have assumed that particles and other objects passively diffuse through the cytoplasm because they collide randomly with neighboring molecules-a process called thermal diffusion or Brownian motion. (
  • The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope . (
  • In fact, the cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the protoplasm of a eukaryotic cell . (
  • Composed of a gelatinous liquid known as cytosol, the cytoplasm fills the interior of the cell. (
  • Cytoplasm is the gelatin-like, semi-transparent liquid that fills the cell. (
  • This theory thus proposes that the cytoplasm exists in distinct fluid and solid phases depending on the level of interaction between cytoplasmic components, which may explain the differential dynamics of different particles observed moving through the cytoplasm. (
  • Within the cytoplasm of the amœb particles travel up and down in all directions. (
  • Movement of calcium ions in and out of the cytoplasm is a signaling activity for metabolic processes. (
  • While small signaling molecules like calcium ions are able to diffuse with ease, larger molecules and subcellular structures often require aid in moving through the cytoplasm. (
  • It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. (
  • The cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance of the cell. (
  • All of these findings suggest that the Xenopus egg cytoplasm has the intrinsic ability to generate the basic spatial organization of the cell and even has some of its functions. (
  • Organization of microtubules in centrosome-free cytoplasm. (
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that factors distributed throughout cytoplasm participate in microtubule assembly and organization. (
  • The cytoplasm (of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes ) is where the functions for cell expansion, growth , metabolism , and replication are carried out. (
  • The flow of cytoplasmic components plays an important role in many cellular functions which are dependent on the permeability of the cytoplasm. (
  • The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways like glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. (
  • The cytoplasm represents the largest part of the cell by volume and hence its rheology sets the rate at which cellular shape change can occur. (
  • ADNP-like immunohistochemical localization to the neuronal cytoplasm and neurites was shown in this study not only in the cellular model but also in the brain cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb. (
  • While biological motors and other enzymatic processes provide key driving forces for these activities, the mechanical behavior of the cytoplasm are crucial for determining the mechanical resistance that cellular compartments experience. (
  • In aerobic cellular respiration, which reactions occur only in the cytoplasm? (
  • However, at the early stages of mitosis VP22 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it immediately binds to the condensing cellular chromatin and remains bound there through all stages of mitosis and chromatin decondensation into the G 1 stage of the next cycle. (
  • Such NLS-containing proteins are translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus through the nuclear pores, a process mediated by cellular proteins typified by the heterodimeric complex of importin α and β proteins ( 15 , 32 ). (
  • found, however, that components of the spliceosome (both proteins and small nuclear splicing RNAs) were present not only in the cytoplasm of human megakaryocytes but also in circulating platelets. (
  • In fertile lines-donors of CMS-inducing cytoplasms (euplasmic lines), functioning of CMS-inducing genes is inhibited by nuclear fertility-restoring genes, which suppress expression of these genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (
  • Cytoplasmic genes could alter considerably the quantitative parameters of mitochondrial ultrastructure, but the effect of the cytoplasm depended also on nuclear genes since one and the same cytoplasm could have opposite effects in case it was of different genetic background. (
  • It is thought that the component molecules and structures of the cytoplasm behave at times like a disordered colloidal solution (sol) and at other times like an integrated network, forming a solid mass (gel). (
  • It summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field and considers questions such as how molecules in cytoplasm interact. (
  • The cytoplasm of ruptured Xenopus frog eggs spontaneously reorganizes into cell-like compartments, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (
  • After being scrambled, the cytoplasm of Xenopus frog eggs spontaneously reorganizes into cell-like compartments. (
  • We argue that protein gradients created in this way need to be considered in experiments using fluorescent probes and could in principle encode spatial information in the cytoplasm. (
  • If you take the cytoplasm of the frog egg -- note that the cytoplasm has been homogenized, so whatever spatial structure that was there has been completely disrupted -- and just let it sit at room temperature, it will reorganize itself and form small cell-like units. (