Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.PhosphoproteinsTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesFatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHeterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).TritiumEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.

Specific receptors for glucocorticoid in the cytoplasm of the liver of AH 130 tumor-bearing rats. (1/19290)

Specific receptors for dexamethasone (11beta, 17alpha, 21-trihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-16alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) in the cytoplasm of the liver from AH 130 (solid type) tumor-bearing rats markedly increased in the advanced stage of tumor growth. The cytoplasmic receptors of the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats differed in their affinities for dexamethasone, and their apparent equilibrium (dissociation) constants (K) for dexamethasone were 4.0 and 2.6 X 10(-9) M, respectively. The rates of dissociation of dexamethasone-receptor complexes and the heat denaturations of the receptors in the livers of normal and tumor-bearing rats were similar. The glucocorticoid receptors of tumor-bearing rat liver had slightly higher affinities than did those of normal liver for all the steroids tested. Only a trace amount of receptors for dexamethasone could be detected in the cytoplasm of AH 130 ascites cells.  (+info)

The effects of glucocorticoids and progesterone on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/19290)

Glucocorticoids, at physiological concentration, inhibit cell division and thymidine incorporation in three lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture. At steroid concentrations sufficient to inhibit thymidine incorporation 50%, little or no effect is seen on protein synthesis 48 hr after hormone addition. All three of these lines are shown to have glucocorticoid receptors demonstrable by competitive protein binding assays. Receptors are extensively characterized in one line by sucrose density gradient analysis and binding specificity studies. Good correlation between receptor-binding specificity and biological activity is found except for progesterone, which binds to glucocorticoid receptor but is noninhibitory. Cross-competition and quantification studies demonstrate a separate receptor for progesterone. This receptor has limited binding specificities restricted largely to progestational agents, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor bound both glucocorticoids and progesterone. Two other human breast cancer lines neither contain glucocorticoid receptor nor are inhibited by glucocorticoids. It is concluded that in some cases glucocorticoids can directly limit growth in human breast cancer in vitro without requiring alterations in other trophic hormones.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/19290)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (4/19290)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (5/19290)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (6/19290)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance. (7/19290)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/19290)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic determinants are special molecules which play a very important role during oocyte maturation, in the females ovary. During this period of time, some regions of the cytoplasm accumulate some of these cytoplasmic determinants, whose distribution is thus very heterogenic. They play a major role in the development of the embryos organs. Each type of cell is determined by a particular determinant or group of determinants. Thus, all the organs of the future embryo are distributed and operating well thanks to the right position of the cytoplasmic determinants. The action of the determinants on the blastomeres is one of the most important ones. During the segmentation, cytoplasmic determinants are distributed among the blastomeres, at different times depending on the species and on the type of determinant. Therefore, the daughter cells resulting from the first divisions are totipotent : they can, independently, lead to a complete individual. That is not possible after the cytoplasmic ...
Define cytoplasmatic. cytoplasmatic synonyms, cytoplasmatic pronunciation, cytoplasmatic translation, English dictionary definition of cytoplasmatic. Adj. 1. cytoplasmatic - of or relating to cytoplasm cytoplasmic
Presence or absence of the nucleus is the main difference between cells cytoplasm and protoplasm. As cytoplasm does not have the nucleus, which is present in the protoplasm. Even the cytoplasm consists of the organelles like mitochondria, Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., on the other hand, protoplasm consists of the cytoplasm, nucleus, and the plasma membrane.
MORE than forty years have now passed away since the French naturalist, Dujardin, drew attention to the fact that the bodies of some of the lowest members of the animal kingdom consist of a structureless, semi-fluid, contractile substance, to which he gave the name of Sarcode. A similar substance occurring in the cells of plants was afterward studied by Hugo von Mohl, and named by him Protoplasm. It remained for Max Schultze to demonstrate that the sarcode of animals and the protoplasm of plants were identical.. The conclusions of Max Schultze have been in all respects confirmed by subsequent research, and it has further been rendered certain that this same protoplasm lies at the base of all the phenomena of life, whether in the animal or the vegetable kingdom. Thus has arisen the most important and significant generalization in the whole domain of biological science.. Within the last few years protoplasm has again been made a subject of special study; unexpected and often startling facts have ...
Biology Assignment Help, Physical state of protoplasm, PHYSICAL STATE OF PROTOPLASM Several theories have been given about its physical structure - (i ) Granular Theory (Proposed by Altman, Hanstein, 1886) - Granules embedded in a fluid, those are known as bioplast/cytoplast . Henle & Meg
Protoplasm, the essential property of creation and the fundamental essence in living matter is more than 50% water. If any large fraction of this water is removed from protoplasm, the protoplasm dies. Protoplasm is a very complicated structure of tiny threads and granules and compartments much like the work rooms of a factory. Organic micro-chips of the future might be modeled after protoplasm because they are the simplest of all living things. Protoplasm take us nearer than any to the earlier forms of life. When we get to the story of the human mind we deal with the most efficient part of the bodily machine. Certain electrical and chemical changes take place in the mind and we call them thoughts. Similar electrical or chemical changes are what direct the movements of the body and governs human action. The science of psychology as described in this article, has been built up around the idea that the mind can often act unconsciously.. The outside layer or grey matter does all the real thinking ...
process, whatever it may be, a process of physiological induction, we may apply a similar name to a process which seems closely analogous to, if it is not really identical with, the process we are now considering. I refer to some highly remarkable observations which were published a year or two ago in Mr. Darwins work on "Insectivorous Plants". It is there stated that, while looking at a linear series of excitable cells with the microscope, Mr. Darwin could observe the passage of a stimulus along the series, the protoplasm in the cells immediately stimulated first undergoing aggregation, then the protoplasm in those next adjacent doing the same, and so on. Now, the protoplasm in each cell was separated from the protoplasm in the adjacent cell by the walls of both the cells; yet, notwithstanding there was no observable anatomical continuity between these masses of protoplasm, a disturbance set up in any one of the series of masses immediately set up, by some process of physiological induction, a ...
An electrical current passing through a living plant flows partly through the cell wall and partly through the protoplasm. The relative amounts of these two portions of the current can be calculated.. The outcome of such calculations shows that the conclusions drawn from the study of the resistance of the tissue as a whole apply also to the resistance of the protoplasm, and consequently to the permeability of the protoplasm to ions.. ...
Cytoplasmic DNA detection by cGAS is involved in the immune response to a growing number of pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis [2], [3], [4]. cGAS engagement results in cGAMP synthesis and the rapid activation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), ultimately leading to type I interferon (IFN) production and the regulation of thousands of genes facilitating pathogen clearance. Safeguarding against sensing of endogenous nuclear DNA, cGAS resides in the cytoplasm of non‐dividing cells, where it should principally encounter pathogenic DNA. Nonetheless, it is now evident that cGAS can also detect cytoplasmic self‐DNA and that a specific machinery aiming at limiting the accumulation of such cytoplasmic DNA operates to protect from aberrant cGAS activation.. Deletion of the exonuclease TREX1 leads to the cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous … ...
On the other hand, the correlative functions, so long as they are exerted by a simple undifferentiated morphological unit or cell, are of the simplest character, consisting of those modifications of position which can be effected by mere changes in the form or arrangement of the parts of the protoplasm, or of those prolongations of the protoplasm which are called pseudopodia or cilia. But, in the higher animals and plants, the movements of the organism and of its parts are brought about by the change of the form of certain tissues, the property of which is to shorten in one direction when exposed to certain stimuli. Such tissues are termed contractile; and, in their most fully developed condition, muscular. The stimulus by which this contraction is naturally brought about is a molecular change, either in the substance of the contractile tissue itself, or in some other parts of the body; in which latter case, the motion which is set up in that part of the body must be propagated to the ...
✅ Answered - [new cell walls] [new shoot cells] [new protoplasm] [new cytoplasm] are the options of mcq question Amino acids are assimilated to form realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 05, 2019 05:20
2. All cells have the same shape and size. 3. All cells have a plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. 4. Protoplasm consists of a plasma membrane and
H-Ras activation promotes cytoplasmic accumulation and phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase association of beta-catenin in epidermal keratinocytes.
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|Understand the definition and components of cytoplasm |/p|
consist almost entirely of bodies exactly resembling the nuclei of the cells; some of these intercellular nuclei contain two nucleoli, and seem to be undergoing division, while round others a young cell may be seen in various stages of formation.. These different stages may be satisfactorily followed, and afford a very interesting example of cytogenetic action. The first thing observed is the accumulation round the nucleus of a little mass of granular protoplasm. In the midst of this a minute vacuola next shows itself; this becomes the cell-cavity, and gradually increases in size with the enlarging cell; the nucleus is persistent, remaining attached to the cell-wall.. For reasons to be presently mentioned, it is highly probable that the endocyst is pervaded by a system of canals of extreme delicacy, which constitute an irregular network in its substance.. Besides the structure now described, peculiar fibres (PI. II, fig. 10) are also developed in the endocyst. These are situated on its inner ...
View Notes - After the from BIOLOGY bi 101 at Montgomery. Meanwhile, the mRNA molecule passes through a pore in the nucleus and proceeds into the cellular cytoplasm where it moves toward the
In an animal cell, the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also acts as a repository for amino acids, sugars and other important nutrients...
In a study that may guide drug design, MIT researchers find organelles encounter varying levels of resistance, depending on their size and speed, as they move through a cells cytoplasm.
Question - FNAC test says dycohesive clusters with variable cytoplasm, irregular nuclei with moderate anisokaryosis with isolated bizarre cells. Suggestions?. Ask a Doctor about Epithelial cells, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
The cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a viscous fluid, with organelles and proteins jiggling against one another and drifting at random. Yet a new biophysical study finds that those drifting objects are subject to a very different type of environment than what we have thought.
Learn all about the functions of cytoplasm, the clear substance that consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane-bound cell.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cobalt ions cross an electrotonic synapse if cytoplasmic concentration is low. AU - Politoff, A.. AU - Pappas, G. D.. AU - Bennett, Michael V. L.. PY - 1974/8/16. Y1 - 1974/8/16. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016138697&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016138697&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. DO - 10.1016/0006-8993(74)90466-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 4844459. AN - SCOPUS:0016138697. VL - 76. SP - 343. EP - 346. JO - Brain Research. JF - Brain Research. SN - 0006-8993. IS - 2. ER - ...
The latest advocates of the socalled race doctrine take great pains to give a scientific appearance to their views and appeal especially to the laws of heredity, which play such an important part in modern natural science, and are still the subject of so much controversy. By heredity, biology means chiefly the fact, firmly established by common observation, that plants and animals resemble their parents and that this resemblance is apparently traceable to the fact that the descendants arise from bits of the same protoplasm and so develop from the same or similar hereditary primordia. From this it follows that in protoplasm there reside peculiar forces which by the separation of the tiniest portions can transmit the whole to the descendants. Thus men came to recognise that the real cause of inheritance must be sought in a particular condition of the living cellstuff which we call protoplasm.. However valuable this recognition may be, it has hardly brought us nearer to the real solution of the ...
0029] Under normal conditions (in the absence of neoplasias), the APC gene is localized on the chromosome 5 and encodes a cytoplasmatic protein (APC protein) which plays a key role in the regulation of the apoptosis of the cell cycle, inter-cellular interaction and adhesion, migration processes in addition to the metastatization of tumours. The most well-known function of the APC protein is its association with the GSK-3β protein (glycogen-synthetase kinase 3 β protein) for the regulation of the quantity of free β-catenin present in the cytoplasm and therefore in the nucleus: the above proteins, in fact, by phosphorylating the free β-catenin on a cytoplasmatic level, promotes its degradation. β-catenin is a protein capable of binding itself to the cytoplasmatic domain of a membrane protein, E-cadherin, involved in the cellular adhesion process. The destruction of the E-cadherin-β-catenin intra-cellular complex (an event associated with the conversion of a non-tumoral cell into a neoplastic ...
Development of capillaries in the regenerating tail of a tadpole. a b c d, sprouts and cords of protoplasm. The sprouts and cords of protoplasm have become channeled out into capillaries.. ...
For nearly a century, countless doctors and medical researchers have pursued the now substantiated link between disease and morphological and molecular cell changes in patients. As early as 1931 in Switzerland, Dr. Paul Niehan pioneered cell and organ-lysate therapies, providing diseased organ with elements taken from identical healthy organs. In the last 50 years, Professor Karl Theurer of Germany furthered the work of Dr. Niehans, ultimately leading to the effective use of biological macromolecules.. More recently, advances in modern medicine and cell research have given birth to Cytoplasmatic Therapy. Distinct in nature from other organ-extract and cell-therapy techniques, Cytoplasmatic Therapy embraces a holistic approach to safely and effectively reverse cell defects. Patients are treated with relevant refined components extracted from healthy cells, thereby enabling diseased organs to again function properly.. Cytoplasmatic Therapy employs an internationally patented method for processing ...
Cytoplasmic Compartmentalization of the Protein and Ribonucleic Acid Species of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: The cytoplasmic sites of synthesis in L cells of the
The nuclear‐encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype h ...
A mere glance at figures 1 and 2 is enough to demonstrate, in a schematic way, how different our present understanding of cell structure is from that of E. B. Wilson, some 40 years ago: while the essential constituents of the cell nucleus were already known, the cytoplasm had an alveolar (or fibrillar) structure, where no cell organelles (besides the centrosomes) could be seen. This over-cautious representation of cytoplasmic structure was due to the fear of fixation and staining artifacts, as a consequence of the work of J. Loeb and his followers on the properties of colloids. Nowadays, we think in terms of macromolecules rather than miscellae, and we have good reasons to think that microscopy can give a fairly accurate picture of cell structure. When I was a student, our professors did not believe in Golgi bodies, in nuclear membranes, in spindle and aster fibres; even mitochondria were considered as possible artifacts. Everything has changed, within a few decades, thanks to the introduction ...
We explain Cytoplasm with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p||span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;|Did you know that much of the space |/span|in between|span style=font-size: 13px; line-height: 1;| different organelles in a cell is actually the cytoplasm? This tutorial is designed to focus what and where the cytoplasm is inside a cell, and what role it plays in the functions of the organelles within a cell.|/span||/p|
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional file 1 Flow citometry of unstained BMCs controls elucidating gates for further analysis of treated cells. ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the GW788388 biological activity number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, lot of cytoplasmatic increase and projections of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a higher degree of LC3b appearance by treated cells was discovered by stream cytometry, recommending an autophagic procedure. Cell surface appearance of F4/80 and Compact disc11b also indicated GW788388 biological activity that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone tissue marrow cells generally into macrophages. Furthermore, AEPa ...
TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected w
1. The fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum , which is the cell-free portion of the blood from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. See blood plasma . 2. The lymph deprived of its corpuscles or cells. 3. A glycerite of starch used in preparing ointments. 4. Cytoplasm or protoplasm.
Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host. The viral DNA is then transported into the nucleus and incorporated into... more
The rate of entrance of electrolyte and of water into impaled cells of Halicystis Osterhoutii is unaffected by raising the pH of the sea water to 9.2 or lowering it to 7.0. It is quite possible that sodium enters by combining with an organic acid HX produced by the protoplasm. If the pK of this acid is sufficiently low the change in external pH would not produce much effect on the rate of entrance of sodium.. The rate of entrance of electrolytes is affected by light. In normal light (i.e. natural succession of daylight and darkness) the rate is about twice as great as in darkness.. ...
The best 52 synonyms for muscle, including: fiber, flesh, protoplasm, meat, brawn, beefcake, horseflesh, kinesthetic, proprioceptive, beef, biceps and more... Find another word for muscle at YourDictionary.
Do you know that sulfur disinfects the blood, helps the body resist bacteria, and protects the protoplasm of cells? It also aid in necessary oxidation reaction in the body, stimulates bile secretion,
Migdall and Graham think its likely that Mer in the nucleus may influence "gene expression" - helping to decide which parts of the cells DNA are printed or expressed into proteins. If Mer is, in fact, altering genes within cells, it may be one way in which healthy cells become cancerous - with the wrong genes expressed, a good cell may go bad. Or perhaps Mer in the nucleus may help existing cancer cells survive and thrive despite chemotherapy treatment, as is commonly the case in patients who relapse ...
Purpose. They cytoplasm is everything in the cell that is not an organelle.. Function. This contains many of the protiens, molecules, and important substances that the cell needs, as well as keeping the organelles seperate. It is similar to air for us; it has many essential ingredients for continued existence; it provides a medium in which the organelles can exist (living in a vacum is not very easy), and pretty much fills up space.. Location. Inside the cell wall and cell membrane, around the all the organelles.. ...
Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol.: A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lip
The cytosol consists mainly of water in which various molecules are dissolved or suspended. These molecules include proteins, fats and carbohydrates as well as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Many of the reactions that take place in the cell occur in the cytosol. Insert here: W/S Cell Q 4 ...
The nucleo-cytoplasmic localization of KLF6 alongside one another with the presence of a purposeful NLS supported the idea that KLF6 could also harbor a
உயிரணு உயிரியலில் உயிரணுக்கணிகம் அல்லது கலக்கணிகம் அல்லது குழியவுரு (Cytoplasm) என்பது உயிரணு ஒன்றின் உள்ளடக்கத்தில், உயிரணுக் கரு தவிர்ந்த மிகுதியாக உள்ள பகுதியாகும். இது உயிரணு நீர்மம் (en:Cytosol) எனும் நீர்மக் கரைசலையும் (இந்த நீர்மக் கரைசல் உயிரணு மென்சவ்விற்கு உள்ளாக இருக்கும் கூழ்மப் பொருள்), உயிரணுக்களின் உள்ளே காணப்படும் நுண்ணுறுப்புக்களையும் உள்ளடக்கிய பகுதி ஆகும். இந்த ...
nuclear extract - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi! I am trying to assay by western blotting NFkB, a trascription factor that translocate to the nucleus, in the brain. I need both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts. I have always problems of contamination of the nuclear extract with cytoplasmic fraction. What can I do? and what is the critical step? thanks
In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be considered. In the present review, we discuss literature that gives an insight into how cytoplasmic organization is achieved and in which actin-binding proteins have been identified that play a role in this process. We discuss how physical properties of the actin cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of live plant cells, such as deformability and elasticity, can be probed by using optical tweezers. This technique allows non-invasive manipulation of cytoplasmic organization. Optical tweezers, integrated in a confocal microscope, can be used to manipulate cytoplasmic organization while studying actin dynamics. By combining this with mutant studies and drug applications, insight can be obtained about how the physical ...
NMDA receptors are calcium ion channels that function at the postsynaptic side of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are thought to be tetrameric in structure, composed of two NR1 subunits and two NR2 subunits. It is established that the NMDA receptors function in synaptic plasticity is largely mediated by the NR2 intracellular C-terminal domain, which interacts directly and indirectly with numerous postsynaptic signalling molecules (Sprengel et al 98, Migaud et al 98, Husi et al 00). The purpose of this study was to address questions of evolutionary conservation of the NR2 C-terminal domain and structural properties. Ryan et als study provides two main insights. The first was based on comparisons of the length of the NR2 C-terminus between paralogues and across species. Through simple amino acid sequence alignments of NR2 orthologues it became clear that the NR2 C-terminus profoundly differs in size between vertebrates and invertebrates, with vertebrates ...
Mobilization of specific tRNA and cell division proteins to specific intracellular locations may suggest that instructions and mechanisms are needed. The alternative is that molecular crowding in the cytoplasm is sufficient for gentle contact between mRNA, ribosomes and tRNA. It may be possible that the bacterial cytoplasm and its contents are mobilized with the outcome being more gentle collisions between molecules than by a diffusion only mechanism. One hypothesis is that cytoplasmic and molecule mobilization and spatial organization are possibly driven by the photons in thermal infrared (IR) radiation and generation of exclusion zone (EZ) water in the cytoplasm.
To further investigate the mRNAs that are released from the nucleus upon compound treatment, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis using total cell extracts, nuclear fractions, and cytoplasmic fractions of cells transfected with NS1, untreated, or treated with 1 (Table S10). We then focused our analysis on mRNAs that did not have their levels altered by NS1 in the total cell extract but showed increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios in the presence of NS1 and reduced nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios upon compound treatment, indicating release of mRNA export block by the compound. These mRNAs were then subjected to gene set enrichment analysis. As shown in Fig. S2 D, a major response network of mRNAs released into the cytoplasm by 1 included the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF1-α) pathway, which is involved in antiviral response. Changes in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios of HIF1-α and PDGF-α, which is connected to the HIF1-α pathway, were further confirmed by quantitative PCR (Fig. 5 ...
The generation of different cell types during embryonic development is thought to be mediated by the combined activity of cytoplasmic factors (determinants), which are localized in the egg, and inductive interactions, which occur between different embryonic cells and tissues. Ascidians, animals that exhibit rapid and exceptionally autonomous development (reviewed by Jeffery, 1985), appear to employ cytoplasmic determinants to generate embryonic cell diversity. Although determinants have not been identified in ascidians or other animals, it is hypothesized that they function in at least two different ways. First, as initially pointed out by Morgan (1934), determinants may be regulatory factors which promote differential gene expression in specific cell lineages. Consistent with this possibility, inhibitors of transcription, added prior to gastrulation, block the appearance of some ascidian tissue-specific enzymes and morphological markers whose expression is regulated by the activity of ...
Loading of the appropriate transport machinery on mRNPs is critical to achieve correct localization and, consequently, localized translation of the transcript. Although mRNA transport has been extensively studied over the last two decades, the recruitment of plus‐end‐directed kinesin motors to mRNPs and their regulation remains poorly understood (Medioni et al, 2012).. Here, we have shown that the majority of kinesin‐1 motor associated with oskar mRNA is recruited by Tropomyosin1‐I/C, a non‐canonical RNA binding protein, which explains the mislocalization of oskar mRNA when Tm1‐I/C is lacking (Erdelyi et al, 1995; Veeranan‐Karmegam et al, 2016; and this study). We found that this recruitment occurs early in the cytoplasmic life of the mRNA, upon its nucleo‐cytoplasmic export, in the perinuclear cytoplasm of the nurse cells, where dimerization of oskar mRNA molecules via their 3′UTRs commences (Little et al, 2015). Our observations are consistent with an "ergonomic" ...
Cytoplasm. Vertical: parental; sex; blood Structure[edit]. Viruses in Hepadnaviridae are enveloped, with spherical geometries, ... Cytoplasm. Vertical: parental; sex; blood Orthohepadnavirus. Humans; mammals. Hepatocytes. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. ... The virus binds to specific receptors on cells and the core particle enters the cell cytoplasm. This is then translocated to ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Passive diffusion, direct contact. Evolution[edit]. The most recent common ancestor of the four extant ...
cytoplasm. KTU. nucleus. GLIS2. intraflagellar transport. IFT80. other. AHI1. ARL13B. BRCC3. INPP5E. KIF3A. LRRC50. SDCCAG8. ... cytoplasm. • ciliary basal body. • centrosome. • photoreceptor outer segment. • cell projection. • sperm flagellum. • cilium. • ...
cytoplasm. KTU. nucleus. GLIS2. intraflagellar transport. IFT80. other. AHI1. ARL13B. BRCC3. INPP5E. KIF3A. LRRC50. SDCCAG8. ...
cytoplasm. Biological process. • negative regulation of MDA-5 signaling pathway. • regulation of innate immune response. • ...
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Contact Aquabirnavirus. Salmonid fish. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. ... Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Unknown Entomobirnavirus. Insects: diptera. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. ...
cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • external side of plasma membrane. • cell surface. • ...
Presence of cytoplasm. *Glandular (secretory) vs. Eglandular. *Tortuous, Simple (unbranched and unicellular), Peltate (scale- ...
coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the cytoplasm ... In prokaryotes, DNA processing takes place in the cytoplasm.[4]. *Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: generate energy for the cell. ... Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.[2] ... The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a single circular chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. The ...
coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the cytoplasm ... All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane.[3] Some eukaryotic organelles ... In prokaryotes, DNA processing takes place in the cytoplasm.[3]. *Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: generate energy for the cell. ... Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.[2] ...
cytoplasm. 生物过程. · positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. · transcription, DNA-dependent. · pattern ...
The lobes are connected by a thin strand.[9] The cytoplasm is full of granules that assume a characteristic pink-orange color ... The cytoplasm may look transparent because of fine granules that are pale lilac when stained. Neutrophils are active in ... and by their cytoplasm granules (present or absent, or more precisely, visible on light microscopy or not thus visible). The ... and a relatively small amount of cytoplasm. Lymphocytes include: *B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block ...
Crick, F.H.C.; Hughes, A.F.W. (1950). "The physical properties of cytoplasm". Experimental Cell Research. 1 (1): 37-80. doi: ... The magnetic particle phagocytosis method continued to be used for many years to research cytoplasm rheology and other physical ... viscosity of the cytoplasm, rigidity of internal structure, and ease of particle flow.[12][13][14] ... measurements about the physical properties of the cytoplasm were made.[12] Although some of their methods and measurements were ...
Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol ...
Replication takes place in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of host cells. Firstly, the viral genome enters the cytoplasm. The ... Newly transcribed RNA enters the cytoplasm once more where it has two roles. It can either be used as a template for viral ...
In eukaryotes, the process takes place both in the cell cytoplasm and in the nucleolus, which is a region within the cell ... In bacterial cells, ribosomes are synthesized in the cytoplasm through the transcription of multiple ribosome gene operons. ... Ribosomes can be found floating within the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. ... "A small particulate component of the cytoplasm". J Biophys Biochem Cytol. 1 (1): 59-68. doi:10.1083/jcb.1.1.59. PMC 2223592 ...
Replication usually takes place in the cytoplasm. RNA viruses can be placed into four different groups depending on their modes ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. 生物过程. · M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell ...
perinuclear region of cytoplasm. 生物過程. · acetylcholine catabolic process in synaptic cleft. · regulation of receptor recycling ...
Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm.. Small cell carcinoma. Cells ... The clustered cancerous cells consist primarily of nucleus (purple); they have only a scant rim of cytoplasm. The surrounding ... usually round and are less than approximately 3 times the diameter of a resting lymphocyte and with little evident cytoplasm. ...
The cytoplasm then separates, creating multiple daughter cells.[14][15][16] Some parasitic, single-celled organisms undergo a ...
The encoded proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Two alternative transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been ...
cytoplasm. • Cajal body. • nuclear membrane. • membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • nuclear envelope. • ... Görlich D, Kutay U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (1): 607-60. ... Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed (October 2007). "Exporting RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ...
They are in the cytoplasm, not the nucleus. They make most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule ...
5. Cytoplasm. 6. Cell membrane. Macrophages[1] are white blood cells within tissues, produced by the differentiation of ...
... temporary or semipermanent extension of the cytoplasm, used in locomotion and feeding by all sarcodine protozoans (i.e., those ... of the cytoplasm, called a pseudopod ("false foot"), flows outward, deforms the cell boundary, and is followed by the rest of ... Pseudopodium, also called pseudopod, temporary or semipermanent extension of the cytoplasm, used in locomotion and feeding by ... These organisms have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia in locomotion (called ...
They cytoplasm is everything in the cell that is not an organelle. ...
The abbreviation Cvt comes from the emphasis Cytoplasm vacuole targeting, not from Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting. Lynch-Day MA ... Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is an autophagy-related pathway in yeast. Under vegetative conditions it delivers ...
Cytoplasm definition, the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, ... cytoplasm in Culture Expand. cytoplasm [(seye-tuh-plaz-uhm)]. The material within a biological cell that is not contained in ... are contained in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the cells protoplasm. See more at cell.. ... It can develop vacuoles, or rather fine bubbles of carbonic acid gas in its cytoplasm, to float up to the surface of the water ...
Intercellular cytoplasm transport during Drosophila oogenesis.. Mahajan-Miklos S1, Cooley L. ...
Definition of ground-glass cytoplasm. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... ground-glass cytoplasm. Definition: uniform finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm seen in hepatocytes in carriers of hepatitis ...
Anomalous diffusion of single particles in cytoplasm.. Regner BM1, Vučinić D, Domnisoru C, Bartol TM, Hetzer MW, Tartakovsky DM ... Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these ...
... Date: Tue Mar 9 23:47:02 2004. Posted By: Dr. Nagesh N Bhat, Post-doc/Fellow ... Cytoplasm is a general term used to describe the aqueous content of cell inside the plasma membrane. It includes various ... Cytosol is the general liquid area of the cytoplasm excluding the compartments. For further details, refer Genes V (page 30) or ...
how-cytoplasm-feels-cell-components-0821 More in Biology. * Use of primate actors misleading millions of viewers Taylor & ... How cytoplasm feels to a cells components. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Journal. Proceedings of the National ... How cytoplasm feels to a cells components In study that may guide drug design, researchers find organelles encounter varying ... "If you ask a nucleus, they would tell you the cytoplasm is like honey, because they are really large and slow, and they dont ...
Purchase Microcompartmentation and Phase Separation in Cytoplasm, Volume 192 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... D.E. Brooks, Can Cytoplasm Exist Without Undergoing Phase Separation?. H. Walter, Consequences of Phase Separation in Cytoplasm ... Microcompartmentation and Phase Separation in Cytoplasm, Volume 192 1st Edition. A Survey of Cell Biology. 0 star rating Write ... Physicochemical Properties of Cytoplasm:. H.-O. Johansson, D.E. Brooks, and C.A. Haynes, Macromolecular Crowding and Its ...
Sera from 105 HIV-infected patients were tested for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence ... Savige J.A., Chang L., Crowe S.M. (1993) Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasm Antibodies in HIV Infection. In: Gross W.L. (eds) ANCA- ... Four sera were positive in the neutrophil cytoplasm extract ELISA but not in the specific ELISAs. None of these patients had ... Sera from 105 HIV-infected patients were tested for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence ...
It is equally plausible that the exceptional male fertility is the result of occasional transfer of normal cytoplasm through ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ... INSTABILITY OF S MALE-STERILE CYTOPLASM IN MAIZE. Arjun Singh and John R. Laughnan ...
Simulated diffusion of phosphorylated CheY through the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 187(1):45-53, 2005CrossRef ... to be considered in experiments using fluorescent probes and could in principle encode spatial information in the cytoplasm. ...
Video articles in JoVE about cytoplasm include Single-Molecule Imaging of Nuclear Transport, Determination of Plasma ... Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the Cytosol and small structures excluding the Cell nucleus; Mitochondria; and ...
Composed of a gelatinous liquid known as cytosol, the cytoplasm fills the interior of the cell. According to... ... The primary function of cytoplasm is to hold the cells various organelles in place. ... A: Fermentation takes place in the cells cytoplasm. In prokaryotic cells, all metabolic processes take place in the cytoplasm ... the cytoplasm fills the interior of the cell. According to Hartnell College, cytoplasm is a common feature of all cells ...
cytoplasm (n.). protoplasm, organic substance forming the essential constituent of cells, 1870, from cyto- cell + -plasm. ...
Cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm ... How cytoplasm feels to a cells components. Under a microscope, a cells cytoplasm can resemble a tiny underwater version of ... The contents of the cell nucleus are not part of the cytoplasm and are instead called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is the ... The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of ...
Lack of Spem1 impairs the process of cytoplasm removal probably by preventing the cytoplasm from detaching from the spermatid ... We show that lack of Spem1 causes failure of the cytoplasm to become loose and detach from the head and the neck region of the ... Ubiquitin (29) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) (30) have been detected in CDs and are suggested to have a role in the cytoplasm ... In fact, ubiquitin, 15-LOX, and SPEM1 are all highly expressed in the cytoplasm of late spermatids and can all be detected in ...
... the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also acts as a repository ... The cytoplasm comprises three main parts. The main part, which makes up more than 50 percent of a cells volume, is the cytosol ... In an animal cell, the cytoplasm is a semi-liquid substance that holds all the cells organelles except the nucleus. It also ... Finally, the cytoplasm contains indissoluble elements, such as starches and lipid droplets, that help store important chemicals ...
The cytoplasm, mitochondria and most organelles are contributions to the cell from the maternal gamete. Contrary to the older ... The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless. The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which ... The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm. Due to this network of fibres and high ... A solid glass cytoplasm would freeze subcellular structures in place, preventing damage, while allowing the transmission of ...
Apoptosis propagates through the cytoplasm as trigger waves Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The apoptotic control network includes several positive feedback loops that may allow apoptosis to spread through the cytoplasm ... waves of apoptotic signals can be seen passing through the egg cytoplasm. The pathways that trigger cell death have positive ...
Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host ... Once the virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host, viral reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA to the DNA of the host ... What happens when the HIV virus core enters the cell cytoplasm of the host?. Updated: Mar 05, 2020 ...
Retrograde movement of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hussam H. Shaheen and Anita K. ... Maturation of tRNAs and their dynamics between the nucleus and the cytoplasm,b, ,/b, ... Crystal structure of Cex1p reveals the mechanism of tRNA trafficking between nucleus and cytoplasm ... Retrograde nuclear transport from the cytoplasm is required for tRNATyr maturation in T. brucei ...
This disrupted the localization of Ran, with less in the nucleus and more in the cytoplasm than normal. The authors found ... Cells derived from C9ORF72 mutation carriers tended to have more TDP-43 in the cytoplasm, and less in the nucleus. Donnelly ... ALS Gene Repeats Obstruct Traffic Between Nucleus and Cytoplasm Quick Links. *Article ... the Rothstein and Robertson teams showed that TDP-43 mislocalization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm correlated with defects ...
Author Summary The interior of a typical bacterial cell is a highly crowded place in which molecules must jostle and compete with each other in order to carry out their biological functions. The conditions under which such molecules are typically studied in vitro, however, are usually quite different: one or a few different types of molecules are studied as they freely diffuse in a dilute, aqueous solution. There is therefore a significant disconnect between the conditions under which molecules can be most usefully studied and the conditions under which such molecules usually
  • The cytoplasm also holds and contains a structure called the cytoskeleton, according to About.com. (reference.com)
  • Our results show that water redistribution through the solid phase of cytoplasm (cytoskeleton and crowders) plays a fundamental role in setting cellular rheology. (harvard.edu)
  • And the cytoskeleton is a part of the cell contained in the cytoplasm that acts as structure and support for the cell. (sophia.org)
  • So this lesson has been an overview on the structure and function of the cytoplasm, as well as an introduction into the structure and function of the cytoskeleton. (sophia.org)
  • In the context of cytoplasm, viscoelasticity represents how quickly a cell can change shape by altering its cytoskeleton. (labroots.com)
  • Role of Light and Malate in the Decreased Sensitivity of cms-T Cytoplasm Maize Leaves to Bipolaris maydis Race T Toxin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ABSTRACT Leaf segments from Texas male sterile (cms-T) cytoplasm maize isolines exposed to light (50 muM s(-1) m(-2)) for 8 h or more before or after being infiltrated with the Bipolaris maydis race T toxin (T-toxin) leaked significantly less electrolytes when immersed in distilled water (DW) for 24 to 48 h than did dark-treated leaf segments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ultrastructure of mitochondria was investigated for 8 quantitative characters in 16 maize lines with nuclei of the lines WF9, A-632, B-37, B-73, cytoplasms of N, M, C, T-type and J. Rb sources. (eurekamag.com)
  • The PCR approach enabled a simple, fast and reliable large scale screening of maize cytoplasm among MRI gene bank accessions, significantly reducing time for cytoplasm characterizations compared to classical method of testing with restorers for each known type of CMS. (deepdyve.com)
  • Today, microbiologists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, and at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg (Germany) provide additional evidence that these two processes are intrinsically related and show that a protein complex called Ccr4-Not plays a key role in gene expression by acting as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (phys.org)
  • To do so, a very efficient communication within the cell, between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is essential. (phys.org)
  • This complex acts as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to ensure that both transcription and translation levels are well adapted. (phys.org)
  • The picture is now complete: gene expression actually depends on a constant dialogue between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and the Ccr4-Not complex is a key player in orchestrating regulatory processes within and in between these different compartments", indicates Zoltan Villanyi, first author of this study. (phys.org)
  • It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1-0.2 µm 3 (possibly less if a nanocell) prior to the first cell division. (mdpi.com)
  • The reason is that the composition of cytoplasm is not static, but rather dynamic. (biology-online.org)
  • In this picture, the rate of cellular deformation is limited by the rate at which intracellular water can redistribute within the cytoplasm. (harvard.edu)
  • The more complex simulations performed surprisingly well when asked to predict molecular behaviors, such as diffusion and stability, in the E. coli cytoplasm. (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • The model was able to match experimental observations of how quickly green fluorescent protein diffuses in the E. coli cytoplasm. (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • To resolve these problems, we have carried out a systematic study of the size dependence of protein diffusion coefficients in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm, using engineered GFP multimers (from 2 to 6 covalently linked GFP molecules). (asm.org)
  • To resolve the question of the size dependence of protein diffusion in the E. coli cytoplasm, FRAP was used to measure diffusion coefficients ( D ) for a series of engineered GFP oligomers, ranging in size from 30 kDa (GFP monomers) to 165 kDa (six linked GFP molecules). (asm.org)
  • The presence of DNA in mammalian cell cytoplasm triggers an immune response by binding to a dimeric enzyme, which inserts between DNA double helices to form the 'rungs' of a ladder-like structure, as an LMU team has now shown. (phys.org)
  • Cytoplasmic genes could alter considerably the quantitative parameters of mitochondrial ultrastructure, but the effect of the cytoplasm depended also on nuclear genes since one and the same cytoplasm could have opposite effects in case it was of different genetic background. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here, we show in rice ( Oryza sativa ) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79 , is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B- atp6 ) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. (plantcell.org)
  • The cytoplasm (of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes ) is where the functions for cell expansion, growth , metabolism , and replication are carried out. (biology-online.org)
  • The relatively low water content and high level of trehalose in ascospores of T. macrosporus might create a high viscosity in the spore cytoplasm and thus provide the physical conditions for low metabolism, which relate to dormancy and high stress tolerance. (asm.org)
  • A) Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of adult mouse testis probed by Western blot for SPAG16 (C-terminal antibody recognizing both isoforms) or markers of cytoplasm (α-tubulin) or nucleus (Lamin B). (B) Sections of adult mouse testis immunolabeled with SPAG16 C-terminal antibody or pre-immune serum (negative control). (nih.gov)
  • It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of cytoplasmic components plays an important role in many cellular functions which are dependent on the permeability of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasm represents the largest part of the cell by volume and hence its rheology sets the rate at which cellular shape change can occur. (harvard.edu)
  • However, at the early stages of mitosis VP22 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it immediately binds to the condensing cellular chromatin and remains bound there through all stages of mitosis and chromatin decondensation into the G 1 stage of the next cycle. (asm.org)
  • Anomalous diffusion of single particles in cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. (nih.gov)
  • The cytoplasm is actually an elastic gel, it turns out, so it puts up some resistance to simple diffusion. (science20.com)
  • Until now, cell biologists have assumed that particles and other objects passively diffuse through the cytoplasm because they collide randomly with neighboring molecules-a process called thermal diffusion or Brownian motion. (science20.com)
  • We identified a previously uncharacterized gene, spermatid maturation 1 ( Spem1 ), encoding a protein exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of steps 14-16 elongated spermatids in the mouse testis. (pnas.org)
  • In our efforts to identify male germ cell-specific genes, we found a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a protein exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of steps 14-16 spermatids (the last three steps of spermiogenesis, see Results ). (pnas.org)
  • In durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L., AABB), an alloplasmic durum line [(lo) durum] has been identified with chromosome 1D of T. aestivum L. (AABBDD) carrying the species cytoplasm-specific ( scs ae ) gene. (genetics.org)
  • Until now, gene expression was thought to take place in two distinctive steps: first transcription, which takes place in the nucleus, then translation, in the cytoplasm. (phys.org)
  • Today, they prove that it is a two way-street communication as the nucleus also communicates information to the cytoplasm at all stages of gene expression, thanks to Ccr4-Not. (phys.org)
  • We were able to show that the Ccr4-Not complex, by connecting the cytoplasm to the nucleus, is a global regulator of gene expression that acts at all steps from gene to protein production. (phys.org)
  • Fertility restoration of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) male-sterile cytoplasm has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4 , as derived from IS1112C. (unl.edu)
  • In order to identify cytoplasm types the gene-bank sources of CMS were screened using a PCR assay with specific primers for C, T and S cytoplasms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Within the cytoplasm of the amœb particles travel up and down in all directions. (dictionary.com)
  • The irregular dynamics of such particles have given rise to various theories on the nature of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory thus proposes that the cytoplasm exists in distinct fluid and solid phases depending on the level of interaction between cytoplasmic components, which may explain the differential dynamics of different particles observed moving through the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been research examining the motion of cytoplasmic particles independent of the nature of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fertile lines-donors of CMS-inducing cytoplasms (euplasmic lines), functioning of CMS-inducing genes is inhibited by nuclear fertility-restoring genes, which suppress expression of these genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Response to Comment on "Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? (deepdyve.com)
  • Wax, Adam 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Recently, Maxim A. Yurkin commented on our paper "Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? (deepdyve.com)
  • While small signaling molecules like calcium ions are able to diffuse with ease, larger molecules and subcellular structures often require aid in moving through the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that the component molecules and structures of the cytoplasm behave at times like a disordered colloidal solution (sol) and at other times like an integrated network, forming a solid mass (gel). (wikipedia.org)
  • It summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field and considers questions such as how molecules in cytoplasm interact. (bookdepository.com)
  • An unusual inheritance pattern was detected during examination of male fertility restoration in the CMS-inducing "9E" type cytoplasm of sorghum: Rf-genes were functional in self-pollinated progeny of F 1 hybrids yet were either not expressed or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fertility Restoration of the Sorghum A3 Male-Sterile Cytoplasm throug" by Hoang V. Tang, Jeffrey F. Pedersen et al. (unl.edu)
  • In addition to providing a dramatic, qualitative description of the crowded cytoplasm, this first atomically detailed computational model of E. coli innards is also a tool for quantitative predictions of molecular conduct within the cell. (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • It also addresses physicochemical events, both measured and anticipated, which attend solutions under conditions prevailing in cytoplasm: molecular crowding. (bookdepository.com)
  • Using molecular dynamics simulations of a comprehensive atomistic model cytoplasm we found that protein-protein interactions may destabilize native protein structures, whereas metabolite interactions may induce more compact states due to electrostatic screening. (elifesciences.org)