Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, whose viruses have been isolated from lymphocytes. HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN is the type species.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A heterotrimer complex consisting of one molecule of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and two molecules of the LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA. It is anchored to the cell surface via the transmembrane domains of the lymphotoxin-beta component and has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR. The lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Enlargement of the spleen.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (1/3452)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (2/3452)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship? (3/3452)

Lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection.  (+info)

Qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction testing for cytomegalovirus DNA in serum allows prediction of CMV related disease in liver transplant recipients. (4/3452)

AIM: To identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and to separate the cases in which CMV related disease will occur, for whom treatment is indicated, from those in whom infection will remain innocuous. METHODS: The combination of qualitative and semiquantitative PCR of serum and urine was assessed to determine whether these assays can identify those at risk of CMV related disease and compared their performance with conventional approaches to diagnosis. RESULTS: Qualitative PCR of serum had superior specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared with urine DEAFF (detection of early antigen fluorescent foci) and PCR of urine. All episodes of CMV related disease were associated with the presence of CMV DNA by PCR in serum or urine; CMV was detected before clinical onset in 70% and 60% of cases, respectively. The period over which CMV DNA could be detected was not correlated with CMV related disease. Both peak viral load and cumulative viral load estimated using a semiquantitative PCR method on serum samples positive by the qualitative method could be used to distinguish asymptomatic infection from CMV related disease with 100% specificity and sensitivity. In contrast semiquantitative PCR of urine was of little value. CONCLUSIONS: An approach based on PCR testing with a combination of qualitative and subsequently semiquantitative serum samples would improve the diagnosis of CMV infection and aid identification of those patients at risk of CMV related disease, allowing treatment to be targeted specifically.  (+info)

Effects of human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early proteins in controlling the cell cycle and inhibiting apoptosis: studies with ts13 cells. (5/3452)

The major immediate-early (MIE) gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes several MIE proteins (MIEPs) produced as a result of alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the primary transcript. Previously we demonstrated that the HCMV MIEPs expressed from the entire MIE gene could rescue the temperature-sensitive (ts) transcriptional defect in the ts13 cell line. This defect is caused by a ts mutation in TAFII250, the 250-kDa TATA binding protein-associated factor (TAF). These and other data suggested that the MIEPs perform a TAF-like function in complex with the basal transcription factor TFIID. In addition to the transcriptional defect, the ts mutation in ts13 cells results in a defect in cell cycle progression which ultimately leads to apoptosis. Since all of these defects can be rescued by wild-type TAFII250, we asked whether the MIEPs could rescue the cell cycle defect and/or affect the progression to apoptosis. We have found that the MIEPs, expressed from the entire MIE gene, do not rescue the cell cycle block in ts13 cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. However, despite the maintenance of the cell cycle block, the ts13 cells which express the MIEPs are resistant to apoptosis. MIEP mutants, which have previously been shown to be defective in rescuing the ts transcriptional defect, maintained the ability to inhibit apoptosis. Hence, the MIEP functions which affect transcription appear to be separable from the functions which inhibit apoptosis. We discuss these data in the light of the HCMV life cycle and the possibility that the MIEPs promote cellular transformation by a "hit-and-run" mechanism.  (+info)

Clinical significance of expression of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late transcript in heart, lung, and bone marrow transplant recipients as determined by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. (6/3452)

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of pp67 mRNA (a late viral transcript) by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 50 transplant recipients, including 26 solid-organ (11 heart and 15 lung) transplant recipients (SOTRs) and 24 bone marrow transplant recipients (BMTRs). NASBA results were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in leukocytes (leukoDNAemia). On the whole, 29 patients were NASBA positive, whereas 10 were NASBA negative, and the blood of 11 patients remained HCMV negative. NASBA detected HCMV infection before quantitation of viremia did but after quantitation of leukoDNAemia and antigenemia did. In NASBA-positive blood samples, median levels of viremia, antigenemia, and leukoDNAemia were significantly higher than the relevant levels detected in NASBA-negative HCMV-positive blood samples. By using the quantitation of leukoDNAemia as the "gold standard," the analytical sensitivity (47.3%), as well as the negative predictive value (68. 3%), of NASBA for the diagnosis of HCMV infection intermediate between that of antigenemia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 72. 3%) and that of viremia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 28.7%), while the specificity and the positive predictive value were high (90 to 100%). However, with respect to the clinically relevant antigenemia cutoff of >/=100 used in this study for the initiation of preemptive therapy in SOTRs with reactivated HCMV infection, the clinical sensitivity of NASBA reached 100%, with a specificity of 68. 9%. Upon the initiation of antigenemia quantitation-guided treatment, the actual median antigenemia level was 158 (range, 124 to 580) in SOTRs who had reactivated infection and who presented with NASBA positivity 3.5 +/- 2.6 days in advance and 13.5 (range, 1 to 270) in the group that included BMTRs and SOTRs who had primary infection (in whom treatment was initiated upon the first confirmation of detection of HCMV in blood) and who presented with NASBA positivity 2.0 +/- 5.1 days later. Following antiviral treatment, the durations of the presence of antigenemia and pp67 mRNA in blood were found to be similar. In conclusion, monitoring of the expression of HCMV pp67 mRNA appears to be a promising, well-standardized tool for determination of the need for the initiation and termination of preemptive therapy. Its overall clinical impact should be analyzed in future prospective studies.  (+info)

Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. (7/3452)

We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA Assay version 2.0, the pp65 antigenemia assay, traditional tube culture, and shell vial culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in several patient populations at three centers. Of 561 blood specimens collected from 402 patients, complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 489. Using consensus definitions for true positives and true negatives, the sensitivities of the Hybrid Capture assay, antigenemia, shell vial, and tube culture were 95, 94, 43, and 46%, respectively. The specificities of the Hybrid Capture assay and antigenemia were 95 and 94%, respectively. At all three study sites, the detected level of CMV viremia was significantly higher with the Hybrid Capture assay or antigenemia than with shell vial and tube culture. In a group of 131 healthy nonimmunosuppressed volunteers, the Hybrid Capture assay demonstrated a specificity of over 99%. The Hybrid Capture assay is a standardized assay that is simple to perform and can utilize whole blood specimens that have been stored for up to 48 h. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Hybrid Capture assay along with its simplicity and flexibility make it a clinically useful assay for the detection of CMV viremia in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. Further evaluation to determine its role in predicting CMV disease and for monitoring the therapeutic response to anti-CMV therapy is needed.  (+info)

Prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty. (8/3452)

BACKGROUND: Restenosis is a common problem after all revascularization procedures in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Reactivated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in tissues of restenotic vascular lesions and was hypothesized to be a contributing pathogenic factor. Recent data suggest an association of restenosis after optimal coronary atherectomy with CMV serostatus, and a possible role of antiviral therapy was discussed. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prior CMV infection might be a risk factor for restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 92 consecutive patients who had been admitted for control angiography after previous PTCA within a mean interval of 6 months. Anti-CMV antibodies were measured as an indicator of prior CMV infection and latency. The coronary angiograms before PTCA, directly after, and 6 months later were analyzed quantitatively. Sixty-five percent of the patients were CMV-positive. Before PTCA, the degree (mean+/-SD) of stenosis was 69+/-10% in CMV-positive and 68+/-8.3% in CMV-negative subjects. PTCA resulted in a residual stenosis of 39% in both groups. After 6 months, the late losses of luminal diameter in the CMV-positive and -negative groups were 11+/-13% and 12+/-15%, respectively (P=0.658). In an ANCOVA with 25 potential risk factors for restenosis, CMV serostatus was not significantly associated with restenosis development. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that prior CMV infection, in contrast to optimal atherectomy, is not associated with chronic restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. The results do not support a possible benefit from antiviral therapy.  (+info)

We assessed the value of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosing primary CMV infection in adults. The CMV antigenemia assay was performed for 40 patients admitted to our unit over a 2-year period with unexplained fever and suspected primary CMV infection. Nine of the 10 patients with primary CMV infection had positive CMV antigenemia assays, and the results were available within 5 hours. All 10 patients had a mononucleosis-like syndrome. All but one of the 30 other patients had negative CMV antigenemia assays. A false-positive result was obtained for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Overall, the CMV antigenemia assay was 90% sensitive and 96% specific for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection. Therefore, the CMV antigenemia assay appears to be a simple, rapid, inexpensive test for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection in hospitalized adults.. ...
The neurodevelopmental state of 41 children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and their controls was assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths scale. The scores achieved by children with congenital cytomegalovirus but with no associated neurological abnormality (asymptomatic) were similar to those of the control children, whereas the mean score of the five children with congenital infection and neurological impairment (symptomatic) was significantly lower. This study, which has the statistical power to detect differences in developmental quotient as small as five points, gave no evidence that at 2 years cytomegalovirus infection was associated with mental retardation in the absence of other neurological impairment. Thus 90% of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection at 2 years are neurologically and developmentally normal.. ...
We present a case of Primary cytomegalovirus infection presented in mid-trimester with itching and obstetric cholestasis like picture. To the best of our knowledge the similarities between primary CMV and obstetric cholestasis, when presenting during pregnancy, have not been highlighted before in the literature. Case Report: A 36 year old lady presented to antenatal clinic at 23+4 weeks gestational age with intense itching. Bile acids and ALT were raised so she was treated as obstetric cholestasis whilst other results were awaited. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were positive despite being negative at booking, suggesting an acquisition of CMV at approximately 18 weeks gestation. This article highlights the details of her case including the management and consequences of cytomegalovirus in pregnancy. Conclusion: This case report highlights the importance of the awareness of the clinicians with the condition as a differential diagnosis to obstetric cholestasis. CMV should
Description of disease Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Treatment Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Symptoms and causes Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection Prophylaxis Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test for detection of viral DNA in specimens taken from patients after liver transplantation. AU - Sia, Irene G.. AU - Wilson, Jennie A.. AU - Espy, Mark J.. AU - Paya, Carlos V.. AU - Smith, Thomas F.. PY - 2000/2/16. Y1 - 2000/2/16. N2 - Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood by PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of infection in patients posttransplantation. The test, however, has low specificity for the identification of overt CMV disease. Quantitative CMV PCR has been shown to overcome this shortcoming. The COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test was evaluated by using consecutive serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMN) samples from liver transplant patients. Twenty-five patients had CMV viremia (by shell vial cell culture assay) and/or tissue-invasive disease (by biopsy); 20 had no active infection. A total of 262 serum and 62 PBMN specimens were tested. Of 159 serum specimens from patients with overt CMV ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the human herpesviruses, is a deoxyribonucleic acid virus that is ubiquitous in the world. After primary infection, CMV develops a latent state; however, when the defense of the immune system decreases in a host, it can reactivate. Human cytomegalovirus infections are acquired via several ways. CMV is spread through contact with infected bodily fluids in humans, whereas it occurs in pregnant women through close contact with young children or through sexual transmission. The clinical manifestations consist of non-specific symptoms or clinical findings. However, the patients with acute CMV infections are generally asymptomatic. Congenital CMV infection (present at birth) occurs via intrauterine transmission of the virus that is thought to be transferred to the developing fetus. The common clinical manifestations of congenital CMV infection are sensorineural hearing loss, petechiae, jaundice at birth, and hepatosplenomegaly. The vast majority of healthy children and
Acute Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection seldom presents with hemolytic anemia in an immunocompetent host. When hemolysis does occur, it is typically immune mediated and extravascular, but can be intravascular with the degree of anemia ranging from mild to severe. We report a case of a healthy 27-year-old woman who presented with jaundice and non-immune mediated intravascular hemolysis as an initial feature of acute CMV infection. Viral etiologies (including CMV) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with Coombs negative intravascular hemolysis.
Background. Intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) can occur whether a mother has prior immunity or acquires CMV for the first time during pregnancy. The degree of protection afforded an infected infant by the presence of antibody in the mother before conception is uncertain. Methods. We compared the outcomes of CMV-infected infants born to mothers who acquired primary CMV infection during pregnancy (primary-infection group) with those of CMV-infected infants born to mothers with immunity (recurrent-infection group). Screening for viruria identified 197 newborns with congenital CMV infection. Stored serum samples were used to categorize maternal infection as either primary or recurrent. We followed 125 infants from the primary-infection group and 64 from the recurrent-infection group. Serial medical, audiologic, psychometric, and eye examinations were used to identify sequelae of CMV infection. Results. Only infants in the primary-infection group had symptomatic CMV infection at ...
Looking for cytomegalovirus infection? Find out information about cytomegalovirus infection. A common asymptomatic infection caused by cytomegalovirus, which can produce life-threatening illnesses in the immature fetus and in immunologically... Explanation of cytomegalovirus infection
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels with Late Cytomegalovirus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients. T2 - The Wisconsin Allograft Recipient Database. AU - Astor, Brad C.. AU - Djamali, Arjang. AU - Mandelbrot, Didier A.. AU - Parajuli, Sandesh. AU - Melamed, Michal L.. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Background. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Vitamin D has an integral role in proper immune function, and deficiency is common among kidney transplant recipients. It remains unclear whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is associated with CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients. Methods. We examined the relationship between 25(OH)D levels, measured at least 6 months posttransplant, and subsequent CMV infection in 1976 recipients free of prior CMV infection. Results. Of 1976 recipients, 251 (12.7%) were vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D ,20 ng/mL] and 548 (27.7%) were insufficient ...
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected infants. METHODS: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIV-exposed uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers. HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed uninfected infants were studied for 1 year. RESULTS: CMV DNA was detected frequently during the first months of life; by 3 months of age, CMV DNA was detected in 90% of HIV-exposed uninfected infants and 93% of infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. CMV viral loads were highest in the 1-3 months following the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were significantly higher in the HIV-infected infants compared with the HIV-exposed uninfected infants (mean 3.2 versus 2.7 log10 CMV DNA
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients is a major clinical problem, with both short and long term sequelae. Infection can occur as a result of reactivation of latent virus or new infection from donor tissues. The impact of donor and recipient serostatus on viremia is well recognised, with seronegative recipients at greatest risk after transplantation of an organ from a seropositive donor. However, the impact of grafting such organs into seropositive recipients is less clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of recipient serostatus on the risk of CMV antigenemia in a large renal transplant cohort. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively quantified CMV antigenemia over time in a cohort of 486 recipients. We analysed the antigenemia status according to donor and recipient serostatus. RESULTS: Antigenemia was most common in seronegative recipients of organs from seropositive donors (D+/R-). Nevertheless, we observed that even in CMV seropositive recipients, the impact of donor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk liver transplant recipients on valganciclovir prophylaxis. T2 - A systematic review and meta-Analysis. AU - Kalil, Andre C. AU - Mindru, Cezarina. AU - Botha, Jean F.. AU - Grant, Wendy J.. AU - Mercer, David F. AU - Olivera-Martinez, Marco A. AU - McCartan, Megan A.. AU - McCashland, Timothy M. AU - Langnas, Alan Norman. AU - Florescu, Diana F. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - Valganciclovir (VGC) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004 as cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis except for liver transplant recipients because of their high incidence of CMV disease with this drug. However, surveys have shown its common off-label use for CMV prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients. We aimed to evaluate the risk of CMV disease with VGC prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients. All studies that evaluated liver transplant recipients and used VGC (900 or 450 mg daily) for the prevention of CMV disease were included. Five ...
The researchers found that anti-cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM were positive in 66% and 5% of patients respectively.. In addition, the research team found blood or urine cytomegalovirus replication markers in 6% of patients, all of whom had ulcerative colitis.. 3 patients had cytomegalovirus viremia and received anti-viral treatment with ganciclovir.. The researchers noted that only 1 of these patients had cytomegalovirus antigenemia and also associated biopsy-proven cytomegalovirus colitis, probably as a primary cytomegalovirus infection.. This patient is the only one who benefited from anti-viral therapy.. Prof Bouhnik concluded, Cytomegalovirus infection is infrequent in in-patients with active inflammatory bowel disease.. Systematic search of cytomegalovirus replication markers should not be performed.. Isolated viremia without associated antigenemia or direct demonstration of cytomegalovirus in ileocolonic biopsies does not warrant anti-viral therapy.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as an apple-core lesion of the colon. AU - Diaz-Gonzalez, V. M.. AU - Altemose, G. T.. AU - Ogorek, C.. AU - Palazzo, I.. AU - Pina, I. L.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Cytomegalovirus infection is highly prevalent among heart transplant recipients. Symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection can occur in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic lesions are usually manifest as hemorrhagic colitis. This is a case of cytomegalovirus colitis presenting as a colonic stricture mimicking a colonic carcinoma. The initial presentation was that of both cellular and humoral rejection with fever, abdominal pain, and microcytic anemia with heme-positive stools. An abdominal computed tomogram was pertinent for a suspicion of carcinoma in the midtransverse colon. After resolution of the rejection episode, colonoscopy was performed, the result of which was abnormal for a short, high-grade stricture in the midtransverse colon. The patient underwent a right ...
AIMS--To study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion and interstitial pneumonitis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients, with reference to donor and recipient CMV antibody response. METHODS--The incidence of CMV excretion was prospectively studied in 62 allogeneic bone marrow transplantations performed on adults and children. All recipients received CMV seronegative blood products. Prophylaxis with high dose acyclovir and CMV immune globulin was given to high risk patients (donor or recipient, or both, CMV seropositive). RESULTS--CMV excretion was detected in eight of 26 (31%) high risk patients but in only one of 36 low risk patients (donor and recipient both CMV seronegative). Five of the eight (63%) excretors in the high risk category developed CMV, of whom four (80%) belonged to the seropositive recipient/seronegative donor group, and included the three CMV seropositive recipients whose CMV complement fixation antibody titres were 64 or greater before ...
article{df027303-d823-4a01-840a-7bebb6a9e463, author = {Ivarsson, Sten A. and Ljung, Rolf}, issn = {0891-3668}, language = {eng}, number = {6}, pages = {436--437}, publisher = {Lippincott Williams & Wilkins}, series = {Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal}, title = {Neutropenia and congenital cytomegalovirus infection}, volume = {7}, year = {1988 ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection, with approximately 44,000 congenitally infected infants in the U.S. per year. A substantial proportion of these infants will die or suffer permanent injury as a result of their infection. The severity of congenital infection is greatest with primary maternal CMV infection. Currently, there is no proven method of preventing congenital CMV infection, and the approach to primary maternal CMV infection in the United States is haphazard and ineffective. One small, non-randomized study suggests that maternal administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin may significantly reduce the rate of congenital CMV infection following maternal primary infection. The MFMU CMV Trial will address the primary research question: does maternal administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin lower the rate of congenital CMV infection among the offspring of women who have been diagnosed with primary CMV infection during early pregnancy?. The research study is funded ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus infection promotes rapid maturation of NK cells expressing activating killer Ig-like receptor in patients transplanted with NKG2C-/- umbilical cord blood. AU - Della Chiesa, Mariella. AU - Falco, Michela. AU - Bertaina, Alice. AU - Muccio, Letizia. AU - Alicata, Claudia. AU - Frassoni, Francesco. AU - Locatelli, Franco. AU - Moretta, Lorenzo. AU - Moretta, Alessandro. PY - 2014/2/15. Y1 - 2014/2/15. N2 - NK cells are the first lymphoid population recovering after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and play a crucial role in early immunity after the graft. Recently, it has been shown that humanCMV (HCMV) infection/reactivation can deeply influence NK cell reconstitution after umbilical cord blood transplantation by accelerating the differentiation of mature NKG2A-killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)+ NK cells characterized by the expression of the NKG2C-activating receptor. In view of the hypothesis that NKG2C could be directly involved in NK cell ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally widespread virus that becomes latent following primary infection but reactivates frequently and, in the setting of immunocompromise, causes disease in solid organ transplant patients, including kidney transplant re
A 26-week-gestation infant developed cystic lung changes which required lobar resection at 6 weeks of age. Lung histology showed cytomegalovirus (CMV) inclusion bodies. The authors present the radiology and histology images of this case and review the literature regarding congenital CMV infection and cystic lung disease. Lung disease caused by CMV is typically a diffuse pneumonitis. This is the first reported case of congenital CMV infection causing emphysematous lung disease to develop in the neonatal period. The case raises awareness of CMV as a possible cause of cystic lung lesions in newborns. ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a significant cause of infant morbidity and a high national priority for development of prevention and treatment strategies. CMV is the most common congenital infection, with incidence of approximately 0.7 percent of live births in the United States (30,000 or 1:150 infants/year). Nearly 20 percent exhibit permanent neurologic disabilities, including hearing loss and severe cognitive or physical impairment.
Aging is associated with significant alterations of both the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. The present study focuses on γδ T cells, which are considered intermediate mediators between adaptive and innate immunity. We provide in this paper further insights underlying the changes that affect the γδ T cell compartment with advanced age. We show that both aging and CMV infection impact independently on the γδ T cell compartment. This dual effect provides an explanation for the discrepancy in the changes observed between Vδ2− and Vδ2+ γδ T cells in elderly (10, 11). Although the frequency of Vδ2+ γδ T cells declines in all individuals with advanced age, Vδ2− γδ T cell numbers only decrease in CMV-seronegative donors. In CMV-seropositive donors, the frequency of Vδ2− γδ T cells is likely preserved overtime as the result of the strong mobilization of the Vδ2− γδ T cell pool because of persistent CMV infection. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the so ...
US-based pharmaceutical firm Merck has enrolled the first patient in a global Phase III clinical trial of letermovir (MK-8228), an investigational antiviral agent, for prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in high-risk bone marrow transplant patients.. The trial will assess the efficacy and safety of letermovir for the prevention of clinically-significant CMV infection in adults aged 18 years and older CMV-seropositive recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants.. Letermovir is being developed for the prevention of human CMV infection and has secured orphan product designation from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention of CMV viremia.. Merck Research Laboratories Infectious Diseases executive director Michele Trucksis said: There remains a need for additional therapeutic options in the prevention of CMV infection in high-risk patients.. Merck is pleased to initiate this global Phase III study with ...
Congenital CMV infection results from transplacental transmission of the virus during maternal viremia. The fetus can be infected by either a newly acquired (primary) maternal infection or a recurrent (reactivated) maternal infection. The likelihood of fetal infection and the risk of associated damage and sequelae are higher after a primary infection. Maternal viremia is more likely to occur at primary than recurrent infection.1 After transplacental transmission, the virus spreads through the fetus by hematogenous route. Infection at an earlier gestational age often correlates with a worse outcome and may lead to intrauterine death.2. Cytomegalovirus is a DNA virus of the herpesvirus group which produces an enlargement of the infected cell, and microscopically with hematoxylin-eosin staining, a large 5-15μm sized violaceous to dark red intranuclear inclusion surrounded by a thin clear halo can be seen. At autopsy, diagnosis is most often made histologically by finding the characteristic CMV ...
CMV is a major clinical problem in transplant recipients. Thus, it is important to use sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques to rapidly and accurately detect CMV infection and identify patients at risk of developing CMV disease. In the present study, CMV infection after liver transplantation was monitored retrospectively by two molecular biology assays - a quantitative PCR assay and a qualitative NASBA assay. The results were compared with those obtained by prospective pp65 antigenemia determinations. 87 consecutive samples from 10 liver transplanted patients were tested for CMV by pp65 antigenemia, and CMV monitor and NASBA pp67 mRNA assay. CMV infection was detected in all patients by antigenemia and CMV monitor, whereas NASBA assay identified only 8/10 patients with viremia. Furthermore, CMV infection was never detected earlier by molecular biology assays than by antigenemia. Only 5/10 patients with CMV infection developed CMV disease. Using a cut off value of 8 cells/50,000, antigenemia was
A study of 531 female patients attending a venereal disease clinic was undertaken to assess the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cervix. The findings were as follows: (1) 35 of 531 patients had positive cervical cultures for CMV (6-6 per cent.). (2) 28 of 531 patients were positive for Herpes virus hominis (5-3 per cent.). (3) Excluding those who were pregnant, 20 of 28 with CMV were taking oral contraceptives (71 per cent.). (4) Seven babies born to infected mothers showed no signs of cytomegalic inclusion disease. (5) 28 of 35 with CMV had associated genital infections (80 per cent.). (6) Positive cultures were obtained in twenty cases for periods up to 10 months. (7) The CMV complement-fixation test was positive in all 23 patients with positive CMV cultures who were tested. (8) Seven male consorts were examined but CMV was not isolated from any of them. (9) A case of CMV mononucleosis was detected. It is suggested that the higher incidence in patients attending a VD clinic is due to ...
Methods: Diagnosis of congenital CMV infection was sought in 9032 children born between March 2002 and February 2003 by testing for viral DNA [CMV dried blood spot (DBS) test] in each newborns Guthrie card and confirmation by isolation of CMV from urine collected in the first 3 weeks of life; CMV IgG testing in 1200 women of childbearing age; clinical and audiologic tests in the first 24 months for infected children; CMV DBS tests on the Guthrie cards collected from screening centers for 77 children (3 months-5 years) presenting SNHL of 40 dB or more ...
Objectives: To determine the rates of congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among infants born to mothers infected with HIV compared with infants born to mothers not infected with HIV from a CMV-immune, low-income population.Study design: A total of 325 newborns from CMV-seropositive mothers were enrolled and evaluated for congenital CMV infection (150 infants from HIV+ mothers and 175 infants from HIV- mothers. A total of 101 infants from HIV+ mothers and 33 infants from HIV- mothers were evaluated for perinatal CMV infection. the virus was isolated from urine by culture in human fibroblasts and was detected by polymerase chain reaction at birth and at 15 days and 12 weeks of age.Results: Only 13 of 150 HIV+ mothers (8.7%) had an AIDS-defining condition, and none had a late-stage HIV infection. Congenital CMV infection was detected in 4 of 150 (2.7%) infants from HIV+ mothers and in 5 of 175 (2.9%) infants from HIV- mothers (p = 1.00). Perinatal CMV infection was diagnosed in ...
We conducted a cross-sectional study of beta-herpesviruses in febrile pediatric oncology patients (n = 30), with a reference group of febrile pediatric solid-organ transplant recipients (n = 9). One (3.3%) of 30 cancer patients and 3 (33%) of 9 organ recipients were PCR positive for cytomegalovirus. Four (13%) of 30 cancer patients and 3 (33%) of 9 transplant recipients had human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) DNAemia, which was more common within 6 months of initiation of immune suppression (4 of 16 vs. 0 of 14 cancer patients; p = 0.050). HHV-6A and HHV-7 were not detected. No other cause was identified in children with HHV-6B or cytomegalovirus DNAemia. One HHV-6B-positive cancer patient had febrile disease with concomitant hepatitis. Other HHV-6B-positive children had mild viral illnesses, as did a child with primary cytomegalovirus infection. Cytomegalovirus and HHV-6B should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile disease in children with cancer ...
05 Apr 2017. Results of the pivotal Phase 3 clinical study of letermovir, an investigational antiviral medicine for the prevention of clinically-significant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in adult CMV-seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) have been announced.. The results were presented for the first time at the BMT Tandem Meetings, the combined annual meetings of the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT).. CMV is the most common clinically significant viral infection in allogeneic HSCT recipients.. While preemptive therapy (treatment when CMV DNA is detected in the blood) with antiviral medicines can reduce the incidence of CMV disease, CMV reactivation post-HSCT is associated with higher mortality despite the use of preemptive therapy.. Letermovir is an investigational once-daily antiviral medicine under development for the prevention of CMV ...
Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants. J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8 ...
This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study to assess the safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of HB-101 in adult patients awaiting kidney transplantation. For Groups 1 and 2, adult CMV-seronegative (-) patients awaiting kidney transplant from a CMV-seropositive (+) living donor will be enrolled according to treatment intent with regard to the method of CMV prevention after transplant (either preemptive or prophylactic). This will be defined at study enrollment by the investigator and institutional standards. Patients enrolled in Group 1 and 2 will be randomized to receive HB-101 or placebo. For Group 3, adult CMV-seropositive (+) patients awaiting kidney transplant from either CMV-seropositive(+) or CMV-seronegative(-) living donors will be enrolled. Group 3 will be open label where all patients will receive HB-101. The post transplant management for Group 3 patients will also follow either preemptive or prophylactic method per the institution standards. The intent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of cytomegalovirus infection. AU - Reed, E. C.. AU - Meyers, J. D.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Passive immunotherapy with high doses of pooled unscreened immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin specifically prepared from donors with high levels of antibody to CMV has few adverse side-effects and is succesful in producing good increments in CMV antibody levels. The conflicting results of treatment trials and the lack of a demonstrated antiviral effect in vivo do not encourage the use of immunoglobulin alone for the treatment of CMV disease. The prophylactic effectiveness of immunoglobulin for CMV disease in seronegative marrow transplant patients is also questionable, although there is some indication that prophylaxis in patients with less severe immune defects (for example, renal transplant patients) may be useful.. AB - Passive immunotherapy with high doses of pooled unscreened immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin specifically prepared from donors with high levels of antibody ...
KENILWORTH, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Merck & Co., Inc. (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved PREVYMIS™ (letermovir) once-daily tablets for oral use and injection for intravenous infusion. PREVYMIS is indicated for prophylaxis (prevention) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients [R+] of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). CMV is a common and potentially serious viral infection in allogeneic HSCT recipients. CMV-seropositive patients who undergo an HSCT are at high risk for CMV reactivation. Any level of CMV infection is associated with increased mortality in HSCT patients. In the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial supporting approval, significantly fewer patients in the PREVYMIS group (38%, n=122/325) compared to the placebo group (61%, n=103/170) developed clinically significant CMV infection, discontinued treatment or had missing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytomegalovirus infection of the larynx in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AU - Marelli, R. A.. AU - Biddinger, P. W.. AU - Gluckman, J. L.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - CMV is the most important viral opportunist in patients with AIDS. Nearly all patients with AIDS have been exposed to CMV and the virus can be isolated from many. When CMV-related disease occurs in AIDS, it has usually involved the eye or gastrointestinal tract. In lesions in which CMV is the suspected etiology, evidence of direct pathogenicity of the virus should be obtained, usually histologically. Accurate diagnosis is essential because long-term therapy with a relatively toxic drug (ganciclovir) is indicated. We have presented a case of CMV infection of the larynx that responded, albeit slowly, to ganciclovir. Additional cases may arise as the prevalence of AIDS increases. Because of the potential for airway compromise and the tendency toward chronicity, CMV infection of the larynx should be of a ...
Prenatal serological diagnosis of intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection. Lange, I.; Rodeck, C.H.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Simmons, A.; Kangro, H.O. // British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition);6/5/1982, Vol. 284 Issue 6330, p1673 Examines the prenatal serological diagnosis of intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection in a rhesus-positive woman. Observation of a single fetus with gross ascites in an ultrasound scan; Findings of hypoalbuminemia on the fetal serum; Antibody titre during the initial serology for cytomegalovirus. ...
Ganciclovir--a review of pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy and potential use for treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infections
Experts weigh in on expanding state newborn screening panels to include CMV infection, a common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children
Objective. To determine whether newborn cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan abnormalities predict an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to examine the association between clinical findings at birth and imaging abnormalities.. Methods. The data from 56 children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection who underwent cranial CT scans as newborns and were enrolled in a long-term follow-up study were analyzed. The incidence of sequelae was compared between the groups of children with normal and abnormal imaging studies. The relationship between CT scan results and other newborn findings was also examined.. Results. Abnormal CT scans were noted in 70% of subjects; intracerebral calcification was the most frequent finding. Most of the children with an abnormal newborn CT scan (90%) developed at least one sequela, compared with 29% of those with a normal study. Only 1 child with a normal CT scan had an IQ ,70, in contrast to ...
The pathologic changes noted in the brain of micropolygyria, periventricular calcifications, and chronic inflammation have long been regarded as the hallmarks of chronic CMV infection of the fetal brain. However, the presence of striking cerebellar hypoplasia, reminiscent of some viral infections of the central nervous system described in the experimental animal models, has prompted this short communication ...
Background Cytomegalovirus infection dramatically decreased with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Whether incidence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of cytomegalovirus in HIV...
Among newborns, CMV testing with DBS real-time PCR compared with saliva rapid culture had low sensitivity, limiting its value as a screening test.
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reactivated by the use of immunosuppressive drugs. CMV infection may produce IBD flares refractory to standard therapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy and safety of...
Abstract: Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients causes both direct and indirect effects including allograft rejection, decreased graft and patient survival, and predisposition to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Options for CMV prevention include pre-emptive therapy, whereby anti-CMV agents are administered based on sensitive viral assays, or universal prophylaxis of all at-risk patients. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages in terms of efficacy, costs, and side effects. Standards of care for prophylaxis have not been established.. Methods: A committee of international experts was convened to review the available data regarding CMV prophylaxis and to compare preventative strategies for CMV after transplantation from seropositive donors or in seropositive recipients.. Results: Pre-emptive therapy requires frequent monitoring with subsequent treatment of disease and associated costs, while universal prophylaxis results in ...
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Contributors Study concept and design: HEdM, MJK, AMO-M and ACTMV. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: MJK, MW, MEvdA-vM, HEdM and ACTMV. Drafting of the manuscript: MJK and MW. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: MJK, MW, MEvdA-vM, AMO-M, HEdM and ACTMV. Statistical analysis: MJK, MW and MEvdA-vM. Obtaining funding: HEdM. Administrative, technical or material support: MJK and MW. Supervision: HEdM, AMO-M and ACTMV. ...
Publications:. Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart, GC, Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson BA, Dong T, Iversen A, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Emery VC, Rowland-Jones SL. Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-1 infected infants. AIDS 2009, 23: 2173-2181. A commentary on this article was published in the same issue: HIV and cytomegalovirus co-infection in congenitally infected children: copathogens fanning each others flames? Schleiss, M. AIDS 2009, 23: 2215-2217.. Lohman-Payne B, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Majiwa M, Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL, John-Stewart GC. HIV-1 specific interferon-gamma responses in infants with early peripartum infection compared to late breastmilk infection. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2009, 156:511-7.. John-Stewart GC, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne BL, Farquhar C, Emery S, Otieno P, Obimbo, E, Richardson BA, Dong T, Slyker JA, Nduati R, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. HIV-1 specific CTLs and Breastmilk HIV-1 ...
During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. In the later phase (phase 3), researchers study whether the treatment works better than the current standard therapy. They also compare the safety of the new treatment with that of current treatments. Phase 3 trials include large numbers of people to make sure that the result is valid. There are also less common very early (phase 0) and later (phase 4) phases. Phase 0 trials are small trials that help researchers decide if a new agent should be tested in a phase 1 trial. Phase 4 trials look at long-term safety and effectiveness, after a new treatment has been approved and is on the market. ...
Looking for online definition of cytomegalic inclusion disease in the Medical Dictionary? cytomegalic inclusion disease explanation free. What is cytomegalic inclusion disease? Meaning of cytomegalic inclusion disease medical term. What does cytomegalic inclusion disease mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Possible triggering effect of cytomegalovirus infection on systemic lupus erythematosus. AU - Nawata, M.. AU - Seta, N.. AU - Yamada, M.. AU - Sekigawa, I.. AU - Iida, N.. AU - Hashimoto, H.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - We report on a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who showed elevated titers of IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting CMV infection at the onset of SLE. Serum CMV antigens were also detected in the patient. These findings raise the possibility that CMV infection may be related to the onset of SLE in certain patients.. AB - We report on a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who showed elevated titers of IgM antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting CMV infection at the onset of SLE. Serum CMV antigens were also detected in the patient. These findings raise the possibility that CMV infection may be related to the onset of SLE in certain patients.. KW - Cytomegalovirus. KW - Proteinuria. KW - Systemic lupus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type. AU - Doyle, Maeilyn. AU - Atkins, Jane T.. AU - Rivera-Matos, Idalia R.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Objectives. To determine the rate of in utero transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in perinatally HIV-exposed infants and to determine whether coinfection with CMV in early life affects outcome. Methods, Infants born to HIV-infected women between March, 1988, and March, 1995, were evaluated (n = 206). Congenital or in utero CMV infection was defined as a positive CMV culture or shell vial assay on urine obtained in the first 3 weeks of life. HIV-infected infants either had positive serology beyond 18 months of age or, for an infant younger than 18 months, had a positive HIV PCR or HIV culture on at least two separate occasions. Results. There were 30 HIV-infected and 171 uninfected infants (144 who seroreverted and 27 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytomegalovirus-Induced Adrenal Insufficiency in a Renal Transplant Recipient. AU - Ardalan, M.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in organ-transplant recipients. There have been frequent reports of CMV-induced adrenal insufficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, we report CMV-induced renal insufficiency in a renal transplant recipient. A 24-year-old woman had gradual onset of weakness, anorexia, nausea, hypotension, and skin hyperpigmentation at 5 months after renal transplantation. The immunosuppression regimen included cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroid (prednisolone, 5 mg/d). Recent history included acute CMV infection, which was treated with ganciclovir. Basal serum cortisol concentration was 4 μg/dL, and stimulated serum cortisol concentration was less than 10 μg/dL. All clinical signs and symptoms and hypotension gradually improved after ...
H&O How common is CMV infection among patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant?. MB Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation occurs in approximately 50% to 70% of seropositive patients undergoing allogeneic transplant. The rate varies depending on the diagnostic method that is used to identify reactivation. Among settings in which the donor is seropositive and the recipient is negative, the incidence is 20% to 25% (Figure).. H&O What risk factors have been identified for CMV reactivation and the development of CMV infection?. MB The CMV serostatus is important, with CMV seropositivity of the recipient being the highest-risk setting. CMV donor serostatus can affect the severity of CMV infection among seropositive recipients. However, even if both the donor and the recipient are seronegative and CMV-safe blood is used, CMV infection occurs in approximately 1% of patients. The conditioning regimen, including T-cell depletion, can affect the risk of reactivation, the viral load ...
Original Article. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection refers to a condition where cytomegalovirus is transmitted in the prenatal period. Ster, B.... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, along with herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, and varicella zoster virus. Vid W. Chronic inflammation may be a causative factor in a variety of cancers. Mberlin, M. Review. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection refers to a condition where cytomegalovirus is transmitted in the prenatal period. General, the longer the inflammation persists, the higher the risk of cancer. Systematic review of publications indexed in the PubMed database was performed for HSCT studies. General, the longer the inflammation persists, the higher the risk of cancer. 8ajg. Otein Losing Enteropathy: Case Illustrations and. Ablo J. J Gastroenterol 2010; 105:4349; doi:10. Chronic inflammation may be a causative factor in a variety of cancers. Lganciclovir for Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus ...
Background: Leukoreduction of cellular blood components is a standard practice in the Blood Bank to prevent cytomegalovirus transmission. This process is of utmost importance in our pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients who are immunocompromized and thus are susceptible to this infection. The objective of this study is to show that bedside leukoreduction of cellular blood products is a safe alternative to blood components from a very limited pool of CMV seronegative donors in pediatric HSCT recipients.. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of our pediatric HSCT performed between 02/23/96 and 03/11/05. Screening for CMV antibody in our donors was discontinued in 02/23/96. Instead, we switched to bedside leukoreduction for patients who need CMV negative blood products, including the pediatric HSCT recipients. Transplant recipients and donors were tested for CMV antibody prior to transplant date. Patients and donors who were CMV seronegative pairs were included in ...
Life-threatening opportunistic cytomegalovirus infection is a complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that occurs in 7.4% or more of patients with AIDS. Cytomegalovirus retinitis, colitis, esophagitis, and gastritis are the commonest manifestations of severe cytomegalovirus end-organ disease. Extensive trials with intravenous ganciclovir, a nucleoside analogue with myelosuppressive toxicity, have shown that ganciclovir halts the progression of cytomegalovirus retinitis and gastrointestinal disease. Since relapse is common when therapy is discontinued, most patients with AIDS need lifelong maintenance therapy. The clinical response to ganciclovir therapy is usually accompanied by diminished shedding of the virus. Based on limited data, foscarnet, a pyrophosphate analogue, also appears to have some efficacy in treating cytomegalovirus infection. Unlike ganciclovir, foscarnet does not cause myelosuppression. An important direction for future clinical research is the ...
Targeting viral proteins early during infection may limit exacerbation of human cytomegalovirus infection. The viral chemokine-receptor homologue US28 interferes with leukocyte trafficking and, possibly, viral replication. Because US28 molecules are abundant on the surface of infected cells, this homologue is a potential target for antiviral therapy. To assess the relationship between US28 and disease activity, we measured, by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the levels of US28 and immediate-early (IE) 1 gene transcripts in the blood of lung-transplant recipients. We found that, during primary and secondary infection, the IE1 and US28 genes have early transcription kinetics and are expressed at similar levels. This may render US28 an attractive target for antiviral therapy ...
Latency-associated degradation of the MRP1 drug transporter during latent human cytomegalovirus infection. Science. 2013 Apr 12; 340(6129):199-202 ...
Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Adult Nervous System Michael Duchowny, M D , Louis Caplan, M D , and George Siber, M D In 2 patients, 1 with brachial plexus neuropathy and another with relapsing chronic encephalitis, the acute neurological syndrome was accompanied by fever, tachycardia, abnormal liver function, and atypical lymphocytosis. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was documented in both patients by viral isolation and a fourfold rise in complement-fixation titer. CMV may produce peripheral neuropathy, brachial plexus neuropathy, or a n acute or chronic meningoencephalitis in previously healthy adults without immune deficiency. Duchowny M, Caplan L, Siber G: Cytomegalovirus infection of the adult nervous system. Ann Neurol 5:458-461, 1979 T h e cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are members of the herpesvirus family characterized by their ability to produce striking cellular enlargement with intracellular inclusion bodies in epithelial cells [27]. Intrauterine infection with CMV has long been known ...
Lab Reagents Cytomegalovirus Antibody Laboratories manufactures the cytomegalovirus antibodies igm reagents distributed by Genprice. The Cytomegalovirus Antibodies Igm reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact cytomegalovirus Antibody. Other Cytomegalovirus products are available in stock. Specificity: Cytomegalovirus Category: Antibodies Group: Igm Igm information ...
Abstract: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs in approximately 1% of newborns and is the leading infectious cause of congenital birth defects. Female renal allograft recipients who develop CMV infection during pregnancy are at risk for both graft dysfunction and fetal morbidity. DNA-based analysis of amniotic fluid (AF) from at-risk pregnancies has been suggested as an adjunct/substitute for traditional culture. We have shown that CMV-polymerase chain reaction of AF is a useful diagnostic test for congenital CMV infection. Using this test we diagnosed CMV infection in the fetus of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient. As termination was not an option for the family, the patient was extensively counseled and treated with oral ganciclovir. This resulted in clearance of the virus from the AF and the delivery of a healthy newborn girl, free of CMV disease. This is the first reported case to our knowledge of successful use of maternal ganciclovir to treat intrauterine CMV infection ...
BACKGROUND: Immune function declines with age and has been associated with reduced vaccine responsiveness. Chronic infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been proposed as a contributor to poorer responses in older adults. A pneumococcal vaccine has been recommended in the United Kingdom for those aged |65 years since 2003 to prevent pneumococcal disease. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of age and CMV status on pneumococcal vaccine responses in 348 individuals aged 50-70 years. RESULTS: We found participant age to be associated with serotype-specific and functional antibody titers after pneumococcal vaccination, with a mean 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.9%-9.5%) reduction in postvaccination functional antibody titers per year. CMV status was not associated with serotype-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations or functional antibody titers after pneumococcal vaccination. However, CMV seropositivity was associated with higher levels of prevaccination functional antibody for 4 of 7 pneumococcal
1. CroughT, KhannaR (2009) Immunobiology of human cytomegalovirus: from bench to bedside. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 76-98.. 2. DeaytonJR, Prof SabinCA, JohnsonMA, EmeryVC, WilsonP, et al. (2004) Importance of cytomegalovirus viraemia in risk of disease progression and death in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 363: 2116-2121.. 3. BuonsensoD, SerrantiD, GargiulloL, CeccarelliM, RannoO, et al. (2012) Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: current strategies and future perspectives. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 16: 919-935.. 4. GrattanMT, Moreno-CabralCE, StarnesVA, OyerPE, StinsonEB, et al. (1989) Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with cardiac allograft rejection and atherosclerosis. Jama 261: 3561-3566.. 5. KuvinJT, KimmelstielCD (1999) Infectious causes of atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 137: 216-226.. 6. MelnickJL, AdamE, DebakeyME (1993) Cytomegalovirus and atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 14 Suppl K: 30-38.. 7. MuhlesteinJB, HorneBD, CarlquistJF, MadsenTE, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Valganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prevention in solid organ transplant patients. T2 - An evidence-based reassessment of safety and efficacy. AU - Kalil, Andre C.. AU - Freifeld, Alison G.. AU - Lyden, Elizabeth R.. AU - Stoner, Julie A.. PY - 2009/5/13. Y1 - 2009/5/13. N2 - Background: Several anti-viral drugs have demonstrated efficacy in preventing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. The recently approved valganciclovir is the most commonly used and most expensive drug for CMV prevention. The safety and efficacy data have been drawn from a single trial. We hypothesized that valganciclovir may not be as safe as nor more effective than other therapies for CMV prevention. Methods: All experimental and analytical studies that compared valganciclovir with other therapies for prevention of CMV infection after SOT were selected. Based on meta-analytic and multivariate regression methodologies we critically analyzed all available evidence. ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in previously immunocompetent critically ill patients is associated with increased mortality, which has been hypothesized to result from virus-induced immunomodulation. Therefore, we studied the effects of CMV reactivation on the temporal course of host response biomarkers in patients with sepsis. In this matched cohort study, each sepsis patient developing CMV reactivation between day 3 and 17 (CMV+) was compared with one CMV seropositive patient without reactivation (CMVs+) and one CMV seronegative patient (CMVs−). CMV serostatus and plasma loads were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-18, interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), neutrophilic elastase, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), and IL-10 were measured at five time points by multiplex immunoassay. The effects of CMV reactivation on sequential concentrations of these biomarkers were assessed in multivariable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a common complication of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Administration of oral valaciclovir, a valine ester of acyclovir, achieves sufficient plasma acyclovir levels to inhibit many clinical isolates. Acyclovir has been associated with enhanced survival in AIDS but not with CMV disease prevention. CMV-seropositive patients (1227) with CD4 cell counts ,100/mm3 were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial. Valaciclovir, 8 g/day, was compared with acyclovir, 3.2 or 0.8 g/day, for CMV prevention; all three arms were compared for survival. The confirmed CMV disease rate was 11.7% among valaciclovir recipients and 17.5% in the pooled acyclovir arms, a 33% reduction in risk. Time to confirmed CMV disease was significantly longer for the valaciclovir group (P = .03). A trend toward earlier mortality for valaciclovir recipients was seen (P = .06). Toxicity and earlier medication discontinuation were more common in this group. Valaciclovir ...
The maintenance of CMV-specific T cell memory in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) is critical for host defense and allograft durability, in donor+/recipient particularly? (Chemical+Ur?) people who demonstrate elevated fatality. both preferential distribution and useful quality of CMV-specific Compact disc4+ storage in the lung allograft during chronic an infection, and display an essential association with CMV mucosal defenses and virus-like control. CMV-specific effector replies during severe principal an infection predominated by Compact disc8+ Testosterone levels cells described toward the main antigen pp65 in the lung allograft (10). While these scholarly research demonstrated the pay for and tenacity of CMV-specific Testosterone levels cells able of making IFN-, the quality and distribution of storage subsets, i.y. the level of multifunctionality of antigen-specific cells during chronic CMV an infection in this prone individual people, are unsure. Lately, many research have got showed that ...
Background.The incidence and clinical and virologic aspects of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease have not been well-characterized in heart transplant recipients.. Methods.We retrospectively analyzed all patients who underwent their first heart transplantation during the period from 1 January 1995 through 30 June 2005 at a single health care center. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the relationship between clinical variables and CMV disease. Portions of the UL97 gene were sequenced in patients with slow clinical and/or virologic response to ganciclovir therapy.. Results.Cytomegalovirus disease developed in 32 (11.7%) of 274 patients at a median of 4.2 months after transplantation (range, 1.8-11.6 months after transplantation) and was independently associated with donor-seropositive/recipient-seronegative (D+/R-) serostatus (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.93; P , .001). The incidence of ganciclovir-resistant CMV disease was 1.5% overall (4 of 274 patients), 5% ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in immunocompetent patients in intensive care units (ICUs). However, whether CMV infection or CMV reactivation contributes to mortality of immunocompetent patients remains unclear. A literature search was conducted for relevant studies published before May 30, 2016. Studies reporting on CMV infection in immunocompetent patients in ICUs and containing 2 × 2 tables on CMV results and all-cause mortality were included. Eighteen studies involving 2398 immunocompetent patients admitted to ICUs were included in the meta-analysis. The overall rate of CMV infection was 27% (95%CI 22-34%, I2 = 89%, n = 2398) and the CMV reactivation was 31% (95%CI 24-39%, I2 = 74%, n = 666). The odds ratio (OR) for all-cause mortality among patients with CMV infection, compared with those without infection, was 2.16 (95%CI 1.70-2.74, I2 = 10%, n = 2239). Moreover, upon exclusion of studies in which antiviral treatment was possibly or definitely provided to some patients, the association
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous DNA virus that causes severe disease in patients with immature or impaired immune systems. During active infection, CMV modulates host immunity, and CMV-infected patients often develop signs of immune dysfunction, such as immunosuppression and autoimmune phenomena. Furthermore, active viral infection has been observed in several autoimmune diseases, and case reports have linked primary CMV infection and the onset of autoimmune disorders. In addition, CMV infection promotes allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease in solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients, respectively, further implicating CMV in the genesis and maintenance of immunopathological phenomena. The mechanisms by which CMV could induce inhibition of host defense, inflammation, and autoimmunity are discussed, as is the treatment of virus-induced immunopathology with antivirals.
Endothelial cells (EC) are an important cell type for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) pathogenesis. To characterize better the role of EC in primate CMV natural history, rhesus macaque microvascular EC (MVEC) were purified from fetal brain and analysed for infectivity by rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV). Rhesus brain MVEC (BrMVEC) in culture were positive for von Willebrand factor and CD105 expression, uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and formation of capillary-like tubules on Matrigel, all phenotypic hallmarks of EC. BrMVEC were fully permissive for infection by RhCMV strain 68-1, and detectable plaques formed within 5 days of infection. Infectivity of BrMVEC by RhCMV could be reduced, but not abolished, by treatment of cells either before or during infection with pro-inflammatory mediators tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These results demonstrate that in vitro infection of rhesus BrMVEC is a dynamic process that is influenced by activation
Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. A prodrug form with improved oral bioavailability (valganciclovir) has also been developed. Ganciclovir was approved for medical use in 1994. Ganciclovir is indicated for: Sight-threatening CMV retinitis in severely immunocompromised people CMV pneumonitis in bone marrow transplant recipients Prevention of CMV disease in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients Confirmed CMV retinitis in people with AIDS (intravitreal implant) It is also used for acute CMV colitis in HIV/AIDS and CMV pneumonitis in immunosuppressed patients. Ganciclovir has also been used with some success in treating Human herpesvirus 6 infections. Ganciclovir has also been found to be an effective treatment for herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. Ganciclovir is commonly associated with a range of serious haematological adverse effects. Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) include: granulocytopenia, neutropenia, ...
Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with antiviral agents for solid organ transplantation answers are found in the Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most significant microbial cause of birth defects, including brain damage and deafness, in developed nations. There is a compelling argument that a reduction in HCMV load would provide significant benefit in improving human health and reducing health care costs. Vaccination is the most practical way to achieve such a reduction in HCMV load. There are two important clinical settings where vaccination will have a significant impact on health outcome. The first is the prevention of the sequelae of congenital HCMV infection. A prophylactic vaccine to prevent congenital HCMV infection would make a major public health and economic contribution by reducing the incidence of birth defects.. The second setting is the prevention of HCMV-related complications in organ transplantation. HCMV is a major pathogen in both solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients. We have identified a large number of cytotoxic T cell epitopes from a variety of HCMV antigens. A subset ...
Results:. Using a Cox proportional-hazards model, CMVIG was shown to reduce severe CMV-associated disease (multi-organ CMV disease, CMV pneumonia, or invasive fungal disease associated with CMV infection) from 26% to 12% (relative risk, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.89). When we controlled for the use of monoclonal antibodies to T cells (OKT3), CMVIG use was still protective (relative risk, 0.39; CI, 0.17 to 0.90). Rates of CMV disease were reduced from 31% to 19% (relative risk, 0.56; CI, 0.3 to 1.1) in CMVIG recipients although no effect on rates of CMV infection, graft survival, or patient survival at 1 year were shown. When we controlled for the urgency of transplantation and OKT3 use, a reduction in CMV disease (relative risk, 0.22; CI, 0.06 to 0.81) was shown for globulin recipients for all serologic groups except for the highest risk group (the CMV-seropositive donor, CMV-seronegative group). ...
Previous studies revealed that HCMV infection induces a persistent reconfiguration of the NK cell compartment characterized by the expansion of an NK cell subset expressing the activating NKG2C receptor. This finding has been demonstrated both in healthy individuals and in patients with different pathological conditions (10-16, 30, 31). Remarkably, in patients undergoing UCBT, HCMV infection/reactivation markedly influenced NK cell reconstitution, promoting the rapid appearance and expansion of NKG2C+KIR+NKG2A−Siglec-7− NK cells (17, 18). These studies suggested that the NKG2C activating receptor could play a crucial role in NK cell expansion and/or maturation driven by HCMV infection.. In the present study, we analyzed the maturation and function of NK cells developing in three patients transplanted with cord blood cells from donors carrying homozygous deletion of the NKG2C gene and undergoing HCMV infection. These cases offered a unique opportunity to analyze the features of NK cell ...
Cytomegalovirus-associated thrombosis has been extensively reported in the medical literature, mainly in immune-compromised patients. However, the association with splenic infarcts has been rarely mentioned. We report the case of a 38-year-old
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MARQUES JR, Oswaldo et al. Cytomegaloviral colitis in HIV positive patients: endoscopic findings. Arq. Gastroenterol. [online]. 2007, vol.44, n.4, pp.315-319. ISSN 0004-2803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032007000400007.. BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients is one of the most important and disabling symptoms, and often decreases their quality of life. Cytomegalovirus colitis is among the principal causes of this symptom and colonoscopy is the gold standard examination to diagnose it. AIM: To define the main endoscopic findings in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients with cytomegalovirus colitis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-three colonoscopies were performed in 200 seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients with diarrhea associated or not to abdominal pain or gastrointestinal bleeding, over 10-year period, whom 51 patients were diagnosed with cytomegalovirus colitis. Full length colonoscopy with ileum intubation was always tried ...
This study was initiated in order to define the relevance of ND10 domains for HCMV replication. Experimental results of previous studies suggested that ND10 domains may play a pivotal role for the initiation of HCMV IE gene expression. Arguments that could be interpreted in favor of such a proviral role of ND10 were as follows: (i) viral genomes were found to be deposited at the periphery of ND10 (29, 31); (ii) several regulatory proteins of HCMV at least transiently colocalize with PML and other ND10 components (2, 26, 32, 37); (iii) an immediate transcript environment consisting of viral IE transcripts, the IE2 protein, and SC35 domains was reported to form adjacent to ND10-localized HCMV genomes, suggesting that this spatial association is critical for the correct initiation of viral gene expression (31); (iv) only ND10-associated viral genomes were shown to develop into viral replication compartments (4, 48).. As an experimental approach to study the role of ND10 for HCMV replication, we ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) manipulates many aspects of host cell biology to create an intracellular milieu optimally supportive of its replication and spread. Our study reveals that levels of several components of the purinergic signaling system, including the P2Y2 and P2X5 receptors, are elevated in HCMV-infected fibroblasts. Knockdown and drug treatment experiments demonstrated that P2Y2 enhances the yield of virus, whereas P2X5 reduces HCMV production. The HCMV IE1 protein induces P2Y2 expression; and P2Y2-mediated signaling is important for efficient HCMV gene expression, DNA synthesis, and the production of infectious HCMV progeny. P2Y2 cooperates with the viral UL37x1 protein to regulate cystolic Ca2+ levels. P2Y2 also regulates PI3K/Akt signaling and infected cell motility. Thus, P2Y2 functions at multiple points within the viral replication cycle to support the efficient production of HCMV progeny, and it may facilitate in vivo viral spread through its role in cell migration. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aging and cytomegalovirus infection differentially and jointly affect distinct circulating T cell subsets in humans. AU - Wertheimer, Anne M.. AU - Bennett, Michael S.. AU - Park, Byung. AU - Uhrlaub, Jennifer L.. AU - Martinez, Carmine. AU - Pulko, Vesna. AU - Currier, Noreen L.. AU - Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana. AU - Kaye, Jeffrey. AU - Nikolich-Zugich, Janko. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/3/1. Y1 - 2014/3/1. N2 - The impact of intrinsic aging upon human peripheral blood T cell subsets remains incompletely quantified and understood. This impact must be distinguished from the influence of latent persistent microorganisms, particularly CMV, which has been associated with age-related changes in the T cell pool. In a cross-sectional cohort of 152 CMV-negative individuals, aged 21-101 y, we found that aging correlated strictly to an absolute loss of naive CD8, but not CD4, T cells but, contrary to many reports, did not lead to an increase ...
Antiviral mechanisms by which natural killer (NK) cells control murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in the spleens and livers of C57BL/6 mice were measured, revealing different mechanisms of control in different organs. Three days postinfection, MCMV titers in the spleens of perforin 0/0 mice were higher than in those of perforin +/+ mice, but no elevation of liver titers was found in perforin 0/0 mice. NK cell depletion in MCMV-infected perforin 0/0 mice resulted only in an increase in liver viral titers and not in spleen titers. Depletion of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in C57BL/6 mice by injections with monoclonal antibodies to IFN-gamma resulted in an increase of viral titers in the liver but not in the spleen. Analyses using IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice, rendered chimeric with C57BL/6 bone marrow cells, indicated that in a recipient environment where IFN-gamma cannot exert its effects, the depletion of NK cells caused an increase in MCMV titers in the spleens but had little effect ...
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Table 1: Clinical Factors Influencing Phenotype of HCMV-Specific CD8+ T Cells and HCMV-Induced Interferon-Gamma Production after Allogeneic Stem Cells Transplantation
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may cause CMV disease. To optimize the implementation of existing prevention strategies, the Management of Post-transplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) program was developed. Two key performances of MATCH (diagnosing CMV infection at low viral load (VL) and before the onset of CMV disease) were assessed prior to, during and after the implementation of MATCH.. METHODS: The MATCH program included a personalized surveillance plan, prophylaxis and preemptive therapy determined by the recipients risk of CMV infection. The plan was composed through predefined algorithms and implemented through harvesting of real-time data from medical records. Risk of CMV disease was compared for recipients transplanted during and after vs prior to the implementation of MATCH. Lung and non-lung transplants were analyzed separately.. RESULTS: A total of 593, 349, 520, and 360 SOT recipients were ...
In a 111 subject study, maribavir significantly reduced the rate of CMV infection requiring treatment across all dose ranges (15 percent, p=0.001; 30 percent, p=0.051 and 15 percent, p=0.002 in 100 mg BID, 400 mg QD, 400 mg BID doses respectively), compared to placebo (57 percent). No patients taking maribavir at any dose developed CMV disease, compared to the placebo group in which three subjects (11 percent) developed the disease. Moreover, there were no reports of late CMV disease across any treatment groups with a maximum follow up period of five months post-transplant.. These results are important because they suggest that maribavir has the potential to shift the CMV management strategy in stem cell transplant from pre-emptive therapy to prophylaxis, said Drew J. Winston, M.D., University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center. It is clear that maribavir has the potential to offer an important new and safer option for clinicians to prevent CMV disease in transplant patients.. Among ...
PubMed journal article: Lack of prompt expansion of cytomegalovirus pp65 and IE-1-specific IFNgamma CD8+ and CD4+ T cells is associated with rising levels of pp65 antigenemia and DNAemia during pre-emptive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
NK. cells represent an important component of the innate immune response against GW786034 mw infection and tumors. Age-associated changes in NK cell phenotype have been previously reported that can be responsible of functional NK cell deficiency. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect CMV seropositivity and aging on the distribution of NK cell subsets with a focus on the expression of cytotoxicity-related molecules and on the expression of CD94/NKG2 heterodimers and CD57 on these NK cell subsets. Our results show that CMV seropositivity in young individuals does not significantly affect peripheral blood NK cell percentage and NK cell subsets defined by the use of CD56 and CD16 markers. In contrast a significant increase in the percentage of NK cells is observed in elderly donors, all of them are CMV seropositive, when compared with young CMV seropositive subjects. A decrease in the percentage of CD56 bright NK cells, either fully immature CD16 negative or CD16+ and an increase in the ...
ODM derived from http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00372229; Keywords: Cytomegalovirus Infections, Clinical Trial, Kidney Transplantation, Eligibility Determination
Despite a lot of research, the etiology and progression of breast cancer remain incompletely understood. Recently, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to know whether breast cancer could be caused by cytomegalovirus or not? In this experiment seventeen samples of RAZI/A mice with spontaneous breast cancer were being gathered from laboratory animals department. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were done on breast tissue samples. Formalin-fixed tissue specimens were obtained from mouse normal breast tissues (n:17) and mouse mammary tumors (n:17). Detection of mouse cytomegalovirus was done by the pUC57-MCK-2 plasmid. Our histopathology data showed Adenocarcinoma type B in mouse with mammary tumors. There was a significant difference between mice with spontaneous breast cancer and control by Pearson Chi-Square (Value: 17.000b and P=0.000). More research will be needed to determine the effect of cytomegalovirus on
Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Progress in the prevention of immunological rejection using genetically modified pigs and new, more effective, immunosuppression regimens will allow clinical application of xenotransplantation in near future. However, xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of potentially zoonotic porcine microorganisms. Until now the only xenotransplantation-associated transmission was the transmission of the porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) into non-human primates. PCMV caused a significant reduction of the survival time of the pig transplant. Here the available publications were analysed in order to establish the mechanism how PCMV shortened the survival time of xenotransplants. PCMV is a herpesvirus related to the human cytomegalovirus and the human herpesviruses 6 and 7. These three human herpesviruses can cause serious disease among
"Cytomegalovirus Infections: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-13. Kaslow, Richard A.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; ... The lytic phase of infection occurs within mucoepithelial cells while the latent infection of these cells occurs in neurons. ... In this phase the host will show little to no signs of virus infection. This state can be maintained for very long periods of ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the betaherpesvirinae subfamily. CMV is responsible for a range of diseases, but mainly ...
Cytomegalovirus infection Cytomegalovirus Dengue fever Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses ... Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Infections associated with diseases. References[edit]. *^ Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Baron S, et al., eds. Spectrum of Mycoses ... Acinetobacter infections Acinetobacter baumannii Actinomycosis Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and ...
Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child.[2 ... Recurring ear infections or concomitant secondary infections (such as bacterial infection subsequent to viral infection) can ... "Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Audiologic Outcome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 (suppl_4): S182-S184. doi:10.1093/ ... congenital infection with cytomegalovirus is responsible for deafness in newborn children and also progressive sensorineural ...
Joseph LD, Kuruvilla S (2008). "Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly". Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology. 51 ( ... It is early infection that leads to lissencephaly. This is because early infection disrupts the migration and development of ... Joseph LD, Pushpalatha, Kuruvilla S (2008). "Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly". Indian Journal of Pathology & ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes related virus that can cause congenital defects. CMV has a high affinity for the developing ...
Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child. ... Fowler KB (December 2013). "Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: audiologic outcome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 Suppl 4 ... In case of infection or inflammation, blood or other body fluids may be submitted for laboratory analysis. MRI and CT scans can ... Over 30% of childhood hearing loss is caused by diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, meningitis and ear infections. These ...
Valcyte (valganciclovir), for cytomegalovirus infection. Valium (diazepam), for anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal, status ... Cymevene (ganciclovir), for cytomegalovirus infection. Dalmane/Dalmadorm (flurazepam), for insomnia. Dilatrend (carvedilol), ... Viracept (nelfinavir), for HIV-1 infection, licensed by Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare. Xeloda (capecitabine), for breast and ... Fuzeon (enfuvirtide), for salvage therapy of HIV-1 infection. Gazyva (obinutuzumab), for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hemlibra ...
2016). "AABB Committee Report: reducing transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infections". Transfusion. 56 (6pt2): 1581-1587 ... and immunocompromised people are at risk for developing severe infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV)―an opportunistic pathogen ... for which approximately 50% of blood donors test positive―and may be transfused with CMV-negative blood to prevent infection.: ...
... is a cluster of symptoms caused by congenital infection with toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes ... medication is an option for herpes and cytomegalovirus infections. Developing countries are more severely affected by TORCH ... The specific infection may cause additional symptoms. TORCH syndrome may develop before birth, causing stillbirth, in the ... TORCH syndrome is caused by in utero infection with one of the TORCH agents, disrupting fetal development. Presence of IgM is ...
"Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis associated to cytomegalovirus infection". Eur J Dermatol. 17 (5): 455-6. doi:10.1684/ejd.2007.0257 ... and cytomegalovirus. Boston exanthem disease Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' ...
"Cytomegalovirus Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infection". AIDSinfo. Retrieved 2020-04-25. "Vascular Endothelial Growth ... Sometimes, combinations of different antibiotics may be needed to treat polymicrobial infections (infections that are caused by ... Some of the above complications could also lead to blindness, or even loss of the eye (in the case of a severe infection). ... This type of drug targets on bacterial infection. The first use of intravitreal antibiotics was dated back to experiments in ...
Iannetti P, Morellini M, Raucci U, Cappellacci S (1988). "HLA antigens, epilepsy and cytomegalovirus infection". Brain Dev. 10 ... and cytomegalovirus infection with epilepsy. These and other studies suggest an involvement between A11 and secondary effects ... A*1104 is associated with increased risk for cervical neoplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection A11-B13 A11-Cw2- ... studies have shown a complex involvement of Epstein-Barr virus infection as a consequence of low A11 control over infection. ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody against infections with cytomegalovirus. Arizono H, Sugano T, Kaida S, Shibusawa K, ... July 1994). "Pharmacokinetics of a new human monoclonal antibody against cytomegalovirus. Third communication: correspondence ...
Congenital infections like cytomegalovirus are also known to cause microlissencephaly. Both microlissencephaly and microcephaly ...
Kim, Jihye; Kim, A-Reum; Shin, Eui-Cheol (August 2015). "Cytomegalovirus Infection and Memory T Cell Inflation". Immune Network ... Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, A.-Reum; Kim, Jihye (2015-08-01). "Cytomegalovirus Infection and Memory T Cell Inflation". Immune Network ... Rao, Sudha; Tu, Wenjuan (2016). "Mechanisms Underlying T Cell Immunosenescence: Aging and Cytomegalovirus Infection". Frontiers ... Especially in the elderly, long-term CMV infection leads to a rapid increase the number of CMV-specific T cells. The number of ...
In-utero infections such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, toxoplasmosis and herpes. Craniofacial anomalies. Birth weight ... screening for and treating syphilis and other infections in pregnant women; improving antenatal and perinatal care, including ...
"Genetic dissection of innate immunity to infection: The mouse cytomegalovirus model". Current Opinion in Immunology. 17 (1): 36 ... Beutler thus discovered the key sensors of microbial infection in mammals, demonstrating that one of the mammalian Toll-like ... By screening mutant mice for susceptibility to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV), they identified a large number of genes that make ... including shock and systemic inflammation as it occurs in the course of an infection. They are central to the pathogenesis of ...
Other rare transmissible infections include hepatitis B, syphilis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus infections (in ... Ziemann, Malte; Hennig, Holger (2014-02-01). "Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Cytomegalovirus Infections: Which is the ... This can result in a life-threatening infection known as transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection. The risk of severe ... cytomegalovirus infection, and platelet-transfusion refractoriness. Pathogen Reduction treatment that involves, for example, ...
"Corneal Endotheliitis Associated with Evidence of Cytomegalovirus Infection". Ophthalmology. 114 (4): 798-803. doi:10.1016/j. ... The condition can be caused by a number of factors, such as mumps and cytomegalovirus under certain circumstances. "Herpes ...
... mediates human cytomegalovirus infection". Journal of Virology. 67 (11): 6576-85. doi:10.1128/JVI.67.11.6576-6585.1993. PMC ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be an important cause. Diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of blood inside the ...
August 2002). "RNase P ribozymes for the studies and treatment of human cytomegalovirus infections". Journal of Clinical ... RNase P is now being studied as a potential therapy for diseases such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza and ... other respiratory infections, HIV-1 and cancer caused by fusion gene BCR-ABL. External guide sequences (EGSs) are formed with ...
For the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients. Int Conf AIDS. 1996 Jul 7-12; 11: 65. Retrieved August 8, ...
Ikeda S, Tsuru A, Moriuchi M, Moriuchi H (May 2006). "Retrospective diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection using ... example is where analysis of preserved umbilical cord tissue enables the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a ...
... cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Epstein-Barr virus infection The most common presentation is a single large, deep ... "Lipschütz acute vulval ulcers associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection". Pediatr Dermatol. 25 (1): 113-5. doi:10.1111/ ... He initially ascribed the ulcer to infection with "Bacillus crassus" (Lactobacillus acidophilus). Vulvovaginal health Lipschütz ...
Such expansions were observed primarily in response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)[15], but also in other infections including ... However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells or whether other infections result in ... "Imprint of human cytomegalovirus infection on the NK cell receptor repertoire". Blood. 104 (12): 3664-71. doi:10.1182/blood- ... As these are stress molecules released by cells upon viral infection, they serve to signal to the NK cell the presence of viral ...
"Latency-Associated Degradation of the MRP1 Drug Transporter During Latent Human Cytomegalovirus Infection". Science. 340 (6129 ...
Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections". Curr ... Increased susceptibility to infection might be inherited as there is some indication that HLA-A1 or factors surrounding A1 on ... Infection during early pregnancy may result in a miscarriage or a child born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Symptoms ... Rubella infection of children and adults is usually mild, self-limiting and often asymptomatic. The prognosis in children born ...
Cytomegalovirus infection poses potentially dangerous consequences for pre-term babies. Other risks include mother's infection ... "Acquisition of human cytomegalovirus infection in infants via breast milk: natural immunization or cause for concern?". Rev. ... Bacterial infections associated with formula remained a problem more prevalent in the United States than in Europe, where milk ... Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between ...
Mucosal associated invariant T cells and the immune response to infection. Microbes and Infection. August 2011, 13 (8-9): 742-8 ... Cytomegalovirus-Induced Expression of CD244 after Liver Transplantation Is Associated with CD8+ T Cell Hyporesponsiveness to ... Infection and Immunity. 2007-05, 75 (5): 2171-2180. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06.. ... Infection : microbiology and management 3rd ed. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub. 2006: 435. ISBN 978-1-4443-2393-1. OCLC 592756309 ...
... , also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of conjunctivitis and a type of neonatal infection ... Topical therapy is not effective and also does not treat the infection of the nasopharynx.[7][8][9] ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ... In contrast, conjunctivitis secondary to infection with chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) produces conjunctivitis after day ...
... breakthrough infections and autoimmunity. A problem of infections in the elderly is that they frequently present with non- ... CD8 T cells reveal a repertoire shrinkage predicting mortality and an increased number of dysfunctional cytomegalovirus- ... It involves both the host's capacity to respond to infections and the development of long-term immune memory, especially by ... Microbes and Infection. 3 (10): 851-857. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01443-5. PMID 11580980. Franceschi, C.; S. Valensin; F. ...
Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
Cytomegalovirus *Cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Gastroenteritis/. diarrhea. DNA virus. Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus ... Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes.[14] Analysis ... Although JC virus infection is classically associated with white matter demyelination and PML pathogenesis, recent literature ...
Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. Since Pasteur provided support for a germ ... Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ... Temporary immunity to a specific infection can be induced in a subject by providing the subject with externally produced immune ... which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him ...
... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... cytomegalovirus (CMV) - Cytomegalovirus retinitis - cytopenia - cytotoxic - cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) ... ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ... breakthrough infection - Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS - bronchoscopy - budding - buffalo hump - bugchasing and giftgiving ...
Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ... infections transmitted through blood transfusion". Wiad Parazytol. 57 (2), s. 77-81. PMID 21682090.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ad ... Review of the literature". Infection. 35 (4), s. 212-8. doi:10.1007/s15010-007-6006-2. PMID 17646920.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ... Naides SJ (May 1998). "Rheumatic manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 24 (2), s. 375-401. ...
Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
Syria- Genital herpes infection from HSV-2 is predicted to be low in Syria although HSV-1 levels are high. HSV-1 infections is ... Abuharfeil N, Meqdam MM (2000). "Seroepidemiologic study of herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytomegalovirus among young adults ... In many infections, the first symptom a person will have of their own infection is the horizontal transmission to a sexual ... and HSV-1 genital infection. Primary genital infection brings with it the risk of vertical transmission to the neonate, and is ...
Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial.[2] The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms ... Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection of the upper respiratory tract, a common cold, or a sore throat. Its ... The infection usually begins in one eye, but may spread easily to the other eye. ... Viral conjunctivitis manifests as a fine, diffuse pinkness of the conjunctiva, which is easily mistaken for a ciliary infection ...
A respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV vaccine) is a vaccine which prevents infection by respiratory syncytial virus. No ... The desired vaccine would prevent lower respiratory infection from RSV in at-risk populations and if possible be useful in ...
Pericarditis is often caused by a viral infection (glandular fever, cytomegalovirus, or coxsackievirus), or more rarely with a ... Protects it from infections coming from other organs (such as lungs). *Prevents excessive dilation of the heart in cases of ... The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection and provides the lubrication for the ... bacterial infection, but may also occur following a myocardial infarction. Pericarditis is usually a short-lived condition that ...
... they may induce the release of inflammatory cytokines which helps to not only recruit B and T cells at sites of infection but ... mast cells release heparin and histamine to effectively increase trafficking to and seal off the site of infection to allow ... either in the form of adjuvant used in vaccinations or in the form of invasive moieties during times of natural infection - TLR ... and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection.[5][6] ... Cytomegalovirus. *Dengue. *Ebola. *Epstein-Barr virus. * ...
... is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea ... The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have acted on the ... vaccines may also prevent illness in non-vaccinated children by limiting exposure through the number of circulating infections. ...
Artificial induction of immunity / Immunization: Vaccines, Vaccination, Infection, Inoculation (J07). Development. *Adjuvants ...
... is a vaccine that protects in humans against hantavirus infections causing Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with ... The vaccine is considered important as acute hantavirus infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality ...
Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
Cytomegalovirus *Cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Gastroenteritis/. diarrhea. DNA virus. Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus ... Untreated, median survival is only 2.5 months, sometimes due to concurrent opportunistic infections rather than the lymphoma ... infection (, 90%) in immunodeficient patients (such as those with AIDS and those immunosuppressed),[2] and does not have a ... of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infections (other types are Burkitt's lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas). Primary CNS ...
Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme ... Lyme borreliosis: from infection to autoimmunity»։ Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10 (7): 598-614։ July 2004։ PMID ... 49,0 49,1 «Biology of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi»։ Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22 (2): 217-34, v։ June ... 140,0 140,1 «The Lyme vaccine: a cautionary tale»։ Epidemiology and Infection 135 (1): 1-8։ January 2007։ PMC 2870557։ PMID ...
High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of ... induced cholestatic hepatitis or Cytomegalovirus. Both of these conditions can also have ALT and AST greater than 20× normal. ... it is more often infections such as viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, or malaria. Blockage of the bile duct may ...
Cytomegalovirus Infection. DEdit. *Dandy-Walker syndrome. *Dawson disease. *De Morsier's syndrome ...
"Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis" is caused by an adenovirus infection.. *"Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis" (IBK) is a ... Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
Lorenz E (2007). "TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bacterial infections". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 12 (32): 4185-93. doi: ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Hemagglutinin. Measles InteractionsEdit. Protein-protein interactionsEdit. TLR 2 has been shown to ... These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" ... Borrello S, Nicolò C, Delogu G, Pandolfi F, Ria F (2011). "TLR2: a crossroads between infections and autoimmunity?". ...
Cytomegalovirus *Cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Gastroenteritis/. diarrhea. DNA virus. Adenovirus Adenovirus infection. RNA virus ...
Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion ...
Infections: There are many bodily infections that can cause the loss of eyelashes/eyebrows. The most common infection may be ... Infections like syphilis by causing a moth-eaten appearance of the eyebrow hair loss. Viral infections like herpes or HIV can ... Syphilis or other viral infections like herpes or HIV can cause the loss of eye hair as well. Fungal infections, like ... Various fungal infections like paracoccidioidomycosis can cause lesions and changes in the hair locations of the eyelid. ...
Infections[edit]. Main article: Vertically transmitted infection. A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by ... Mother exposure to cytomegalovirus can cause microcephaly, cerebral calcifications, blindness, chorioretinitis (which can cause ... However, because infections of rubella may remain undetected, misdiagnosed, or unrecognized in the mother, and/or some ... Another 10-13% of anomalies have a purely environmental cause (e.g. infections, illness, or drug abuse in the mother). Only 12- ...
Fasten healing (prevent secondary infection). Doxycycline,[6] tetracycline,[6] minocycline,[21] chlorhexidine gluconate,[14] ... and cytomegalovirus.[5] Some people with aphthous stomatitis may show herpes virus within the epithelium of the mucosa, but ... Opportunistic infections commonly occur and aphthous-like ulceration is worst during this time.[14] ... Aphthous stomatitis was once thought to be a form of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection, and some clinicians still refer ...
Learn about who is at risk and how to prevent infection. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found worldwide. Most people ... Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis (Medical ... Neurological Consequences of Cytomegalovirus Infection (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) ... About CMV (Cytomegalovirus) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Cytomegalovirus (American Academy of Family ...
When a baby is born with CMV infection, it is called congenital CMV. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that infects people of all ages. ... When a baby is born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, it is called congenital CMV. About one out of every 200 babies is ... Cytomegalovirus (pronounced sy-toe-MEG-a-low-vy-rus), or CMV, is a common virus that infects people of all ages. Over half of ...
... and diagnosis and treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus for people of all ages. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus for people of all ages; however, a healthy persons immune system usually keeps the ... Blood tests can be used to diagnose CMV infection in adults who have symptoms. However, blood is not the best fluid to test ... The most common long-term health problem in babies born with congenital CMV infection is hearing loss, which may be detected ...
... infection is a disease caused by a type of herpes virus. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a disease caused by a type ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and congenital CMV infection: clinical overview. www.cdc.gov/cmv/clinical/overview.html. Updated August ... CMV can cause infections in different parts of the body. Symptoms vary depending on the area that is affected. Examples of body ... CMV infection can be contagious if the infected person comes in close or intimate contact with another person. You should avoid ...
... this case demonstrates the potential for serious infection in otherwise healthy, immunocompetent patients. ... CMV infection is normally symptomatic only in immunocompromised patients; however, ... Cite this: Relevant Pericardial Effusion Caused by Cytomegalovirus Infection in An Immunocompetent Patient - Medscape - Jan 19 ... Journal Article Relevant Pericardial Effusion Caused by Cytomegalovirus Infection in An Immunocompetent Patient ...
... infection is one of the most common viral causes of congenital infections in high resource countries and a leading cause of ... Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common viral causes of congenital infections in high resource ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infections Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Jun;12(3):154-9. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.012. Epub ... This is the case in children both with and without symptoms of infection at birth. Until vaccines and non-toxic antiviral ...
Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection.. Pass RF1, Zhang C, Evans A, Simpson T, Andrews W, Huang ML, Corey L ... Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns. ... One congenital infection among infants of the subjects occurred in the vaccine group, and three infections occurred in the ... After a minimum of 1 year of follow-up, there were 49 confirmed infections, 18 in the vaccine group and 31 in the placebo group ...
Lymphocytotoxic antibodies in spontaneous cytomegalovirus infection. Br Med J 1978; 1 :509 ... Lymphocytotoxic antibodies in spontaneous cytomegalovirus infection.. Br Med J 1978; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6111. ...
Cytomegalovirus Infections Clinical Research Trial Listings in Immunology Pediatrics/Neonatology Family Medicine Infections and ... Cytomegalovirus Infections Clinical Trials. A listing of Cytomegalovirus Infections medical research trials actively recruiting ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent opportunistic viral infection after kidney transplantation. Therefore most ... Third-Party Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs) for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection The CTLs: CTLs are made at MD Anderson from ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of 8 human herpesviruses. It is a member of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily, which also ... Immunity induced by primary human cytomegalovirus infection protects against secondary infection among women of childbearing ... Epidemiology patterns of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Approximately 10% of cases of congenital cytomegalovirus occur ... Pediatric Cytomegalovirus Infection. Updated: Apr 06, 2018 * Author: Mark R Schleiss, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD ...
This second edition updates the reader on the most common intrauterine transmitted viral infection, CMV. The history of this ... This second edition updates the reader on the most common intrauterine transmitted viral infection, CMV. The history of this ...
Infection with CMV is typically subtle, silent, and underreported. Yet it is the most frequently occurring of all known ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous virus that can have a devastating effect on the fetus. It belongs to the herpes group of ... maternal infections that can affect the fetus, such as rubella and toxoplasmosis, and is the one ... The virus infection recurs; one infection does not confer lifelong immunity. The virus is latent; its effects may not appear ...
... Fatehi Elnour Elzein,1 Mohammed Alsaeed,1 Sulafa ... "Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection," Case Reports in Transplantation, vol. 2016, ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised ... The potential use of these drugs is being explored for the treatment of congenital CMV infection, another CMV-associated ... The availability of antiviral therapy has provided major advances in the treatment and prevention of CMV infection and has ... Keywords: CMV phosphotransferase); Cytomegalovirus; Multiple genetic variants; cancer chemotherapy; cidofovir; clinically ...
Cytomegalovirus infection in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Apr 1997;16(4):358-363 ... Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection in infants born to mothers with preexisting immunity to cytomegalovirus. ... Cytomegalovirus and child day care. Evidence for an increased infection rate among day-care workers. N Engl J Med. Nov 9 1989; ... Infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is common and usually not apparent; CMV can be acquired in utero, or during infancy ...
... infection can convert a harmless, inhaled protein antigen into an allergen, according to a study published March 7 in the open- ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can convert a harmless, inhaled protein antigen into an allergen, according to a study ... CMV infection of the fetus causes birth defects, and in immunocompromised patients, CMV infection of the lung can result in ... Ovalbumin exposure or CMV infection alone failed to sensitize for allergic airway disease. By contrast, airway infection with ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of 8 human herpesviruses. It is a member of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily, which also ... encoded search term (Pediatric Cytomegalovirus Infection) and Pediatric Cytomegalovirus Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Acquired CMV infection. In contrast to congenital infection, acquired CMV infection occurs postnatally. Primary infection in ... Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The risk of intrauterine transmission is highest when primary infection occurs ...
CMV infection is also associated with indirect effects in transplant recipients, including adverse immunologic effects (graft ... In a 111 subject study, maribavir significantly reduced the rate of CMV infection requiring treatment across all dose ranges ( ... reduced the rate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and was well tolerated when compared to placebo in allogeneic stem cell ... transplant patients will show evidence of CMV infection in the first 100 days post transplant and despite treatment with ...
However, the sites of cytomegalovirus (CMV) latency have been difficult to define experimentally … ... Herpesviruses characteristically establish latent infections in their hosts. In some instances, the tissue sites or even the ... Latent infection and the elusive cytomegalovirus Rev Infect Dis. Mar-Apr 1983;5(2):205-15. doi: 10.1093/clinids/5.2.205. ... Whether latent CMV infection in these tissues is maintained in a single ubiquitous cell type (e.g., lymphocytes or macrophages ...
Panels Recommendations for Cytomegalovirus. Panels Recommendations. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody testing is recommended at ... Panels Recommendations for Cytomegalovirus. Panels Recommendations. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody testing is recommended at ... Cytomegalovirus (Brief). The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief ... Foscarnet is an alternative drug for treating CMV disease or for use in ganciclovir-resistant CMV infections in HIV-infected ...
Viral infections. Infections caused by dsDNA viruses. H00368 Cytomegalovirus infection. Human diseases in ICD-11 classification ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus of the Herpesviridae family acquired by late childhood in the majority of ... Primary infection is nonspecific but after that the virus becomes latent in multiple organs and can later be reactivated. CMV ...
... have developed a model that will provide vital insight into how best to help patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, ... as it will improve the health and quality of life of patients with CMV infection. Its vital to understand how the virus ... making it possible to predict the likely duration of therapy needed for a patient with CMV infection to clear the virus. ...
Cytomegalovirus Infections. December 11, 2017 Merck & Co. released pivotal phase III study results of PREVYMIS (letermovir) for ... for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. In the 230-subject, ... prophylaxis (prevention) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients [R+] of an ... They were to undergo testing for CMV infection at least once a week. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of CMV ...
Cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of ileoanal pouchitis. *Patrick R. Pfau M.D.1. & ... Pfau, P.R., Lichtenstein, G.R. Cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of ileoanal pouchitis. Dis Colon Rectum 43, 113-114 (2000 ... Misdiagnosis of specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileoanal pouch as refractory idiopathic chronic pouchitis. Dis Colon ... Pouchitis associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1998;93:264-6. ...
BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome with an intra or extrahepatic origin has been associated to viral infections. The ... participation of the cytomegalovirus in the etiopathogenesis of neonatal ... ... AIMS: To assess the prevalence of infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic ... serologic result for cytomegalovirus, history of maternal infection, prematurity, fetal distress, birth weight, ponderal gain, ...
... which then leads to the acute infection of various cell types. After this acute infection, in which the virus spreads, it ... What is cytomegalovirus? CMV is part of the β-subfamily of herpes viruses, a family of viruses that are believed to have been ... we want to highlight a new publication that looks at cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its potential role in the development of ... Cytomegalovirus Infection May Contribute to Metabolic Syndrome Posted by Steve Hill in category: biotech/medical. ...
Diseases : Cytomegalovirus Infections, HIV Infections, HSV-1, HSV-2, Malaria, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Steptococcus ... Diseases : Cytomegalovirus Infections, Parainfluenza Virus Infections, Paramyxoviridae Infections. Pharmacological Actions : ... Diseases : Cytomegalovirus Infections, HIV Infections, HSV-1, Influenza A, Measles, Mumps. Pharmacological Actions : Antiviral ... Diseases : Cytomegalovirus Infections, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C, Herpes family viruses, HSV-1 ...
Manifestations of Cytomegalovirus Infection. Edited by: Patricia Price, Nandini Makwana and Samantha Brunt. ISBN 978-953-51- ... Manifestations of Cytomegalovirus Infection. Edited by Patricia Price. Uganda Wildlife Authority, Uganda ... 2. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. By Matthew Bates, Kunda Musonda and Alimuddin Zumla ... 4. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Liver Transplantation. By Ana Maria Sampaio, Ana Carolina Guardia, Arlete Milan, Elaine ...
B-cell activation following murine cytomegalovirus infection: implications for autoimmunity.. Price P1, Olver SD, Gibbons AE, ... Infection of susceptible mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) induces persistent inflammation, and the production of ... Titres of antibodies reactive with autologous tissues and ovalbumin (OVA) also increased following MCMV infection, whilst ...
... Updated: Jun 12, 2019 ... encoded search term (Which clinical history findings are characteristic of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV infection?) and ... Ocular opportunistic infection incidences among patients who are HIV positive compared to patients who are HIV negative. ... Mselle J. Fungal keratitis as an indicator of HIV infection in Africa. Trop Doct. 1999 Jul. 29(3):133-5. [Medline]. ...
  • Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is the most common opportunistic pathogen in the first months after solid organ transplantation. (centerwatch.com)
  • Traditionally, hCMV infection in renal transplant patients is indirectly associated with an increased risk of acute rejection, chronic graft dysfunction, graft loss and even increased patient mortality. (centerwatch.com)
  • AiCuris reported results from a phase IIb trial of letermovir for the prevention of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) following bone marrow transplantation. (centerwatch.com)
  • Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and generally asymptomatic affection in childhood. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As evidence grows that HCMV interacts with apoptotic signaling due to the interaction of HCMV gene products with cellular proteins of apoptotic pathways, we used human NB cell line UKF-NB-2 persistently infected with HCMV strain AD169 to study the effects of long-term HCMV infection on programmed cell death of neuroectodermal tumor cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The results demonstrate that persistent HCMV infection confers resistance to cytotoxic agents on neuroectodermal tumor cells and protects from apoptosis, probably due to increased levels of Bcl-2 protein. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hence, it is conceivable that HCMV infection before or during tumorigenesis may contribute in some NB patients to failure of therapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is a member of beta-herpesvirus family. (genome.jp)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resides latently in hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow. (pnas.org)
  • We have developed an in vitro system in which to study HCMV infection and latency in CD34+ cells cultured with irradiated stromal cells. (pnas.org)
  • Altered gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors may be indicative of the nature and outcome of HCMV infection. (pnas.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous β-herpes virus that maintains a lifelong relationship with its host by way of a latent infection. (pnas.org)
  • HCMV infection in healthy individuals is typically asymptomatic, whereas a primary infection or reactivation of latent HCMV may cause life-threatening disease in immunologically immature or compromised individuals, including neonates, AIDS patients, and transplant patients ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mocarski and colleagues ( 8 , 18 ) have studied HCMV latency in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors expressing CD33 and dendritic cell markers, and identified several HCMV transcripts expressed during latency following in vivo or in vitro infection ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Studying HCMV infection of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro is challenging, given the difficulty of maintaining progenitors in an undifferentiated state in culture. (pnas.org)
  • Monocytes and tissue macrophages play important roles in host defense against virus infections and, in the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and HIV, may also be the reservoir for latent disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because these cells can also rapidly respond to most infections by secretion of inflammatory mediators, we were interested in determining if HCMV infection could have a direct activating effect on macrophage cytokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • To do this, we primarily investigated the influence of HCMV infection on IL-1 beta-mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes and the promyelocytic cell line, ML-3 as well as the inflammatory response genes TNF-alpha, MAD-9, MAD-6, and MAD-2 in the promyelocytic ML-3 cell line. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both RNA dot-blot and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated that infection of human peripheral blood monocytes with HCMV leads to sustained expression of IL-1 beta mRNA for up to 96 h, which contrasted markedly with mock-infected or LPS-stimulated monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • In summary, HCMV infection, although not leading to productive infection, nonetheless may contribute to the pathology of the infection through enhancement of monocyte inflammatory mediator gene expression with subsequent stimulation of protein synthesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Congenital human CMV (HCMV) infection occurs in 0.2-1% of all births and causes birth defects and developmental abnormalities, making the development of CMV vaccines an important issue. (nature.com)
  • To clarify the precise requirements of Pentamer for GPCMV infection and to identify cellular receptors for Pentamer-dependent infection, we examined whether endogenously expressed Pentamer components inhibit GPCMV infection due to receptor binding competition (so-called "interference") as shown in HCMV Pentamer 20 . (nature.com)
  • Consistent with the findings of the mouse trial, human CMV (HCMV) infection of blood vessel endothelial cells (EC) induced renin expression in a non-lytic infection manner. (harvard.edu)
  • This review focuses on the effects of DDR and DNA repair on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we review the DDR induced by HCMV infection and its similarities and differences to DDR induced by other viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. (mdpi.com)
  • All drugs currently used for the clinical treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection are associated with considerable adverse side effects and with the development of drug resistance that results in therapy failure. (pnas.org)
  • The expressions of selected miRNAs (miR-296-5p, let-7e, and a human cytomegalovirus [HCMV]-encoded miRNA, hcmv-miR-UL112) were validated independently in plasma samples from 24 hypertensive patients and 22 control subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time a circulating miRNA profile for hypertensive patients and demonstrate a novel link between HCMV infection and essential hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection occurs in ~0.64% of infants born each year in the United States and is the leading nongenetic cause of childhood neurodevelopmental disabilities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Natural immunity to HCMV in women before pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of fetal infection, suggesting that a vaccine is feasible if it can reproduce immune responses elicited by natural infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are one site of persistence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in healthy carriers. (asm.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infection and fetal damage largely due to maternal primary infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Virological procedures which are able to detect HCMV fetal infection were evaluated. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • HCMV IgG antibodies were detected in 62.5% of the pregnant women and 1.47% had a primary infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns. (nih.gov)
  • One congenital infection among infants of the subjects occurred in the vaccine group, and three infections occurred in the placebo group. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, it has become evident that CMV is the most important cause of congenital infection in the developed world, and that it frequently leads to mental retardation and developmental disability. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, congenital infection may be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 10% of infants with congenital infection have clinical evidence of disease at birth. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to congenital infection, acquired CMV infection occurs postnatally. (medscape.com)
  • Also, data on perinatal/postnatal cytomegalovirus infection and symptomatic congenital infection was not collected and was beyond the scope of this study. (scienceblog.com)
  • Congenital CMV disease is the most common cause of intrauterine infection in humans, and congenital infection is the leading infectious cause of deafness and mental retardation in the US. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • virologic studies must be obtained in the first 14 days of life to make the diagnosis of congenital infection, since the finding of CMV after this time point may reflect natal transmission by breast milk. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Rarely has ONA been reported associated with congenital infection. (healio.com)
  • Herein, we describe a case of ONA in the setting of congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). (healio.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in developed countries. (helsinki.fi)
  • Antiviral drugs (ganciclovir and others)can be used to prevent or control the symptoms of CMV infection in immunocompromised individuals or some infants with congenital infection. (brainfacts.org)
  • CMV is the most common congenital infection in the U.S. Most infants will have no permanent health consequences, but a small number will have at birth or will develop long-term neurological conditions, such as hearing loss, visual impairment, seizures, or disabilities f mental or physical function. (brainfacts.org)
  • The scores achieved by children with congenital cytomegalovirus but with no associated neurological abnormality (asymptomatic) were similar to those of the control children, whereas the mean score of the five children with congenital infection and neurological impairment (symptomatic) was significantly lower. (bmj.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a disease caused by a type of herpes virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The infection and its disease are not easy to either identify or detect. (healio.com)
  • Treatment with hyperimmune globulin in mothers with primary CMV infection has been shown to be effective in preventing congenital disease in several studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of these agents has evolved from the treatment of disease to include prevention of CMV infection and disease, primarily in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The potential use of these drugs is being explored for the treatment of congenital CMV infection, another CMV-associated disease with significant morbidity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Foscarnet is an alternative drug for treating CMV disease or for use in ganciclovir-resistant CMV infections in HIV-infected children (AI*) . (nih.gov)
  • According to the authors, the findings suggest that CMV airway infection significantly enlarges the spectrum of potential environmental inducers of allergic airway disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ovalbumin exposure or CMV infection alone failed to sensitize for allergic airway disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • By contrast, airway infection with CMV at the time of ovalbumin sensitization predisposed for allergic airway disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2019) Coincident airway exposure to low-potency allergen and cytomegalovirus sensitizes for allergic airway disease by viral activation of migratory dendritic cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although preexisting immunity (eg, maternal recurrent infection) protects against severe disease, approximately 15% of these infants have sequelae, particularly sensorineural hearing loss. (medscape.com)
  • Primary infection in this context is generally asymptomatic, although CMV disease may occur in certain risk groups. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 60 percent of all at-risk allogeneic stem cell (bone marrow) transplant patients will show evidence of CMV infection in the first 100 days post transplant and despite treatment with currently available therapies approximately 10 percent of these patients will progress to develop CMV disease, which may manifest as deadly complications such as pneumonia or gastrointestinal disease. (emaxhealth.com)
  • CMV infection is also associated with indirect effects in transplant recipients, including adverse immunologic effects (graft versus host disease (GvHD) after bone marrow transplantation and graft rejection after solid organ transplantation), serious bacterial and fungal infections, and reduced overall survival rates. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Merck & Co. released pivotal phase III study results of PREVYMIS (letermovir) for prophylaxis (prevention) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV-seropositive recipients [R+] of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). (centerwatch.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a globally widespread virus that becomes latent following primary infection but reactivates frequently and, in the setting of immunocompromise, causes disease in solid organ transplant patients, including kidney transplant recipients [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The management of active CMV infection and disease in transplant recipients is discussed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of cytomegalovirus disease in kidney transplant recipients' . (uptodate.com)
  • CMV can present in kidney transplant recipients as either CMV infection or CMV disease [ 1,4,5 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of maribavir dosed at 100 mg orally twice daily for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter controlled trial. (umassmed.edu)
  • Primary cytomegalovirus infection with invasive disease in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Reply to Potential Pitfalls When Assessing the Impact of Cytomegalovirus in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Antiviral drugs are the cornerstone for prevention and treatment of CMV infection and disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Specifically, the potential role of CMV-specific T-cell measurements in guiding the need for the treatment of asymptomatic CMV infection and the duration of treatment of CMV disease is discussed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Retro94-based compound may prevent a common and sometimes fatal virus -- human cytomegalovirus (CMV) -- from reproducing and help to protect immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV, on chemotherapy, with transplants, and infants from the effects of the disease, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Cytomegalic inclusion disease of the newborn occurs after primary or recurrent infection of a pregnant woman followed by vertical transmission of the disease to the fetus. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease). (marketpublishers.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The diagnosis of congenital CMV infections should be considered when it is detected in the newborns with signs and symptoms consistent with congenital CMV disease or with abnormal neuroimaging consistent with CMV or newborns who have documented sensorineural hearing loss. (intechopen.com)
  • Renewed interest in the cytomegalovirus has grown from the recognition that infection with this virus may produce disease in adult patients. (annals.org)
  • This child has a cytomegalovirus {CMV} disease whether congenital or acquired {due to blood product transfusion} is not known. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is related to biliary disease, being cholestatic in its own right. (scielo.org.za)
  • In addition, transplant recipients may develop organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease associated with CMV infection. (brainfacts.org)
  • A study of 531 female patients attending a venereal disease clinic was undertaken to assess the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the cervix. (bmj.com)
  • In the fetus, CMV infection may lead to cytomegalic inclusion disease, characterised by severe neurological abnormalities, intellectual disability, and hearing defects. (bmj.com)
  • CMV disease predominantly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with severe immunosuppression and rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Intrauterine infection with CMV has long been known as a cause of disease in the neonatal period [9-11, 201. (docme.ru)
  • Diagnosing cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease-by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction? (ebscohost.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori , Chlamydia pneumoniae , or cytomegalovirus. (bmj.com)
  • After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae , and 1.40 (0.96 to 2.05) for cytomegalovirus. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori , C pneumoniae , or cytomegalovirus. (bmj.com)
  • The association of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus with risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective study. (springermedizin.at)
  • The study will analyse the safety and biological efficacy of administering the investigational products (most closely HLA-matched third party donor-derived T cells stimulated with viral or fungal antigen expressing DC), for the treatment of viral reactivation and/or infection or fungal infection following allogeneic blood or marrow or solid organ transplantation. (centerwatch.com)
  • CID almost always occurs in women who have primary CMV infection during pregnancy, although rare cases are described in women with preexisting immunity who presumably have reactivation of infection during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • ViroPharma Incorporated publishes results of its previously described Phase 2 study showing that maribavir, when used as prophylaxis, reduced the rate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and was well tolerated when compared to placebo in allogeneic stem cell, or bone marrow, transplant patients. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Preventive therapy decreases reactivation in the setting of latent infection in the transplant recipient and/or acquisition of acute infection in CMV-seronegative recipients of seropositive grafts. (uptodate.com)
  • Secondly, immunological imprints of CMV-infection, such as expanded numbers of Vdelta2neg gamma delta T cells and terminally differentiated TCRalpha beta+ T cells, as well as enhanced NKG2C gene expression in peripheral blood of operationally tolerant liver transplant patients, suggest that CMV-infection or reactivation may be associated with liver graft acceptance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, direct associations indicate that CMV-reactivation may protect against AML-relapse after allogeneic HSCT, and indirect associations suggest that CMV-infection may promote allograft acceptance after liver transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cook CH. Cytomegalovirus reactivation: Another reason to minimize graft ischemia/reperfusion. (harvard.edu)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus despite pre-existing immunity [ 1 - 7 ], from either reactivation or reinfection [ 6 ]. (smw.ch)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a common complication in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly in those with steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis. (ebscohost.com)
  • There are currently four antiviral drugs licensed for the treatment of CMV infections: ganciclovir (GCV), valganciclovir (VGCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Over the years, the CMV DNA polymerase inhibitor, ganciclovir (and valganciclovir), have served as the backbone for management, while foscarnet and cidofovir are reserved for the management of CMV infection that is refractory or resistant to ganciclovir treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To provide ganciclovir on a compassionate use basis to immunocompromised patients with serious cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections and to study safety and efficacy in this patient population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ganciclovir (Cytovene) is the first antiviral medication approved for CMV infection. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Foscarnet (Foscavir) is used to treat infections with CMV that are resistant to ganciclovir. (naturalpedia.com)
  • In patients with recurrent infection, PCR indicated that a majority (27) of recipients had high level of CMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma throughout a protracted (≥1 month) period including after preemptive or therapeutic ganciclovir courses. (ovid.com)
  • This is the first reported case to our knowledge of successful use of maternal ganciclovir to treat intrauterine CMV infection in a pregnant renal transplant recipient. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this trial is to determine if preemptive therapy with oral valganciclovir is as effective as intravenous ganciclovir in clearing cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia as determined by quantitative CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in patients who have undergone bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Maintenance treatment with intravenous (IV) ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients is now standard therapy, but daily IV therapy can be complicated by catheter infections and thrombosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In immunocompetent individuals, a symptomatic CMV primary infection or reinfection should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis when patients present with pericardial effusion and serositis. (medscape.com)
  • CMV infection of the fetus causes birth defects, and in immunocompromised patients, CMV infection of the lung can result in life-threatening pneumonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus infection in non-immunosuppressed critically ill patients. (genome.jp)
  • An international team, led by Vince Emery, Senior Vice-President (Global Strategy and Engagement) and Professor of Translational Virology at the University of Surrey, have developed a model that will provide vital insight into how best to help patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, particularly those who have undergone organ transplantation. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Professor Emery said: "I am very proud to have led this vital research, as it will improve the health and quality of life of patients with CMV infection. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • AIMS: To assess the prevalence of infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis. (mendeley.com)
  • Patients and Methods - This study consisted of 76 patients with neonatal cholestasis who were admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 when they underwent a cytomegalovirus serologic study using the ELISA method. (mendeley.com)
  • The history of maternal infection was more common in extrahepatic cholestasis patients with positive serology for cytomegalovirus. (mendeley.com)
  • Ocular opportunistic infection incidences among patients who are HIV positive compared to patients who are HIV negative. (medscape.com)
  • Acharya PK, Venugopal KC, Karimsab DP, Balasubramanya S. Ocular Manifestations in Patients with HIV Infection/AIDS who were Referred from the ART Centre, Hassan, Karnataka, India. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who are CMV seropositive have latent infection. (uptodate.com)
  • What is the optimal approach to prevent CMV infection in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in 2018? (hematology.org)
  • RATIONALE: Tests that measure certain changes in blood in patients at high risk of cytomegalovirus infection may help doctors learn more about predicting cytomegalovirus infection after do. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This means that immunocompromised patients with active CMV infection could be treated with anti-viral medication or even protected from the virus reactivating in the body before it occurs. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • CMV infection in immunocompetent patients results from acute primary infection with CMV, most commonly in the form of CMV-induced mononucleosis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Similar to EBV infection, 80-100% of patients develop a maculopapular, morbilliform eruption when given ampicillin (or other penicillins) during the illness. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Also similar to EBV infection, patients infected with CMV may have atypical lymphocytes and mild transaminitis, but the heterophile spot test in patients with CMV is negative. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Without appropriate prophylaxis, as many as 30-80% (depending on donor and recipient serological status) of these patients may experience CMV infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • However, the patients with acute CMV infections are generally asymptomatic. (intechopen.com)
  • Patients must be immunocompromised with a serious cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Disseminated infection with cytomegalovirus is an increasingly frequent complication in patients with underlying immunologic defects, whether inherited, acquired, or induced by immunosuppressive therapy (1). (annals.org)
  • Fifty to 75% of renal allograft recipients ultimately develop evidence of the infection, and similar involvement occurs in patients with leukemia or lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly after cytotoxic therapy (1, 2). (annals.org)
  • Valganciclovir (Valcyte) is used in selected patients for the treatment of CMV infection. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The objective of this study was to describe the course of CMV infection in SOT patients and to identify factors that would predict protracted CMV infection with recurrences. (ovid.com)
  • Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for CMV DNA in leukocytes and in plasma were used to assess viral load changes retrospectively in consecutive SOT patients, whose CMV infection episodes had been attended therapeutically or preemptively using quantitative blood culture. (ovid.com)
  • Among 101 SOT patients, CMV infection occurred in 63, of whom 32 developed recurrent infection after the initial episode. (ovid.com)
  • End of treatment plasma CMV DNA best discriminated between patients who did or did not develop protracted infection. (ovid.com)
  • In SOT patients, protracted CMV infection is associated with increasing age, donor seropositivity, recipient seronegativity, and high viral load during the first episode. (ovid.com)
  • In patients with a high risk of protracted infection, prophylaxis is likely to be particularly cost effective. (ovid.com)
  • Patients, categorised into those with and those without BA, were compared in terms of CMV infection. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cytomegalovirus in female patients attending a VD clinic. (bmj.com)
  • It is suggested that the higher incidence in patients attending a VD clinic is due to the presence of CMV in the cervix predisposing to other genital infections rather than to its being sexually transmitted. (bmj.com)
  • Valganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. (bmj.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a pathogen of emerging importance for patients with septic shock. (cdc.gov)
  • Within 2 weeks, active CMV infection with low-level pp65-antigenemia (median 3 positive/5 × 10 5 leukocytes) developed in 8 (32%) patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Duration of intensive care and mechanical ventilation were significantly prolonged in patients with active CMV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The association between active CMV infection and increased illness could open new therapeutic options for patients with septic shock. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, the development of active CMV infection remains unrecognized in most critically ill patients. (cdc.gov)
  • however, the incidence of active CMV infection is controversial ( 3 , 4 ), and not all centers detected active CMV infections in these patients ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Among critically ill patients, the highest incidence of active CMV infection was in patients with septic shock ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This pilot study investigated the incidence and the natural course of active CMV infection in patients with septic shock and different strategies for CMV monitoring. (cdc.gov)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was documented in both patients by viral isolation and a fourfold rise in complement-fixation titer. (docme.ru)
  • How Useful Are Cytomegalovirus Cultures in Patients with HIV Infection? (annals.org)
  • We are grateful that the article by Salmon and colleagues [1] about the predictive value of CMV viremia in patients with HIV infection was brought to our attention. (annals.org)
  • Zurlo JJ, Polis MA, Masur H. How Useful Are Cytomegalovirus Cultures in Patients with HIV Infection? (annals.org)
  • Compare the occurrence of serious invasive fungal or bacterial infections during the first 270 days after transplantation in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-negative patients receiving a CMV-positive allogeneic stem cell transplantation and valacyclovir or placebo. (knowcancer.com)
  • Compare the occurrence of primary CMV infection within the first 100 days after transplantation in patients treated with these regimens. (knowcancer.com)
  • Correlate the presence of CMV in stem cell product with post-transplantation CMV infection in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Determine if subclinical CMV infection results in a virus-specific immune response (humoral and cellular) in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a progressive and life-threatening complication in immunocompromised patients even now. (ebscohost.com)
  • The present study examines the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in subgingival and supragingival plaque of 61 patients with chronic. (ebscohost.com)
  • Three studies involving 9657 patients were included in the meta-analysis, and the results showed a significantly increased risk of EH in patients with CMV infection. (springermedizin.at)
  • Cytomegalovirus infection in patients with AIDS. (springermedizin.at)
  • Patients with identifiable causes usually have viral infections . (healthtap.com)
  • Infections in immunocompromised hosts and organ transplant recipients: essentials. (genome.jp)
  • Merck & Co. issued results of a phase III study of letermovir for the prevention of clinically significant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in adult (18 years and older) CMV-seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), also known as bone marrow transplant (BMT). (centerwatch.com)
  • Chimerix reported results of a phase II trial CMX001-201 evaluating brincidofovir (CMX001) for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. (centerwatch.com)
  • This topic reviews the risk factors, clinical significance, and prevention of CMV infection among kidney transplant recipients. (uptodate.com)
  • There have been few reported cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome associated with active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in renal transplant recipients. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical Correlation of Cytomegalovirus Infection with CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Immune Competence Score and Lymphocyte Subsets in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Clinical and Economic Impact of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with pretransplant serology for cytomegalovirus (CMV-R+) are considered at intermediate risk for CMV-infection postransplantation, CMV-infection remain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Symptomatic infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) may occur in the newborn or in immunocompromised individuals, including those infected with HIV/AIDS, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, and organ transplant recipients. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • CMV is one of the most common infections occurring in organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Recurrent infection frequently follows the response to the initial treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we assessed if Vδ2(neg) γδ T cell kinetics in peripheral blood predict CMV infection resolution and emergence of a mutant strain in high-risk recipients of kidney transplants, including 168 seronegative recipients receiving organs from seropositive donors (D+R-) and 104 seropositive recipients receiving antithymocyte globulins (R+/ATG). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Female renal allograft recipients who develop CMV infection during pregnancy are at risk for both graft dysfunction and fetal morbidity. (wiley.com)
  • CMV infection is therefore a concern because of the risk of infection to the unborn baby, people who work with children, and immunodeficient people such as transplant recipients and those with HIV. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • CMV infection may be severe in solid organ or blood cell transplant recipients, people with untreated or end-stage HIV-AIDS, or others with altered immune function. (brainfacts.org)
  • In a phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled clinical study that enrolled 495 CMV-seropositive HSCT recipients, the primary end point of clinically significant CMV infection was significantly reduced by letermovir prophylaxis. (ovid.com)
  • However, the use of these agents predisposes the transplant recipients to opportunistic infections ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • In the newborn, infection is usually detectable only by the presence of cytomegaloviruria, and most infants are without symptoms. (healio.com)
  • For infants who are infected by their mothers before birth, two potential adverse scenarios exist: Generalized infection may occur in the infant, and can cause complications such as low birth weight, microcephaly, seizures, petechial rash similar to the "blueberry muffin" rash of congenital rubella syndrome, and moderate hepatosplenomegaly (with jaundice). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this group, which makes up 50% to 80% of the women of child-bearing age, the rate of newborn CMV infection is 1%, and these infants appear to have no significant illness or abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody testing is recommended at age 1 year and then annually for CMV-seronegative, HIV-infected infants and children who are immunosuppressed (i.e. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, it has been estimated that in a given cohort of 1,000 infants with congenital CMV infection, 170-190 will have permanent sequelae, of whom one third are from the symptomatic group and two thirds are from the asymptomatic group. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 10% of cases of congenital cytomegalovirus occur in women with primary infection during pregnancy, and 90% of these infants have neurological sequelae. (medscape.com)
  • Most infants with congenital CMV infection are born to women who have preexisting immunity to CMV. (medscape.com)
  • however, although infants with congenital CMV infection appear well, they may have subtle growth restriction compared with uninfected infants. (medscape.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus infection was identified in 24 (5%) of 483 tested infants and 16 (6%) of the 256 infants with subsequently confirmed hearing impairment. (aappublications.org)
  • Of those 16 infants, 12 (75%) were identified as having congenital cytomegalovirus infection only because of failure to pass newborn hearing screening tests. (aappublications.org)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infection was present for 6% of newborns with confirmed hearing impairment, and the majority of those infants were identified on the basis of abnormal newborn hearing screening results. (aappublications.org)
  • Infants who also were infected before birth by the virus that causes AIDS were especially prone to CMV infection. (scienceblog.com)
  • Overall, HIV-infected infants were four times as likely to have acquired congenital cytomegalovirus infection compared to infants who were exposed to, but remained uninfected with, HIV. (scienceblog.com)
  • While it is known that congenital CMV infection rates may be higher in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants compared to the general population, less is known about comparative risks of their acquiring congenital CMV. (scienceblog.com)
  • The study highlights the importance of screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection as part of routine care for HIV-exposed infants. (scienceblog.com)
  • Screening for congenital cytomegalovirus is important because it can be easily missed, as many infants do not exhibit symptoms at birth and CMV can lead to conditions such as hearing loss and developmental delay. (scienceblog.com)
  • CMV also is the most common infection present from birth, and infants born with CMV can suffer from hearing loss, vision problems, microcephaly -- a condition that involves an abnormal smallness of the head -- and intellectual deficits. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Treatment is recommended to initiate to the infants who have a symptomatic infection or primary immunodeficiency or asymptomatic infection with an isolated hearing loss. (intechopen.com)
  • Improved accuracy in estimating the timing of primary infections can be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to congenitally infected infants. (asm.org)
  • Two infants with asymptomatic CMV infection were born of mothers who had seroconverted in the second trimester of pregnancy. (asm.org)
  • Breast milk-acquired infections are asymptomatic in healthy term infants. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • However, two groups of people are at high risk of neurological or other severe symptoms that may lead to long-term effects:Unborn infants whose mothers have CMV infection. (brainfacts.org)
  • and (3) to compare clinical outcomes between infants born to mothers with primary versus nonprimary infection. (smw.ch)
  • Similar long-term neurodevelopmental and audiological outcomes were observed in infants born to mothers with a primary and nonprimary infection. (smw.ch)
  • Evidence from the literature suggests that infants born to mothers with primary infection have an equivalent audiological and neurodevelopmental outcome to those born to mothers with a nonprimary infection [ 4 , 5 ]. (smw.ch)
  • The law, which states that infants who fail two newborn hearing screenings should be tested for congenital CMV before 21 days of age, also requires medical practitioners to talk to parents about the potential sequelae of CMV infection and inform them of available treatment options. (enttoday.org)
  • The neurodevelopmental state of 41 children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and their controls was assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths scale. (bmj.com)
  • Thus 90% of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection at 2 years are neurologically and developmentally normal. (bmj.com)
  • Which clinical history findings are characteristic of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV infection? (medscape.com)
  • Infection may affect the brain (encephalitis), spinal cord (myelitis), eye (retinitis), or other organs such as the lungs (pneumonia) or intestinal gract (gastritis, enteritis, or colitis). (brainfacts.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent opportunistic viral infection after kidney transplantation. (centerwatch.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • On February 8, 2019 Isosporiasis (Cystoisosporiasis) Section of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children was updated. (nih.gov)
  • Cytomegalovirus is the most important opportunistic infection after kidney transplant, with increased in mortality, morbidity and higher costs of transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus, an opportunistic pathogen, is transmitted through solid organ/bone transplantation, placental pathway, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and in close contact with virus-spreading people. (intechopen.com)
  • NO acute opportunistic infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Purpose of review Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common opportunistic infection after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (ovid.com)
  • Additionally, CMV influences allograft dysfunction, accelerates graft coronary artery atherosclerosis, and increases opportunistic infections ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The major consequence of inapparent congenital CMV infection is sensorineural hearing loss. (medscape.com)
  • The common clinical manifestations of congenital CMV infection are sensorineural hearing loss, petechiae, jaundice at birth, and hepatosplenomegaly. (intechopen.com)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections, with a global estimated prevalence of 0.6 to 0.7%, are the leading nongenetic cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) [ 1 - 6 ]. (smw.ch)
  • According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children. (enttoday.org)
  • Infection with CMV is ubiquitous and generally asymptomatic in healthy children and adults. (medscape.com)
  • Since CMV is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent adults, diagnosis of CMV infection in a pregnant woman using clinical manifestations alone is quite difficult. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The vast majority of healthy children and adolescents infected with CMV infections are most often asymptomatic. (intechopen.com)
  • The most important impact of CMV infection is caused by congenital CMV, which may be symptomatic or asymptomatic at birth. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Acquired CMV infections are typically asymptomatic but can produce undifferentiated febrile syndromes and heterophile-negative mononucleosis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • hence, asymptomatic infections are missed. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In people with normal immune systems, CMV infection is often asymptomatic or manifests as infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome (fever, lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis). (bmj.com)
  • Primary infection in individuals with normal immune function is usually asymptomatic. (bmj.com)
  • Almost all newborns with cCMV infections are asymptomatic at birth. (smw.ch)
  • Overall, 17 to 20% of all neonates with symptomatic and asymptomatic cCMV infection will have an abnormal neurological outcome, mainly SNHL, cognitive delay, neuromotor impairment such as cerebral palsy and balance disturbances, seizures or visual impairment [ 8 - 10 ]. (smw.ch)
  • BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome with an intra or extrahepatic origin has been associated to viral infections. (mendeley.com)
  • CPEB1 was previously shown to play a role in neuronal development and function, but this involvement in active viral infections is unexpected," said first author Ranjan Batra, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Yeo's lab. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This discovery has important implications for many viral infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Yeo said the next steps are to determine the therapeutic value of inhibiting CPEB1 in CMV infections and identify other RNA-binding proteins that may be important in other viral infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Several viral infections are linked to hypertension, including human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and HIV-1. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, in addition to confirming that NK-cell proliferation is virus load dependent, our data extend this notion demonstrating that perforin plays an intrinsic role as a feedback mechanism in the regulation of NK-cell proliferation during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • In young children with primary CMV infection, symptoms may mimic those associated with many viral infections, such as fever, sore throat, and malaise. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Could antibiotics treat viral infections? (healthtap.com)
  • Viral infections are treated with antiviral medications. (healthtap.com)
  • Most people with CMV infection have no symptoms and aren't aware that they have been infected. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood tests can be used to diagnose CMV infection in adults who have symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Call for an appointment with your provider if you have symptoms of CMV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is the case in children both with and without symptoms of infection at birth. (nih.gov)
  • 60-90 per cent of adults have experienced infection, characteristically without symptoms or consequences. (healio.com)
  • Symptoms of infection with CMV in such populations are extremely variable. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Of pregnant women with primary CMV infection, less than 5% exhibit symptoms of infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Vaccines are in the development and human clinical trial stages, which shows that vaccines may help prevent initial CMV infection or decrease the severity of symptoms. (brainfacts.org)
  • Most adults carry latent human cytomegalovirus, with no apparent symptoms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Objective Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) can cause symptoms at birth as well as long-term impairment. (bmj.com)
  • Unfortunately, hepatitis C infection is rarely diagnosed and treated in its acute stage because it usually causes no symptoms. (healthtap.com)
  • For babies with signs of congenital CMV infection at birth, antiviral medications, primarily valganciclovir, may improve hearing and developmental outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 5 ] Although enormous progress has recently been made in defining and characterizing the molecular biology, immunology, and antiviral therapeutic targets for CMV, considerable work remains in devising strategies for prevention of CMV infection and in understanding the role of specific viral genes in pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • The availability of antiviral therapy has provided major advances in the treatment and prevention of CMV infection and has resulted in dramatically improved outcomes for immunocompromised hosts. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • An overview of the clinical syndromes caused by CMV will be provided, with specific reference to the role of antiviral agents in treating and preventing these infections. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Garlic extract has potent antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Updates on antiviral drugs for cytomegalovirus prevention and treatment. (harvard.edu)
  • A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cell tropisms and the efficiency of viral infection is critical for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs for viral diseases. (nature.com)
  • We will focus on strategies to evade intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses and consider their impact on viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid-organ transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly if a CMV mutant strain with antiviral resistance emerges. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Infection was controlled within a few weeks (median 26 days) without use of antiviral therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Valganciclovir can have serious side effects and has only been studied in babies with signs of congenital CMV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Work-up at that time revealed acute CMV infection and he was started on oral valganciclovir at treatment doses. (hindawi.com)
  • RATIONALE: Antivirals such as valganciclovir act against viruses and may be effective in preventing cytomegalovirus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Successful treatment with oral valganciclovir in immunocompetent infant with gastrointestinal manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT) requires a functional immune system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with poor outcomes following solid organ transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation. (bmj.com)
  • CMV infection (CMV-I) remains an important complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Epidemiology patterns of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of CMV infection and the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of CMV infection immunocompetent adults are also discussed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Overview of diagnostic tests for cytomegalovirus infection' and 'Approach to the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection' and 'Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus infection: epidemiology and association with congenital mal-formations. (ugent.be)
  • De Schryver A, De Backer G, VAN RENTERGHEM L. Cytomegalovirus infection: epidemiology and association with congenital mal-formations. (ugent.be)
  • Overview of the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection. (genome.jp)
  • Primary infection with CMV occurs in early childhood and involves the airway mucosa, where CMV and inhaled environmental allergens can meet. (eurekalert.org)
  • The risk of intrauterine transmission is highest when primary infection occurs during pregnancy, with a significantly increased risk of adverse fetal effects if fetal infection occurs during the first half of pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Primary infection is nonspecific but after that the virus becomes latent in multiple organs and can later be reactivated. (genome.jp)
  • Like other members of the Herpesvirus family, CMV establishes latent infection after the resolution of acute (or primary) infection. (uptodate.com)
  • After primary infection, CMV establishes a state of lifelong latency in various host cells, with periodic sub-clinical re-activations that are controlled by a functioning immune system. (bmj.com)
  • In other words, our evidence for a low R 0 contributing to stochastic transient infections is derived from the dynamics that we observed during primary infection with high viral loads. (asm.org)
  • Newborns born to mothers with a nonprimary infection were more often symptomatic at birth than those born to mothers with a primary infection. (smw.ch)
  • Primary infection occurs in as many as 2.2% of pregnant women ( 4 ) and serologic or culture evidence of intrauterine CMV infection has been reported in 0.2-2.2% of all live-born neonates ( 5 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Following primary infection, CMV is maintained in a latent state by integration within the host cell chromosome or by persistent low-level viral replication that is adequately controlled by a functioning immune system. (asm.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous virus that can have a devastating effect on the fetus. (healio.com)
  • Whether latent CMV infection in these tissues is maintained in a single ubiquitous cell type (e.g., lymphocytes or macrophages) or in various cell types is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the human herpesviruses, is a deoxyribonucleic acid virus that is ubiquitous in the world. (intechopen.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), an infectious agent that is ubiquitous in the world population, is a member of human herpesvirus family including viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, and varicella zoster. (intechopen.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous beta-herpes virus that infects the majority of humans. (bmj.com)
  • One of the most common complications following organ transplantation is infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous member of the β-herpesvirus family. (asm.org)
  • Immediate early gene transcription occurs in the first 4 hours following viral infection, when key regulatory proteins that allow the virus to take control of cellular machinery are made. (medscape.com)
  • If primary maternal infection occurs during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, the rate of transmission is about 40%, compared with only 1% following secondary infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Congenital CMV infection (present at birth) occurs via intrauterine transmission of the virus that is thought to be transferred to the developing fetus. (intechopen.com)
  • CMV infection of the fetus likely occurs through a transplacental route of infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs in approximately 1% of newborns and is the leading infectious cause of congenital birth defects. (wiley.com)
  • CMV infection occurs in the majority of humans, mainly during the first two decades of life. (asm.org)
  • The lytic phase of infection occurs within mucoepithelial cells while the latent infection of these cells occurs in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • CMV is a member of the virus family herpesviridae and is the most common intrauterine infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of intrauterine infection and brain damage in children ( 1 - 3 ). (ajnr.org)
  • We tested for CMV infection in the women in quarterly tests during a 42-month period, using an assay for IgG antibodies against CMV proteins other than glycoprotein B. Infection was confirmed by virus culture or immunoblotting. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocytotoxic antibodies in spontaneous cytomegalovirus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Jeannet M , Stalder H . Lymphocytotoxic antibodies in spontaneous cytomegalovirus infection. (bmj.com)
  • Titres of antibodies reactive with autologous tissues and ovalbumin (OVA) also increased following MCMV infection, whilst responses to a synthetic antigen [polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)] were unaffected or depressed. (nih.gov)
  • Follow-up controls revealed the presence of specific cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2 3 Most studies have involved measurements for serum antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae , or cytomegalovirus, but only one report 4 has measured antibodies to more than one of these agents in the same population, and none has reported measurement for all three. (bmj.com)
  • Blood tests to detect hepatitis C virus proteins, followed by a later test to detect antibodies to the virus, can usually distinguish acute from chronic infection. (healthtap.com)
  • Cranial CT scan of infant born with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (medscape.com)
  • To determine whether newborn cranial computed tomographic (CT) scan abnormalities predict an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to examine the association between clinical findings at birth and imaging abnormalities. (aappublications.org)
  • The data from 56 children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection who underwent cranial CT scans as newborns and were enrolled in a long-term follow-up study were analyzed. (aappublications.org)
  • In neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV infection, a cranial CT scan is a good predictor of an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. (aappublications.org)
  • In addition, newborn clinical and laboratory findings did not predict neuroradiographic abnormalities in neonates with symptomatic congenital CMV infection. (aappublications.org)
  • A Chinese herbal formula containing Paris polyphylla, Dandelion, Woad, and Licorice appears safe and effective in reducing cytomegalovirus infection activity in pregnant women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • RATIONALE: Infection prophylaxis and management may help prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection caused by a stem cell transplant. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In prophylaxis trials, two breakthrough infections were reported due to selection of CMV UL56 V236M mutation. (ovid.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and congenital CMV infection: clinical overview. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The real clinical and epidemiologic importance of CMV infection lies in one vital area - pregnancy. (healio.com)
  • However, these infections usually result in little or no clinical illness in the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compare the clinical characteristics of the intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis groups with the cytomegalovirus serological results. (mendeley.com)
  • Rogers R, Saharia K, Chandorkar A, Weiss ZF, Vieira K, Koo S, Farmakiotis D. Clinical experience with a novel assay measuring cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immunity by flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining to predict clinically significant CMV events. (harvard.edu)
  • PURPOSE:This clinical trial studies infection prophylaxi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mild to moderate cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that fail to satisfy the clinical severity criteria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our results suggest a correlation between CMV exposure/infection and BA which affects clinical outcome. (scielo.org.za)
  • Even if the entire pregnant population would be screened by immunologic studies in the 1st trimester, clinical and laboratory evidence proves that at least some cases of fetal infection are due to maternal reinfection with a different CMV strain ( 7 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • CMV glycoprotein B vaccine has the potential to decrease incident cases of maternal and congenital CMV infection. (nih.gov)
  • Yet it is the most frequently occurring of all known maternal infections that can affect the fetus, such as rubella and toxoplasmosis, and is the one most likely to cause defects in the baby. (healio.com)
  • Maternal immunity may not protect the fetus, and whether the mother's infection is primary or recurrent is often impossible to learn. (healio.com)
  • A case note was kept on each patient with the following data: age of patient at admission, serologic result for cytomegalovirus, history of maternal infection, prematurity, fetal distress, birth weight, ponderal gain, choluria and fecal acholia. (mendeley.com)
  • In comparison with group IIB, group IIA presented a higher rate of maternal infection history. (mendeley.com)
  • Data was then analyzed with infant cytomegalovirus results with respect to other details on maternal and infant HIV status and other circumstances that could pose a risk. (scienceblog.com)
  • Infection of the fetus may occur as a result of primary maternal infection or reinfection with a new strain of CMV. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • CMV-infection can cause significant complications after transplantation, but recent emerging data suggest that CMV may paradoxically also exert beneficial effects in two specific allogeneic transplant settings. (frontiersin.org)
  • Long-term CMV infection in a renal transplant recipient increases the risk for allograft failure and mortality [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The first case of Guillain-Barré Syndrome occurring in association with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was first reported in a renal transplant recipient in 1970 [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a 47-year-old Caucasian male with a history significant for a living unrelated renal transplant two years prior to presentation and recent acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Preventing Cytomegalovirus Infection After Liver Transplant: An Evolving Approach. (harvard.edu)
  • RATIONALE: An infusion of cytomegalovirus-specific T lymphocytes may prevent or reduce cytomegalovirus infection during the first year after a donor stem cell transplant. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using this test we diagnosed CMV infection in the fetus of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient. (wiley.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause significant complications after transplantation, but recent emerging data suggest that CMV may paradoxically also exert beneficial effects in two specific allogeneic transplant settings. (eur.nl)
  • New Developments in the Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection After Transplantation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Long-term impact of cytomegalovirus serologic status on lung transplantation in the United States. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus-specific immunity following mopoietic stem cell transplantation. (springermedizin.at)
  • Endothelial dysfunction and cytomegalovirus replication in pediatric heart transplantation. (springermedizin.at)
  • Some 10-20% of all children with congenital CMV infections exhibit signs of neurological damage when followed up. (nih.gov)
  • infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the first cause of congenital neurological handicap of infectious origin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. (jneurosci.org)
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research related to CMV infection in laboratories at the NIH, and support additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. (brainfacts.org)
  • Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent and treat CMV infection in people at risk of severe neurological consequences, especially a safe and effective CMV vaccine. (brainfacts.org)
  • This report describes 2 previously healthy adults in whom systemic CMV infection was complicated by neurological syndromes (brachial plexus neuropathy and chronic encephalitis) not previously described in relationship to CMV. (docme.ru)
  • This study, which has the statistical power to detect differences in developmental quotient as small as five points, gave no evidence that at 2 years cytomegalovirus infection was associated with mental retardation in the absence of other neurological impairment. (bmj.com)
  • To summarise, during a pregnancy when a woman who has never had CMV infection becomes infected with CMV, there is a risk that after birth the infant may have CMV-related complications, the most common of which are associated with hearing loss, visual impairment, or diminished mental and motor capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dating back to the earliest AHCT reports, CMV infection has been identified to be one of the most important complications. (hematology.org)
  • People who are most at risk of complications from CMV infection include pregnant women and people who have a weak immune system, such as those who are HIV-positive, have cancer, or are undergoing chemotherapy. (naturalpedia.com)
  • CMV is spread primarily by exposure to infected secretions and subsequent mucosal contact, which then leads to the acute infection of various cell types. (lifeboat.com)
  • After this acute infection, in which the virus spreads, it enters a dormant state in the body. (lifeboat.com)
  • Untreated acute prostate infection? (healthtap.com)
  • Is acute hepatitis C infection serious? (healthtap.com)
  • But because a large majority of people with the acute infection go on to chronically harbor the virus , acute hepatitis C is serious. (healthtap.com)
  • Acute hepatitis C infection can be treated, greatly reducing the risk of chronic infection . (healthtap.com)
  • Most acute hepatitis C infections today occur in people who share needles to inject drugs. (healthtap.com)
  • Having acute hepatitis C infection makes a difference in the choice of treatment. (healthtap.com)
  • Can autoimmune encephalitis triggered by past infection be insidious unlike acute disseminated encephalomyelitis? (healthtap.com)
  • However, blood is not the best fluid to test newborns with suspected CMV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives were to determine the frequency of congenital cytomegalovirus infection among newborns who did not pass hearing screening tests or had confirmed hearing loss and to determine how often abnormal hearing screening results were the only manifestation of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (aappublications.org)
  • Retrospective chart review was performed for newborns who had abnormal hearing screening results and positive urine cytomegalovirus culture results at Parkland Memorial Hospital between September 1, 1999, and August 31, 2004. (aappublications.org)
  • This was a single-centre, observational, exploratory, retrospective study of newborns diagnosed with cCMV infection at the Lausanne University Hospital between 1999 and 2014. (smw.ch)
  • From recent data, we estimate that cCMV infection could affect 500 newborns each year in Switzerland, of whom up to 100 could suffer from lifelong disabilities [ 9 , 22 , 23 ]. (smw.ch)
  • We aimed to provide information on neurodevelopmental and audiological outcomes of newborns with cCMV infection diagnosed at the Lausanne University Hospital. (smw.ch)
  • Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Time to Test Newborns? (enttoday.org)
  • Ann Neurol 5:458-461, 1979 T h e cytomegaloviruses (CMV) are members of the herpesvirus family characterized by their ability to produce striking cellular enlargement with intracellular inclusion bodies in epithelial cells [27]. (docme.ru)
  • To evaluate the effect of a treatment by valacyclovir injected per bone to the mother in the cases of proven fetal infection with CMV (positive PCR CMV in the amniotic liquid) and presenting cerebral extra echographic signs being able to be allotted to the infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The attribution of the treatments will be carried out by drawing lot, according to a procedure in double blind as of the established diagnosis of the fetal infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The comparison of the two treatments will be carried out on the composite principal criterion according to : proportion of pregnancies with unfavourable exit (symptomatic children at birth or medical interruptions of pregnancy practised for which has appeared cerebral echographic anomalies in connection with the fetal infection with CMV). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Other signs of fetal infection were intraventricular adhesions, periventricular pseudocysts, sulcation and gyral abnormal patterns, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cerebellar and cisterna magna abnormalities, and signs of striatal artery vasculopathy. (ajnr.org)
  • But infection with the virus can be serious in babies and people with weak immune systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Medications are available to treat CMV infection in people who have weakened immune systems and babies with signs of congenital CMV . (cdc.gov)
  • But usually, it's people with a weakened immune system, such as those with HIV/AIDS, who become ill from CMV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tests, such as a CMV antibody test, may be done to check the body's immune response to the CMV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human cytomegalovirus immunity and immune evasion. (genome.jp)
  • This book gives an in-depth view of manifestations of CMV infection in immunocompromised individuals: how it affects the immune system and how it is diagnosed. (intechopen.com)
  • The causative mechanisms need further investigations, but are probably related to the profound and sustained imprint of CMV-infection on the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mice lacking the Ly49H receptor fail to exert significant virus control by NK cells during the early post-infection (p.i.) days, because of the fact that MCMV expresses immune evasion mechanisms able to avoid or decrease other means of NK-cell engagement ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • People with a compromised immune system may have more severe forms of infection involving the nervous system.A hallmark of CMV infection is that the virus cycles through periods of dormancy and active infection during the life of the individual Infected persons of any age periodically shed the virus in their body fluids, such as saliva, urine, blood, tears, semen, or breast milk. (brainfacts.org)
  • As such, we think that the ability of CMV to successfully establish infection despite its remarkably slow viral expansion likely depends more on the numerous strategies that it has evolved to evade the host immune response ( 6 - 8 ) than on a capacity to outrace it. (asm.org)
  • Between 50% and 80% of adults in the United States have had a CMV infection by age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common infection in adults (seropositive 60-99% globally), and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in line with risk factors such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. (harvard.edu)
  • In adolescents and young adults with primary CMV infection, a mononucleosis syndrome may be noted. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • What laboratory studies should you request to help confirm the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections in adolescents and young adults? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • in any case, treatment of the infection is not necessarily needed for healthy children and adults. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found throughout the world that infects between 50 to 80 percent of all adults in the United States by the age of 40. (brainfacts.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a human β-herpesvirus that has high seroprevalence in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The positive (IgM) seroprevalence for cytomegalovirus in children with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis is high. (mendeley.com)
  • Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. (harvard.edu)
  • Confirmed cCMV infection occurred in 40 children, corresponding to a prevalence of 2 in 1,000 (95% CI 1.4-2.6). (helsinki.fi)
  • An increase in the prevalence of CMV infections has been observed in recent years, and CMV infection may become even more common in the near future ( 1 , 6 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Misdiagnosis of specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileoanal pouch as refractory idiopathic chronic pouchitis. (springer.com)
  • Review of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence and demographic characteristics associated with infection. (springermedizin.at)
  • The authors report a case of optic nerve aplasia in association with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, conveyed through multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography. (healio.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze brain sonographic findings in fetuses with serologic, culture, and/or histologic confirmation of congenital CMV infection. (ajnr.org)
  • Cite this: Relevant Pericardial Effusion Caused by Cytomegalovirus Infection in An Immunocompetent Patient - Medscape - Jan 19, 2018. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be an important cause of intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal encephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The participation of the cytomegalovirus in the etiopathogenesis of neonatal hepatitis has been already known for some time, but only recently there have been indications that this virus may be one of the possible etiological factors for extrahepatic biliary atresia. (mendeley.com)
  • Congenital or neonatal CMV infections where there is not documented congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1980 of an active CMV infection inducing Guillain-Barré Syndrome [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Zinc may have a therapeutic role in the treatment of human cytomegalovirus infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In addition, women in the parent study were only diagnosed with HIV infection at the time of labor and delivery, so these results are not applicable to HIV-infected pregnant women who are on antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy. (scienceblog.com)
  • Since the virus remains in the person for life, there is no treatment to eliminate CMV infection. (brainfacts.org)
  • Therefore, early and accurate treatment based on rapid and certain detection is needed to prevent fatal CMV infection diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Because the virus can persist in the vagina for a long time, an infection existing before pregnancy can be transmitted to the baby. (healio.com)
  • These risks appear to be almost exclusively associated with women who previously have not been infected with CMV and who are having their first infection with the virus during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recommendations for pregnant women with regard to CMV infection:[citation needed] Throughout the pregnancy, practice good personal hygiene, especially handwashing with soap and water, after contact with diapers or oral secretions (particularly with a child who is in day care). (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who develop a mononucleosis-like illness during pregnancy should be evaluated for CMV infection and counseled about the possible risks to the unborn child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the children whose mothers had experienced non-primary CMV infections during the pregnancy, 64% (9/14) developed long-term sequelae. (helsinki.fi)
  • The highest risk of these severe effects on the fetus is for women who acquire CMV infection for the first time during pregnancy. (brainfacts.org)
  • The risk is much lower for women who have had CMV infection in the past before pregnancy.Immunocompromised individuals. (brainfacts.org)
  • The researchers did not evaluate congenital cytomegalovirus rates in the general population because the study was restricted to mother-infant pairs previously enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development HIV Prevention Trials Network 040 parent study. (scienceblog.com)
  • Suspicion of CMV infection in the fetus may occur when certain ultrasound findings are seen, but only 5-25% of fetuses infected with CMV exhibit such findings. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In the fetus, the presence of ultrasound findings suspicious for CMV infection should prompt immediate testing of the fetus. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • CMV infection should be suspected in a patient with fever, fatigue, and malaise without any physical examination findings or historical features pointing to a specific diagnosis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • There are no characteristic findings on physical examination that definitively establish or suggest the diagnosis of CMV infection. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Instead, our findings that i) endogenous expression of GP131 and GP133 after nuclear delivery of viral DNA still enhanced infection and ii) an HDAC inhibitor overcame the need of the endogenous expression led us to hypothesize a novel mechanism that controls the efficiency of viral infection through the activation of gene expression from viral DNA delivered to the nuclei. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, the authors review the common ocular findings and previously reported cases of ONA in congenital CMV infection. (healio.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a contagious infection of the caused by the member of the herpes virus family. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that is predominantly of the herpes virus family , which includes varicella-zoster virus (of the chicken pox and shingles variety), Epstein-Barr virus (causes infectious mononucleosis or mono), herpes, and simplex viruses (which cause cold sores and genital herpes). (naturalpedia.com)