Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, whose viruses have been isolated from lymphocytes. HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN is the type species.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A heterotrimer complex consisting of one molecule of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and two molecules of the LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA. It is anchored to the cell surface via the transmembrane domains of the lymphotoxin-beta component and has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR. The lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Enlargement of the spleen.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a relatively long replication cycle. Genera include: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS; MUROMEGALOVIRUS; and ROSEOLOVIRUS.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.
Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
'Human Milk' is the secretion from human mammary glands, primarily composed of water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and various bioactive components, which serves as the complete source of nutrition for newborn infants, supporting their growth, development, and immune system.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Alabama" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, referring to the 22nd state admitted to the United States of America, located in the southeastern region. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (1/3452)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (2/3452)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship? (3/3452)

Lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection.  (+info)

Qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction testing for cytomegalovirus DNA in serum allows prediction of CMV related disease in liver transplant recipients. (4/3452)

AIM: To identify cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in liver transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and to separate the cases in which CMV related disease will occur, for whom treatment is indicated, from those in whom infection will remain innocuous. METHODS: The combination of qualitative and semiquantitative PCR of serum and urine was assessed to determine whether these assays can identify those at risk of CMV related disease and compared their performance with conventional approaches to diagnosis. RESULTS: Qualitative PCR of serum had superior specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared with urine DEAFF (detection of early antigen fluorescent foci) and PCR of urine. All episodes of CMV related disease were associated with the presence of CMV DNA by PCR in serum or urine; CMV was detected before clinical onset in 70% and 60% of cases, respectively. The period over which CMV DNA could be detected was not correlated with CMV related disease. Both peak viral load and cumulative viral load estimated using a semiquantitative PCR method on serum samples positive by the qualitative method could be used to distinguish asymptomatic infection from CMV related disease with 100% specificity and sensitivity. In contrast semiquantitative PCR of urine was of little value. CONCLUSIONS: An approach based on PCR testing with a combination of qualitative and subsequently semiquantitative serum samples would improve the diagnosis of CMV infection and aid identification of those patients at risk of CMV related disease, allowing treatment to be targeted specifically.  (+info)

Effects of human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early proteins in controlling the cell cycle and inhibiting apoptosis: studies with ts13 cells. (5/3452)

The major immediate-early (MIE) gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes several MIE proteins (MIEPs) produced as a result of alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the primary transcript. Previously we demonstrated that the HCMV MIEPs expressed from the entire MIE gene could rescue the temperature-sensitive (ts) transcriptional defect in the ts13 cell line. This defect is caused by a ts mutation in TAFII250, the 250-kDa TATA binding protein-associated factor (TAF). These and other data suggested that the MIEPs perform a TAF-like function in complex with the basal transcription factor TFIID. In addition to the transcriptional defect, the ts mutation in ts13 cells results in a defect in cell cycle progression which ultimately leads to apoptosis. Since all of these defects can be rescued by wild-type TAFII250, we asked whether the MIEPs could rescue the cell cycle defect and/or affect the progression to apoptosis. We have found that the MIEPs, expressed from the entire MIE gene, do not rescue the cell cycle block in ts13 cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. However, despite the maintenance of the cell cycle block, the ts13 cells which express the MIEPs are resistant to apoptosis. MIEP mutants, which have previously been shown to be defective in rescuing the ts transcriptional defect, maintained the ability to inhibit apoptosis. Hence, the MIEP functions which affect transcription appear to be separable from the functions which inhibit apoptosis. We discuss these data in the light of the HCMV life cycle and the possibility that the MIEPs promote cellular transformation by a "hit-and-run" mechanism.  (+info)

Clinical significance of expression of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late transcript in heart, lung, and bone marrow transplant recipients as determined by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. (6/3452)

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of pp67 mRNA (a late viral transcript) by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 50 transplant recipients, including 26 solid-organ (11 heart and 15 lung) transplant recipients (SOTRs) and 24 bone marrow transplant recipients (BMTRs). NASBA results were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in leukocytes (leukoDNAemia). On the whole, 29 patients were NASBA positive, whereas 10 were NASBA negative, and the blood of 11 patients remained HCMV negative. NASBA detected HCMV infection before quantitation of viremia did but after quantitation of leukoDNAemia and antigenemia did. In NASBA-positive blood samples, median levels of viremia, antigenemia, and leukoDNAemia were significantly higher than the relevant levels detected in NASBA-negative HCMV-positive blood samples. By using the quantitation of leukoDNAemia as the "gold standard," the analytical sensitivity (47.3%), as well as the negative predictive value (68. 3%), of NASBA for the diagnosis of HCMV infection intermediate between that of antigenemia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 72. 3%) and that of viremia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 28.7%), while the specificity and the positive predictive value were high (90 to 100%). However, with respect to the clinically relevant antigenemia cutoff of >/=100 used in this study for the initiation of preemptive therapy in SOTRs with reactivated HCMV infection, the clinical sensitivity of NASBA reached 100%, with a specificity of 68. 9%. Upon the initiation of antigenemia quantitation-guided treatment, the actual median antigenemia level was 158 (range, 124 to 580) in SOTRs who had reactivated infection and who presented with NASBA positivity 3.5 +/- 2.6 days in advance and 13.5 (range, 1 to 270) in the group that included BMTRs and SOTRs who had primary infection (in whom treatment was initiated upon the first confirmation of detection of HCMV in blood) and who presented with NASBA positivity 2.0 +/- 5.1 days later. Following antiviral treatment, the durations of the presence of antigenemia and pp67 mRNA in blood were found to be similar. In conclusion, monitoring of the expression of HCMV pp67 mRNA appears to be a promising, well-standardized tool for determination of the need for the initiation and termination of preemptive therapy. Its overall clinical impact should be analyzed in future prospective studies.  (+info)

Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. (7/3452)

We compared the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA Assay version 2.0, the pp65 antigenemia assay, traditional tube culture, and shell vial culture for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in several patient populations at three centers. Of 561 blood specimens collected from 402 patients, complete clinical and laboratory data were available for 489. Using consensus definitions for true positives and true negatives, the sensitivities of the Hybrid Capture assay, antigenemia, shell vial, and tube culture were 95, 94, 43, and 46%, respectively. The specificities of the Hybrid Capture assay and antigenemia were 95 and 94%, respectively. At all three study sites, the detected level of CMV viremia was significantly higher with the Hybrid Capture assay or antigenemia than with shell vial and tube culture. In a group of 131 healthy nonimmunosuppressed volunteers, the Hybrid Capture assay demonstrated a specificity of over 99%. The Hybrid Capture assay is a standardized assay that is simple to perform and can utilize whole blood specimens that have been stored for up to 48 h. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Hybrid Capture assay along with its simplicity and flexibility make it a clinically useful assay for the detection of CMV viremia in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. Further evaluation to determine its role in predicting CMV disease and for monitoring the therapeutic response to anti-CMV therapy is needed.  (+info)

Prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty. (8/3452)

BACKGROUND: Restenosis is a common problem after all revascularization procedures in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Reactivated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in tissues of restenotic vascular lesions and was hypothesized to be a contributing pathogenic factor. Recent data suggest an association of restenosis after optimal coronary atherectomy with CMV serostatus, and a possible role of antiviral therapy was discussed. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prior CMV infection might be a risk factor for restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 92 consecutive patients who had been admitted for control angiography after previous PTCA within a mean interval of 6 months. Anti-CMV antibodies were measured as an indicator of prior CMV infection and latency. The coronary angiograms before PTCA, directly after, and 6 months later were analyzed quantitatively. Sixty-five percent of the patients were CMV-positive. Before PTCA, the degree (mean+/-SD) of stenosis was 69+/-10% in CMV-positive and 68+/-8.3% in CMV-negative subjects. PTCA resulted in a residual stenosis of 39% in both groups. After 6 months, the late losses of luminal diameter in the CMV-positive and -negative groups were 11+/-13% and 12+/-15%, respectively (P=0.658). In an ANCOVA with 25 potential risk factors for restenosis, CMV serostatus was not significantly associated with restenosis development. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that prior CMV infection, in contrast to optimal atherectomy, is not associated with chronic restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. The results do not support a possible benefit from antiviral therapy.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are caused by the human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), a type of herpesvirus. The infection can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation.

CMV can be spread through close contact with an infected person's saliva, urine, blood, tears, semen, or breast milk. It can also be spread through sexual contact or by sharing contaminated objects, such as toys, eating utensils, or drinking glasses. Once a person is infected with CMV, the virus remains in their body for life and can reactivate later, causing symptoms to recur.

Most people who are infected with CMV do not experience any symptoms, but some may develop a mononucleosis-like illness, characterized by fever, fatigue, swollen glands, and sore throat. In people with weakened immune systems, CMV infections can cause more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, gastrointestinal disease, retinitis, and encephalitis.

Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman passes the virus to her fetus through the placenta. This can lead to serious complications, such as hearing loss, vision loss, developmental delays, and mental disability.

Diagnosis of CMV infections is typically made through blood tests or by detecting the virus in bodily fluids, such as urine or saliva. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Muromegalovirus" is not a recognized term in medical literature or in virology. It's possible there may be a misunderstanding or typo in your query. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a virus that infects rodents and is studied in laboratory settings to understand gammaherpesvirus biology and pathogenesis, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which are human pathogens. If you meant to ask about Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), that is a different virus and is a member of the betaherpesvirinae subfamily, which can cause serious disease in mice.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in individuals who have undergone organ transplants or have weakened immune systems due to conditions like HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing its ability to cause damage to the body's cells and tissues.

The medical definition of Ganciclovir is:

A synthetic nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity against herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). Ganciclovir is converted intracellularly to its active form, ganciclovir triphosphate, which inhibits viral DNA polymerase and subsequently prevents viral replication. It is primarily used for the prevention and treatment of CMV infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplants or have HIV/AIDS. Ganciclovir is available in various formulations, including oral capsules, intravenous solution, and ocular implants.

Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a sight-threatening eye infection that affects the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. It is caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a type of herpesvirus that can remain inactive in the body for years after initial infection.

In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone organ transplantation, CMV can reactivate and cause serious complications. When it infects the retina, it can cause inflammation, hemorrhage, and necrosis (cell death), leading to vision loss.

Symptoms of CMV retinitis may include floaters, blurred vision, blind spots, or loss of peripheral vision. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the eye and cause further damage. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications that are given intravenously or in the form of eye drops. In some cases, laser surgery may be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are medical products being developed to prevent or ameliorate infection and disease caused by the human cytomegalovirus. CMV is a type of herpesvirus that can cause serious health problems in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing organ transplantation, people living with HIV/AIDS, and newborns infected with the virus before birth (congenital CMV infection).

There are currently no approved vaccines for CMV. However, several vaccine candidates are being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. These vaccine candidates use various approaches, such as:

1. Live-attenuated viruses: These vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. An example is the Towne vaccine, which has been studied in clinical trials for several decades.
2. Recombinant proteins: These vaccines use specific viral proteins to induce an immune response. For instance, a glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine has shown promising results in phase II clinical trials.
3. Virus-like particles (VLPs): VLPs mimic the structure of the virus but do not contain any viral genetic material. They can be used to induce an immune response without causing infection.
4. DNA vaccines: These vaccines use plasmids containing CMV genes to stimulate an immune response. A DNA vaccine encoding the CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) has been tested in clinical trials.
5. mRNA vaccines: Similar to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines use genetic material to induce an immune response. Moderna Therapeutics is developing an mRNA vaccine candidate for CMV.

The development of a safe and effective CMV vaccine remains a significant public health priority, as CMV infection can lead to severe complications in vulnerable populations.

Herpesviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Herpesviridae family of double-stranded DNA viruses, which include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). These viruses can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild skin lesions to severe systemic diseases.

After the initial infection, these viruses typically become latent in various tissues and may reactivate later in life, causing recurrent symptoms. The clinical presentation of Herpesviridae infections depends on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Common manifestations include oral or genital ulcers (HSV-1 and HSV-2), chickenpox and shingles (VZV), mononucleosis (CMV), roseola (HHV-6), and Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8).

Preventive measures include avoiding close contact with infected individuals during the active phase of the infection, practicing safe sex, and avoiding sharing personal items that may come into contact with infectious lesions. Antiviral medications are available to treat Herpesviridae infections and reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Foscarnet is an antiviral medication used to treat infections caused by viruses, particularly herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing the replication of viral DNA.

Foscarnet is indicated for the treatment of severe HSV infections, such as mucocutaneous HSV in immunocompromised patients, and acyclovir-resistant HSV infections. It is also used to treat VZV infections, including shingles and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompromised patients.

Foscarnet is administered intravenously and its use requires careful monitoring of renal function and electrolyte levels due to the potential for nephrotoxicity and electrolyte imbalances. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the early stages of gene expression in viral infection and cellular stress responses. These proteins are synthesized rapidly, without the need for new protein synthesis, after the induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs).

In the context of viral infection, IEPs are often the first proteins produced by the virus upon entry into the host cell. They function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of early and late viral genes required for replication and packaging of the viral genome.

IEPs can also be involved in modulating host cell signaling pathways, altering cell cycle progression, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of IEPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

It is important to note that the term "immediate-early proteins" is primarily used in the context of viral infection, while in other contexts such as cellular stress responses or oncogene activation, these proteins may be referred to by different names, such as "early response genes" or "transcription factors."

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

Roseolovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. The genus contains three species: Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). These viruses are closely related and cause similar diseases, most notably exanthema subitum or roseola in infants and young children.

The primary infection with HHV-6A and HHV-6B typically occurs during the first two years of life and is usually asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms such as fever and rash (roseola). After the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in the host's immune cells and may reactivate later in life, causing various clinical manifestations, including febrile illnesses, seizures, and central nervous system disorders.

HHV-7 is also a common infectious agent in humans, primarily causing exanthema subitum or roseola in children. It can also establish latency and reactivate, although its association with specific diseases is less clear than that of HHV-6A and HHV-6B.

Overall, Roseolovirus species are important human pathogens, particularly during early childhood, and may contribute to various clinical manifestations throughout life.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Hypertrophic gastritis is a relatively uncommon condition characterized by thickened folds in the stomach lining (gastric mucosa) due to an increase in the number of cells and/or the size of the cells. This chronic inflammatory condition can lead to atrophy of the glands, intestinal metaplasia, and an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, or type A atrophic gastritis.

The condition can be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy with biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and cellular changes in the stomach lining. Treatment usually includes proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid secretion, as well as addressing any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development or progression of hypertrophic gastritis.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are a class of genes that respond rapidly to various extracellular signals and stimuli, including growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, and environmental stressors. In the context of genetics and molecular biology, IEGs do not directly code for proteins but instead encode regulatory transcription factors that control the expression of downstream genes involved in specific cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.

In the case of genes related to genetic material, 'Immediate-early' refers to a group of genes that are activated early in response to a stimulus, often within minutes, and before the activation of other genes known as delayed-early or late-response genes. These IEGs play crucial roles in initiating and coordinating complex cellular responses, including those related to development, learning, memory, and various disease states such as cancer and neurological disorders.

Examples of IEGs include the c-fos, c-jun, and egr-1 genes, which are widely studied in molecular biology and neuroscience research due to their rapid and transient response to stimuli and their involvement in various cellular processes.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Ribonucleosides are organic compounds that consist of a nucleoside bound to a ribose sugar. Nucleosides are formed when a nitrogenous base (such as adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine, or thymine) is attached to a sugar molecule (either ribose or deoxyribose) via a beta-glycosidic bond. In the case of ribonucleosides, the sugar component is D-ribose. Ribonucleosides play important roles in various biological processes, particularly in the storage, transfer, and expression of genetic information within cells. When ribonucleosides are phosphorylated, they become the building blocks of RNA (ribonucleic acid), a crucial biomolecule involved in protein synthesis and other cellular functions. Examples of ribonucleosides include adenosine, guanosine, uridine, cytidine, and inosine.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a species of the Roseolovirus genus in the Herpesviridae family. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and is one of the human herpesviruses, which are a group of viruses that includes eight different types that can infect humans.

There are two variants of HHV-6, known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Both variants are closely related but have distinct biological properties and clinical manifestations. HHV-6B is the cause of exanthem subitum (also known as roseola infantum or sixth disease), a common childhood illness characterized by fever and rash, while HHV-6A has been associated with various diseases in immunocompromised individuals, such as encephalitis, pneumonitis, and bone marrow suppression.

HHV-6 is highly prevalent in the human population, with most people getting infected during early childhood. After the initial infection, the virus remains latent in the body for the rest of a person's life, and it can reactivate under certain conditions, such as immune suppression or stress. Reactivation of HHV-6 has been associated with various diseases, including encephalitis, seizures, and fatigue.

It is important to note that while HHV-6 infection is common, most people do not develop any symptoms or long-term complications. However, in some cases, the virus can cause significant illness, especially in immunocompromised individuals.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Acyclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex viruses (HSV) including genital herpes, cold sores, and shingles (varicella-zoster virus). It works by interfering with the replication of the virus's DNA, thereby preventing the virus from multiplying further. Acyclovir is available in various forms such as oral tablets, capsules, creams, and intravenous solutions.

The medical definition of 'Acyclovir' is:

Acyclovir (brand name Zovirax) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue that functions as an antiviral agent, specifically against herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Acyclovir is converted to its active form, acyclovir triphosphate, by viral thymidine kinase. This activated form then inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing further replication of the virus's DNA.

Acyclovir has a relatively low toxicity profile and is generally well-tolerated, although side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache can occur. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as kidney damage, seizures, or neurological problems may occur. It is important to take acyclovir exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms promptly.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). The single-letter abbreviation for cytosine is "C."

Cytosine base pairs specifically with guanine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair. In DNA, the double helix consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by these base pairs, such that the sequence of one strand determines the sequence of the other. This property is critical for DNA replication and transcription, processes that are essential for life.

Cytosine residues in DNA can undergo spontaneous deamination to form uracil, which can lead to mutations if not corrected by repair mechanisms. In RNA, cytosine can be methylated at the 5-carbon position to form 5-methylcytosine, a modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

'NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A' refers to a group of activating receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which are a type of immune cell. These receptors are named for their similarity in structure to lectins, which are proteins that bind to carbohydrates.

The NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A includes several different receptors, such as NKp46, NKp44, and NKp30, that play important roles in the immune response. These receptors recognize specific molecules on the surface of infected or damaged cells, triggering the activation of NK cells and the release of cytotoxic substances that can kill the target cells.

The activation of NK cells through these receptors helps to control infections and prevent the development of cancer. However, abnormal activation of NK cells can also contribute to autoimmune diseases and other conditions. Therefore, understanding the function of NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A members is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

Neonatal screening is a medical procedure in which specific tests are performed on newborn babies within the first few days of life to detect certain congenital or inherited disorders that are not otherwise clinically apparent at birth. These conditions, if left untreated, can lead to serious health problems, developmental delays, or even death.

The primary goal of neonatal screening is to identify affected infants early so that appropriate treatment and management can be initiated as soon as possible, thereby improving their overall prognosis and quality of life. Commonly screened conditions include phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup urine disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and hearing loss, among others.

Neonatal screening typically involves collecting a small blood sample from the infant's heel (heel stick) or through a dried blood spot card, which is then analyzed using various biochemical, enzymatic, or genetic tests. In some cases, additional tests such as hearing screenings and pulse oximetry for critical congenital heart disease may also be performed.

It's important to note that neonatal screening is not a diagnostic tool but rather an initial step in identifying infants who may be at risk of certain conditions. Positive screening results should always be confirmed with additional diagnostic tests before any treatment decisions are made.

Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where one or both diseased lungs are removed and replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. It is typically considered as a treatment option for patients with end-stage lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, who have exhausted all other medical treatments and continue to suffer from severe respiratory failure.

The procedure involves several steps, including evaluating the patient's eligibility for transplantation, matching the donor's lung size and blood type with the recipient, and performing the surgery under general anesthesia. After the surgery, patients require close monitoring and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the new lungs.

Lung transplantation can significantly improve the quality of life and survival rates for some patients with end-stage lung disease, but it is not without risks, including infection, bleeding, and rejection. Therefore, careful consideration and thorough evaluation are necessary before pursuing this treatment option.

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Hypoproteinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low levels of protein, particularly albumin, in the blood. This can occur due to various reasons such as malnutrition, liver disease, kidney disease, or gastrointestinal disorders that affect protein absorption. It can lead to edema (swelling), especially in the legs and abdomen, and other complications. It's important to note that while albumin is the most abundant protein in blood serum, other proteins such as immunoglobulins and enzymes can also be affected in hypoproteinemia.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing impairment that occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. It can be caused by various factors such as aging, exposure to loud noises, genetics, certain medical conditions (like diabetes and heart disease), and ototoxic medications.

SNHL affects the ability of the hair cells in the cochlea to convert sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. As a result, sounds may be perceived as muffled, faint, or distorted, making it difficult to understand speech, especially in noisy environments.

SNHL is typically permanent and cannot be corrected with medication or surgery, but hearing aids or cochlear implants can help improve communication and quality of life for those affected.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Lymphotoxin-alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer (LT-alpha1/beta2) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology. However, it is a term used to describe a specific form of lymphotoxin, which is a cytokine involved in the immune response.

Lymphotoxins are a type of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain cells. They exist in two forms: LT-alpha and LT-beta, which can combine to form heterotrimers (LT-alpha1/beta2) or homotrimers (LT-alpha3 or LT-beta3).

The LT-alpha1/beta2 heterotrimer is a transmembrane protein complex composed of one alpha and two beta subunits. It plays an important role in the development and maintenance of lymphoid tissue, including the formation of germinal centers in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches.

In summary, while not a strictly medical definition, Lymphotoxin-alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer refers to a specific form of lymphotoxin that plays a crucial role in the immune response by contributing to the development and maintenance of lymphoid tissue.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

Roseolovirus infections are typically caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). The most common manifestation of roseolovirus infection is exanthem subitum, also known as roseola infantum or sixth disease, which primarily affects children aged 6 months to 2 years.

The infection usually begins with a fever that can last for up to a week, followed by the appearance of a rash once the fever subsides. The rash is typically pinkish-red, maculopapular (consisting of both flat and raised lesions), and appears on the trunk, spreading to the face, neck, and extremities. It usually lasts for 1-2 days.

In addition to exanthem subitum, roseolovirus infections can also cause a variety of other clinical manifestations, including febrile seizures, hepatitis, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis. HHV-6 and HHV-7 have also been associated with several chronic diseases, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and certain malignancies.

Transmission of roseolovirus occurs through saliva and other bodily fluids, and primary infection is usually acquired during childhood. Once infected, the virus remains latent in the body and can reactivate later in life, although reactivation rarely causes symptoms.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Child care, also known as daycare, refers to the supervision and care of children usually outside of their home, provided by a professional or licensed facility. This can include early education, meals, and activities for children while their parents are at work or otherwise unable to care for them. Child care may be provided in a variety of settings such as child care centers, family child care homes, and in-home care. It is an essential service for many families with young children, allowing parents to maintain employment and providing children with socialization and learning opportunities.

Central hearing loss is a type of hearing disorder that occurs due to damage or dysfunction in the central auditory pathways of the brain, rather than in the ear itself. This condition can result from various causes, such as stroke, tumors, trauma, infection, or degenerative diseases affecting the brain.

In central hearing loss, the person may have difficulty understanding and processing speech, even when they can hear sounds at normal levels. They might experience problems with sound localization, discriminating between similar sounds, and comprehending complex auditory signals. This type of hearing loss is different from sensorineural or conductive hearing loss, which are related to issues in the outer, middle, or inner ear.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Herpesviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The herpesviruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency in infected host cells, allowing them to persist for the lifetime of the host and leading to recurrent episodes of disease.

The family Herpesviridae is divided into three subfamilies: Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae. Each subfamily includes several genera and species that infect various hosts, including humans, primates, rodents, birds, and reptiles.

Human herpesviruses include:

* Alphaherpesvirinae: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
* Betaherpesvirinae: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7)
* Gammaherpesvirinae: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as HHV-8)

These viruses are responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin lesions to life-threatening diseases. Primary infections usually occur during childhood or adolescence and can be followed by recurrent episodes due to virus reactivation from latency.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Placental diseases, also known as placental pathologies, refer to a group of conditions that affect the development and function of the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus while removing waste products.

Placental diseases can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, growth restriction, stillbirth, and long-term health problems for the child. Some common placental diseases include:

1. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall before delivery, causing bleeding and potentially harming the fetus.
2. Placental previa: This is a condition where the placenta implants in the lower part of the uterus, covering the cervix. It can cause bleeding and may require cesarean delivery.
3. Preeclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Placental dysfunction is thought to play a role in its development.
4. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): This occurs when the fetus does not grow properly due to poor placental function, leading to low birth weight and potential health problems.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the membranes surrounding the fetus, which can lead to preterm labor and other complications.
6. Placental infarction: This occurs when a portion of the placenta dies due to a lack of blood flow, which can lead to growth restriction or stillbirth.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of placental diseases are essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the fetus.

Chorionic villi are finger-like projections of the chorion, which is the outermost extraembryonic membrane in a developing embryo. These structures are composed of both fetal and maternal tissues and play a crucial role in the early stages of pregnancy by providing a site for exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and the developing fetus.

Chorionic villi contain fetal blood vessels that are surrounded by stromal cells, trophoblasts, and connective tissue. They are formed during the process of implantation, when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall. The chorionic villi continue to grow and multiply as the placenta develops, eventually forming a highly vascular and specialized organ that supports fetal growth and development throughout pregnancy.

One important function of chorionic villi is to serve as the site for the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that can be detected in the mother's blood and urine during early pregnancy. This hormone plays a critical role in maintaining pregnancy by signaling the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone, which helps to prevent menstruation and support fetal growth.

Abnormalities in chorionic villi can lead to various pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or intrauterine growth restriction. For this reason, chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a diagnostic procedure that may be performed during early pregnancy to obtain fetal cells for genetic testing and diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic disorders.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver, often resulting in damage to liver cells. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections (such as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E), alcohol abuse, toxins, medications, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine. The severity of the disease can range from mild illness to severe, life-threatening conditions, such as liver failure or cirrhosis.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Psychomotor disorders are conditions that involve abnormalities in cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with impaired voluntary motor or movement functions. These disorders can be characterized by hypoactivity (decreased motor activity) or hyperactivity (increased motor activity). Examples of psychomotor disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and catatonia. Psychomotor agitation, retardation, and stereotypies are also considered psychomotor disorders. These conditions can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and quality of life.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of immune serum that contains antibodies against human lymphocytes. It is produced by immunizing animals, such as horses or rabbits, with human lymphocytes to stimulate an immune response and the production of anti-lymphocyte antibodies. The resulting serum is then collected and can be used as a therapeutic agent to suppress the activity of the immune system in certain medical conditions.

ALS is primarily used in the treatment of transplant rejection, particularly in organ transplantation, where it helps to prevent the recipient's immune system from attacking and rejecting the transplanted organ. It can also be used in the management of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, to suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

It is important to note that the use of ALS carries a risk of side effects, including allergic reactions, fever, and decreased white blood cell counts. Close monitoring and appropriate management of these potential adverse events are essential during treatment with ALS.

Infectious Mononucleosis, also known as "mono" or the "kissing disease," is a common infectious illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It primarily affects adolescents and young adults. The medical definition of Infectious Mononucleosis includes the following signs and symptoms:

1. Infection: Infectious Mononucleosis is an infection that spreads through saliva, hence the nickname "kissing disease." It can also be transmitted through sharing food, drinks, or personal items such as toothbrushes or utensils with an infected person.
2. Incubation period: The incubation period for Infectious Mononucleosis is typically 4-6 weeks after exposure to the virus.
3. Symptoms: Common symptoms of Infectious Mononucleosis include fever, sore throat (often severe and may resemble strep throat), fatigue, swollen lymph nodes (particularly in the neck and armpits), and skin rash (in some cases).
4. Diagnosis: The diagnosis of Infectious Mononucleosis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. A complete blood count (CBC) may reveal an increased number of white blood cells, particularly atypical lymphocytes. Additionally, the Paul-Bunnell or Monospot test can detect heterophile antibodies, which are present in about 85% of cases after the first week of illness.
5. Treatment: There is no specific antiviral treatment for Infectious Mononucleosis. Management typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain relief for symptoms like sore throat and fever.
6. Complications: Although most cases of Infectious Mononucleosis resolve without significant complications, some individuals may experience complications such as splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), hepatitis, or neurological issues. Rarely, the virus can cause more severe complications like myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells).
7. Prevention: Preventing Infectious Mononucleosis is difficult since it is primarily spread through respiratory droplets and saliva. However, practicing good hygiene, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and avoiding sharing personal items like utensils or drinking glasses, can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Microcephaly is a medical condition where an individual has a smaller than average head size. The circumference of the head is significantly below the normal range for age and sex. This condition is typically caused by abnormal brain development, which can be due to genetic factors or environmental influences such as infections or exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy.

Microcephaly can be present at birth (congenital) or develop in the first few years of life. People with microcephaly often have intellectual disabilities, delayed development, and other neurological problems. However, the severity of these issues can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe. It is important to note that not all individuals with microcephaly will experience significant impairments or challenges.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Betaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of herpesviruses, which are a type of double-stranded DNA viruses. This subfamily includes human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV or HHV-5) in humans, and other species-specific betaherpesviruses in various animals.

These viruses are known to cause a range of clinical manifestations, from mild and self-limiting diseases to severe and life-threatening conditions, depending on the immune status of the host. For instance, primary infection with HHV-6 and HHV-7 typically occurs during early childhood and is usually asymptomatic or associated with a mild febrile illness, while reactivation of these viruses in immunocompromised individuals can lead to more severe complications.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause significant morbidity and mortality in newborns infected in utero, as well as in immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV/AIDS or transplant recipients. CMV is also a leading cause of congenital hearing loss and developmental disabilities in children.

Betaherpesvirinae viruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency in host cells, where they can remain dormant for extended periods before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression or stress. Effective antiviral therapies and vaccines are available for some betaherpesviruses, but there is still no cure for the viral infection, and lifelong latency is common.

Herpes Simplex is a viral infection caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, but HSV-1 is typically associated with oral herpes (cold sores) and HSV-2 is usually linked to genital herpes. However, either type can infect any area of the body. The virus remains in the body for life and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent outbreaks of lesions or blisters. It is transmitted through direct contact with infected skin or mucous membranes, such as during kissing or sexual activity.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF)" is a term used to describe animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific pathogens (disease-causing agents) that could interfere with research outcomes or pose a risk to human or animal health. The "specific" part of the term refers to the fact that the exclusion of pathogens is targeted to those that are relevant to the particular organism or research being conducted.

To maintain an SPF status, animals are typically housed in specialized facilities with strict biosecurity measures, such as air filtration systems, quarantine procedures, and rigorous sanitation protocols. They are usually bred and raised in isolation from other animals, and their health status is closely monitored to ensure that they remain free from specific pathogens.

It's important to note that SPF does not necessarily mean "germ-free" or "sterile," as some microorganisms may still be present in the environment or on the animals themselves, even in an SPF facility. Instead, it means that the animals are free from specific pathogens that have been identified and targeted for exclusion.

In summary, Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms refer to animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific disease-causing agents that are relevant to the research being conducted or human/animal health.

NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily C, also known as NKG2C, is a type of activating receptor found on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. These receptors are part of the larger family of C-type lectin receptors, which are characterized by their ability to bind carbohydrates in a calcium-dependent manner.

NKG2C is particularly interesting because it can recognize and bind to human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) molecules that are present on the surface of infected or stressed cells. When NKG2C binds to HLA-E, it triggers a signaling pathway inside the NK cell that leads to its activation and the killing of the target cell.

NKG2C has been shown to play an important role in the immune response to viral infections, such as HIV and hCMV, by helping to control the spread of the virus and prevent infection. Additionally, variations in the NKG2C gene have been associated with differences in susceptibility to certain infectious diseases and autoimmune conditions.

BALB 3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts. They are commonly used in scientific research, particularly in studies related to cell biology, toxicology, and cancer. BALB 3T3 cells are easy to grow and maintain in culture, making them a convenient tool for researchers.

The name "BALB 3T3" is derived from the strain of mouse (BALB/c) from which the cells were originally isolated, and the fact that they are transformed (immortalized) cells (the "3T" designation). These cells have been widely used in a variety of experiments, including studies on cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression. They have also been used to develop assays for measuring the cytotoxicity of chemicals and drugs.

It is important to note that while BALB 3T3 cells are useful for research purposes, they may not always accurately reflect the behavior of human cells or tissues. Therefore, findings from studies using these cells should be interpreted with caution and validated in more complex models when possible.

Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) are a preparation of antibodies, specifically immunoglobulins, that are derived from the plasma of healthy donors. They are administered intravenously to provide passive immunity and help boost the immune system's response in individuals with weakened or compromised immune systems. IVIG can be used for various medical conditions such as primary immunodeficiency disorders, secondary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. The administration of IVIG can help prevent infections, reduce the severity and frequency of infections, and manage the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders. It is important to note that while IVIG provides temporary immunity, it does not replace a person's own immune system.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Human milk, also known as breast milk, is the nutrient-rich fluid produced by the human female mammary glands to feed and nourish their infants. It is the natural and species-specific first food for human babies, providing all the necessary nutrients in a form that is easily digestible and absorbed. Human milk contains a balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immunity of newborns and young infants. Its composition changes over time, adapting to meet the changing needs of the growing infant.

I apologize, but "Alabama" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of one of the states in the United States of America, located in the southeastern region. The term "Alabaman" is used to describe someone from this state. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

Polyradiculoneuropathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It's a type of neuropathy, which is damage or disease affecting the peripheral nerves, and it involves damage to the nerve roots as they exit the spinal cord.

The term "poly" means many, "radiculo" refers to the nerve root, and "neuropathy" indicates a disorder of the nerves. Therefore, polyradiculoneuropathy implies that multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves are affected.

This condition can result from various causes, such as infections (like Guillain-Barre syndrome), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), diabetes, cancer, or exposure to toxins. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, tingling, or pain in the limbs, which can progress and become severe over time. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing further nerve damage.

Retinitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for converting light into electrical signals that are then sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Retinitis can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, or genetic conditions.

The inflammation associated with retinitis can affect any part of the retina, but it typically involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones). Depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, retinitis can cause a range of visual symptoms, such as blurry vision, floaters, loss of peripheral vision, or night blindness.

Retinitis is often distinguished from another condition called retinopathy, which refers to damage to the retina caused by diabetes or other systemic diseases. While both conditions can affect the retina and cause visual symptoms, retinitis is characterized by inflammation, while retinopathy is characterized by damage due to circulatory problems.

It's important to note that retinitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. Treatment options for retinitis depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

NIH 3T3 cells are a type of mouse fibroblast cell line that was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The "3T3" designation refers to the fact that these cells were derived from embryonic Swiss mouse tissue and were able to be passaged (i.e., subcultured) more than three times in tissue culture.

NIH 3T3 cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and gene expression. They have also been used as a model system for studying the effects of various chemicals and drugs on cell behavior. NIH 3T3 cells are known to be relatively easy to culture and maintain, and they have a stable, flat morphology that makes them well-suited for use in microscopy studies.

It is important to note that, as with any cell line, it is essential to verify the identity and authenticity of NIH 3T3 cells before using them in research, as contamination or misidentification can lead to erroneous results.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a newborn baby. Most have no symptoms. Some affected ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be an important cause of intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal encephalopathy. ... One study did not show significant decrease in the risk of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Most healthy people working ... Congenital HCMV infection occurs when the mother has a primary infection (or reactivation) during pregnancy. Due to the lower ...
"Cytomegalovirus Infections: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-13. Kaslow, Richard A.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; ... The lytic phase of infection occurs within mucoepithelial cells while the latent infection of these cells occurs in neurons. ... In this phase the host will show little to no signs of virus infection. This state can be maintained for very long periods of ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the betaherpesvirinae subfamily. CMV is responsible for a range of diseases, but mainly ...
Fowler KB, Boppana SB (April 2018). "Congenital cytomegalovirus infection". Seminars in Perinatology. 42 (3): 149-154. doi: ... error Congenital cataract Retinopathy of prematurity Infection Congenital toxoplasmosis Congenital cytomegalovirus infection ...
Ray K, Bala M (February 2014). "Human Cytomegalovirus Infection". In Kumar B, Gupta S (eds.). Sexually Transmitted Infections ( ... Archived 7 March 2023 at archive.today "CMV , Overview , Cytomegalovirus and Congenital CMV Infection". U.S. Centers for ... Ljungman P, Griffiths P, Paya C (April 2002). "Definitions of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients". ... Cheeran MC, Lokensgard JR, Schleiss MR (January 2009). "Neuropathogenesis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection: disease ...
Joseph LD, Kuruvilla S (2008). "Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly". Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology. 51 ( ... It is early infection that leads to lissencephaly. This is because early infection disrupts the migration and development of ... Joseph LD, Pushpalatha, Kuruvilla S (2008). "Cytomegalovirus infection with lissencephaly". Indian Journal of Pathology & ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes-related virus that can cause congenital defects. CMV has a high affinity for the developing ...
Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child. ... Fowler KB (December 2013). "Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: audiologic outcome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 Suppl 4 ... In case of infection or inflammation, blood or other body fluids may be submitted for laboratory analysis. MRI and CT scans can ... Over 30% of childhood hearing loss is caused by diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, meningitis and ear infections. These ...
Valcyte (valganciclovir), for cytomegalovirus infection. Valium (diazepam), for anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal, status ... Cymevene (ganciclovir), for cytomegalovirus infection. Dalmane/Dalmadorm (flurazepam), for insomnia. Dilatrend (carvedilol), ... Viracept (nelfinavir), for HIV-1 infection, licensed by Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare. Xeloda (capecitabine), for breast and ... Hivid (zalcitabine), for HIV-1 infection, later discontinued in 2006. Inhibace (cilazapril), for hypertension and congestive ...
Powiązania przyczynowo-skutkowe?" [Cytomegalovirus infection in acute myocardial infarction. Is there a causative relationship ... Rider, JR; Ollier, WE; Lock, RJ; Brookes, ST; Pamphilon, DH (1997). "Human cytomegalovirus infection and systemic lupus ... Infections associated with diseases are those infections that are associated with possible infectious etiologies that meet the ... "Cytomegalovirus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: the clinical, electrophysiologic, and prognostic features. Dutch ...
"About Cytomegalovirus and Congenital CMV Infection , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-11-04. Retrieved 2019-11-19. Zaidi, Syed Ali; ... Cytomegalovirus esophagitis is a form of esophagitis associated with cytomegalovirus. Symptoms include dysphagia, upper ... This condition occurs in the setting of patients with a weakened immune system who are susceptible to both infections by CMV ... Pain can also manifest as heartburn symptoms Nausea/vomiting Fever There are multiple ways cytomegalovirus can be transmitted. ...
"Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis associated to cytomegalovirus infection". Eur J Dermatol. 17 (5): 455-6. doi:10.1684/ejd.2007.0257 ... and cytomegalovirus. Boston exanthem disease Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' ...
"Cytomegalovirus Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infection". AIDSinfo. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved ... Sometimes, combinations of different antibiotics may be needed to treat polymicrobial infections (infections that are caused by ... Some of the above complications could also lead to blindness, or even loss of the eye (in the case of a severe infection). ... This type of drug targets on bacterial infection. The first use of intravitreal antibiotics was dated back to experiments in ...
Iannetti P, Morellini M, Raucci U, Cappellacci S (1988). "HLA antigens, epilepsy and cytomegalovirus infection". Brain Dev. 10 ... and cytomegalovirus infection with epilepsy. These and other studies suggest an involvement between A11 and secondary effects ... A*1104 is associated with increased risk for cervical neoplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection A11-B13 A11-Cw2- ... studies have shown a complex involvement of Epstein-Barr virus infection as a consequence of low A11 control over infection. ...
1981). "Primary Pneumocystis Carinii and Cytomegalovirus Infections". The Lancet. 2 (8259): 1339. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(81) ...
Kim, Jihye; Kim, A-Reum; Shin, Eui-Cheol (August 2015). "Cytomegalovirus Infection and Memory T Cell Inflation". Immune Network ... Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, A.-Reum; Kim, Jihye (2015-08-01). "Cytomegalovirus Infection and Memory T Cell Inflation". Immune Network ... Rao, Sudha; Tu, Wenjuan (2016). "Mechanisms Underlying T Cell Immunosenescence: Aging and Cytomegalovirus Infection". Frontiers ... Especially in the elderly, long-term CMV infection leads to a rapid increase the number of CMV-specific T cells. The number of ...
A Cytomegalovirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or curb virus re-activation (symptomatic ... cytomegalovirus can cause congenital infection, which can lead to neurological problems, vision and hearing loss. Infection/re- ... 2009). "Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection". N Engl J Med. 360 (12): 1191-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804749. ... In 2016, VBI Vaccines commenced a Phase I preventative cytomegalovirus vaccine study (VBI-1501). Other cytomegalovirus vaccines ...
"Corneal Endotheliitis Associated with Evidence of Cytomegalovirus Infection". Ophthalmology. 114 (4): 798-803. doi:10.1016/j. ... The condition can be caused by a number of factors, such as mumps and cytomegalovirus under certain circumstances. "Herpes ...
... mediates human cytomegalovirus infection". Journal of Virology. 67 (11): 6576-85. doi:10.1128/JVI.67.11.6576-6585.1993. PMC ...
Leruez-Ville M, Foulon I, Pass R, Ville Y (September 2020). "Cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy: state of the science ... Amniocentesis can be used to detect other congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B, parvovirus B19, and ... Chorioamnionitis, or intraamniotic infection, is an infection of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal ... It has other uses such as in the assessment of infection and fetal lung maturity. Prenatal diagnostic testing, which includes ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be an important cause. Diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of blood inside the ...
2016). "AABB Committee Report: reducing transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infections". Transfusion. 56 (6pt2): 1581-1587 ... and immunocompromised people are at risk for developing severe infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV)―an opportunistic pathogen ... Donor blood is generally screened for transfusion-transmitted infections such as HIV. As of 2018, the World Health Organization ... for which approximately 50% of blood donors test positive―and may be transfused with CMV-negative blood to prevent infection.: ...
... is a cluster of symptoms caused by congenital infection with toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes ... medication is an option for herpes and cytomegalovirus infections. Developing countries are more severely affected by TORCH ... The specific infection may cause additional symptoms. TORCH syndrome may develop before birth, causing stillbirth, in the ... Zika virus is considered the most recent member of TORCH infections. TORCH is an acronym for (T)oxoplasmosis, (O)ther Agents, ( ...
For the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients. Int Conf AIDS. 1996 Jul 7-12; 11: 65. Retrieved August 8, ...
Ikeda S, Tsuru A, Moriuchi M, Moriuchi H (May 2006). "Retrospective diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection using ... example is where analysis of preserved umbilical cord tissue enables the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a ...
... cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Epstein-Barr virus infection The most common presentation is a single large, deep ... "Lipschütz acute vulval ulcers associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection". Pediatr Dermatol. 25 (1): 113-5. doi:10.1111/ ... He initially ascribed the ulcer to infection with "Bacillus crassus" (Lactobacillus acidophilus). Vulvovaginal health Lipschütz ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody against infections with cytomegalovirus. Arizono H, Sugano T, Kaida S, Shibusawa K, ... July 1994). "Pharmacokinetics of a new human monoclonal antibody against cytomegalovirus. Third communication: correspondence ...
Congenital infections include Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes, and Syphilis. The most common congenital ... Topical antibiotics are used to decrease risk of infection after surgery. Topical anesthetics are used for postoperative pain. ... infection to cause congenital cataracts is Rubella. Rubella is especially common, with a higher incidence in India. Rubella is ...
Congenital infections like cytomegalovirus are also known to cause microlissencephaly. Both microlissencephaly and microcephaly ...
Cytomegalovirus infection poses potentially dangerous consequences for pre-term babies. Other risks include mother's infection ... Schleiss MR (2006). "Acquisition of human cytomegalovirus infection in infants via breast milk: natural immunization or cause ... Bacterial infections associated with formula remained a problem more prevalent in the United States than in Europe, where milk ... Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between ...
"Cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant recipients: updates on clinical management". World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(31): ... Marcelin's clinical practice in infectious disease focuses on treating skin and soft tissue infections as well as caring for ... doi:10.1093/ofid/ofz042 "Using social media to disseminate research in infection prevention, hospital epidemiology, and ... Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 40 (11): 1262-1268. doi:10.1017/ice.2019.231. ISSN 0899-823X. PMID 31452490. S2CID ...
... to rule out infection from Clostridium difficile infection (C Diff) or Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Treatment of infections usually ... If an infection from Clostridium difficile (C Diff) or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is found, initial therapy is usually antibiotics. ... examples: Clostridium difficile infection (C Diff) or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Biopsies of the pouch should confirm if an ... Certain infections such as a Clostridium difficile (C Diff) might also be treated with probiotics just as a C Diff infection in ...
Learn about who is at risk and how to prevent infection. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus found worldwide. Most people ... The primary NIH organization for research on Cytomegalovirus Infections is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious ... Article: Cytomegalovirus Infection after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation under 100-Day Letermovir Prophylaxis:... ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cytomegalovirusinfections.html Cytomegalovirus Infections Also called: CMV ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a newborn baby. Most have no symptoms. Some affected ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be an important cause of intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal encephalopathy. ... One study did not show significant decrease in the risk of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Most healthy people working ... Congenital HCMV infection occurs when the mother has a primary infection (or reactivation) during pregnancy. Due to the lower ...
When a baby is born with CMV infection, it is called congenital CMV. ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that infects people of all ages. ... When a baby is born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, it is called congenital CMV. About one out of every 200 babies is ... Cytomegalovirus (pronounced sy-toe-MEG-a-low-vy-rus), or CMV, is a common virus that infects people of all ages. Over half of ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of 8 human herpesviruses. It is a member of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily, which also ... encoded search term (Pediatric Cytomegalovirus Infection) and Pediatric Cytomegalovirus Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Immunity induced by primary human cytomegalovirus infection protects against secondary infection among women of childbearing ... Epidemiology patterns of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Approximately 10% of cases of congenital cytomegalovirus occur ...
Understand the symptoms and treatment of this common viral infection that can cause health problems for babies and people who ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and congenital CMV infection: Babies born with CMV (congenital CMV infection). Centers for Disease ... Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Birth Defects Research. 2017; doi:10.1002/bdra.23601. ... www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/herpesviruses/cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection. Accessed Jan. 22, 2020. ...
The clinical significance of congenital CMV infection, developments in antiviral therapy, and efforts to prevent congenital ... Advances in the prevention and treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection Curr Opin Pediatr. 2016 Feb;28(1):81-5. doi: ... Purpose of review: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection in the world. Symptomatic infants are ... Strategies to prevent congenital or maternal CMV infections, including the use of CMV hyperimmune globulin and development of a ...
When a baby is born with cytomegalovirus (t... ... adults are believed to have been infected with Cytomegalovirus ... Cytomegalovirus, a silent infection. Monday, August 09, 2021 When diagnosed early, babies with congenital CMV can be treated ... While the infection has no cure, it can be recurring and one can be infected with different strains of the virus.. According to ... The infection has no cure but one can be given medication to weaken the virus therefore dealing with the symptoms. "With this ...
Previous cytomegalovirus or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary ... Previous cytomegalovirus or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary ...
Jaber S, Chanques G, Borry J, Souche B, Verdier R, Perrigault PF, Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: ... Active Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with Septic Shock On This Page Patients and Methods Results Discussion Cite This ... Human cytomegalovirus infections in nonimmunosuppressed critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:541-7. DOIPubMedGoogle ... High incidence of active cytomegalovirus infection among septic patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1076-82. DOIPubMedGoogle ...
... congenital infection followed primary maternal infection in 32 (76%) and recurrent infection in 10 (24%). Neurological defects ... Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The ... Estimates based on these findings suggest that the impact of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is comparable to that of ... and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of ...
Faecal Microbiota Transfer - a new concept for treating cytomegalovirus colitis in children with ulcerative colitis. Katarzyna ...
Cytomegalovirus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:1053-1056. [PubMed] [DOI] [ ... Acute cytomegalovirus infection is a risk factor in refractory and complicated inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54 ... Low frequency of cytomegalovirus infection during exacerbations of inflammatory bowel diseases. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1694-1700 ... Pillet S, Pozzetto B, Jarlot C, Paul S, Roblin X. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig ...
Infections. According to GlobalData, Phase II drugs for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections have a 52% phase transition success ... HB-101 by Hookipa Pharma for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections: Likelihood of Approval. By kgi-admin ... HB-101 (Vaxwave) is under development for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infections in solid organ transplant patients. It ... HB-101 is under clinical development by Hookipa Pharma and currently in Phase II for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection*Intracranial Calcifications with Dandy Walker Malformation. Diagnostic Dilemma*Is it NK ... Interstitial Pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus Infection in a 2 month old Child. Dr Ira Shah, Drishti Tolani. Medical Sciences ... Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals and manifests as a life and sight threatening ... Smith S, Cho C, Brahmacupta N, Lenahan M. Pulmonary involvement with cytomegalovirus infections in children. Arch Dis Child ...
Acute cytomegalovirus colitis presenting during primary HIV infection: an unusual case of an immune reconstitution inflammatory ... Severe ulcerous cytomegalovirus pancolitis developed during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a patient ... Severe ulcerous cytomegalovirus pancolitis developed during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a patient ... Serological testing demonstrated cytomegalovirus reactivation. Severe immunosuppression caused by primary HIV infection ...
Infection - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional ... Congenital CMV infection Congenital and Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection (CMV) Cytomegalovirus infection may be acquired ... read more and Congenital and Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection Congenital and Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection (CMV) ... Cytomegalovirus infection may be acquired prenatally or perinatally and is the most common congenital viral infection. Signs at ...
Prevention of maternal-fetal transmission of cytomegalovirus after primary maternal infection in the first trimester by ... Prevention of maternal-fetal transmission of cytomegalovirus after primary maternal infection in the first trimester by ... The results were compared with a historic cohort of women with first-trimester CMV infection who did not undergo HIG treatment ... Conclusion After a primary maternal CMV infection in the first trimester, biweekly HIG administration at a dose of 200 IU/kg ...
Both acute and past cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been identified ... ... is driven by latent cytomegalovirus infection and is associated with an increased risk of infection and mortality. Arthritis ... Thrombosis associated with cytomegalovirus infection in patients with ANCA-positive vasculitis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(5):E27 ... Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with venous thromboembolism of immunocompetent adults--a case-control study. Ann ...
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and is a member of the Herpesviridae family. The other family members ... Cytomegalovirus infections of the nervous system in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Apr. 20(4):747-54. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Active cytomegalovirus infection in patients with septic shock. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Oct. 12(10):1517-22. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... Primary cytomegalovirus infection and viremia. Both replication of CMV DNA and morphogenesis of the virion capsid take place in ...
Article Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Cohort Studies Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus Infections Female Humans Infant Infant, ... "Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia" 169, no. 12 (2015). Kelly, Matthew S. et al. " ... 2015). Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. 169(12). Kelly, Matthew S. et al. " ... "Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia" vol. 169, no. 12, 2015. Export RIS Citation ...
CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in preterm children did not have an adverse effect on ... OBJECTIVES: To assess whether preterm infants with postnatal cytomegalovirus infection develop neurologic sequelae in early ... METHODS: Infants ,32 weeks gestation were prospectively screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV) at term-equivalent age. ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in ... N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated ... AB - Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated ... abstract = "Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. BMJ 2021;373:n1212. 9. Jenks CM, Hoff SR, Mithal LB. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection ... Overview of the management of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. CMV, congenital cytomegalovirus; cCMV, congenital CMV; PCR ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: update on management strategies. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2008;10:186-92.. ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis 2020;221(Suppl 1): S9-14.. ...
... we found the cytomegalovirus-stimulated (CMV-stimulated) IFN-γ response to be associated with CD8+ T cell activation ( ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause severe neurological sequelae or even fetal death. We present a 17-year-old ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection with brainstem hemorrhage and polymicrogyria: Necropsic and histopathological findings.. ... Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare finding in the context of congenital CMV infection, with isolated brainstem hemorrhage being ... pregnant woman with fetal CMV infection, leading to voluntary termination of pregnancy. Fetopsy demonstrated a brainstem ...
... infection. If you suspect you might have CMV call your optometrists office as soon as possible. ... Learn about the signs and causes of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are among the most common of the newborn in the developed worl ... CONGENITAL CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION. CMV infections, ubiquitous in humans, are an important cause of congenital infection and ... and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Of the 2 infections, neonatal HSV infection should be more amenable to ... Mixed infection and strain diversity in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1003-1007.. * Cited Here ...
Cytomegalovirus is considered as an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. Children with end stage renal ... Molecular study of cytomegalovirus infection among children with end stage renal diseases undergoing dialysis: Pilot study. ... Cytomegalovirus is considered as an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. Children with end stage renal ... He is working now as the Head of Infection Control Department in Safa Medina Hospital, KSA. His research interest is in ...
... .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 1987, 2(2) : 29. ... HU Chun-Da, WEN Yu-Mei, 1987: THE INTERFERON OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, Virologica Sinica, ... THE INTERFERON OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS. * * HU Chun-Da , ... HU Chun-Da, WEN Yu-Mei.THE INTERFERON OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 1987, 2 ...
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the first cause of congenital malformation resulting from viral infection, and the leading cause ... Lazarini F, Katsimpardi L, Levivien S, Wagner S, Gressens P, Teissier N, Lledo PM, Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Alters ... Olfactory function in congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a prospective study., Eur J Pediatr 2022 May; 181(5): 1859-1869. ... We are assessing the impact of congenital CMV infection on the central nervous system in mice and humans. ...
  • abstract = "Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. (vu.nl)
  • abstract = "Productive infection of non-proliferating cells by cytomegalovirus (CMV) requires the coordinated stimulation of host biochemical pathways that prepare cells to synthesize DNA. (elsevierpure.com)
  • abstract = "Association of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with autism spectral disorder (ASD) has been suggested since 1980s. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • It is a bivalent vaccine containing two recombinant, replication-deficient lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors, one expressing the pp65 protein and one expressing the gB protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with neuropathology in patients with impaired immunity and/or inflammatory diseases. (umn.edu)
  • Conceivably, HCMV infection may be a treatable source of neuropathology in vulnerable MDD patients. (umn.edu)
  • Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous member of the Herpesviridae family , responsible for the most common congenital viral infection - congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • While a majority of HCMV infections in children and adults are asymptomatic, HCMV is well known to cause severe infections in the immunocompromised individual and maternal infections with variable long-term sequelae after maternal-fetal transmission with primary or nonprimary infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • This review will focus on antiviral treatment options currently available for use during pregnancy and in the newborn period for the treatment of maternal and congenital HCMV infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • TS mRNA and protein levels are nearly undetectable in quiescent cells, but are greatly increased following HCMV infection. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The increase in TS gene expression was due to an increase in gene transcription, since the expression of a reporter gene driven by the human TS promoter was strongly induced by HCMV infection. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Using Inter-ViSTA with proteomics and molecular virology, we define virus-host interactions for the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) anti-apoptotic protein, pUL37x1. (princeton.edu)
  • Background: Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection inpregnancy, especially in the first trimester often lead to congenitalabnormalities and is associated with serious complications, such asmicrocephaly, mental retardation, spastic paralysis, hepatosplenomegaly,anaemia, thrombocytopenia, deafness, and optic nerve atrophy leading toblindness in infants. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been studied for the past decade, and conflicting results have been reported with no conclusive role established yet. (aku.edu)
  • HCMV and HPV infection was investigated using nested and conventional polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (aku.edu)
  • HCMV was detected in only 1 patient whereas HPV infection was present in 28% of patients with no cases of HPV and HCMV coinfection. (aku.edu)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a newborn baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most frequent non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing-loss (SNHL) (i.e., hearing loss due to a cochlear and/or auditory nerve damage). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is widely accepted that SNHL at birth, when associated to cCMV symptomatic infection involving the central nervous system, benefits from antiviral therapy started in the neonatal period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SNHL in a patient with normal cochlear function and auditory nerve dysfunction) in infants with cCMV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We retrospectively reviewed the clinical history of 60 infants, born at term, with cCMV asymptomatic infection, without additional risk factors for SNHL, and exhibiting bilateral "pass" otoacustic emissions (OAE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we retrospectively investigate the frequency and the outcome of isolated SNHL at birth due to AN in a selected population of infants with cCMV infection who did not receive antiviral therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We retrospectively reviewed the prospectively collected data of a population of infants with cCMV infection, evaluated between January 2011 and June 2018 at the Outpatient Clinic of Congenital-Perinatal Infectious Diseases - Department of Maternal and Child Sciences and Urology - "Sapienza" University of Rome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We included infants born at term (≥37 weeks gestational age) with a cCMV asymptomatic infection and an uneventful clinical course at birth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importance: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the major cause of congenital nonhereditary sensorineural hearing loss in children. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Newborns with untreated cCMV infection with at least 4-year audiological follow-up were included. (uantwerpen.be)
  • About 10% of infants with congenital infection have clinical evidence of disease at birth. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. (bmj.com)
  • It has also now been successfully used in treatment of infants with congenital CMV infections. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • However, due to toxicity, these drugs should be used only when necessary after a thorough benefit-risk evaluation in infants with congenital CMV infection. (e-cep.org)
  • Although treatment is essential for symptomatic infants with congenital CMV infection, that for infants with only isolated SNHL or asymptomatic disease is controversial [ 2 ]. (e-cep.org)
  • Title : Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Personal Author(s) : Kelly, Matthew S.;Benjamin, Daniel K.;Puopolo, Karen M.;Laughon, Matthew M.;Clark, Reese H.;Mukhopadhyay, Sagori;Smith, P. Brian;Permar, Sallie R. (cdc.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess whether preterm infants with postnatal cytomegalovirus infection develop neurologic sequelae in early childhood. (uu.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort study, postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in preterm children did not have an adverse effect on neurodevelopment within the first 6 years of life. (uu.nl)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection worldwide, the most common nongenetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children, and a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in the brain. (e-cep.org)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is among the most common causes of nongenetic sensorineural hearing loss. (e-cep.org)
  • Congenital CMV infection can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, such as cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, visual impairment, and seizures, and is the main cause of nonhereditary sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) [ 2 ]. (e-cep.org)
  • These infections are the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss. (lww.com)
  • CMV infections, ubiquitous in humans, are an important cause of congenital infection and a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) worldwide. (lww.com)
  • Pateints with severe CMV diseases have been treated with a loading dose of IV Ganciclovir followed by oral Valganciclovir in various in a study conducted in 2007 (8).A case of a preterm infant with congenital CMV infection who was treated with oral Valganciclovir and showed a good response has been reported (10). (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Thus it can be concluded that oral valganicover is a safe and effective alternative to Ganciclovir to treat cytomegalovirus pneumonia in infants. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Antiviral treatment for congenital CMV infection began with ganciclovir 30 years ago, with oral valganciclovir being the most commonly used [ 3 ]. (e-cep.org)
  • Twelve liver and 5 kidney transplant recipients with severe cytomegalovirus infection were treated with Ganciclovir (7.5 mg/kg/day, intravenously). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Ganciclovir appears promising for treatment of severe CMV infection in patients with kidney or liver transplants. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Today, Alice's child is battling with Cytomegalovirus (CMV), the largest of the herpes viruses that causes a wide range of diseases that affect the eyes, food pipe (esophagus), liver and the brain in people with low immunity. (monitor.co.ug)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus with a high prevalence that increases with age and socioeconomic deprivation. (researchsquare.com)
  • CMV shares many attributes with other herpes viruses, including genome, virion structure, and the ability to cause latent and persistent infections. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital Cytomegalovirus and Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus. (lww.com)
  • Congenital Cytomegalovirus and Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: To Treat or Not to Treat? (lww.com)
  • Over the past 2 decades, therapies have been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book Committee for the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. (lww.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus is in the herpes virus family. (sciencenews.org)
  • However, other non-CMV-related ocular opportunistic infections occur, including herpetic retinitis (attributable to either herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus), toxoplasmic retinitis, and choroiditis (attributable to Pneumocystis carinii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Mycobacterium avium complex infections). (entokey.com)
  • other sexually transmitted infections enhance the sexual transmission of HIV: genital herpes specifically, and genital ulcers in general, increase the transmission of HIV 50-300-fold per episode of unprotected sexual intercourse. (who.int)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) active infections (detected by DNA-PCR, confirmed by serology) were found in the perilymphatic fluid of 16.7% (3/18) cases of idiopathic SNHL. (who.int)
  • CMV disease predominantly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with severe immunosuppression and rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Severe ulcerous cytomegalovirus pancolitis developed during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a patient who underwent early combination antiretroviral treatment. (uzh.ch)
  • Severe immunosuppression caused by primary HIV infection resulted in cytomegalovirus colitis, and initiation of early combination antiretroviral therapy triggered an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome potentially leading to colonic perforation. (uzh.ch)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause severe neurological sequelae or even fetal death. (qxmd.com)
  • Hospitals can spot some cytomegalovirus infections, particularly those that cause severe disabilities. (sciencenews.org)
  • Ocular opportunistic infections represent the most common ocular complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and occur primarily among patients with severe immune compromise. (entokey.com)
  • Acute CMV infection is a severe illiness with poor prognosis if not treated quickly. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Sexually transmitted infections may be present without symptoms or with symptoms that are mild and transient, but they may have severe long-term consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic illness and premature death. (who.int)
  • Overview of Herpesvirus Infections Eight types of herpesviruses infect humans ( see Table: Herpesviruses That Infect Humans). (msdmanuals.com)
  • In unborn and newborn children chlamydial infections, gonorrhoea and syphilis can produce serious and often life-threatening conditions including congenital disease, pneumonia and low birth weight. (who.int)
  • Finally, it will reduce adverse outcomes of pregnancy, such as stillbirth and perinatal death due to syphilis, and blindness caused by gonococcal and chlamydial infections. (who.int)
  • For more information on specific pathogens, see Chlamydial Infections, Cytomegalovirus Infection, Parainfluenza Virus Infections, Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. (medscape.com)
  • Both acute and past cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been identified as risk factors for VTE in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. (researchsquare.com)
  • Interestingly, acute CMV infection has been identified as a risk factor for VTE in small studies both in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals (9, 16-20). (researchsquare.com)
  • Acute CMV infections are due to primary infection or reactivation of a dormant virus. (shmabstracts.org)
  • PMD commonly has an acute course and may be associated with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. (unifi.it)
  • acute T. gondii infection was detected in 7 cases and rubella IgG was found in only 1 case. (who.int)
  • Cytomegalovirus is considered as an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. (longdom.org)
  • Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. (entokey.com)
  • Patients with and without ocular opportunistic infections were recruited, and the cohort was enriched with patients with CMV retinitis in order to determine the outcomes of this ocular opportunistic infection. (entokey.com)
  • Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, in-person follow-up was increased to every 3 months. (entokey.com)
  • citation needed] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not recommend routine maternal screening for CMV infection during pregnancy because there is no test that can definitively rule out primary CMV infection during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who are concerned about CMV infection during pregnancy should practice CMV prevention measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 5 ] Although enormous progress has recently been made in defining and characterizing the molecular biology, immunology, and antiviral therapeutic targets for CMV, considerable work remains in devising strategies for prevention of CMV infection and in understanding the role of specific viral genes in pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Advances in the treatment and prevention of congenital CMV infection are a high priority nationally and globally. (nih.gov)
  • HB-101 (Vaxwave) is under development for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infections in solid organ transplant patients. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • The submission of the draft global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections 2006-20152 is the next step in the response to the request in resolution WHA53.14. (who.int)
  • It recognizes that prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections are core aspects of sexual and reproductive health, as stated in the strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health. (who.int)
  • The Guideline for Infection Control in Hospital Personnel is part of the Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical care of patients with CMV infection consists of good nutritional support, vigorous supportive care for end-organ syndromes (particularly pneumonia in immunocompromised patients), and specific antiviral therapy in select circumstances. (medscape.com)
  • 3) Our patient presented with interstitial pneumonia and abnormal liver function tests with mild hearing loss suggestive of CMV infection though there was no CNS manifestation. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Although many organisms can cause afebrile pneumonia syndrome (APS), this article focuses on Chlamydia trachomatis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are vertically transmitted to newborns during passage through the birth canal or, in the case of CMV, also during breastfeeding. (medscape.com)
  • RSV infection is the most commonly identified cause of pneumonia (typically febrile) in neonates and infants younger than 6 months (79% of cases) in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Estimates based on these findings suggest that the impact of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is comparable to that of congenital rubella in the era before vaccination. (bmj.com)
  • APS was first described as a vertically transmitted infection of newborns and young infants by the female genital tract pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Ureaplasma urealyticum. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnostic performance of real time PCR is the gold standard technique in diagnosis of this infection. (longdom.org)
  • Infection with human papillomavirus increases the probability of developing carcinoma of the cervix, which is the second leading cause of cancer- related mortality in females worldwide, killing some 240 000 women per year.1 Making a correct diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection is essential for the provision of appropriate and effective treatment. (who.int)
  • For this group, which makes up 50% to 80% of the women of child-bearing age, the rate of newborn CMV infection is 1%, and these infants appear to have no significant illness or abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infections are among the most common of the newborn in the developed world. (lww.com)
  • A comprehensive newborn hearing screen that includes physiologic, genetic, and cytomegalovirus testing would have multiple benefits, including (1) identifying newborns with deafness missed by the current physiologic screen, (2) providing etiologic information, and (3) possibly decreasing the number of children lost to follow up. (nature.com)
  • We present a framework for integrating limited genetic testing and cytomegalovirus screening into the current physiologic newborn hearing screening. (nature.com)
  • A simple DNA test of saliva from a newborn can reveal whether the baby has a viral infection that can cause deafness in some cases. (sciencenews.org)
  • The results were compared with a historic cohort of women with first-trimester CMV infection who did not undergo HIG treatment and who had amniocentesis at about 20 weeks. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Risk factors for and clinical outcome of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a peri-urban West-African birth cohort. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of and to describe the clinical outcomes associated with these non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in the HAART era, using data from the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) cohort. (entokey.com)
  • CMV results in an asymptomatic infection in most individuals but establishes a state of persistent infection. (researchsquare.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a persistent herpesvirus infection whose prevalence increases with age, is a major modulator of immune function and several observations suggest that infection might act to influence clinical outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection. (tabipacademy.com)
  • Herpesviruses: Cytomegalovirus A number of infectious diseases cause uveitis (see table Infectious Causes of Uveitis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hearing loss may result from genetic causes, complications at birth, certain infectious diseases, chronic ear infections, the use of particular drugs, exposure to excessive noise, and ageing. (who.int)
  • Cranial CT scan of infant born with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection may benefit from hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly if antiviral treatment is initiated within the first month of life. (e-cep.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a human β-herpesvirus that has high seroprevalence in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Congenital CMV infection rates are directly proportional to maternal seroprevalence in that highly CMV-seropositive populations have higher rates of congenital infection. (lww.com)
  • As a consequence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and immune recovery, the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has declined by over 80% over the last 15 years. (entokey.com)
  • Although it is common in the population and typically innocuous, cytomegalovirus can be dangerous to babies born with the infection, causing hearing loss in 10 to 15 percent of infected newborns. (sciencenews.org)
  • Yet few hospitals test for congenital cytomegalovirus in babies who appear healthy, even though it is present in about 0.5 to 1 percent of such newborns. (sciencenews.org)
  • Dried Blood Spot Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Screen Newborns for Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection JAMA 2010 202(14) 1375-1382. (cdc.gov)
  • Among newborns and infants, P jiroveci appears to cause asymptomatic infection more commonly than it causes any recognizable disease. (medscape.com)
  • First, their control reduces the enormous burden of morbidity and mortality due to sexually transmitted infections in both resource-constrained and developed countries, both directly, through its impact on quality of life, sexual and reproductive health and child health, and indirectly, through its impact on national and individual economies. (who.int)
  • In recent years, it has become evident that CMV is the most important cause of congenital infection in the developed world, and that it frequently leads to intellectual and developmental disability. (medscape.com)
  • Infection with CMV is ubiquitous and generally asymptomatic in healthy children and adults. (medscape.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals and manifests as a life and sight threatening disease commonly amongst immunocompromised and HIV infected individuals. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Background: Assessing the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) may be helpful to indicate in which patient it is worth starting antiviral treatment during preemptive strategy. (unical.it)
  • Serological testing demonstrated cytomegalovirus reactivation. (uzh.ch)
  • A case control study in immunocompetent individuals showed that past CMV infection, as well as high titres of anti-CMV IgG and anti-CMV IgM antibodies, suggestive of the presence of viral reactivation, were all associated with the occurrence of VTE (18). (researchsquare.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common congenital infection in neonates. (sajch.org.za)
  • Although CMV is the most common congenital infection in the developed world, affecting approximately 1% of all infants born in the United States, only 10% of all infants born in the United States with congenital CMV infection have symptomatic disease at birth, including chorioretinitis. (medscape.com)
  • However, these infections usually result in little or no clinical illness in the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical significance of congenital CMV infection, developments in antiviral therapy, and efforts to prevent congenital disease are herein reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • HB-101 is under clinical development by Hookipa Pharma and currently in Phase II for Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5) Infections. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Most patients with CMV infection exhibit few clinical findings on physical examination. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for transmission and clinical outcome were assessed, including placental malaria infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (entokey.com)
  • Ten were evaluable (compatible clinical picture, organ involvement shown histopathologically or by culture, viremia, and absence of concomitant infection). (elsevierpure.com)
  • One of the striking features of infection is the heterogeneous clinical response with worse outcomes observed in older patients and those with underlying health conditions. (tabipacademy.com)
  • This review addresses mechanisms by which cytomegalovirus infection may act to worsen the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection, discusses how these potential links could be investigated, and assesses the potential significance of any findings that emerge. (tabipacademy.com)
  • Neurological defects followed exposure to primary maternal infection in all three trimesters of pregnancy and also recurrent maternal infection. (bmj.com)
  • Objective To examine the efficacy of biweekly hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) administration to prevent maternal-fetal transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in women with primary first-trimester CMV infection. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Primary outcome was maternal-fetal transmission at the time of amniocentesis, and secondary outcome was the frequency of congenital CMV infection at birth. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Conclusion After a primary maternal CMV infection in the first trimester, biweekly HIG administration at a dose of 200 IU/kg prevents maternal-fetal transmission up to 20 weeks' gestation. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Epidemiology and Infection , 140 (5), 835-841. (vu.nl)
  • however, the incidence of active CMV infection is controversial ( 3 , 4 ), and not all centers detected active CMV infections in these patients ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of congenital CMV infection was 5.4% (40/741). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although a high prevalence of congenital CMV infection in ASD cases (OR 11.31, 95% CI 3.07-41.66) was indicated, too few events (0-2 events) in all included studies imposed serious limitations. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Our findings suggest that susceptibility to CMV infection - even under continuous within-partnership exposure - appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment. (vu.nl)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infection with brainstem hemorrhage and polymicrogyria: Necropsic and histopathological findings. (qxmd.com)
  • For people who have weakened immune systems, especially people who have had an organ, stem cell or bone marrow transplant, CMV infection can be fatal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Strategies to prevent congenital or maternal CMV infections, including the use of CMV hyperimmune globulin and development of a maternal vaccine, have yet to yield positive results. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent CMV infection. (medscape.com)
  • 5-9 , 13-15 This finding indicates the difficulty that will be encountered in vaccine development as congenital infection occurs in the presence of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (lww.com)
  • cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV IG) decreases effects of BCG vaccine live by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of 8 human herpesviruses. (medscape.com)
  • After initial infection, all herpesviruses remain latent within specific host cells and may subsequently. (msdmanuals.com)
  • CMV is the commonest cause of congenital infection worldwide being transmitted transplacentally, during labour, through breast milk or saliva. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection worldwide. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These risks appear to be almost exclusively associated with women who previously have not been infected with CMV and who are having their first infection with the virus during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • To summarise, during a pregnancy when a woman who has never had CMV infection becomes infected with CMV, there is a risk that after birth the infant may have CMV-related complications, the most common of which are associated with hearing loss, visual impairment, or diminished mental and motor capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who develop an active CMV infection during pregnancy can pass the virus to their babies, who might then experience symptoms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For women who develop an active CMV infection during pregnancy, chances of passing it to their unborn babies are high," he says. (monitor.co.ug)
  • The risk of transmission is highest if CMV infection occurs during the first half of pregnancy," Dr Kizito says. (monitor.co.ug)
  • We present a 17-year-old pregnant woman with fetal CMV infection, leading to voluntary termination of pregnancy. (qxmd.com)
  • 4-6 Unlike rubella and toxoplasmosis where intrauterine transmission occurs as a result of maternal infection acquired during pregnancy (primary infection), congenital CMV infection can occur in infants born to mothers who have had CMV infection before pregnancy (nonprimary infection). (lww.com)
  • The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The value set contains the list of selected infections that the mother had or was treated for during the course of this pregnancy for fetal death, as required by the National US Standards. (cdc.gov)
  • This review will explore the pathogenesis and treatment of both infections, emphasizing the strengths and limitations of current knowledge and therapy. (lww.com)
  • Between 50% and 80% of adults in the United States have had a CMV infection by age 40. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Over half of adults are believed to have been infected with Cytomegalovirus or CMV by age 40. (monitor.co.ug)
  • 60 to 90% of adults have CMV infection (resulting in lifelong latent infection). (msdmanuals.com)
  • In developing countries, most infections are acquired during childhood, whereas in developed countries, up to 50% of young adults are CMV seronegative. (medscape.com)
  • Evidence-based recommendations on maribavir (Livtencity) for cytomegalovirus infection in adults after transplant. (bvsalud.org)
  • For infants who are infected by their mothers before birth, two potential adverse scenarios exist: Generalized infection may occur in the infant, and can cause complications such as low birth weight, microcephaly, seizures, petechial rash similar to the "blueberry muffin" rash of congenital rubella syndrome, and moderate hepatosplenomegaly (with jaundice). (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the extent to which these infections occur among patients with AIDS and their effect on visual outcomes and association with mortality in the HAART era have not been described. (entokey.com)
  • You have a weakened immune system and you're experiencing symptoms of CMV infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • When a healthy person gets a CMV infection, they will exhibit no or minor symptoms because they suppress the virus. (monitor.co.ug)
  • The infection has no cure but one can be given medication to weaken the virus therefore dealing with the symptoms. (monitor.co.ug)
  • Ten percent of congenital infections present with symptoms at birth. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Symptoms, when apparent, develop 9-60 days after primary infection. (medscape.com)
  • But infection with the virus can be serious in babies and people with weak immune systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For people who have weakened immune systems, CMV infection can be serious or even fatal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Infants who get infected at birth or shortly thereafter, are infected through breast milk and will develop the infection because their immune system is still developing. (monitor.co.ug)
  • efgartigimod alfa will decrease the level or effect of cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV IG) by receptor binding competition. (medscape.com)
  • Infection was controlled within a few weeks (median 26 days) without use of antiviral therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: Monitoring CMV-specific T-cell responses and eGFR in the first month post transplant can identify patients at high risk of CMV infection, for whom preemptive antiviral therapy is recommended. (unical.it)
  • Among 49 infants who developed TB disease over the first 2 years of life, and 129 healthy matched controls, we found the cytomegalovirus-stimulated (CMV-stimulated) IFN-γ response to be associated with CD8+ T cell activation (Spearman's rho, P = 6 × 10-8). (jci.org)
  • Congenital toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are the most common etiologies in this age group. (medscape.com)
  • Un dépistage néonatal du cytomégalovirus, du virus de l'herpès et de Toxoplasma gondii pourrait être utile en République islamique d'Iran. (who.int)
  • HA567 trade name] is indicated for prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants of HIV-infected mothers. (who.int)