Plant Growth Regulators
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Plants, Genetically Modified
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (1/583)Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition. (+info)
Detection of membrane-bound cytokinin-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. (2/583)In order to isolate cytokinin-binding proteins (CBPs), we have developed new affinity probes constituted of a cytokinin such as zeatin riboside ([9R]Z) conjugated to a carrier protein. These probes were used for detecting CBPs in an ELISA procedure. The efficiency of the cytokinin conjugate in detecting CBPs was controlled with protein model: proteins having an affinity for cytokinin such as the monoclonal anti-[9R]Z antibodies did bind the cytokinin conjugate whereas proteins unable to bind cytokinin such as bovine serum albumin did not. Using these new affinity probes, we showed that CBPs are present in the membrane fraction of in vitro cultured Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The nature of the protein at the detected binding sites was demonstrated by submitting the microsomal proteins to a proteolytic treatment, which was found to eradicate the binding. Free biologically active cytokinins or monoclonal anti-[9R]Z antibodies inhibited the binding, thus showing the specificity of the interaction. The detected CBPs were partially solubilized from the membranes with potassium chloride, indicating their peripheral membrane location. The separation by anion exchange chromatography of solubilized microsomal proteins revealed the existence of two different CBPs. They were present at higher levels in cells during the exponential growth phase. (+info)
A gene encoding the cytokinin enzyme zeatin O-xylosyltransferase of Phaseolus vulgaris. (3/583)Zeatin is the most active and ubiquitous form of the naturally occurring cytokinins. Glycosyl conjugates of zeatin are found in many plant tissues and are considered important for storage and protection against degradative enzymes. Two enzymes catalyzing the formation of O-glycosyl derivatives of zeatin have been characterized, O-glucosyltransferase and O-xylosyltransferase, occurring in seeds of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), respectively. Recently, the ZOG1 gene (zeatin O-glucosyltansferase) was isolated from P. lunatis (). Based on the ZOG1 sequence, the ZOX1 gene (zeatin O-xylosyltransferase) was cloned from P. vulgaris. ZOX1 contains an open reading frame of 1362 bp that codes for a 454-amino acid peptide of 51 kD. The recombinant protein has properties identical to the native enzyme: it catalyzes O-xylosylzeatin formation with UDP-Xyl as a glycosyl donor but does not recognize UDP-Glucose as a substrate. The ZOX1 and ZOG1 genes exhibit 93% identity at the nucleotide level and 90% similarity at the amino acid level. Neither gene contains introns. These zeatin-specific genes and their promoters will be useful for studies of the regulation of active versus storage forms of cytokinins. Comparison of sequences encoding similar enzymes with distinct substrate specificity may lead to identification of epitopes specific to cytokinin and glycosyl donor molecules. (+info)
Leaf senescence is delayed in tobacco plants expressing the maize homeobox gene knotted1 under the control of a senescence-activated promoter. (4/583)Leaf senescence is an active process involving remobilization of nutrients from senescing leaves to other parts of the plant. Whereas senescence is accompanied by a decline in leaf cytokinin content, supplemental cytokinin delays senescence. Plants that overexpress isopentenyl transferase (ipt), a cytokinin-producing gene, or knotted1 (kn1), a homeobox gene, have many phenotypes in common. Many of these phenotypes are characteristic of altered cytokinin physiology. The effect of kn1 on leaf senescence was tested by driving its expression using the promoter of the senescence-associated gene SAG12. SAG:kn1 tobacco plants showed a marked delay in leaf senescence but otherwise developed normally. The delay in senescence was revealed by an increase in chlorophyll content in SAG:kn1 leaves relative to leaves of the control plants and by a decrease in the number of dead leaves. Senescence was also delayed in detached leaves of SAG:kn1 plants. Delayed senescence was accompanied by increased leaf cytokinin content in older leaves expressing kn1. These experiments extend the current understanding of kn1 function and suggest that in addition to mediating meristem maintenance, kn1 is capable of regulating the onset of senescence in leaves. (+info)
Multiubiquitin chain binding subunit MCB1 (RPN10) of the 26S proteasome is essential for developmental progression in Physcomitrella patens. (5/583)The 26S proteasome, a multisubunit complex, is the primary protease of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in eukaryotes. We have recently characterized MCB1 (RPN10), a subunit of the 26S complex that has affinity for multiubiquitin chains in vitro and as a result may function as a receptor for ubiquitinated substrates. To define the role of MCB1 further, we analyzed its function in Physcomitrella patens by generating MCB1 gene disruptions using homologous recombination. PpMCB1, which is 50 to 75% similar to orthologs from other eukaryotes, is present in the 26S proteasome complex and has a similar affinity for multiubiquitin chains, using a conserved hydrophobic domain within the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Unlike yeast Deltamcb1 strains, which grow normally, P. patens Deltamcb1 strains are viable but are under developmental arrest, generating abnormal caulonema that are unable to form buds and gametophores. Treatment with auxin and cytokinin restored bud formation and subsequent partial development of gametophores. Complementation of a Deltamcb1 strain with mutated versions of PpMCB1 revealed that the multiubiquitin chain binding site is not essential for the wild-type phenotype. These results show that MCB1 has an important function in the 26S proteasome of higher order eukaryotes in addition to its ability to bind multiubiquitin chains, and they provide further support for a role of the ubiquitin/26S proteasome proteolytic pathway in plant developmental processes triggered by hormones. (+info)
Cytokinins in tobacco and wheat chloroplasts. Occurrence and changes due to light/dark treatment. (6/583)Although cytokinins (CKs) affect a number of processes connected with chloroplasts, it has never been rigorously proven that chloroplasts contain CKs. We isolated intact chloroplasts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv SR1) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ritmo) leaves and determined their CKs by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy. Chloroplasts from both species contained a whole spectrum of CKs, including free bases (zeatin and isopentenyladenine), ribosides (zeatin riboside, and isopentenyladenosine), ribotides (isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate, zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate, and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate), and N-glucosides (zeatin-N(9)-glucoside, dihydrozeatin-N(9)-glucoside, zeatin-N(7)-glucoside, and isopentenyladenine-N-glucosides). In chloroplasts there was a moderately higher relative amount of bases, ribosides, and ribotides than in leaves, and a significantly increased level of N(9)-glucosides of zeatin and dihydrozeatin. Tobacco and wheat chloroplasts were prepared from leaves at the end of either a dark or light period. After a dark period, chloroplasts accumulated more CKs than after a light period. The differences were moderate for free bases and ribosides, but highly significant for glucosides. Tobacco chloroplasts from dark-treated leaves contained zeatin riboside-O-glucoside and dihydrozeatin riboside-O-glucoside, as well as a relatively high CK oxidase activity. These data show that chloroplasts contain a whole spectrum of CKs and the enzymatic activity necessary for their metabolism. (+info)
Auxin and cytokinin have opposite effects on amyloplast development and the expression of starch synthesis genes in cultured bright yellow-2 tobacco cells. (7/583)In cultured Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, the depletion of auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in the culture medium induces the accumulation of starch. This is accelerated by the addition of cytokinin (benzyladenine). Light and electron microscopic observations revealed that this amyloplast formation involves drastic changes in plastid morphology. The effects of auxin and cytokinin on amyloplast development were investigated by adding auxin or cytokinin to cells grown in a hormone-free culture. Auxin repressed amyloplast development, whereas cytokinin accelerated starch accumulation regardless of the timing of hormone addition. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that the accumulation of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit gene (AgpS), granule-bound starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme transcripts were also affected by hormonal conditions. High levels of AgpS, granule-bound starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme transcripts accumulated in amyloplast-developing cells grown in auxin-depleted conditions. Furthermore, the addition of auxin to the cells cultured in hormone-free medium reduced the level of AgpS transcripts, whereas the addition of cytokinin increased it, irrespective of the timing of hormone addition. These results suggest that auxin and cytokinin exert opposite effects on amyloplast development by regulating the expression of the genes required for starch biosynthesis. (+info)
Cell-division factors from Vinca rosca L. crown gall tumor tissue. (8/583)A cell-division factor has been precipitated from extracts of cultured Vinca rosea L. crown gall tumor tissue by using the mercuric acetate procedure previously employed by Wood and colleagues to obtain their "cytokinesin I." On the basis of its mass spectrum, ultraviolet light absorbancy spectra, solubilities, chromatographic migration values, and growth activity, the factor is ribosyl-trans-zeatin, that is, 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-trans-2-butenylamino)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. Ribosylzeatin has now been isolated from tumor tissue by four experimental techniques; any possibility that it is an artifact seems to have been eliminated. Contrary to the report by Wood and colleagues, synthetic ribosylzeatin is precipitated from an aqueous solution by mercuric acetate, provided the complete precipitation procedure is utilized. These facts and others discussed strongly support our suggestion that ribosylzeatin was present in the preparation ("cytokinesin I") examined by Wood and colleagues in several biological assays. The reasons advanced by Wood and others for rejecting this suggestion have been found either not to be pertinent to the question or to have insufficient experimental bases. (+info)
Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones that play a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. They are primarily responsible for promoting cell division and differentiation, shoot and root growth, leaf expansion, and the delay of senescence (aging) in plants. Cytokinins are synthesized in various parts of the plant, including roots, leaves, and seeds, and are transported throughout the plant via the xylem and phloem tissues. They act by binding to specific receptors on the surface of plant cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In addition to their role in plant growth and development, cytokinins have also been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in medicine. For example, they have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, reduce inflammation, and improve bone density in humans.
Zeatin is a plant hormone that belongs to the cytokinin group. It is naturally produced in plants and is involved in various physiological processes, including cell division, shoot elongation, and leaf expansion. In the medical field, zeatin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of various types of cancer. Some studies have suggested that zeatin may have anti-tumor properties and may be able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of zeatin and to determine its safety and efficacy in humans.
Kinetin is a plant hormone that belongs to the cytokinin group. It is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in plants and has a variety of physiological effects on plant growth and development. In the medical field, kinetin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Kinetin has also been used in research to study the mechanisms of plant growth and development, and to develop new methods for improving crop yields and increasing plant resistance to environmental stress.
Isopentenyladenosine (iPA) is a type of nucleoside that is found in plants and some microorganisms. It is a derivative of adenosine, which is a nucleoside that is involved in many important biological processes, including energy metabolism and gene expression. In the medical field, iPA has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of iPA, and to determine the optimal dosages and treatment regimens for different conditions.
Indoleacetic Acids (IAAs) are a type of plant hormone that play a crucial role in plant growth and development. They are synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and are involved in various aspects of plant physiology, including cell division, elongation, and differentiation. In the medical field, IAAs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, IAAs have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. IAAs have also been used in agriculture as a growth promoter for plants. They can stimulate root growth, increase plant biomass, and improve crop yields. However, the use of IAAs as a plant growth promoter is controversial, as it may have negative environmental impacts and may contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, IAAs are an important class of plant hormones with potential therapeutic and agricultural applications.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Alkyl and aryl transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or aryl groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and drug metabolism. In the medical field, alkyl and aryl transferases are often studied in the context of drug metabolism. Many drugs are metabolized by these enzymes, which can affect their efficacy and toxicity. For example, the enzyme cytochrome P450, which is a type of alkyl and aryl transferase, is responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including some that are used to treat cancer, depression, and anxiety. Alkyl and aryl transferases are also involved in the metabolism of environmental toxins and carcinogens. For example, the enzyme glutathione S-transferase, which is another type of alkyl and aryl transferase, is responsible for the detoxification of many toxic compounds, including some that are found in tobacco smoke and air pollution. In addition to their role in drug metabolism and detoxification, alkyl and aryl transferases are also involved in the biosynthesis of various compounds, including lipids, steroids, and neurotransmitters. Understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is important for developing new drugs and for understanding the mechanisms of disease.
Adenine is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA. It is one of the four nitrogenous bases that make up the genetic code, along with guanine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Adenine is a purine base, which means it has a double ring structure with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. It is one of the two purine bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being guanine. Adenine is important in the function of DNA and RNA because it forms hydrogen bonds with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA) to form the base pairs that make up the genetic code.
Scopoletin is a naturally occurring compound found in certain plants, including the barberry plant (Berberis vulgaris) and the rhubarb plant (Rheum palmatum). It is a type of coumarin, which is a class of organic compounds that have a characteristic sweet, fruity odor and are often used as flavorings in food and beverages. In the medical field, scopoletin has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. Some research has suggested that it may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. It has also been studied for its potential use in treating conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and liver disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of scopoletin and to determine its safety and effectiveness in treating these and other conditions. It is important to note that scopoletin is not currently approved for use as a medical treatment and should not be used without the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.
Naphthaleneacetic acids are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. They are derivatives of naphthalene, a hydrocarbon with a fused benzene ring, and they contain an acetic acid group attached to the naphthalene ring. One example of a naphthaleneacetic acid that is used in medicine is naphthylacetic acid, which is used as a diuretic to increase urine production and help flush excess fluids from the body. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and edema (swelling caused by excess fluid in the body). Other naphthaleneacetic acids that are used in medicine include naphthylamineacetic acid, which is used as an antihistamine to treat allergies and other conditions that cause itching and sneezing, and naphthylpropionic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory to reduce swelling and pain. Naphthaleneacetic acids are generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but they can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach upset. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking naphthaleneacetic acids or any other medication.
Photoreceptors, plant refer to specialized cells in plants that are responsible for detecting and responding to light. These cells contain pigments called photopigments, which absorb light energy and trigger a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to changes in the plant's physiology and behavior. There are several types of photoreceptors in plants, including phototropins, cryptochromes, and phototropins. Phototropins are responsible for regulating plant growth and development, including phototropism (the bending of a plant towards a light source) and photoperiodism (the response to the length of day and night). Cryptochromes are involved in regulating plant responses to blue light, including the regulation of flowering time and seed germination. Phototropins are also involved in regulating plant responses to red and far-red light. In addition to regulating plant growth and development, photoreceptors are also involved in plant defense mechanisms. For example, some photoreceptors can detect the presence of herbivores or pathogens and trigger the production of defensive compounds. Overall, photoreceptors play a critical role in plant growth, development, and defense, and their study is important for understanding plant biology and improving crop yields.
Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, energy production, and detoxification. In the medical field, oxidoreductases are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions. For example, some oxidoreductases are involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and changes in their activity can affect the efficacy and toxicity of these substances. Other oxidoreductases are involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause cellular damage and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and aging. Oxidoreductases are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. For example, some oxidoreductases are used as markers of liver disease, and changes in their activity can indicate the severity of the disease. In addition, some oxidoreductases are targets for drugs used to treat diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Overall, oxidoreductases are a diverse and important class of enzymes that play a central role in many biological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
RNA, Plant refers to the type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is found in plants. RNA is a molecule that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes in cells, and there are several types of RNA, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In plants, RNA plays a critical role in various biological processes, including photosynthesis, growth and development, and defense against pathogens. Plant RNA is also important for the production of proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of plant cells. RNA, Plant can be studied using various techniques, including transcriptomics, which involves the analysis of RNA molecules in a cell or tissue to identify the genes that are being expressed. This information can be used to better understand plant biology and to develop new strategies for improving crop yields, increasing plant resistance to diseases and pests, and developing new plant-based products.
Benzyl compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring bonded to a carbon atom that is attached to a hydrocarbon chain. These compounds are commonly used in the medical field as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs and pharmaceuticals. They are also used as flavorings and fragrances in cosmetics and personal care products. Some examples of benzyl compounds include benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate. These compounds can have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and analgesic effects.
Beta-fructofuranosidase is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of fructose, a type of sugar found in many fruits and vegetables. It is also known as fructan 6-fructosidase or beta-D-fructofuranosidase. In the medical field, beta-fructofuranosidase is sometimes used to treat conditions related to fructose intolerance, such as hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and fructose malabsorption. These conditions occur when the body is unable to properly digest fructose, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. Beta-fructofuranosidase is available as a dietary supplement and may be used to help break down fructose in the diet and reduce symptoms of fructose intolerance. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of beta-fructofuranosidase for treating fructose intolerance has not been well studied, and more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy.
In the medical field, ethylenes are a group of organic compounds that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. They are commonly used as anesthetic gases and as propellants in inhalation anesthetics. Ethylenes are also used in the production of plastics, solvents, and other chemicals. Some examples of ethylenes include ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, and ethylene dichloride. These compounds can have both therapeutic and toxic effects on the body, depending on the dose and duration of exposure.
Gibberellins are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in plant growth and development. They are synthesized in the shoot apical meristem and other parts of the plant, and are transported to other parts of the plant where they regulate various aspects of growth and development. In the medical field, gibberellins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that gibberellins may have anti-cancer properties, as they have been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, gibberellins have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, as they have been shown to stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that are important for tissue repair. However, it is important to note that the use of gibberellins in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of their use in humans.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.
In the medical field, glucosides refer to a class of organic compounds that are composed of a sugar molecule (glucose) attached to another molecule, usually an alcohol or an amino acid. Glucosides are commonly found in plants and are often used as natural sweeteners or as medicinal compounds. There are several types of glucosides, including monoglucosides, diglucosides, and triglucosides, depending on the number of glucose molecules attached to the other molecule. Some common examples of glucosides include glycyrrhizin (found in licorice root), digitoxin (found in foxglove), and caffeine (found in coffee and tea). In the body, glucosides can be hydrolyzed by enzymes to release the sugar molecule and the other molecule, which can then have various effects on the body. For example, some glucosides have been shown to have medicinal properties, such as improving heart function, reducing inflammation, and treating certain types of cancer. However, some glucosides can also be toxic in high doses, so their use must be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
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CoP: Co-expressed Biological Processes
- Researchers led by Prof. Zhang Jinsong from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology (IGDB) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently reported that the GmJAZ3-GmRR18a-GmMYC2a-GmCKXs module regulates seed-related traits through the crosstalk between cytokinin and jasmonate (JA) signaling in soybean. (phys.org)
- Abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), salicylic acid (SA), cytokinin, zeatin, and jasmonic acid contents and gene expressions related to them were investigated. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- Using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) gibberellic acid (GA), 2,4-D and cytokinin in combination can maximize the benefit for HLB-affected trees, researcher Tripti Vashisth reported recently. (southeastagnet.com)
- Cytokinin and auxin interaction in root stem-cell specification during early embryogenesis. (goldbio.com)
- Cytokinin, auxin, and gibberellins are phytohormones that promote root and shoot growth. (driftlessprairies.org)
- Many effects on plant development are made under the influence of cytokinins, often in conjunction with auxin. (driftlessprairies.org)
- A cDNA clone isolated by differentially screening a cytokinin-induced haustorial cDNA library of Cuscuta reflexa was sequenced and identified as the gene coding for cytochrome b(5), based on the similarity of the deduced amino-acid sequence with that of the cauliflower (60% identity) and tobacco (78% identity) proteins. (iisc.ac.in)
- Further studies showed that GmJAZ3 largely inhibited the gene expression of three cytokinin oxidase gene GmCKXs. (phys.org)
- Take Root significantly promotes root growth through cytokinins and is unique in his kind. (moonlightgardensupply.com)
- Made in the roots and also in the seeds and fruits, cytokinins travel up the xylem and promote lateral growth. (driftlessprairies.org)
- For example, apical dominance seems to result from a balance between auxins that inhibit lateral buds and cytokinins that promote bushier growth (Boundless 2016). (driftlessprairies.org)
- Cytokinin is promoted for growth and is produced in the roots or top of the stem. (driftlessprairies.org)
- Autoimmune antibody production and inflammatory cytokinins may also be responsible for temporal variability in arrhythmia propensities, such as the deleterious effects of fever in patients with Brugada syndrome. (msdmanuals.com)
- As a result of the study, we determined that there was a significant decrease in the content of IAA, GA, SA, cytokinin, zeatin, and jasmonic acid with increasing doses of drought and Cd. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- Cytokinins increase cell division by stimulating the production of proteins needed for mitosis. (driftlessprairies.org)
- cytokinin receptors, ethylene receptors and phytochromes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recent studies providedpreliminary evidence for the involvement of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in the signalingpathways of other classical plant hormones like cytokinins, gibberellins, eth ylene and ABA.Genetic approaches have generated a number of mutants in ABA biosynthesis or ABAaction. (europa.eu)
- There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins. (bvsalud.org)
- Cytokinins determine Arabidopsis root-meristem size by controlling cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
- PMID- 5097520 TI - [Control by cytokinins of mitotic synchronization in tobacco cells]. (nih.gov)
- This process is mediated by the non- cell -autonomous repression of cytokinin signalling in the root meristem , and leads to distinct phloem - and xylem -pole-associated endodermal cells . (bvsalud.org)
- Antimicrobial agents such as bavistin, cefotaxime and kanamycin were evaluated for their effects on the rapid shoot regeneration from nodal explants of Centella asiatica (L.). Filter sterilized bavistin (250 mg/L) was aug mented alone and in combination with cytokinins such as BAP and TDZ into the media to trace the effect on re generation. (scirp.org)
- the inuence of cytokinins and media types on propagation. (kiev.ua)
- In addition, crosses between 'long-root' cytokinin-deficient plants and 'long-root' glutaredoxin-silenced plants generated hybrids that displayed no further increase in primary root length (i.e. epistasis). (nih.gov)
- Synthetic cytokinin analogs are the most commonly used and affordable cytokinins in agriculture, but they have several disadvantages, such as lateral root inhibition, growth heterogeneity, problematic acclimatization of plants in the greenhouse, necrosis of shoot tips, and irreversible chloroplast deficiency. (agropages.com)
- The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. (nih.gov)
- In a quest to provide the next generation of agricultural inputs using natural and sustainable production methods, a leading European microbial biotech company Acies Bio developed a platform for production of natural cytokinins, as well as an efficient bioprocess for production of trans-zeatin, the most efficient natural cytokinin molecule. (agropages.com)
- This break-through development opens an array of new possible commercial applications for this superior natural cytokinin. (agropages.com)
- The natural cytokinin trans-zeatin, which is now biotechnologically produced at a competitive price, will represent a superior alternative to synthetic cytokinins for use in various agricultural applications. (agropages.com)
- Type-A RRs are primary cytokinin response proteins consisting of a Rec domain along with a short C-terminal extensions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Diffusible repression of cytokinin signalling produces endodermal symmetry and passage cells. (bvsalud.org)
- and inflammatory disorders producing cytokinins that affect cardiomyocyte ion channel function are increasingly being recognized. (msdmanuals.com)
- This group is unable to function as phosphotransmitter protein and participates in cytokinin signalling by inhibiting phosphorelay from phosphorylated AHP1 to ARR1. (biomedcentral.com)