Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (1/583)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Detection of membrane-bound cytokinin-binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. (2/583)

In order to isolate cytokinin-binding proteins (CBPs), we have developed new affinity probes constituted of a cytokinin such as zeatin riboside ([9R]Z) conjugated to a carrier protein. These probes were used for detecting CBPs in an ELISA procedure. The efficiency of the cytokinin conjugate in detecting CBPs was controlled with protein model: proteins having an affinity for cytokinin such as the monoclonal anti-[9R]Z antibodies did bind the cytokinin conjugate whereas proteins unable to bind cytokinin such as bovine serum albumin did not. Using these new affinity probes, we showed that CBPs are present in the membrane fraction of in vitro cultured Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The nature of the protein at the detected binding sites was demonstrated by submitting the microsomal proteins to a proteolytic treatment, which was found to eradicate the binding. Free biologically active cytokinins or monoclonal anti-[9R]Z antibodies inhibited the binding, thus showing the specificity of the interaction. The detected CBPs were partially solubilized from the membranes with potassium chloride, indicating their peripheral membrane location. The separation by anion exchange chromatography of solubilized microsomal proteins revealed the existence of two different CBPs. They were present at higher levels in cells during the exponential growth phase.  (+info)

A gene encoding the cytokinin enzyme zeatin O-xylosyltransferase of Phaseolus vulgaris. (3/583)

Zeatin is the most active and ubiquitous form of the naturally occurring cytokinins. Glycosyl conjugates of zeatin are found in many plant tissues and are considered important for storage and protection against degradative enzymes. Two enzymes catalyzing the formation of O-glycosyl derivatives of zeatin have been characterized, O-glucosyltransferase and O-xylosyltransferase, occurring in seeds of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), respectively. Recently, the ZOG1 gene (zeatin O-glucosyltansferase) was isolated from P. lunatis (). Based on the ZOG1 sequence, the ZOX1 gene (zeatin O-xylosyltransferase) was cloned from P. vulgaris. ZOX1 contains an open reading frame of 1362 bp that codes for a 454-amino acid peptide of 51 kD. The recombinant protein has properties identical to the native enzyme: it catalyzes O-xylosylzeatin formation with UDP-Xyl as a glycosyl donor but does not recognize UDP-Glucose as a substrate. The ZOX1 and ZOG1 genes exhibit 93% identity at the nucleotide level and 90% similarity at the amino acid level. Neither gene contains introns. These zeatin-specific genes and their promoters will be useful for studies of the regulation of active versus storage forms of cytokinins. Comparison of sequences encoding similar enzymes with distinct substrate specificity may lead to identification of epitopes specific to cytokinin and glycosyl donor molecules.  (+info)

Leaf senescence is delayed in tobacco plants expressing the maize homeobox gene knotted1 under the control of a senescence-activated promoter. (4/583)

Leaf senescence is an active process involving remobilization of nutrients from senescing leaves to other parts of the plant. Whereas senescence is accompanied by a decline in leaf cytokinin content, supplemental cytokinin delays senescence. Plants that overexpress isopentenyl transferase (ipt), a cytokinin-producing gene, or knotted1 (kn1), a homeobox gene, have many phenotypes in common. Many of these phenotypes are characteristic of altered cytokinin physiology. The effect of kn1 on leaf senescence was tested by driving its expression using the promoter of the senescence-associated gene SAG12. SAG:kn1 tobacco plants showed a marked delay in leaf senescence but otherwise developed normally. The delay in senescence was revealed by an increase in chlorophyll content in SAG:kn1 leaves relative to leaves of the control plants and by a decrease in the number of dead leaves. Senescence was also delayed in detached leaves of SAG:kn1 plants. Delayed senescence was accompanied by increased leaf cytokinin content in older leaves expressing kn1. These experiments extend the current understanding of kn1 function and suggest that in addition to mediating meristem maintenance, kn1 is capable of regulating the onset of senescence in leaves.  (+info)

Multiubiquitin chain binding subunit MCB1 (RPN10) of the 26S proteasome is essential for developmental progression in Physcomitrella patens. (5/583)

The 26S proteasome, a multisubunit complex, is the primary protease of the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in eukaryotes. We have recently characterized MCB1 (RPN10), a subunit of the 26S complex that has affinity for multiubiquitin chains in vitro and as a result may function as a receptor for ubiquitinated substrates. To define the role of MCB1 further, we analyzed its function in Physcomitrella patens by generating MCB1 gene disruptions using homologous recombination. PpMCB1, which is 50 to 75% similar to orthologs from other eukaryotes, is present in the 26S proteasome complex and has a similar affinity for multiubiquitin chains, using a conserved hydrophobic domain within the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Unlike yeast Deltamcb1 strains, which grow normally, P. patens Deltamcb1 strains are viable but are under developmental arrest, generating abnormal caulonema that are unable to form buds and gametophores. Treatment with auxin and cytokinin restored bud formation and subsequent partial development of gametophores. Complementation of a Deltamcb1 strain with mutated versions of PpMCB1 revealed that the multiubiquitin chain binding site is not essential for the wild-type phenotype. These results show that MCB1 has an important function in the 26S proteasome of higher order eukaryotes in addition to its ability to bind multiubiquitin chains, and they provide further support for a role of the ubiquitin/26S proteasome proteolytic pathway in plant developmental processes triggered by hormones.  (+info)

Cytokinins in tobacco and wheat chloroplasts. Occurrence and changes due to light/dark treatment. (6/583)

Although cytokinins (CKs) affect a number of processes connected with chloroplasts, it has never been rigorously proven that chloroplasts contain CKs. We isolated intact chloroplasts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv SR1) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ritmo) leaves and determined their CKs by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy. Chloroplasts from both species contained a whole spectrum of CKs, including free bases (zeatin and isopentenyladenine), ribosides (zeatin riboside, and isopentenyladenosine), ribotides (isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate, zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate, and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate), and N-glucosides (zeatin-N(9)-glucoside, dihydrozeatin-N(9)-glucoside, zeatin-N(7)-glucoside, and isopentenyladenine-N-glucosides). In chloroplasts there was a moderately higher relative amount of bases, ribosides, and ribotides than in leaves, and a significantly increased level of N(9)-glucosides of zeatin and dihydrozeatin. Tobacco and wheat chloroplasts were prepared from leaves at the end of either a dark or light period. After a dark period, chloroplasts accumulated more CKs than after a light period. The differences were moderate for free bases and ribosides, but highly significant for glucosides. Tobacco chloroplasts from dark-treated leaves contained zeatin riboside-O-glucoside and dihydrozeatin riboside-O-glucoside, as well as a relatively high CK oxidase activity. These data show that chloroplasts contain a whole spectrum of CKs and the enzymatic activity necessary for their metabolism.  (+info)

Auxin and cytokinin have opposite effects on amyloplast development and the expression of starch synthesis genes in cultured bright yellow-2 tobacco cells. (7/583)

In cultured Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells, the depletion of auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in the culture medium induces the accumulation of starch. This is accelerated by the addition of cytokinin (benzyladenine). Light and electron microscopic observations revealed that this amyloplast formation involves drastic changes in plastid morphology. The effects of auxin and cytokinin on amyloplast development were investigated by adding auxin or cytokinin to cells grown in a hormone-free culture. Auxin repressed amyloplast development, whereas cytokinin accelerated starch accumulation regardless of the timing of hormone addition. RNA gel-blot analysis revealed that the accumulation of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit gene (AgpS), granule-bound starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme transcripts were also affected by hormonal conditions. High levels of AgpS, granule-bound starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme transcripts accumulated in amyloplast-developing cells grown in auxin-depleted conditions. Furthermore, the addition of auxin to the cells cultured in hormone-free medium reduced the level of AgpS transcripts, whereas the addition of cytokinin increased it, irrespective of the timing of hormone addition. These results suggest that auxin and cytokinin exert opposite effects on amyloplast development by regulating the expression of the genes required for starch biosynthesis.  (+info)

Cell-division factors from Vinca rosca L. crown gall tumor tissue. (8/583)

A cell-division factor has been precipitated from extracts of cultured Vinca rosea L. crown gall tumor tissue by using the mercuric acetate procedure previously employed by Wood and colleagues to obtain their "cytokinesin I." On the basis of its mass spectrum, ultraviolet light absorbancy spectra, solubilities, chromatographic migration values, and growth activity, the factor is ribosyl-trans-zeatin, that is, 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-trans-2-butenylamino)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. Ribosylzeatin has now been isolated from tumor tissue by four experimental techniques; any possibility that it is an artifact seems to have been eliminated. Contrary to the report by Wood and colleagues, synthetic ribosylzeatin is precipitated from an aqueous solution by mercuric acetate, provided the complete precipitation procedure is utilized. These facts and others discussed strongly support our suggestion that ribosylzeatin was present in the preparation ("cytokinesin I") examined by Wood and colleagues in several biological assays. The reasons advanced by Wood and others for rejecting this suggestion have been found either not to be pertinent to the question or to have insufficient experimental bases.  (+info)

Although cytokinin plays a central role in plant development, little is known about cytokinin signal transduction. Five Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that exhibit typical cytokinin responses, including rapid cell division and shoot formation in tissue culture in the absence of exogenous cytokinin, were isolated by activation transferred DNA tagging. A gene, CKI1, which was tagged in four of the five mutants and induced typical cytokinin responses after introduction and overexpression in plants, was cloned. CKI1 encodes a protein similar to the two-component regulators. These results suggest that CKI1 is involved in cytokinin signal transduction, possibly as a cytokinin receptor. ...
The reduced sensitivity of some higher-order ahp mutants to cytokinin is consistent with the reduced cytokinin sensitivity observed with some higher-order mutant combinations of the cytokinin receptors and type-B ARRs (Higuchi et al., 2004; Nishimura et al., 2004; Mason et al., 2005) and with the model that these signaling elements act together in a phosphorelay that mediates the response to cytokinin. The more severe root growth phenotypes found in higher-order ahp mutants containing disruptions of AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 (e.g., ahp1,2,3,4,5) are similar to those of the cytokinin receptor triple mutant and wol alleles of CRE1, which have a short primary root (Scheres et al., 1995; Mähönen et al., 2000; de Leon et al., 2004; Higuchi et al., 2004; Nishimura et al., 2004; Kuroha et al., 2006). The reduced seed set and increased seed size observed in the ahp mutants is similar to some triple combinations of cytokinin receptor mutants and to transgenic plants that have lower levels of endogenous ...
We investigated the mechanism by which type-A ARRs regulate cytokinin signaling. Two distinct, but not mutually exclusive, models for this mechanism are proposed: one invokes phosphocompetition between the type-A and type-B ARRs, and the other involves phospho-dependent interactions of the type-A ARRs with target proteins (Figure 1A). To test these models, we generated two site-directed mutants targeting the Asp-87 residue of ARR5, ARR5D87A, and ARR5D87E. This Asp residue is conserved among response regulator family proteins and has been shown to be the target of bacterial two-component phosphorelay (Bourret et al., 1990; Stock et al., 2000; West and Stock, 2001). Substitutions at this conserved Asp have also been shown to abolish receiver domain phosphorylation in other ARRs (Kim et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2007a). In bacterial response regulators, this invariant Asp resides in the conserved active site of the receiver domain that actively catalyzes phosphotransfer from histidine kinases, Hpts, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 6-benzylaminopurine and its glycosides as naturally occurring cytokinins. AU - Nandi, S. K.. AU - Letham, D. S.. AU - Palni, L. M S. AU - Wong, O. C.. AU - Summons, R. E.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Primary crown gall tumours induced on stems on tomato plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens yielded extracts with pronounced cytokinin activity. By mass spectrometry and other methods, 6-benzylaminopurine and its 9-β-ribofuranoside were identified as cytokinins in the extracts which also contained a 9-hexoside of 6-benzylaminopurine.. AB - Primary crown gall tumours induced on stems on tomato plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens yielded extracts with pronounced cytokinin activity. By mass spectrometry and other methods, 6-benzylaminopurine and its 9-β-ribofuranoside were identified as cytokinins in the extracts which also contained a 9-hexoside of 6-benzylaminopurine.. KW - 6-benzylaminopurine. KW - 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. KW - endogenous cytokinins. KW - primary crown gall ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ectopic expression of KNOTTED1-like homeobox protein induces expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes in rice. AU - Sakamoto, Tomoaki. AU - Sakakibara, Hitoshi. AU - Kojima, Mikiko. AU - Yamamoto, Yuko. AU - Nagasaki, Hiroshi. AU - Inukai, Yoshiaki. AU - Sato, Yutaka. AU - Matsuoka, Makoto. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - Some phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) are potential targets of the KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) protein. To enhance our understanding of KNOX protein function in plant development, we identified rice (Oryza sativa) genes for adenosine phosphate isopentenyltransferase (IPT), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of CK biosynthesis. Molecular and biochemical studies revealed that there are eight IPT genes, OsIPT1 to OsIPT8, in the rice genome, including a pseudogene, OsIPT6. Overexpression of OsIPTs in transgenic rice inhibited root development and promoted axillary ...
MERCIER, Helenice et al. Endogenous auxin and cytokinin contents associated with shoot formation in leaves of pineapple cultured in vitro. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. [online]. 2003, vol.15, n.2, pp.107-112. ISSN 1677-9452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202003000200006.. The in vitro culture of pineapple leaves on a shoot induction medium (SIM) results in the formation of protuberances and further development in shoots, and plantlets. The contents of endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) and five cytokinins (Cks), N6(2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP), N6(2-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR) and N6-benzyladenine (BA), present in the basal portion of those leaves, were correlated to the organogenic response that occurs over 15 days of culture. The endogenous auxin/cytokinins ratio was lowest on the 3rd day, mainly due to a strong increase in the iP level. It seems that endogenous iP concentration triggered the induction signal for an organogenic response in pineapple leaf bases. ...
Cytokinins regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development, such as cell division, root and shoot growth, chloroplast development, and leaf senescence. Cytokinins are perceived by a signal transduction pathway that involves receptors, phosphotransfer proteins, and the type-B response regulators. Chloroplasts, in which photosynthesis occurs, are one of the important targets of cytokinins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which cytokinins regulate chloroplast biogenesis and the key steps that regulate their development from proplastids. By a mutant-based approach, characterization of the type-B response regulators of Arabidopsis ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 reveals their roles in chlorophyll production, cell division, light sensitivity, and cytokinin-mediated transcription. The findings support a model in which cytokinin regulates the downstream responses through the action of a multistep phosphorelay that culminates in transcriptional regulation by ARR1, ARR10, and ...
To query physiological processes potentially targeted by the transcript changes that occur in response to cytokinin, we analyzed the GO term enrichment of the cytokinin-regulated genes identified by RNA-seq using AmiGO (Carbon et al., 2009) and DAVID (Supplemental Fig. S1; Supplemental Table S5; Huang da et al., 2009). This analysis revealed not only the expected enrichment of genes involved in cytokinin signaling and metabolism, but also enrichment of genes involved in secondary metabolism (anthocyanin, flavonoid, and suberin biosynthetic pathways), nutrient assimilation (nitrate transport and iron binding), and reductase activities. An analysis of the golden list resulted in an enrichment of similar GO term categories and is also consistent with the GO term enrichment from a previous meta-analysis of cytokinin-regulated genes (Brenner et al., 2012).. The cytokinin-regulated genes present in the GO-enriched group cytokinin signaling and metabolism included almost all the type-A ARRs, the CRFs, ...
Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1,2]. Monoclonal antibodies were obtained for this receptor [3]. Several antibodies were able to regulate the basic function of the receptor: activation of cytokinin-dependent RNA synthesis [4]. At present we are studying the receptor content in plant organs and their parts (2 - 5 day old etiolated maize shoots) by immunochemical methods. Preliminary results are, in our opinion, very interesting. We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. Please help us to find colleagues possessing IPT transformed maize plants or planning to obtain transformants with controlled ...
Degradation of the plant hormone cytokinin is controlled by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. The molecular and cellular behavior of these proteins is still largely unknown. In this study, we show that CKX1 is a type-II single-pass membrane protein that predominantly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that this CKX isoform is a bona fide ER protein directly controlling the cytokinin which triggers the signaling from the ER. By using various approaches, we demonstrate that CKX1 forms homodimers and homooligomers in vivo. The N-terminal part of CKX1 was necessary and sufficient for the protein oligomerization as well as for targeting and retention in the ER. Moreover, we show that protein-protein interaction is largely facilitated by transmembrane helices and depends on a functional GxxxG-like interaction motif. Importantly, mutations rendering CKX1 monomeric interfere with its steady-state localization in the ER and cause a loss of the CKX1 biological ...
Plants, like all other organisms, need to assess and adapt to constant environmental changes throughout their life cycle. Defense responses to pathogens redirect cellular resources normally used in growth-related processes to the production of secondary metabolites, cell wall reinforcements and production of antimicrobial proteins. Immunity activation is therefore energetically costly, and requires complex mechanisms of regulation to allow for timely and appropriate levels of defense. Plant hormones are essential integrators of development and responses to the environment and as such are likely candidates for the regulation of physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. I have uncovered an interplay between the plant hormones cytokinin and salicylic acid that regulates the immune responses of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and is mediated by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism involving type-A response regulators and central defense signaling ...
The wealth of newly obtained proteomic information affords researchers the possibility of searching for proteins of a given structure or function. Here we describe a general method for the detection of a protein domain of interest in any species for which a complete proteome exists. In particular, we apply this approach to identify histidine phosphotransfer (HPt) domain-containing proteins across a range of eukaryotic species. From the sequences of known HPt domains, we created an amino acid occurrence matrix which we then used to define a conserved, probabilistic motif. Examination of various organisms either known to contain (plant and fungal species) or believed to lack (mammals) HPt domains established criteria by which new HPt candidates were identified and ranked. Search results using a probabilistic motif matrix compare favorably with data to be found in several commonly used protein structure/function databases: our method identified all known HPt proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Petr Galuszka, Jitka Frébortová, Tomás Werner, Mamoru Yamada, Miroslav Strnad, Thomas Schmülling, Ivo Frébort].
The plant hormone cytokinin controls root growth by balancing the division and differentiation of stem cells. But what controls accumulation of cytokinin? A new study has identified a regulatory loop between a transcription factor, PHABULOSA, and cytokinin biosynthesis that creates robust domains of cytokinin activity.. Current Biology 22 (21), R919-R921 ...
How biological systems generate reproducible patterns with high precision is a central question in science. The shoot apical meristem (SAM), a specialized tissue producing plant aerial organs, is a developmental system of choice to address this question. Organs are periodically initiated at the SAM at specific spatial positions and this spatiotemporal pattern defines phyllotaxis. Accumulation of the plant hormone auxin triggers organ initiation, whereas auxin depletion around organs generates inhibitory fields that are thought to be sufficient to maintain these patterns and their dynamics. Here we show that another type of hormone-based inhibitory fields, generated directly downstream of auxin by intercellular movement of the cytokinin signalling inhibitor ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6 (AHP6), is involved in regulating phyllotactic patterns. We demonstrate that AHP6-based fields establish patterns of cytokinin signalling in the meristem that contribute to the robustness of ...
The increase in the ratio of root growth to shoot growth that occurs in response to phosphate (Pi) deprivation is paralleled by a decrease in cytokinin levels under the same conditions. However, the role of cytokinin in the rescue system for Pi starvation remains largely unknown. We have isolated a gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtIPS1) that is induced by Pi starvation, and studied the effect of cytokinin on its expression in response to Pi deprivation. AtIPS1 belongs to the TPSI1/Mt4 family, the members of which are specifically induced by Pi starvation, and the RNAs of which contain only short, non-conserved open reading frames. Pi deprivation induces AtIPS1 expression in all cells of wild-type plants, whereas in the pho1 mutant grown on Pi-rich soils, AtIPS1 expression in the root was delimited by the endodermis. This supports the view that pho1 is impaired in xylem loading of Pi, and that long-distance signals controlling the Pi starvation responses act via negative control. Exogenous cytokinins
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most widely used technique for generating transgenic plants. However, many crops remain recalcitrant. We found that an Arabidopsis myb family transcription factor (MTF1) inhibited plant transformation susceptibility. Mutating MTF1 increased attachment of several Agrobacterium strains to roots and increased both stable and transient transformation in both susceptible and transformation-resistant Arabidopsis ecotypes. Cytokinins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens decreased the expression of MTF1 through activation of the cytokinin response regulator ARR3. Mutating AHK3 and AHK4, genes that encode cytokinin-responsive kinases, increased the expression of MTF1 and impaired plant transformation. Mutant mtf1 plants also had increased expression of AT14A, which encodes a putative transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules. Plants overexpressing AT14A exhibited increased susceptibility to transformation, whereas at14a mutant plants exhibited decreased attachment
Yrjö Helariutta, professor of developmental plant biology at the University of Helsinki, has been recruited to the University of Cambridge to continue his work there in the same capacity. Some of the members of Professor Helariuttas research group, approximately ten researchers in the Arabidopsis team, will move from Viikki to England.. Other members of the group, a handful of researchers focusing on vascular plants, will remain at the University of Helsinki, with Helariutta serving as their telecommuting superior.. The work of the vascular plant team and the Arabidopsis team is closely interconnected. Arabidopsis is known as the fruitfly of the plant world, a model organism which enables researchers to study the functions of genes quickly and cost-effectively in a laboratory setting. Many of the plants basic biological functions are identical to those of large trees.. Growth for the Helsinki group. Helariuttas research team demonstrated as early as 1999 that the plant hormone cytokinin ...
Metabolism and Molecular Activities of Cytokinins: Proceedings of the International Colloquium of the Centre National de La Recherche Scientifique, Held at GIF-Sur-Yvette (France), 2-6 September 1980 by J Guern starting at $31.24. Metabolism and Molecular Activities of Cytokinins: Proceedings of the International Colloquium of the Centre National de La Recherche Scientifique, Held at GIF-Sur-Yvette (France), 2-6 September 1980 has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris UK
Kojima Mikiko , Kamada-Nobusada Tomoe , Komatsu Hirokazu , TAKEI Kentaro , KUROHA Takeshi , MIZUTANI Masaharu , ASHIKARI Motoyuki , UEGUCHI TANAKA Miyako , MATSUOKA Makoto , SUZUKI Koji , SAKAKIBARA Hitoshi Plant and cell physiology 50(7), 1201-1214, 2009-07-01 参考文献50件 被引用文献9件 ...
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Kieber, PhD, professor and associate chair of biology at UNC Chapel Hill, and Eric Schaller, PhD, professor of biological sciences and in the Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program at Dartmouth College, she is applying her expertise in plant biology, bioinformatics and analytical software development to understand the role cytokinins play in the growth and development of rice. Cytokinins are plant hormones that are part of cell growth and differentiation primarily in the roots and shoots.. We are looking at how cytokinins regulate the number of grains and grain size, Loraine said commenting on the purpose of the NSF grant. Ivory Clabaugh, who works as a research technician in my lab, has been working out conditions for growing rice in indoors. Shes found that depending on growth conditions, you might get lots of grains where most of them are almost an empty husk. The process of grains getting larger is called filling and it depends in part on cytokinin levels.. Loraines lab uses a ...
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In moss only tRNA-IPTs but no adenylate IPTs are present (Schwartzenberg et al.2007). Adenylate IPTs are the major source of cytokinins in higher plants. The moss also differs by having more tRNA-IPTs than any other organism known. The first goal was to determine if these IPTs actually modify tRNA, or if one or more are in fact cytokinin synthases. For these studies a yeast mutant (MT8) lacking the intrinsic IPT gene was used. The mutant was transformed with the IPT from P. patens. The tRNA obtained from MT8 was used for in vitro assays to study the substrate specificity of the Arabidopsis AtIPT2.. , tRNA isopentenyltransferaser (tRNA-IPT, EG 2.5.1.8) har två funktioner, modifiera tRNA och bidra till cytokinin syntes. tRNA-IPT är bland de bäst studerade av alla tRNA enzymer, men trots detta finns endast lite biokemisk information tillgänglig, och ingenting är känt om växtenzymerna. Därför utfördes två experiment ...
Cytokinins are N (6) substituted adenine derivatives that affect many aspects of plant growth and development, including cell division, shoot initiation and growth, leaf senescence, apical dominance, sink/source relationships, nutrient uptake, phyllotaxis, and vascular, gametophyte, and embryonic de …
Plants in ecosystems are simultaneously exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses, which restrict plant growth and development. The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, which in turn, orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to manoeuvre stress tolerance. The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defence regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. The JcPR-10a overexpression resulted in increased number of shoot buds in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which could be due to high cytokinin to auxin ratio in the transgenics. The docking analysis shows the binding of three BAP molecules at the active sites of JcPR-10a protein. JcPR-10a transgenics showed enhanced salt tolerance, as was evident by increased germination rate, shoot and root length, relative water content, proline, soluble sugar and amino acid content under salinity. Interestingly, the transgenics also showed enhanced endogenous cytokinin level as compared to
To understand the cytokinin-regulated transcriptome, we analyzed gene expression in response to cytokinin in roots and shoots of plant rice.
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It is an object of the present invention to clarify an enzyme gene capable of directly regulating the amount of active cytokinins synthesized and to provide a transformed plant with a regulated amount of cytokinins using the aforementioned gene. The present invention provides a transformed plant into which a gene defined in any one of the following (a) to (d) is introduced: (a) a gene consisting of a DNA consisting of the nucleotide sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15; (b) a gene consisting of a DNA which hybridizes under stringent conditions to a DNA consisting of a nucleotide sequence complementary to a DNA consisting of the nucleotide sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 and encodes a protein having activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins; (c) a gene encoding a protein consisting of the amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16; or
Does anyone have information regarding acquisition of antibodies against cytokinins? These will be used for immunolocalization of cytokinins in roots. Also, I would be interested to hear any comments concerning the use of antibodies to locate cytokinins in plant tissues. Thanks in advance...............................stuart baum sfbaum at ucdavis.edu ...
Cytokinin application to dormant buds will cause them to develop. A witches broom is caused by a pathogen such as the bacterium Corynebacterium fascians (or A. tumefaciens) that produces cytokinin which, in turn, causes stimulates lateral bud development (branching). These results suggest that apical dominance may be related to cytokinin, too.. For example, when tobacco cells are infected with the Ti-plasmid that has been modified to possess the heat shock promoter, a heat treatment stimulates the cells to produce increased amounts of cytokinin. These plants exhibit less apical dominance and remain green longer than non-heat treated controls. Thus, these results support the conclusion that senescence and apical dominance are related to cytokinin levels.. G. Promote cell ...
Cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX; EC 1.5.99.12) degrades cytokinin hormones in plants. There are several differently targeted isoforms of CKX in plant cells. While most CKX enzymes appear to be localized in the apoplast or vacuoles, there is generally only one CKX per plant genome that lacks a translocation signal and presumably functions in the cytosol. The only extensively characterized maize CKX is the apoplastic ZmCKX1; a maize gene encoding a non-secreted CKX has not previously been cloned or characterized. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the maize non-secreted CKX gene (ZmCKX10), elucidate the subcellular localization of ZmCKX10, and compare its biochemical properties with those of ZmCKX1. Expression profiling of ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX10 was performed in maize tissues to determine their transcript abundance and organ-specific expression. For determination of the subcellular localization, the CKX genes were fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and overexpressed in tomato hairy ...
Phytohormones are known for their pivotal roles in promoting normal growth and development of the plants and contributing to the mechanism of defense. Although an over simplification, however, they may be categorized as stress specific and growth promoting. SA and JA/Ethylene are implicated in stress responses while auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins are involved in developmental processes. Phytohormones from the above perspective got much attention in the last few decades; however their reciprocal role is currently in focus. It is because of the reason that plant pathogens cause overall hormonal imbalance at host pathogen interface and alter host physiology for the sake of pathogenecity. Despite their importance in growth and development, cytokinins are among the most neglected phytohormones that are usually noticed as consequence rather than a cause of pathogen infection. Results presented in this thesis are based on the hypothesis that elevated levels of CKs embody plants with resistance ...
Genes for histidyl-aspartyl (His-Asp) phosphorelay components (His-containing phosphotransfer proteins, HP, and response regulators, RR) were isolated from Zea mays L. to characterize their function in cytokinin signaling. Six type-A RRs (ZmRR1, ZmRR2, ZmRR4-ZmRR7), 3 type-B RRs (ZmRR8-ZmRR10), and …
1I5N: Crystal structure of the CheA histidine phosphotransfer domain that mediates response regulator phosphorylation in bacterial chemotaxis
1I5N: Crystal structure of the CheA histidine phosphotransfer domain that mediates response regulator phosphorylation in bacterial chemotaxis
This study aims to identify genes which are differentially expressed in root and/or shoot material in response to exogenous cytokinin. Roots and shoots were collected separately.
Hajheidari, M.; Wang, Y.; Bhatia, N.; Vuolo, F.; Franco-Zorrilla, J. M.; Karady, M.; Mentink, R. A.; Wu, A.; Rilwan Oluwatobi, B. R.; Müller, B. et al.; Dello Ioio, R.; Laurent, S.; Ljung, K.; Huijser, P.; Gan, X.; Tsiantis, M.: Autoregulation of RCO by low-affinity binding modulates cytokinin action and shapes leaf diversity. Current Biology (2019 ...
The two-component system is involved in several developmental events and different responses to the environment. Histidine-containing phosphotransfer prote
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Description: The chemical reactions and pathways involving cytokinins, a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.. ...
that cell b. Thus cells need external signals to coordinate growth and development c. Plant hormones do this coordination 2. How hormones work: a. Act in low concentrations b. Function as internal signals c. How plant hormones initiate their effects is not fully understood d. Effects of hormones overlap e. Plant hormones coordinate: (1) Cell division - new cell production as a result of mitosis (2) Cell growth - increases in cell size and organ size (3) Differentiation - specialization in structure and function of the cell 3. Five classes of hormones: a. Auxins b. Gibberellins c. Cytokinins d. Ethylene e. Abscisic Acid B. Auxins 1. First detected in the coleoptiles of grass because auxin stimulated elongation of the ...
The correct answer is Cytokinin. Key Points Cytokinin: Cytokinin is defined as a number of plant hormones that influence growth and the stimul
These past weeks we have been seeing some beautiful autumn colours on trees and shrubs, as well as a good deal of falling leaves. You might be curious to know about the biochemical changes that are happening inside plants that make for these attractive autumn displays. To understand these changes horticulturalists learn about five important plant hormones and how they effect the plant.. There are the growth hormones, the auxins which cause cell division and enlargement, the gibberellins which control stem extension growth and dormancy, and the cytokinins with stimulate cell division and are responsible for the bushy side growth plants put on once the growing tip of the main stem has been removed, for example when you pinch out the tip of your young sweet pea plants because you want to encourage the plants to become more bushy. These three hormone groups are responsible for regulating the growth of a plant.. The other two hormones are abscisic acid and ethylene, and these are not growth ...
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Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce substantial levels of cytokinins. In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this objective, a sequence of methods was developed which allowed the isolation, purification and rigorous chemical identification of cytokinins at the sub-microgram level. The first step of purification utilized the adsorption of cytokinins onto C18 silica by a process known as trace enrichment. Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by bioassay. Material in biologically active fractions was permethylated and analyzed by combined capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A. tumefaciens tRNA was found ...
Conversely, cytokinin regulates auxin biosynthesis. By measuring the incorporation of deuterium into IAA by gas chromatography - multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-MRM-MS), Jones et al. (Jones et al., 2010) observed that treatment with various cytokinins led to increased auxin synthesis in young leaves, the shoot apex and the root system; this effect was amplified in the cytokinin hypersensitive ARR mutant arr3 arr4 arr5 arr6. By contrast, treatment of the cytokinin-insensitive quadruple AHP mutant ahp1 ahp2 ahp3 ahp4 resulted in a decrease in IAA biosynthesis, suggesting that the relationship between cytokinin signalling and auxin synthesis may not be straightforward; roots of this mutant also had a higher baseline rate of IAA biosynthesis than wild type, further hinting at the complexity of this interaction. Cytokinin treatments did not increase IAA biosynthesis in the axr3-1 mutant, which is hypersensitive to auxin because the increased stability of the AXR3/IAA17 protein; ...
In Arabidopsis, lateral root formation is a post-embryonic developmental event, which is regulated by hormones and environmental signals. In this study, via analyzing the expression of cyclin genes during lateral root (LR) formation, we report that cytokinins (CTKs) inhibit the initiation of LR through blocking the pericycle founder cells cycling at the G2 to M transition phase, while the promotion by CTK of LR elongation is due to the stimulation of the G1 to S transition. No significant difference was detected in the inhibitory effect of CTK on LR formation between wild-type plants and mutants defective in auxin response or transport. In addition, exogenously applied auxin at different concentrations could not rescue the CTK-mediated inhibition of LR initiation. Our data suggest that CTK and auxin might control LR initiation through two separate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The CTK-mediated repression of LR initiation is transmitted through the two-component signal system and mediated by ...
Arabidopsis thaliana L. is a model plant but little information is available about morphological root changes as part of a phytohormonal common response against both biotic and abiotic stressors. For this purpose, two-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with 10 µM CdSO4 or infected with CMV. After 12 days the entire aerial parts and the root system were analyzed, and the presence of CMV or the accumulation of Cd were detected. Microscopic analysis revealed that both CMV and Cd influenced root morphology by a marked development in the length of root hairs and an intense root branching if compared to controls. Among the three treatments, Cd-treated seedlings showed a shorter root axis length and doubled their lateral root diameter, while the lateral roots of CMV-infected seedlings were the longest. The root growth patterns were accompanied by significant changes in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside, as a probable consequence of the regulation of
Cytokinins are prenylated derivatives of adenine. In zeatin, which is the most common cytokinin, the amino group of adenine is linked with the hydroxy
Vegetative propagation is most effective when individuals of demonstrated superior characteristic can be propagated. For this reason, a method for the induction of adventitious buds on cultured Douglas-fir shoot tips from 20-25 year old trees was developed. Douglas-fir shoot tips failed to survive and grow on a full strength Murashige and Skoog (M&S) mineral salt medium without growth regulators but would if the KNO3 and NH4NO3 levels were reduced to onefourth original strength. On a medium containing 10-4M N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.0 or 1O-7M napthaleneacetic acid (NM) adventitious buds formed on the needle primordia of the shoot tips. These adventitious buds formed only when the basal medium contained one-fourth strength NH4NO3 suggesting that the NH4 ion level in the medium affected adventitious bud formation. Other cytokinins, including kinetin and zeatin when applied at 10-4M would also induce adventitious bud formation, while N6-isopentenylpurine (2iP) even when applied at 10-3M did ...
Involved in cytokinin biosynthesis. Catalyzes the transfer of an isopentenyl group from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to ATP and ADP.
Chemical names: trans-Zeatin, Zeatine, (E)-2-methyl-4-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol. CAS: 1637-39-4. EC: N/A. Purity: 97%. Melting Point: N/A. Boiling Point: N/A. Flash Point: N/A. Description/Usage: Zeatin is a cytokinin derived from adenine. Zeatin was discovered in immature corn kernels from the genus Zea. It promotes growth of lateral buds and when sprayed on meristems stimulates cell division to produce bushier plants.. Zeatin has a variety of effects including:. Promotes callus initiation when combined with auxin, concentration 1 ppm ...
The question has always been how cytokinin regulates so many different processes within a plant, said Eric Schaller, a professor of biological sciences at Dartmouth College. Now we know the genes that are the primary targets of cytokinin, and we can provide the toolbox for manipulating the plant hormone response.. According to the paper, results from the analysis shed light on the physiological role of the type-B ARRs in regulating the cytokinin response, the mechanism of type-B ARR activation, and the basis by which cytokinin regulates diverse aspects of growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic factors.. As part of the study, conducted in collaboration with the University of North Carolina Charlotte and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, researchers were able to use the new understanding of how cytokinin works to grow shoots in tissue culture under conditions in which these plant organs normally do not form.. To make the plant tissues grow shoots in ...
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Cytokinins are a rank of insert hormones with adenine round structure. The typical side is in the sixth grade of adenine sphere has a specific substituent Their physiological functions prominently performance in promoting cell schism and cause germinate formation The discovery of cytokinins and its physiological function In 1948US. Skog and China Cui Cheng found […]. ...
Fig. 1. Sensitivity of detection of Rhodococcus fascians using extracted DNA and bacterial cells. (B) Standard curve of Ct values calculated from 10-fold serial dilutions of Rf-1 cells ranging from 2.5 × 106 CFU to 2.5 × 100 CFU per PCR reaction. Three separate real-time PCR amplifications using a combination of the Rf-229F/Rf-408R primer pair and probe Rf-366P were performed for each dilution. The straight line was calculated by linear regression (Microsoft Excel). ...
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:170476 ID - pug01:170476 LA - eng TI - The Rhodococcus fascians-plant interaction: morphological traits and biotechnological applications PY - 2000 JO - (2000) PLANTA SN - 0032-0935 PB - 2000 AU - Vereecke, Danny UGent 801000761004 AU - Burssens, Sylvia LA59 001981143255 AU - Simón-Mateo, Carmen AU - Inzé, Dirk WE09 801000556997 0000-0002-3217-8407 AU - Van Montagu, Marc AU - Goethals, Koen CA05 WE09 801000657536 0000-0003-0364-0233 AU - Jaziri, Mondher AB - Rhodococcus fascians is a Gram-positive bacterium that infects dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, leading to an alteration in the normal growth process of the host. The disease results from the modulation of the plant hormone balances, and cytokinins are thought to play an important role in the induction of symptoms. Generally, on the aerial parts of the plants, existing meristems were found to be most sensitive to the action of R. fascians, but, depending on the infection ...
This post touches on a lot of things. I wasnt aware of just how many things interlinked in this story. So I hope you enjoy the story of the discovery of cytokinins, and the connections made herein. This year is the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the first cytokinin, kinetin. And this one is…
Cytokinins are plant hormones that help to coordinate plant growth and development in response to different environmental triggers. They primarily differ from one another in their side-chains-chemical modifications that ...
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Cytokinins are natural plant growth hormones and Nitrozime provides plenty of them to plants. Nitrozime assists in all stages of the growth process. Nitrozime helps pla
The methods for the introduction of tritium (by chemical synthesis and isotope exchange in both solution and solid state) into biologically active diazines, viz., nucleic acid components (heterocyclic bases, nucleosides, nucleotides), DNA synthesis terminators and cytokinins are considered. The bibliography
Cytokinin riboside 5-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolaseA cytokinin riboside 5-phosphate + H2O = a cytokinin + D-ribose 5-phosphateN6-(Delta2-isopentenyl)-adenosine 5-phosphate + H2O = N6-(dimethylallyl)adenine + D-ribose 5-phosphateTrans-zeatin riboside phosphate + H2O = trans-zeatin + D-ribose 5-phosphate ...
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The Congress President H Ottoline Leyser (Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) gave the opening lecture on the regulation of shoot branching and its plasticity in response to ever-changing environmental conditions. The outgrowth of buds is controlled by the interplay between several phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin and strigolactones. Auxin is transported downwards from the shoot tip and inhibits bud outgrowth, whereas cytokinins, which are produced primarily in roots and transported upward to buds, promote bud outgrowth. Strigolactones, which are produced in roots and shoots and transported to buds to repress bud activity, negatively regulate the activity of auxin efflux carriers called PIN proteins, and reduce the transport of auxin from the shoot tip to buds. Leyser concluded that the downward movement of auxin in the main stem inhibits bud activity by preventing auxin transport out of buds, whereas strigolactones dampen auxin transport and enhance competition between ...
Cell, Knowledge, Lead, Tissues, Water, Mouse, Cellulose, Cell Division, Cell Enlargement, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cotyledon, Cotyledons, Cytokinins, Germination, Growth, Permits, Seedlings, Seeds, Senescence
function move_item(&$ref_arr, $key1, $move, $key2 = null) { $arr = $ref_arr; if($key2 == null) $key2 = $key1; if(!isset($arr[$key1]) ,, !isset($arr[$key2])) return false; $i = 0; foreach($arr as &$val) $val = array(sort =, (++$i * 10), val =, $val); if(is_numeric($move)) { if($move == 0 && $key1 == $key2) return true; elseif($move == 0) { $tmp = $arr[$key1][sort]; $arr[$key1][sort] = $arr[$key2][sort]; $arr[$key2][sort] = $tmp; } else $arr[$key1][sort] = $arr[$key2][sort] + ($move * 10 + ($key1 == $key2 ? ($move , 0 ? -5 : 5) : 0)); } else { switch($move) { case up: $arr[$key1][sort] = $arr[$key2][sort] - ($key1 == $key2 ? 15 : 5); break; case down: $arr[$key1][sort] = $arr[$key2][sort] + ($key1 == $key2 ? 15 : 5); break; case top: $arr[$key1][sort] = 5; break; case bottom: $arr[$key1][sort] = $i * 10 + 5; break; default: return false; } } uasort($arr, function($a, $b) { return $a[sort] , $b[sort]; }); foreach($arr as &$val) $val = $val[val]; $ref_arr = ...
Overview: The American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) records, 1913-1952 (inclusive), 1932-1941 (bulk), principally consist of correspondence, meeting minutes, and Board of Censors materials generated as a product of routine ARRS administration and member activities during the 1930s and early 1940s ...
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People care. They help one another. And in every online group there are several type-A mavens, who seem to know every single thing about the condition. These people are awesome. Get two or three of them feeding you information (and sources, dont forget SOURCES for any ideas and treatments that you hear about. Anything that you give to your doctor must be valid.) At any rate, get two or three of these people and its like having Superman on your side ...
Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They were called kinins in the ... Cytokinins and auxins often work together, and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect most major growth ... Sipes DL, Einset JW (August 1983). "Cytokinin stimulation of abscission in lemon pistil explants". J Plant Growth Regul. 2 (1-3 ... Cytokinins counter the apical dominance induced by auxins; they in conjunction with ethylene promote abscission of leaves, ...
Similarly, in Dictyostelium discoideum (slime mold), SDF-2 and cytokinins are secreted during late development to trigger ... Anjard, C.; Loomis, W. F. (2008). "Cytokinins induce sporulation in Dictyostelium". Development. 135 (5): 819-27. doi:10.1242/ ...
Although there are many factors that attribute coconut milk to plant growth, the main cause is the existence of a cytokinin ... Mok, David W. S.; Mok, Machteld C. (1994). Cytokinins: Chemistry, Activity, and Function. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-6252-0. Bajaj ...
Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene. 7: 231-248. Yang SF, Hoffman NE (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ...
1994). Cytokinins: chemistry, activity and function. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-6252-1. Barciszewski, J.; ... Kinetin (/'kaɪnɪtɪn/) is a type of cytokinin, a class of plant hormone that promotes cell division. Kinetin was originally ...
and cytokinin action. Hepler's research is currently aimed at finding the ionic and molecular components that make up the ... Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1982). "Calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates cytokinin-like mitosis in Funaria". Science. 217 ( ... Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1981). "Localization of membrane-associated calcium following cytokinin treatment in Funaria ...
Other names in common use include beta-(9-cytokinin)-alanine synthase, beta-(9-cytokinin)alanine synthase, O-acetyl-L-serine ... doi:10.1016/0031-9422(83)83008-8. Mok DWS; Mok MC (2001). "Cytokinin metabolism and action". Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant ... Entsch B, Parker CW, Letham DS (1983). "An enzyme from lupin seeds forming alanine derivatives of cytokinins". Phytochemistry. ...
... for cytokinin-like compounds". Bioinformation. 5 (5): 191-197. doi:10.6026/97320630005191. ISSN 0973-2063. PMC 3040498. PMID ...
Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They also help delay senescence of ... Cytokinins and auxins often work together, and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect most major growth ... Cytokinins counter the apical dominance induced by auxins; in conjunction with ethylene, they promote abscission of leaves, ... They also promote the production of other hormones and, in conjunction with cytokinins, control the growth of stems, roots, and ...
In this connection, cytokinins have been found to play a role in the development of root fixing nodules. It appears that not ... Frugier F, Kosuta S, Murray JD, Crespi M, Szczyglowski K (March 2008). "Cytokinin: secret agent of symbiosis". Trends in Plant ... only must the plant have a need for nitrogen fixing bacteria, but they must also be able to synthesize cytokinins which promote ...
Genes for the production of cytokinins are also expressed. This stimulates cell proliferation and gall formation. The T-DNA ...
Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene Yang, S. F.; Hoffman N. E. (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived ...
When auxin and cytokinin are applied to callus, rooting can be generated with higher auxin to cytokinin ratios, shoot growth is ... For example, the ratio of auxin to cytokinin in certain plant tissues determines initiation of root versus shoot buds. On the ... ALONI, R.; ALONI, E.; LANGHANS, M.; ULLRICH, C. I. (May 2006). "Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: ... Auxin also stimulates cell division if cytokinins are present. ... such as strigolactones or cytokinins) in the process on various ...
2013). "Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence" (PDF). ... They can also increase root branching by inducing cytokinins in the plant. These branching patterns can become so extensive ... These include flavonoids, diterpenes, cytokinins, hormones and other nutrients. Some host-released metabolites have been shown ...
Liu, W. Z.; Kong, D. D.; Gu, X. X.; Gao, H. B.; Wang, J. Z.; Xia, M.; He, Y. K. (2013). "Cytokinins can act as suppressors of ... Abscisic acid and cytokinin. Atmospheric nitric oxide can enter the stomates of most vascular species, and can have effects ...
Furthermore, we have gathered that cytokinins also play a crucial role. This is interesting because cytokinin works ... The cytokinins cause the degradation of the auxin transporting PIN1 proteins, which prevents auxin from accumulating in the ... The nhr1 plants would begin to show hydrotropic response only in the presence of kinetin, which is a type of cytokinin. This ... mutant of Arabidopsis recovers root hydrotropism with cytokinin". Journal of Experimental Botany. 63 (10): 3587-3601. doi: ...
Cytokinin signaling is positively reinforced by WUS to prevent the inhibition of cytokinin signaling, while WUS promotes its ... The function of WUS in the shoot apical meristem is linked to the phytohormone cytokinin. Cytokinin activates histidine kinases ... Type-B ARRs work as transcription factors to activate genes downstream of cytokinin, including A-ARRs. A-ARRs are similar to B- ... As a result, B-ARRs are no longer inhibited, causing sustained cytokinin signaling in the center of the shoot apical meristem. ...
Taphrina species have been shown to produce cytokinin. A layer of asci emerge within the lesions on the bottom of the leaf. ...
LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila (2002-04-01). "Plants in the Pink: Cytokinin Production by ...
When auxin and cytokinin are applied to callus, rooting can be generated with higher auxin to cytokinin ratios, shoot growth is ... Crown galls are caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria; they produce and excrete auxin and cytokinin, which interfere ... For example, the ratio of auxin to cytokinin in certain plant tissues determines initiation of root versus shoot buds. ... Auxin also stimulates cell division if cytokinins are present. ... such as strigolactones or cytokinins) in the process on various ...
Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes late in development prevents leaf ... A withdrawal of or inability of the cell to perceive cytokinin may cause it to undergo apoptosis or senescence. In addition, ... Ivanova M., and Rost T. L., (1998). "Cytokinins and the plant cell cycle: Problems and pitfalls of proving their function". ... Parallels to cell division - the theory, perhaps even more controversially, asserts that just as both auxin and cytokinin seem ...
Examples include abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Most hormones initiate a cellular response by ...
These include auxin, abscisic acid, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene. Once bound, hormones can induce, inhibit, or maintain ...
It demonstrates both cytokinin-like and auxin-like activity. Phloroglucinol increases shoot formation and somatic embryogenesis ...
DPU is a cytokinin, a type of plant hormone that induces flower development. It occurs in coconut milk. The cytokinin effect of ... Effect of cytokinin-active phenylurea derivatives on shoot multiplication. T. Genkov and I. Ivanova, Bulg. J. Plant Physiol., ... DPU is relatively low, but other more potent phenylurea-type cytokinins have been reported. Shantz, E. M.; Steward, F. C. (1955 ...
Birgit Hadeler; Sirkka Scholz; Ralf Reski (1995). "Gelrite and agar differently influence cytokinin-sensitivity of a moss". ...
Biochemical changes at the apex, particularly those caused by cytokinins, accompany this process. Usually flower induction is ...
Specific auxin to cytokinin ratios in plant tissue culture medium give rise to an unorganized growing and dividing mass of ... Beutelmann, P.; Bauer, L. (1 January 1977). "Purification and identification of a cytokinin from moss callus cells". Planta. ... cytokinin, and gibberellin, to initiate callus formation or somatic embryogenesis. Callus initiation has been described for all ...
ISBN 0-13-144329-1. Birgit Hadeler, Sirkka Scholz, Ralf Reski (1995). "Gelrite and agar differently influence cytokinin- ...
Cytokinins - Cytokinins regulate root apical meristem size and promote lateral root elongation. ... In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the ...
Cytokinin. Cytokinin, any of a number of plant growth substances that are usually derived from adenine. Synthesized in roots, ... cytokinins move upward in the xylem (woody tissue) and pass into the leaves and fruits, where they are required for normal ...
... are N (6) substituted adenine derivatives that affect many aspects of plant growth and development, including cell ... and how other signaling pathways influence cytokinin levels and sensitivity though modulation of the expression of cytokinin ... Cytokinins Arabidopsis Book. 2014 Jan 2;12:e0168. doi: 10.1199/tab.0168. ... Cytokinins are N (6) substituted adenine derivatives that affect many aspects of plant growth and development, including cell ...
... and key genes for the metabolism and actions of cytokinins have recently been identified. Cytokinins are perceived by three ... Perception and signal transduction of cytokinins.. Kakimoto T1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biology, Graduate School ... Cytokinins are plant hormones implicated in diverse and essential processes in plant growth and development, ... On the other hand, the type-A ARRs act as repressors of cytokinin-activated transcription. How phosphorelay regulate response ...
The ratio of auxin to cytokinin plays an important role in the effect of cytokinin on plant growth. Cytokinin alone has no ... Cytokinin signaling in plants is mediated by a two-component phosphorelay. This pathway is initiated by cytokinin binding to a ... Cytokinins have recently been found to play a role in plant pathogenesis. For example, cytokinins have been described to induce ... When cytokinin is added, the cells expand and differentiate. When cytokinin and auxin are present in equal levels, the ...
The first cytokinin was discovered from Herring (an oily fish from genus Clupea) sperm DNA by Miller et al. in... ... Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances which promote cell division. ... Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances which promote cell division. The first cytokinin was discovered from ... Osugi A, Sakakibara H (2015) Q&A: how do plants respond to cytokinins and what is their importance? BMC Biol 13:102CrossRef ...
... Stuart Baum sfbaum at UCDAVIS.EDU Wed Apr 5 14:32:32 EST 1995 *Previous message: Rattling the weed (with ... Also, I would be interested to hear any comments concerning the use of antibodies to locate cytokinins in plant tissues. Thanks ... Does anyone have information regarding acquisition of antibodies against cytokinins? These will be used for immunolocalization ...
Galuszka P, Frébort I, Šebela M, Sauer P, Jacobsen S, Peč P (2001). "Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? Mechanism of cytokinin ... In enzymology, a cytokinin dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N6- ... and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase abbreviated as CKX. As of late 2007, 6 structures have been solved for this class of ... reduced acceptor The 3 substrates of this enzyme are cytokinin (here represented by N6-dimethylallyladenine), electron acceptor ...
The activities of cytokinin glucosides and alanine conjugates in cytokinin bioassays. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 2(1-4 ... The cytokinin content of control and clubroot-infected galls. The complex nature of cytokinin biosynthesis, conjugation and ... The cytokinin content of control and clubroot-infected Arabidopsis plants. Active, precursor and conjugated cytokinin content ... The impact of pathogen-derived cytokinins on the total cytokinin content of infected tissue and host gene expression was ...
... regulating the amount of active cytokinins synthesized and to provide a transformed plant with a regulated amount of cytokinins ... 15 and encodes a protein having activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins ... amino acid residues and has activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins. ... has had a function to catalyze reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins (a cytokinin activation ...
Cytokinin effects in Arabidopsis depend on cell type, environment, and developmental stage, with the response often involving ... Cytokinin effects in Arabidopsis depend on cell type, environment, and developmental stage, with the response often involving ...
... with and without added cytokinin and measured the expression of a cytokinin-responsive reporter gene. The CKI1 sensor is ... The ability of CKI1 and ARR2 to promote cytokinin-mediated phenotypes was confirmed in transfected plants. The cytokinin ... I. Hwang, J. Sheen, Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction. Nature 413, 383-389 (2001). [Online ... Expression of the A-type ARR proteins resulted in inhibition of the cytokinin-stimulated reporter gene activity, and expression ...
Our research is open for cooperation and joint studies of the mechanisms of cytokinin reception and cytokinin signal ... Investigation of cytokinin receptor from maize. Feodor A. Brovko brovko at fibkh.serpukhov.su Wed Jul 1 22:17:50 EST 1998 * ... Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? Previously, we ... We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, ...
Cytokinins: metabolism and function in plant adaptation to environmental stresses.. Ha S1, Vankova R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, ... In plants, the cytokinin (CK) phytohormones regulate numerous biological processes, including responses to environmental ...
Cytokinin production by species of the fungus Taphrina by James Clelland Johnston; 1 edition; First published in 1973; Subjects ... Are you sure you want to remove ,strong,Cytokinin production by species of the fungus Taphrina,/strong, from your list? ...
... purin derivatives as cytokinin re-ceptor antagonists to provide cytokinin analogons for growth regulation in plants and to ... Cytokinins are plant hormones involved in cell division, shoot meristem and leaf formation, chloroplast biogenesis, and ... The potent naturally occurring cytokinin N6-isopentenyladenine served as the basis for initial structure-activity studies. ,/p ... offer the possibility for a specific selectivity for cytokinin receptors without being toxic for animal cells. The derivatives ...
Cytokinin transport. It was originally thought that cytokinins were synthesized in the roots and then transported to the shoots ... Cytokinin functions in plant development. Cytokinins play many roles in plant development, often acting in concert with other ... 2016). Cytokinin response factors integrate auxin and cytokinin pathways for female reproductive organ development. Development ... Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. Cytokinins are perceived by membrane- ...
Here, we identify a target of the IKU pathway, the cytokinin oxidase CKX2, that affects cytokinin signaling. CKX2 expression is ... To monitor the level of cytokinin activity in vivo, we used a cytokinin reporter construct that consists of an artificial ... a member of a family of enzymes involved in catabolism of the plant hormone cytokinin (29). Cytokinin controls growth and cell ... The high level of cytokinin activity found in endosperm suggested that the plant hormone cytokinin regulates growth of seed ...
The first step of purification utilized the adsorption of cytokinins onto C18 silica by a process known as trace enrichment. ... In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced ... Possible mechanisms for the production of these cytokinins were discussed. Preliminary evidence on three strains of A. ... Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by ...
"Cytokinin oxidase 2 is expressed in the flower buds and degrades cytokinin. We found that the expression level of cytokinin ... Controlling cytokinin. If cytokinin biosynthesis or activation is artificially adjustable, it might also be possible to improve ... "Little had been known about cytokinin activation. Although science textbooks taught that cytokinin becomes activated in two ... Is it therefore possible to control the biosynthesis, activation, and degradation of cytokinin? "Cytokinin is structurally a ...
These cytokinin responses in Arabidopsis are at least partly triggered through the recognition of cytokinins by the sensor ... Residual cytokinin responses observed with the arr1-1 mutant may have been provided by ARR2. In addition to ARR6, other type A ... Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones involved in various physiological events of plants. The Arabidopsis sensor histidine ... In Arabidopsis, cytokinin receptors, ethylene receptors, and, possibly, osmosensors are histidine kinases (3, 4, 23-25). ...
Cytokinin Signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Marie I. Samanovic, Hao-Chi Hsu, Marcus B. Jones, Victoria Jones, Michael R. ... Cytokinin Signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Marie I. Samanovic, Hao-Chi Hsu, Marcus B. Jones, Victoria Jones, Michael R. ... Cytokinin Signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Marie I. Samanovic, Hao-Chi Hsu, Marcus B. Jones, Victoria Jones, Michael R ... Here, we show cytokinins induced the strong expression of the M. tuberculosis gene Rv0077c. We found that Rv0077c expression is ...
Although cytokinin plays a central role in plant development, little is known about cytokinin signal transduction. Five ... These results suggest that CKI1 is involved in cytokinin signal transduction, possibly as a cytokinin receptor. ... CKI1, a Histidine Kinase Homolog Implicated in Cytokinin Signal Transduction Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... A gene, CKI1, which was tagged in four of the five mutants and induced typical cytokinin responses after introduction and ...
Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Cytokinins in Plant Tissues. V. Identification of the Cytokinin Complex of Datura Innoxia Crown ... The cytokinin complex of Datura innoxia Mill. crown gall tissue was purified by ion exchange, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and ... Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Cytokinins in Plant Tissues Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 2H-labeled compounds, the following cytokinins were identified in the basic ...
Products for sale include auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and other major growth regulators commonly used in plant cell ...
Cytokinin and its biosynthesis. (A) Common cytokinins found in plants include the isoprenoid cytokinins trans-zeatin (tz) and ... The effect of cytokinin on PIN1 was reduced in the cre1 and cre1 ahk2 cytokinin receptor mutants, confirming that this ... Histidine kinases: the cytokinin receptors. The first indication of a link between cytokinin and the bacterial TCS was the ... Reduction of cytokinin signalling in the cytokinin receptor mutants or by induction of CKI expression in the vascular domain ...
Cytokinin Targets Auxin Transport to Promote Shoot Branching Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant ... Cytokinin promotes the accumulation of PIN3-GFP, PIN4-GFP, and PIN7-GFP on the basal plasma membrane of xylem parenchyma cells ... arr1 buds have wild-type responses to auxin and cytokinin but are resistant to strigolactone. Wild-type (A and C) or arr1 (B ... Cytokinin Targets Auxin Transport to Promote Shoot Branching. Tanya Waldie, Ottoline Leyser ...
To test whether cytokinin controls plant development through inhibiting an early step in the auxin response pathway, we ... Many aspects of plant development are regulated by antagonistic interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, ... compared the effects of cytokinin with those of the dgt ... However, cytokinin failed to inhibit auxin-induced LeSAUR gene ... Thus, cytokinin inhibited a subset of the auxin responses impaired in dgt hypocotyls, suggesting that cytokinin blocks at least ...
... Author(s). Andersen, Tonni Grube ... This process is mediated by the non-cell-autonomous repression of cytokinin signalling in the root meristem, and leads to ...
... Dominik K. Großkinsky, Eric ... Although interactions of cytokinins with salicylic acid and auxin have been indicated, the complete network of cytokinin ... Abscisic Acid-Cytokinin Antagonism Modulates Resistance Against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco. December 2014 , Volume 104 , ... Only recently, a function of the classic phytohormone cytokinin in plant immunity has been described in Arabidopsis, rice, and ...
Cytokinin Definition: any of a group of plant hormones that promote cell division and retard ageing in plants , Bedeutung, ... cytokinin ist in den unteren 50% der häufig verwendeten Wörter im Collins Wörterbuch ...
  • Here, we review our current understanding of cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis, the latter of which is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. (nih.gov)
  • is the major site of cytokinin biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (IPT) catalyses the first reaction in the biosynthesis of isoprene cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is the rate-limiting step in cytokinin biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMADP and HMBDP used in cytokinin biosynthesis are produced by the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Auxin is known to regulate the biosynthesis of cytokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of host genes associated with cytokinin biosynthesis, signalling, degradation and conjugation was strongly repressed. (springer.com)
  • Two isopentenyltransferase genes associated with cytokinin biosynthesis are present in the P. brassicae genome and are expressed throughout gall formation. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. (biologists.org)
  • The biosynthesis of cytokinins begins with the addition of a prenyl group derived from dimethylallyl diphosphate to the N 6 position of ADP/ATP. (biologists.org)
  • The Biodynamics Research Team at RIKEN leads the world in cytokinin research and are working to control the biosynthesis and activation of cytokinin with the aim of increasing the yields of rice, wheat, corn, and other crops. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cytokinin and its biosynthesis. (biologists.org)
  • B ) The cytokinin biosynthesis pathway, highlighting the key enzymes involved. (biologists.org)
  • Cytokinin biosynthesis is a multi-step process requiring the activity of several different genes. (biologists.org)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , the model species for plant research, cytokinin biosynthesis is controlled by the ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferase (IPT) genes, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis ( Fig. 1B ). (biologists.org)
  • Chen CM (1981) Biosynthesis and enzymic regulation of the interconversion of cytokinin. (springer.com)
  • trans -Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica --mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis -zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. (apsnet.org)
  • however, it may not be involved in the biosynthesis of this minor cytokinin in vivo. (uniprot.org)
  • Cytokinin metabolism is composed of biosynthesis, degradation and modification processes, requiring the activity of several key enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) catalyses the first reaction in the biosynthesis of isoprene cytokinins, isopentenyladenine-5′-monophosphate [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterium does not produce these phytohor-mones itself, but transfers the genes for the biosynthesis of cytokinin and auxin from its T i plasmid to the plant genome. (brainkart.com)
  • Here, to gain insight into this elaborate signaling system, we summarize current models of biosynthesis, trans-membrane transport, and long-distance translocation of cytokinins in higher plants. (usda.gov)
  • There are two types of cytokinins: adenine-type cytokinins represented by kinetin, zeatin, and 6-benzylaminopurine, and phenylurea-type cytokinins like diphenylurea and thidiazuron (TDZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cytokinins, including kinetin and zeatin when applied at 10-4M would also induce adventitious bud formation, while N6-isopentenylpurine (2iP) even when applied at 10-3M did not. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Other cytokinins including kinetin, zeatin and 6-benzyl-9-tetrahydropyrone adenine (SD 8339) were all able to induce adventitious bud formation when applied at 1O-5M, however, 2iP induced bud formation only when applied at 10-4M. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cytokinins are plant growth factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in plants.1 Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) is a cytokinin growth factor that has been shown to (1) delay age-related changes in morphological and biochemical characteristics of human skin fibroblasts 2 and keratinocytes, 3 (2) inhibit oxidative and glycoxidative damage to proteins in vitro, 4 (3) protect DNA against oxidative damage, 5 and (4) scavenge free radicals. (jddonline.com)
  • Adenine type of cytokinin includes zeatin, kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine while phenylurea type of cytokinin includes thidiazuron and diphenylurea. (researchnester.com)
  • Cytokinin hormones, such as kinetin, is used commercially to reduce yellowing in vegetables and maintain long-term storage. (doraagri.com)
  • One particular cytokinin, called kinetin, had anti-aging effects on human skin cells and increased the life span of fruit flies. (livestrong.com)
  • This year is the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the first cytokinin, kinetin. (thequietbranches.com)
  • The first cytokinin, Kinetin. (thequietbranches.com)
  • The identification and genetic manipulation of the genes involved in cytokinin metabolism and signaling have helped illuminate the roles of cytokinins in Arabidopsis. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokinins are plant hormones implicated in diverse and essential processes in plant growth and development, and key genes for the metabolism and actions of cytokinins have recently been identified. (nih.gov)
  • This paper uses transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate changes in cytokinin metabolism during gall formation of clubroot-infected Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
  • RNASeq analysis of infected tissue showed that host cytokinin metabolism was strongly down-regulated both at the onset and late stages of gall formation. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinins: metabolism and function in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. (nih.gov)
  • Here, and in the accompanying poster, we summarize the current understanding of cytokinin metabolism, transport and signaling, and discuss how this phytohormone regulates changes in gene expression to mediate its pleiotropic effects. (biologists.org)
  • In: Guern J, Péaud-Lenoël C (eds) Metabolism and molecular activities of cytokinins. (springer.com)
  • Chism GW III, Long AR, Rolle R (1984) Assay of enzymes involved in cytokinin metabolism by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (springer.com)
  • Laloue M, Pethe C (1982) Dynamics of cytokinin metabolism in tobacco cells. (springer.com)
  • Vitti A, Nuzzaci M, Scopa A, Tataranni G, Remans T, Vangronsveld J, Sofo A. Auxin and Cytokinin Metabolism and Root Morphological Modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or Exposed to Cadmium. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results suggest that DELLA proteins may regulate cytokinin metabolism upon nodulation. (edu.au)
  • Cytokinins: Metabolism and Biological Activity of N6-(Δ2-Isope. (mysciencework.com)
  • This cytokinin-dependent communication system consists of orchestrated regulation of the metabolism, translocation, and signal transduction of this phytohormone class. (usda.gov)
  • Zeatin was also the first natural cytokinin reported from unripe maize kernels by Miller and Letham in 1963. (springer.com)
  • 2. Zeatin-binding proteins participating in cytokinin-dependent activation of transcripton. (bio.net)
  • 1955 ), and subsequent studies identified the cytokinin zeatin as an endogenous plant growth regulator ( Letham, 1973 ). (biologists.org)
  • In higher plants, the most prevalent cytokinin is zeatin, which can occur in both trans and cis configurations. (biologists.org)
  • By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 2 H-labeled compounds, the following cytokinins were identified in the basic fraction eluting from a cation exchange column: zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, their corresponding O -glucosides, 7- and 9-glucosides of zeatin, 9-glucoside of dihydrozeatin, isopentenyladenine, and isopentenyladenosine. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Zeatin riboside 5′-monophosphate was the major cytokinin nucleotide in the tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • this was followed by the identification of trans-zeatin ( Miller, 1961 ) and many other cytokinins (reviewed in Mok and Mok, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • A ) Common cytokinins found in plants include the isoprenoid cytokinins trans-zeatin (tz) and isopentenyl-adenine (iP). (biologists.org)
  • A set of 11 relevant isoprenoid cytokinins, including zeatin isomers, was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography in less than 6 min. (diva-portal.org)
  • The contents of endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) and five cytokinins (Cks), N 6 (2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP), N 6 (2-isopentenyl)adenosine (iPR), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR) and N 6 -benzyladenine (BA), present in the basal portion of those leaves, were correlated to the organogenic response that occurs over 15 days of culture. (scielo.br)
  • In zeatin, which is the most common cytokinin, the amino group of adenine is linked with the hydroxylated isoprene residue in the trans-position. (brainkart.com)
  • Cytokinin - The cytokinin zeatin is named after the genus of corn, Zea, in which it was discovered. (enacademic.com)
  • C ytokinins (CK) belong to a class of plant growth substances (plant hormones) which promote cell deivision by means of local and long distance signalling.Zeatin is an adenine-type cytokinin synthesised in stems, leaves and roots. (agrisera.com)
  • Zeatin is the natural cytokinin which was first isolated from Maize and it is the most common cytokinin. (lifeeasy.org)
  • Cytokinin , any of a number of plant growth substances that are usually derived from adenine. (britannica.com)
  • Most adenine-type cytokinins are synthesized in roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a cytokinin dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N6-dimethylallyladenine + electron acceptor + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenine + 3-methylbut-2-enal + reduced acceptor The 3 substrates of this enzyme are cytokinin (here represented by N6-dimethylallyladenine), electron acceptor, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are adenine, 3-methylbut-2-enal (or other aldehyde in case of different substrate), and reduced acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine derivatives with isoprenoid side chains attached to the N 6 position of the adenine ring. (biologists.org)
  • While cytokinins are well-established, adenine-based signaling molecules in plants, they have never been shown to participate in signal transduction in other kingdoms of life. (asm.org)
  • Cytokinins, which were named for their ability to promote cytokinesis, are a class of phytohormone derived from adenine. (biologists.org)
  • CKX (cytokinin dehydrogenase) is a flavoprotein that cleaves cytokinins to adenine and the corresponding side-chain aldehyde using a quinone-type electron acceptor. (portlandpress.com)
  • The imine product only very slowly hydrolyses to adenine and an aldehyde derived from the cytokinin N 6 side-chain. (portlandpress.com)
  • The cytokinin, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine, is found to be at least 3.3 times as active as N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine in promoting the growth of cytokinin-requiring tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus. (mysciencework.com)
  • Thus, it is suggested that N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine-7-glucoside is a protected or storage form of the cytokinin which could account for the higher biological activity of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine than of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine. (mysciencework.com)
  • Cytokinins are prenylated derivatives of adenine. (brainkart.com)
  • In other cytokinins benzyl derivatives, sugars or sugar phosphates are attached to the adenine. (brainkart.com)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways involving cytokinins, a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators. (systemsbiology.net)
  • The hypothesis arose from the observation that a compound used to identify adenine binding RNA sequences is chemically similar to the classic plant hormone, or growth regulator, cytokinin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypothesis is plausible, as demonstrated by a cursory review of the transcriptome and genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for transcripts that i) contain an adenine aptamer motif, and ii) are also predicted to be cytokinin-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, one gene, CRK10 (for Cysteine-rich Receptor-like Kinase 10 , At4g23180), contains an adenine aptamer-related sequence and is down-regulated by cytokinin approximately three-fold in public gene expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, plants constitutively over-expressing cytokinin oxidase show reduced gall formation (Siemens et al. (springer.com)
  • Other names in common use include N6-dimethylallyladenine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, 6-N-dimethylallyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase, and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase abbreviated as CKX. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we identify a target of the IKU pathway, the cytokinin oxidase CKX2, that affects cytokinin signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes in barley and wheat: cloning and heterologous expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cloning of two novel genes that encode cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) in barley is described in this work. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The catalytic reaction of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.12) was studied in detail using the recombinant flavoenzyme from maize. (portlandpress.com)
  • Restriction map and gene structure of maizeckx1 and gene structures of seven Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase homologs. (mysciencework.com)
  • Expression of recombinant maize cytokinin oxidase. (mysciencework.com)
  • We discuss these diverse roles, and how other signaling pathways influence cytokinin levels and sensitivity though modulation of the expression of cytokinin signaling and metabolic genes. (nih.gov)
  • At later stages of gall formation the expression of host cytokinin biosynthetic genes is repressed, but so too is the expression of host cytokinin oxidases and dehydrogenases (Devos et al. (springer.com)
  • The remainder (type A) possess no apparent functional unit other than a signal receiver domain containing two aspartate and one lysine residues (DDK) at invariant positions, and their genes are transcriptionally induced by cytokinins without de novo protein synthesis ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, cytokinin treatment inhibited the auxin induction of only one of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes that exhibited impaired auxin inducibility in dgt hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • Transformation of both genes into Arabidopsis and tobacco showed that at least one of the genes codes for a functional enzyme, as its expression caused a cytokinin-deficient phenotype in the heterologous host plants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. (plos.org)
  • Here, we show in Pisum sativum L. that the DELLA proteins can activate the expression of KNOX and BELL transcription factors involved in regulation of cytokinin metabolic and response genes. (edu.au)
  • Consistently, pea la cry-s (della1 della2) mutant showed reduced ability to upregulate expression of some cytokinin metabolic genes during nodulation. (edu.au)
  • In this study, via analyzing the expression of cyclin genes during lateral root (LR) formation, we report that cytokinins (CTKs) inhibit the initiation of LR through blocking the pericycle founder cells cycling at the G 2 to M transition phase, while the promotion by CTK of LR elongation is due to the stimulation of the G 1 to S transition. (oup.com)
  • In particular, we demonstrate that DELLA proteins are recruited by type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARR) to the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, where they act as transcriptional co-activators. (upv.es)
  • LUC fusion genes showed that both the ARR15 and the ARR16 gene products are accumulated upon cytokinin treatment in roots. (oup.com)
  • abstract = "Primary crown gall tumours induced on stems on tomato plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens yielded extracts with pronounced cytokinin activity. (edu.au)
  • Cytokinin treatment also inhibited rapid auxin responses in hypocotyl segments: auxin-stimulated elongation, H(+) secretion, and ethylene synthesis were all inhibited by cytokinin in wild-type hypocotyl segments, and thus mimicked the impaired auxin responsiveness found in dgt hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • Finally, putative direct and indirect targets of the constitutively active PtRR13 transcription factor imply that cross-talk between cytokinin, auxin and ethylene are important during adventitious rooting in cuttings. (ufl.edu)
  • Ethylene production was higher in cultures supplemented with cytokinins (especially with meta-topolin), with high sprouting percentages, and lenticel hypertrophy. (brillonline.com)
  • Here we define key mechanistic elements in a regulatory network by which cytokinin inhibits root cell elongation in concert with the hormones auxin and ethylene. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinin regulates root cell elongation through ethylene-dependent and independent mechanisms, both hormonal signals converging on AUX1 as a regulatory hub. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, our results uncover several regulatory circuits controlling interactions of cytokinin with auxin and ethylene, and support a model in which cytokinin regulates shootward auxin transport to control cell elongation and root growth. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This review reports the effect of auxins, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins, and ethylene on microalgal growth and metabolites, as well as the crosstalk of different phytohormones. (mdpi.com)
  • It is, therefore, considered a "synthetic cytokinin" with reference to plants. (springer.com)
  • CytoFlor is the newest member of the Mycorrhizal Applications/Valent BioSciences plant growth regulator portfolio, which contains 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) a synthetic cytokinin, as the active ingredient. (mycorrhizae.com)
  • The plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron, a synthetic cytokinin known to inhibit septin dynamics, likely represents an informative probe for septin function. (edu.au)
  • While cytokinin action in vascular plants is described as pleiotropic, this class of plant hormones specifically induces the transition from apical growth to growth via a three-faced apical cell in moss protonema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins are plant hormones involved in cell division, shoot meristem and leaf formation, chloroplast biogenesis, and senescence. (innovations-report.de)
  • Here, we provide a brief overview of the metabolic pathways that regulate the levels of this group of plant hormones and highlight recent advances in the understanding of cytokinin transport. (biologists.org)
  • It was recently reported that the human-exclusive pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes cytokinins, which had only been known as plant hormones. (asm.org)
  • Cytokinins are a major class of plant hormones that are involved in various aspects of plant development, ranging from organ formation and apical dominance to leaf senescence. (biologists.org)
  • Cytokinin and auxin have long been known to interact antagonistically, and more recent studies have shown that cytokinins also interact with other plant hormones to regulate plant development. (biologists.org)
  • Many aspects of plant development are regulated by antagonistic interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, but the molecular mechanisms of this interaction are not understood. (rti.org)
  • Koshimizu K, Iwamura H (1986) Cytokinins In Takahashi N (ed) Chemistry of plant hormones. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinins, like other plant hormones, affect a diverse array of plant growth and development processes and responses to the environment. (pnas.org)
  • Cytokinins (CKs) are pivotal plant hormones that have crucial roles in plant growth and development. (cas.cz)
  • Cytokinins are important plant hormones that influence a diverse array of physiological and developmental processes such as root and shoot morphogenesis. (ufl.edu)
  • The measurement of the IAA and cytokinin contents showed accumulation of these hormones in the root of experimental plants as compared to the main root of intact plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Also known as 'endophytic' animals, these insects can even manipulate the signaling system in a plant, such as a class of plant hormones called cytokinins, which help plants to grow and to develop seeds and nutrient-storing fruits or young leaves. (elifesciences.org)
  • then developed a method to clearly distinguish cytokinins present in the insects from those produced by the plants to test whether T. notatus can transfer these plant hormones during feeding. (elifesciences.org)
  • We discovered a feedback loop between the hormones, in which cytokinin activates auxin exporters, while auxin represses cytokinin signalling. (helsinki.fi)
  • Cytokinins are essential hormones for plant growth and development and are involved in many physiological functions including the release of lateral buds from apical dominance and the promotion of cell division and differentiation from undifferentiated tissues. (mycorrhizae.com)
  • The Nod factor signaling pathway interacts with plant hormones, including cytokinins and gibberellins. (edu.au)
  • The second project aimed to study the role of IPTs from the moss Physcomitrella patens in the production of cytokinin hormones. (slu.se)
  • Cytokinins are plant hormones that help in growth promoting cell division in plant shoots and roots. (researchnester.com)
  • An autoregulatory circuit is identified involving the control of ARR10 and AUX1 expression by cytokinin and auxin, this circuit potentially functioning as an oscillator to integrate the effects of these two hormones. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • While the interaction between different plant hormones such as auxin, cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins on bud outgrowth (bud release and/or subsequent growth) have been widely studied, recent work has suggested that interactions between SLs and CKs may also be very important [ 3 , 4 ]. (scitechnol.com)
  • When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, reduced levels of cytokinin growth hormones are produced. (agriorganics.com)
  • Plants under stress are unable to produce sufficient cytokinins, the natural plant growth hormones which are necessary for plant growth, nutrient mobilization and distribution, germination, cell division, root development, flowering and seed formation. (agriorganics.com)
  • When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, it will produce less cytokinin growth hormones. (agriorganics.com)
  • The hormones that help plants grow, also known as cytokinins, are also found in coconut water. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These plant hormones (also cytokinins) are found in higher plants, but also in algae , bacteria and fungi . (wein.plus)
  • Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones that promote cell division in plant roots and shoots. (doraagri.com)
  • This pathway is initiated by cytokinin binding to a histidine kinase receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • They expressed proteins belonging to the putative receptor proteins (histidine kinase sensors), the candidate histidine phosphotransmitter proteins (AHPs), and the candidate response regulators (ARRs) with and without added cytokinin and measured the expression of a cytokinin-responsive reporter gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cytokinin pathway appears to involve receptor sensing and to require histidine kinase activity based on the analysis of mutants of the CKI1 and CRE1. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? (bio.net)
  • Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1,2]. (bio.net)
  • Several antibodies were able to regulate the basic function of the receptor: activation of cytokinin-dependent RNA synthesis [4]. (bio.net)
  • We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. (bio.net)
  • The Arabidopsis sensor histidine kinase CRE1 was recently reported to be a cytokinin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results suggest that CKI1 is involved in cytokinin signal transduction, possibly as a cytokinin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study we demonstrate via mathematical modeling that a combination of an inhibitor of the Cytokinin (CK) receptor, Arabidopsis histidine kinase 4 (AHK4) and two morphogens originating from the top cell layer, can plausibly account for the cell lineageindependent centering of WUS expression within SAM. (wur.nl)
  • In plants the hormone cytokinin is perceived by members of a small cytokinin receptor family, which are hybrid sensor histidine kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a live cell hormone-binding assay, we show that cytokinin is bound by a receptor domain predicted to be extracellular, the so called CHASE (cyclases, histidine kinase associated sensory extracellular) domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The binding of cytokinin to the receptor is thought to cause a conformational change leading to the autophosphorylation of a conserved histidine residue in the cytosolic part of the receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the CHASE domain is suspected of being the ligand binding domain, no systematic approach has been made with any cytokinin receptor to identify the binding domain unequivocally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytokinin receptor AHK4 histidine kinase, identified in Arabidopsis thaliana , presumably acts in concert with downstream components, such as histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) factors (AHPs) and response regulators (ARRs). (oup.com)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : CREam of cytokinin signalling: receptor identified. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • CREam of cytokinin signalling: receptor identified. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The recent identification of CRE1 (a histidine kinase identical to AHK4 and WOL) as the cytokinin receptor of Arabidopsis thaliana is a landmark in cytokinin research. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, the cytokinin (CK) phytohormones regulate numerous biological processes, including responses to environmental stresses, via a complex network of CK signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones involved in various physiological events of plants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although interactions of cytokinins with salicylic acid and auxin have been indicated, the complete network of cytokinin interactions with other immunity-relevant phytohormones is not yet understood. (apsnet.org)
  • The formation of LR primordia is regulated antagonistically by the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins are phytohormones essential for cytokinesis and many other physiological and developmental processes in planta. (usda.gov)
  • Among the recognized signaling molecules, a class of phytohormones known as the cytokinins functions as both local and long-distance regulatory signals for the coordination of plant development. (usda.gov)
  • The impact of pathogen-derived cytokinins on the total cytokinin content of infected tissue and host gene expression was minimal in wild type plants. (springer.com)
  • It is an object of the present invention to clarify an enzyme gene capable of directly regulating the amount of active cytokinins synthesized and to provide a transformed plant with a regulated amount of cytokinins using the aforementioned gene. (google.com)
  • d) a gene encoding a protein which consists of an amino acid sequence derived from the amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 by deletion, substitution or addition of one or several amino acid residues and has activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins. (google.com)
  • Hwang and Sheen established an assay that involved transfection of mesophyll protoplasts of Arabidopsis leaves to monitor the activation of a cytokinin response gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of AHP1 and AHP2 activated the reporter gene, and these two proteins exhibited cytokinin-dependent nuclear translocation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression of the A-type ARR proteins resulted in inhibition of the cytokinin-stimulated reporter gene activity, and expression of A-type ARR proteins activated the reporter gene even in the absence of added cytokinin (ARR2 being the strongest activator). (sciencemag.org)
  • We used a steroid-inducible system to show that the transcription factor-type response regulator ARR1 directs transcriptional activation of the ARR6 gene, which responds to cytokinins without de novo protein synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show cytokinins induced the strong expression of the M. tuberculosis gene Rv0077c. (asm.org)
  • A gene, CKI1 , which was tagged in four of the five mutants and induced typical cytokinin responses after introduction and overexpression in plants, was cloned. (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, enzymes encoded by the LOG gene family catalyse the conversion of tzRMP into an active cytokinin form, in this case tz. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the LONELY GUY (LOG) gene family encodes enzymes that convert cytokinin from an inactive to an active form. (biologists.org)
  • However, cytokinin failed to inhibit auxin-induced LeSAUR gene expression, an auxin response that is affected by the dgt mutation. (rti.org)
  • An integrated set of approaches was used to define the targets of the type-B response regulators, a key set of transcription factors that control cytokinin-dependent gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • In the screen for upstream regulators we identified a LONG PALE HYPOCOTYL (LPH) gene whose activity is indispensable for spatiotemporally correct expression of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT-1 (CKI1), encoding the constitutively active sensor histidine kinase that activates MSP signaling. (muni.cz)
  • Because the phytohormone cytokinins play an essential role in flower development, particularly pistil development, in this study, we elevated the cytokinin levels in flowers through transgenic expression of a cytokinin biosynthetic gene () from Arabidopsis under the control of a orthologue of () promoter that is predominantly active in flowers. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • the AHP6 gene inhibits cytokinin signalling at the protoxylem position during normal vascular development. (helsinki.fi)
  • Based on these results, we conclude that reduction of abscisic acid levels by enhanced abscisic acid catabolism strongly contributes to cytokinin-mediated resistance effects. (apsnet.org)
  • Thus, the identified cytokinin-abscisic acid antagonism is a novel regulatory mechanism in plant immunity. (apsnet.org)
  • It was hypothesized that cytokinin may affect enzymes that regulate protein synthesis and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their ability to activate transcription and regulate protein activity, RRs have been proposed to coordinate most of physiological processes regulated by cytokinin. (ufl.edu)
  • Natural cytokinins such as those found in Nitrozyme will help control and regulate: germination - root development - nutrition uptake - plant tissue composition - tillering - flowering -seed and fruit set. (agriorganics.com)
  • Chen CM, Ertl JR, Leisner SM, Chang CC (1985) Localization of cytokinin biosynthetic sites in pea plants and carrot roots. (springer.com)
  • An improved in vivo deuterium labeling method for measuring the biosynthetic rate of cytokinins. (diva-portal.org)
  • An improved method for determining the relative biosynthetic rate of isoprenoid cytokinins has been developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Unlike other two-component pathways that converge on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (see Santos and Shiozaki ), cytokinin signaling stimulates the nuclear translocation of a histidine phosphotransmitter protein (AHP), which leads to the activation of the response regulators, which are themselves transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the interaction between the cytokinin and gibberellin signaling pathways is not fully understood. (edu.au)
  • EN] The ability of plants to provide a plastic response to environmental cues relies on the connectivity between signaling pathways. (upv.es)
  • Pleiotropic effects have made studies of this hormone difficult, and cytokinin signalling pathways have long remained elusive. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Cambium and other actively dividing tissues also synthesize cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins have been shown to slow aging of plant organs by preventing protein breakdown, activating protein synthesis, and assembling nutrients from nearby tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, I would be interested to hear any comments concerning the use of antibodies to locate cytokinins in plant tissues. (bio.net)
  • Different substrate specificities, and the pH profiles of cytokinin-degrading enzymes extracted from different barley tissues, are also presented. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Parallel determination of auxin and cytokinin levels within plant organs and tissues represents an invaluable tool for studies of their physiological effects and mutual interactions. (cas.cz)
  • Here we describe a method that is based on single step purification protocol followed by LC-MS separation and detection for parallel analysis of auxins, cytokinins and their metabolites in various plant tissues and cell cultures. (cas.cz)
  • Endophytic insects provide the textbook examples of herbivores that manipulate their host plant's physiology, putatively altering source/sink relationships by transferring cytokinins (CK) to create 'green islands' that increase the nutritional value of infested tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • While cytokinin is frequently thought to form gradients guiding developmental processes in the Arabidopsis shoot and root, we showed that an informative cytokinin gradient cannot form on the scale of these tissues via diffusion. (helsinki.fi)
  • Cytokinin synthesis takes place primarily in the meristematic tissues. (brainkart.com)
  • THe proposed FAB method was used to identify and quantify 10 isoprenoid cytokinins in Arabidopsis thaliana, including free bases, nucleosides, nucleotides and glucosides. (nih.gov)
  • The reduction rate was high for isoprenoid cytokinins that showed formation of a charge-transfer complex of reduced enzyme with bound cytokinin imine. (portlandpress.com)
  • The type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that are required for cytokinin responses. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of cytokinin precursors, active components and conjugates by microanalytical techniques was consistent with these transcriptional responses. (springer.com)
  • The phytohormone cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant development, influencing many agriculturally important processes, including growth, nutrient responses and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. (biologists.org)
  • These cytokinin responses in Arabidopsis are at least partly triggered through the recognition of cytokinins by the sensor protein CRE1, which is a member of the protein histidine kinase family ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Five Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that exhibit typical cytokinin responses, including rapid cell division and shoot formation in tissue culture in the absence of exogenous cytokinin, were isolated by activation transferred DNA tagging. (sciencemag.org)
  • arr1 buds have wild-type responses to auxin and cytokinin but are resistant to strigolactone. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Results shed light on the physiological role of the type-B ARRs in regulating the cytokinin response, mechanism of type-B ARR activation, and basis by which cytokinin regulates diverse aspects of growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic factors. (pnas.org)
  • The plant hormone cytokinin affects a diverse array of growth and development processes and responses to the environment. (pnas.org)
  • Scalp Induction Rate Responses to Cytokinins on Proliferating Shoot-Tips of Banana Cultivars (Musa spp. (thescipub.com)
  • The auxin importer AUX1 functions as a positive regulator of cytokinin responses in the root, AUX1 mutants specifically affecting the ability of cytokinin to inhibit cell elongation but not cell proliferation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • I confirmed the negative role of cytokinin action in root developmental processes previously hypothesized in other plant systems, and obtained direct evidence that links a specific type RR (PtRR13) with inhibition of adventitious root formation. (ufl.edu)
  • Adventitious shoot regeneration from vegetative shoot apices in pear and putative role of cytokinin accumulation in the morphogenetic process. (usda.gov)
  • Supplement of cytokinin restores the phenotypes of rax ( Regulator of Axillary Meristems ) mutant which displays a reduced number of axillary meristems due to the initiation defects [ 12 ], implying a predominant role of cytokinin during axillary meristem formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analytical determination of auxins and cytokinins. (cas.cz)
  • Altogether, the data reveal that the GR24 effect on LR development depends on the hormonal landscape that results from the intimate connection with auxins and cytokinins, two main players in LR development. (ugent.be)
  • For example, the use of HPLC for the analysis of cytokinins and their derivatives is superior to the classical technique of gas chromatography, since the liquid mobile phase allows the separation and recovery of cytokinins and their derivatives which are not readily volatilized. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinin moves from the roots into the shoots, eventually signaling lateral bud growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinin signaling in plants is mediated by a two-component phosphorelay. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only in plants and the protist Dictyostelium have cytokinins been definitively shown to act in cellular signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Collectively, these findings show cytokinins signal transcriptional changes that can affect M. tuberculosis acid-fastness and that cytokinin signaling is no longer limited to the kingdom Plantae. (asm.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between light and cytokinin signaling remains elusive. (muni.cz)
  • Changes in CKI1 expression observed in lph/hy1-7 and phy mutants correlate with misregulation of MSP signaling, changed cytokinin sensitivity and developmental aberrations, previously shown to be associated with cytokinin and/or CKI1 action. (muni.cz)
  • A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which cytokinin signaling is connected to specific traits can provide the genetic tools to improve agronomic characteristics (e.g, stem wood production per unit root biomass). (ufl.edu)
  • Cytokinin signaling resembles two-component systems from bacteria and yeast in which an external signal is sensed by a histidine kinase (HK) and then transferred to a response regulator (RR). (ufl.edu)
  • Activation of cytokinin signaling through the homeodomain-containing transcription factors KNOX is essential for nodule formation. (edu.au)
  • In summary, we show that the inhibition of cytokinin signaling through AHP6 is required to establish the correct pattern during LR initiation. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cytokinins trigger transcriptional changes within this bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • ALTHOUGH the occurrence of endogenous cytokinins has been studied extensively in higher plants, reports for the algae are restricted to marine planktonic forms 1 . (nature.com)
  • The mutual inhibition between auxin and cytokinin regulates the extent of their domains during vascular patterning. (helsinki.fi)
  • To name a few - Cytokinins - Auxins - Enzymes - Giberellins - Ethylenes - plus many Micro-nutrients. (agriorganics.com)
  • Intriguingly, plasmodial development was slowed and spore viability reduced in these mutants indicating a potential role for cytokinins in plasmodial development. (springer.com)
  • Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica --induced growth promotion. (apsnet.org)
  • The cytokinin module ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE3 (AHK3)/ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1 (ARR1)/ARR12 was found to interact with the GR24-dependent reduction in LR development, because mutants in this pathway rendered LR development insensitive to GR24. (ugent.be)
  • We used a combination of mutants and pharmacological treatments to investigate how mutually exclusive auxin and cytokinin signalling domains are maintained in the Arabidopsis stele. (helsinki.fi)
  • Our research is open for cooperation and joint studies of the mechanisms of cytokinin reception and cytokinin signal transduction in plant. (bio.net)
  • We discuss the perception of cytokinin by the ER-localized histidine kinase receptors, the role of the AHPs in mediating the transfer of the phosphoryl group from the receptors to the response regulators (ARRs), and finally the role of the large ARR family in cytokinin function. (nih.gov)
  • We offer substituted 6-(alkylbenzylamino)-purin derivatives as cytokinin re-ceptor antagonists to provide cytokinin analogons for growth regulation in plants and to offer the possibility for a specific selectivity for cytokinin receptors without being toxic for animal cells. (innovations-report.de)
  • Cytokinins are perceived by membrane-localized histidine-kinase receptors and are transduced through a His-Asp phosphorelay to activate a family of transcription factors in the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • The CHASE domain occurs not only in plant cytokinin receptors but also in numerous orphan receptors in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taking advantage of this fact, we used an evolutionary proteomics approach to identify amino acids important for cytokinin binding by looking for residues conserved in cytokinin receptors, but not in other receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among higher eukaryotes the domain is found only in plants as part of specific sensor histidine kinases, the cytokinin receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the commercially available plant growth regulators, cytokinins is one of the most important groups. (mycorrhizae.com)
  • Keywords: Arabidopsis - Cytokinin - Histidine kinase - Phosphorelay -Response regulators - Signal transduction. (oup.com)
  • Cytokinins are perceived by three histidine kinases--CRE1/WOL/AHK4, AHK2, and AHK3--which initiate intracellular phosphotransfer. (nih.gov)
  • The CKI1 sensor is constitutively active in this system, but the CRE1 sensor requires added cytokinins for activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • This fact, together with characteristics of ARR1 -overexpressing plants and arr1 mutant plants, indicates that the phosphorelay to ARR1, probably from CRE1, constitutes an intracellular signal transduction occurring immediately after cytokinin perception. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mutations have been identified in CRE1, and the phenotype of loss-of-function mutations sheds new light on the role of cytokinins in plant development. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The ratio of auxin to cytokinin plays an important role in the effect of cytokinin on plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bud induction can be pinpointed to differentiation of a specific single cell, and thus is a very specific effect of cytokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. (scielo.br)
  • Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest. (scielo.br)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of ribose 5'-monophosphate from nitrogen N6-modified adenosines, the final step of bioactive cytokinin synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • Is involved in the synthesis of isopentenyladenine (iP) and 2-methylthio-iP (2MeS-iP), the most abundant cytokinins detected in M.tuberculosis lysates and supernatants. (uniprot.org)
  • Plant tRNA isopentenyltransferases (tRNA-IPT, EC 2.5.1.8) have two roles, modification of tRNA and contribution to cytokinin synthesis. (slu.se)
  • tRNAs with anticodons that start with a uridine and carrying an already-prenylated adenosine adjacent to the anticodon release on degradation the adenosine as a cytokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • More cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decapitation and pharmacological experiments on dormant buds showed that the reduction of auxin accumulation triggers the regeneration of vegetative shoots in dormant buds, and exogenous cytokinin application triggers cell fate turnover and generation of reproductive shoots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytokinins enhance plant growth by stimulating cell division and increase the sprouting of lateral buds. (brainkart.com)
  • Finally, we discovered a potential link between the auxin-cytokinin feedback loop in the root tip and the initiation of lateral roots. (helsinki.fi)
  • AUX1 is required for cytokinin-dependent changes of auxin activity in the lateral root cap associated with the control of cell elongation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In Arabidopsis, cytokinins inhibit root growth through effects on cell proliferation and cell elongation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Upon binding of cytokinin, the two histidine kinases phosphorylate their histidine residues reciprocally ( autophosphorylation ). (brainkart.com)
  • Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce substantial levels of cytokinins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. (apsnet.org)
  • M. Febs Letters (423)2 (1998) pp. 239-242 Thank you in advance, Sincerely yours, Feodor A. Brovko, Head of research team, Ph.D.(Biology), Senior researcher P.S. My team studies the molecular mechanisms of cytokinin signal reception in plant using biochemical and immunochemical methods, and methods of genetic engineering. (bio.net)
  • However, the molecular players involved in cytokinin repression are still unknown. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Cytokinin Oxid. (mysciencework.com)
  • Our previous successful attempts to delay premature senescence and growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions by autoregulation of cytokinins (CKs) levels constitute a generic technology toward the development of highly productive plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokinins impact the apical dominance, leaf senescence, and axillary bud growth as well in plants. (researchnester.com)
  • On the back of multiplying cytokinins uses in growing end-use industries for applications such as breaking of seed dormancy, counteraction of apical dominance, cell division and delay in senescence, Asia Pacific is budding as a regional Cytokinins and its derivatives consumption market. (researchnester.com)
  • They excrete cytokinin with their saliva and thus prevent senescence of the leaves on which they are feeding. (brainkart.com)
  • Transgenic tobacco plants in which the activity of cytokinin syn-thase in the leaves is increased have a much longer lifespan than normal plants, since their senescence is suppressed by the enhanced production of cytokinin. (brainkart.com)
  • Cytokinin promotes cell division (cytokinesis), cell growth, differentiation and affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, leaf senescence and so on. (aribidopsis.com)
  • Synthesized in roots, cytokinins move upward in the xylem (woody tissue) and pass into the leaves and fruits, where they are required for normal growth, for cell differentiation, and, in conjunction with auxin (another plant hormone), to promote cell division. (britannica.com)
  • These will be used for immunolocalization of cytokinins in roots. (bio.net)
  • In a similar manner to protoxylem formation in Arabidopsis roots, in which AHP6 (ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6) acts as a cytokinin inhibitor, we reveal that AHP6 also functions as a cytokinin repressor during early stages of LR development. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins are synthesized in the roots, they will move upward and enter the leaves and fruits of the plants, to maintain normal growth and cell differentiation of them. (doraagri.com)
  • Deineko, E. 2009-11-06 00:00:00 A comparative analysis of IAA and total cytokinin contents at various developmental stages of floral morphogenesis (I-XII) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants with mutant phenotypes was performed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Altogether, my thesis reveals a key role for mutually inhibitory auxin-cytokinin interactions in vascular development and links these findings to other developmental contexts. (helsinki.fi)
  • Typically, cytokinins are transported in the xylem. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is mediated by the non-cell-autonomous repression of cytokinin signalling in the root meristem, and leads to distinct phloem- and xylem-pole-associated endodermal cells. (wur.nl)
  • For example, cytokinins have been described to induce resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins induce a variety of physiological events, including cell division, chloroplast development, and shoot formation ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Only a two to three week culture period on the high cytokinin medium was necessary to induce adventitious bud formation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In nature some plant associated bacteria and fungi produce auxin and cytokinin to induce unlimited cell division, which results in tumor growth of the plant. (brainkart.com)
  • Does anyone have information regarding acquisition of antibodies against cytokinins? (bio.net)
  • Here we show that another type of hormone-based inhibitory fields, generated directly downstream of auxin by intercellular movement of the cytokinin signalling inhibitor ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6 (AHP6), is involved in regulating phyllotactic patterns. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins participate in local and long-distance signalling, with the same transport mechanism as purines and nucleosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, our findings highlight the need for a cytokinin patterning mechanism, such as directed cytokinin transport or patterning of the cytokinin perception machinery, since diffusion cannot form the observed cytokinin patterns. (helsinki.fi)
  • The mechanism of cytokinin-induced cell expansion in cotyledons excised from dark-grown seedlings of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) was studied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we uncover a mechanism by which auxin and cytokinin coordinate the dormancy and outgrowth of axillary bud in strawberry runner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The specific illustration presented, CRK10 , implies a new mechanism for the perception of cytokinin, a classic plant hormone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The crosstalk between cytokinin response and light is known for a long time. (muni.cz)
  • The experiments revealed that the insects' bodies contained large quantities of a type of cytokinin, even when insects were raised on artificial diets. (elifesciences.org)
  • At the Biodynamics Research Team in the Plant Productivity Systems Research Group at the RIKEN Plant Science Center, investigations have shown that cytokinin, a plant hormone that activates cell division, is closely associated with rice yields. (innovations-report.com)
  • It has previously been shown that cytokinin has an inhibitory effect on the patterning events occurring during LR formation. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • To test whether cytokinin controls plant development through inhibiting an early step in the auxin response pathway, we compared the effects of cytokinin with those of the dgt (diageotropica) mutation, which is known to block rapid auxin reactions of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • In plants with the phenotype "wavy corolla", total content of cytokinins was lower than in control at all developmental stages (except for stage I), whereas their dynamics coincided with that in control flowers. (deepdyve.com)