The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Structures which form the base of FLAGELLA and CILIA. They contain nine triplets of MICROTUBULES that are arranged around the periphery and that serve as the nucleation center for AXONEME assembly.

Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. (1/1179)

Previous data suggested that anastral spindles, morphologically similar to those found in oocytes, can assemble in a centrosome-independent manner in cells that contain centrosomes. It is assumed that the microtubules that build these acentrosomal spindles originate over the chromatin. However, the actual processes of centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, polymerisation, and sorting have not been documented in centrosome-containing cells. We have identified two experimental conditions in which centrosomes are kept close to the plasma membrane, away from the nuclear region, throughout meiosis I in Drosophila spermatocytes. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of these cells labelled with fluorescent chimeras reveals centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, growth, and sorting into a bipolar spindle array over the nuclear region, away from the asters. The onset of noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation is significantly delayed with respect to nuclear envelope breakdown and coincides with the end of chromosome condensation. It takes place in foci that are close to the membranes that ensheath the nuclear region, not over the condensed chromosomes. Metaphase plates are formed in these spindles, and, in a fraction of them, some degree of polewards chromosome segregation takes place. In these cells that contain both membrane-bound asters and an anastral spindle, the orientation of the cytokinesis furrow correlates with the position of the asters and is independent of the orientation of the spindle. We conclude that the fenestrated nuclear envelope may significantly contribute to the normal process of spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. We also conclude that the anastral spindles that we have observed are not likely to provide a robust back-up able to ensure successful cell division. We propose that these anastral microtubule arrays could be a constitutive component of wild-type spindles, normally masked by the abundance of centrosome-derived microtubules and revealed when asters are kept away. These observations are consistent with a model in which centrosomal and noncentrosomal microtubules contribute to the assembly and are required for the robustness of the cell division spindle in cells that contain centrosomes.  (+info)

Dynacortin contributes to cortical viscoelasticity and helps define the shape changes of cytokinesis. (2/1179)

During cytokinesis, global and equatorial pathways deform the cell cortex in a stereotypical manner, which leads to daughter cell separation. Equatorial forces are largely generated by myosin-II and the actin crosslinker, cortexillin-I. In contrast, global mechanics are determined by the cortical cytoskeleton, including the actin crosslinker, dynacortin. We used direct morphometric characterization and laser-tracking microrheology to quantify cortical mechanical properties of wild-type and cortexillin-I and dynacortin mutant Dictyostelium cells. Both cortexillin-I and dynacortin influence cytokinesis and interphase cortical viscoelasticity as predicted from genetics and biochemical data using purified dynacortin proteins. Our studies suggest that the regulation of cytokinesis ultimately requires modulation of proteins that control the cortical mechanical properties that establish the force-balance that specifies the shapes of cytokinesis. The combination of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical observations suggests that the cell's cortical mechanical properties control how the cortex is remodeled during cytokinesis.  (+info)

Loss of Apm1, the micro1 subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor-protein-1 complex, causes distinct phenotypes and synthetic lethality with calcineurin deletion in fission yeast. (3/1179)

Calcineurin is a highly conserved regulator of Ca(2+) signaling in eukaryotes. In fission yeast, calcineurin is not essential for viability but is required for cytokinesis and Cl(-) homeostasis. In a genetic screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with calcineurin deletion, we isolated a mutant, cis1-1/apm1-1, an allele of the apm1(+) gene that encodes a homolog of the mammalian micro1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex. The cis1-1/apm1-1 mutant as well as the apm1-deleted (Deltaapm1) cells showed distinct phenotypes: temperature sensitivity; tacrolimus (FK506) sensitivity; and pleiotropic defects in cytokinesis, cell integrity, and vacuole fusion. Electron micrographs revealed that Deltaapm1 cells showed large vesicular structures associated with Golgi stacks and accumulated post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Deltaapm1 cells also showed the massive accumulation of the exocytic v-SNARE Syb1 in the Golgi/endosomes and a reduced secretion of acid phosphatase. These phenotypes observed in apm1 mutations were accentuated upon temperature up-shift and FK506 treatment. Notably, Apm1-GFP localized to the Golgi/endosomes, the spindle pole bodies, and the medial region. These findings suggest a role for Apm1 associated with the Golgi/endosome function, thereby affecting various cellular processes, including secretion, cytokinesis, vacuole fusion, and cell integrity and also suggest that calcineurin is involved in these events.  (+info)

The flagella connector of Trypanosoma brucei: an unusual mobile transmembrane junction. (4/1179)

Throughout its elongation, the new flagellum of the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is tethered at its tip to the lateral aspect of the old flagellum. This phenomenon provides a cytotactic mechanism for influencing inheritance of cellular pattern. Here, we show that this tethering is produced via a discrete, mobile transmembrane junction - the flagella connector. Light and electron microscopy reveal that the flagella connector links the extending microtubules at the tip of the new flagellum to the lateral aspect of three of the doublet microtubules in the old flagellar axoneme. Two sets of filaments connect the microtubules to three plates on the inner faces of the old and new flagellar membranes. Three differentiated areas of old and new flagellar membranes are then juxtaposed and connected by a central interstitial core of electron-dense material. The flagella connector is formed early in flagellum extension and is removed at the end of cytokinesis, but the exact timing of the latter event is slightly variable. The flagella connector represents a novel form of cellular junction that is both dynamic and mobile.  (+info)

Role of the midbody matrix in cytokinesis: RNAi and genetic rescue analysis of the mammalian motor protein CHO1. (5/1179)

CHO1 is a kinesin-like motor protein essential for cytokinesis in mammalian cells. To analyze how CHO1 functions, we established RNAi and genetic rescue assays. CHO1-depleted cells reached a late stage of cytokinesis but fused back to form binucleate cells because of the absence of the midbody matrix in the middle of the intercellular bridge. Expression of exogenous CHO1 restored the formation of the midbody matrix and rescued cytokinesis in siRNA-treated cells. By analyzing phenotypes rescued with different constructs, it was shown that both motor and stalk domains function in midbody formation, whereas the tail is essential for completion of cytokinesis after the midbody matrix has formed. During the terminal stage of cytokinesis, different subregions of the tail play distinctive roles in stabilizing the midbody matrix and maintaining an association between the midbody and cell cortex. These results demonstrate that CHO1 consists of functionally differentiated subregions that act in concert to ensure complete cell separation.  (+info)

A role for the Cdc14-family phosphatase Flp1p at the end of the cell cycle in controlling the rapid degradation of the mitotic inducer Cdc25p in fission yeast. (6/1179)

The Schizosaccaromyces pombe protein Flp1p belongs to a conserved family of serine-threonine-phosphatases. The founding member of this family, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc14p, is required for inactivation of mitotic CDKs and reversal of CDK mediated phosphorylation at the end of mitosis, thereby bringing about the M-G1 transition. Initial studies of Flp1p suggest that it may play a different role to Cdc14p. Here we show that Flp1p is required for rapid degradation of the mitotic inducer Cdc25p at the end of mitosis, and that Cdc25p is a substrate of Flp1p in vitro. Down-regulation of Cdc25p activity by Flp1p may ensure a prompt inactivation of mitotic CDK complexes to trigger cell division. Our results suggest a regulatory mechanism, and a universal role, for Cdc14p like proteins in coordination of cytokinesis with other cell cycle events.  (+info)

Functional characterization of Dma1 and Dma2, the budding yeast homologues of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dma1 and human Chfr. (7/1179)

Proper transmission of genetic information requires correct assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle, responsible for driving each set of sister chromatids to the two daughter cells, followed by cytokinesis. In case of altered spindle orientation, the spindle position checkpoint inhibits Tem1-dependent activation of the mitotic exit network (MEN), thus delaying mitotic exit and cytokinesis until errors are corrected. We report a functional analysis of two previously uncharacterized budding yeast proteins, Dma1 and Dma2, 58% identical to each other and homologous to human Chfr and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dma1, both of which have been previously implicated in mitotic checkpoints. We show that Dma1 and Dma2 are involved in proper spindle positioning, likely regulating septin ring deposition at the bud neck. DMA2 overexpression causes defects in septin ring disassembly at the end of mitosis and in cytokinesis. The latter defects can be rescued by either eliminating the spindle position checkpoint protein Bub2 or overproducing its target, Tem1, both leading to MEN hyperactivation. In addition, dma1Delta dma2Delta cells fail to activate the spindle position checkpoint in response to the lack of dynein, whereas ectopic expression of DMA2 prevents unscheduled mitotic exit of spindle checkpoint mutants treated with microtubule-depolymerizing drugs. Although their primary functions remain to be defined, our data suggest that Dma1 and Dma2 might be required to ensure timely MEN activation in telophase.  (+info)

The nucleolus is involved in mRNA export from the nucleus in fission yeast. (8/1179)

To elucidate the mechanism of mRNA export from the nucleus, we isolated five novel temperature-sensitive mutants (ptr7 to ptr11) that accumulate poly(A)(+) RNA in the nuclei at the nonpermissive temperature in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of those, the ptr11 mutation was found in the top2(+) gene encoding DNA topoisomerase II. In addition to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA, ptr11 exhibited the cut (cell untimely torn) phenotype at the nonpermissive temperature, like the previously isolated mutant, ptr4. In these two mutants, cytokinesis occurred without prior nuclear division, resulting in cleavage of the undivided nuclei by the septum. To investigate the relationship between mRNA export defects and the cut phenotype observed in ptr4 and ptr11, we analyzed 11 other mutants displaying the cut phenotype and found that all these tested mutants accumulate poly(A)(+) mRNA in the aberrantly cleaved nuclei. Interestingly, nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) mRNA was observed only in the anucleolate nuclei produced by aberrant cytokinesis. In addition, nuc1, the S. pombe mutant exhibiting a collapsed nucleolus, trapped poly(A)(+) mRNA in the nucleolar region at the nonpermissive temperature. In ptr11 and nuc1, mRNA transcribed from the intron-containing TBP gene showed nuclear accumulation, but not transcripts from the intron-less TBP cDNA, suggesting that the export pathway differs between the spliced and unspliced TBP mRNAs. These findings support the notion that a subset of mRNAs in yeast is exported from the nucleus through transient association with the nucleolus.  (+info)

The precise role of CIT-K during cytokinesis is still controversial. Expression of truncated variants in mammalian cells induces cytokinesis defects and a failure in ring contraction, results that led to the proposal that CIT-K is important for actomyosin contractility (Madaule et al., 1998; Madaule et al., 2000). However, CIT-K-knockout mice display cytokinesis defects only in some cell populations of the central nervous system and during spermatogenesis, indicating that CIT-K may be a tissue-specific Rho effector during cytokinesis (Di Cunto et al., 2000; Di Cunto et al., 2002). By contrast, the Drosophila CIT-K orthologue, Sticky (STI), is essential for cell division in all tissues, and its inactivation by mutation or RNAi leads to late cytokinesis failure accompanied by the formation of abnormal actin blebs at the equatorial cortex (DAvino et al., 2004; Echard et al., 2004; Naim et al., 2004; Shandala et al., 2004). CIT-K in flies might thus be important for contractile ring organization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokinesis in development and disease. T2 - Variations on a common theme. AU - Li, R.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - Cytokinesis is a crucial step in cell proliferation, and remarkably, it is also an important mechanism for developmental regulation in the generation of diverse cell types in eukaryotic organisms. Successful cytokinesis relies on the assembly and activation of an actomyosin-based contractile ring and membrane deposition/fusion in a spatially and temporally precise manner. As such, the molecular pathways governing cytokinesis are highly complex, involving a large number of components forming intricate interactive networks. The complexity of this system, however, may have also provided a rich platform for evolutionary tinkering to achieve specific morphogenetic and developmental outcomes. Furthermore, failed or altered cytokinesis appears to contribute to the development of cancer in unexpected ways.. AB - Cytokinesis is a crucial step in cell proliferation, ...
Cytokinesis is the final stage of the cell cycle. It partitions sister genomes and separates the cytoplasm of nascent daughter cells. Cytokinesis is initiated by the formation of a cleavage furrow whose ingression is powered by an actomyosin network known as the contractile ring. Following furrow ingression, the process of cell separation is completed by a membrane scission reaction. For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. In animal cells, the mitotic spindle plays a pivotal role in the formation and placement of the cleavage furrow. The coupling of cytokinesis and chromosome segregation to the mitotic spindle ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic division are tightly coordinated. The spindle midzone, a structure that is formed at anaphase onset between segregating sister genomes, is thought to play an important ...
Animals, fungi, and amoebas require an actomyosin contractile ring at the division site to perform cytokinesis. The contractile ring initiates and guides the invagination of the plasma membrane as it forms new barriers between the nuclei at the cell equator. Defects in the contractile ring can result in misdirected, delayed, or premature cytokinesis, which leads to abnormal chromosome numbers. Aneuploidies resulting from failed cytokinesis sometimes lead to aggressive forms of cancer. This dissertation was motivated by the goal of better understanding the properties of the contractile ring and how it drives cytokinesis. Actomyosin is initially recruited to the cell equator through the coordination of scaffolding factors, actin-binding proteins, and signaling cascades. Subsequently, the sliding of actin filaments by myosin reshapes the resulting meshwork into a compact ring. Once fully assembled, the contractile ring establishes tension, which leads the plasma membrane inward. The primary motor proteins
Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family orchestrate the cytoskeleton remodeling events required for cell division. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) promote cycling of Rho GTPases between the active GTP-bound and the inactive GDP-bound conformations. We report that ARHGAP19, a previously uncharacterized protein, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and is a critical actor of T lymphocyte division. Overexpression of ARHGAP19 in lymphocytes delays cell elongation and cytokinesis. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP19 or expression of a GAP-deficient mutant induces precocious mitotic cell elongation and cleavage furrow ingression, as well as excessive blebbing. In relation with these phenotypes, we show that ARHGAP19 acts as a GAP for RhoA, and controls Citron and Myosin II recruitment to the plasma membrane of mitotic lymphocytes as well as Rock2-mediated phosphorylation of Vimentin, a critical determinant in stiffness and shape of ...
Cytokinesis is the process that partitions the cell surface and cytoplasm of one cell to form two cells (for reviews see Glotzer 1997; Gould and Simanis 1997; Field et al. 1999; Hales et al. 1999). To avoid aneuploidy, the cell must successfully coordinate cytokinesis with chromosome segregation. In animal cells, this coordination is achieved, in part, by assembling the cleavage furrow in response to signals from the late anaphase spindle. The exact nature of this signaling remains poorly understood.. In animal cells, the cytoplasm is partitioned by ingression of the cleavage furrow. Cleavage furrow ingression requires a contractile cortical ring of actin and myosin II (for review see Satterwhite and Pollard, 1992; for some more recent examples of the role of myosin II during cytokinesis see Bi et al. 1998, and Lippincott and Li 1998 [Saccharomyces cerevisiae]; Shelton et al. 1999 [Caenorhabditis elegans]; and Benzanilla et al. 2000 [Schizosaccharomyces pombe]). Based on EM studies, filamentous ...
Cell division concludes with cytokinesis, a process driven by a contractile ring of actin and myosin that lies underneath the plasma membrane at the cells equator. Although myosin is essential for cytokinesis in various animal models, whether and to what extent this reflects its motor activity or its ability to crosslink actin has been a matter of debate. Now Daniel Osorio, Ana Carvalho and colleagues tackle this problem with the help of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and C. elegans embryos. Mutations introduced into the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin-2 (NMY-2, the sole myosin required for early cytokinesis) bind to actin but fail to translocate it in vitro. In the animal, these motor-dead mutations lead to adult sterility and embryonic inviability, and fail to support cytokinesis. When motor activity is partially impaired, cytokinesis is prolonged and more sensitive to reductions in overall NMY-2 levels. Finally, although actin levels in the contractile ring are not affected by either NMY-2 ...
Cytokinesis, when two daughter cells are physically separated from one another, is the final stage of cell division. How dividing cells signal where the cleavage furrow should be during cytokinesis has long interested cell biologists. A major stumbling block to probing the underlying mechanisms has been the lack of a cell-free and fully controllable experimental system.. In a new paper appearing in Science (10 October 2014, Science 346 (6206):244-247), Phuong Nguyen and Aaron Groen, along with their colleagues at Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA), have reconstituted the organization of cytokinesis signaling outside living cells, using a the cell-free Xenopus system. The authors examined the biophysics involved in spatial signaling during cytokinesis using powerful imaging techniques, taking advantage of microtubule cytokinesis zones that they assembled on the surface of a microscope slide. These cytokinesis zones are relatively large (~20 mm) in the large Xenopus egg (c. 10x larger than ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SHCBP1 is required for midbody organization and cytokinesis completion. AU - Asano, Eri. AU - Hasegawa, Hitoki. AU - Hyodo, Toshinori. AU - Ito, Satoko. AU - Maeda, Masao. AU - Chen, Dan. AU - Takahashi, Masahide. AU - Hamaguchi, Michinari. AU - Senga, Takeshi. N1 - Funding Information: This research was funded by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (23107010 to T. Senga).. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - The centralspindlin complex, which is composed of MKLP1 and MgcRacGAP, is one of the crucial factors involved in cytokinesis initiation. Centralspindlin is localized at the middle of the central spindle during anaphase and then concentrates at the midbody to control abscission. A number of proteins that associate with centralspindlin have been identified. These associating factors regulate furrowing and abscission in coordination with centralspindlin. A recent study identified a novel centralspindlin partner, called Nessun ...
In animal cells, cytokinesis is accomplished by the contractile ring, a transient structure containing actin and myosin II (Zipper) filaments that is anchored to the equatorial cortex. Interactions between these filaments lead to the constriction of a ring that pinches the dividing cell in the middle like an ever tightening purse string until cleavage is completed. Male meiosis was examined in mutants of the chickadee (chic) locus, a Drosophila gene that encodes profilin, a low molecular weight actin-binding protein that modulates F-actin polymerization. These mutants are severely defective in meiotic cytokinesis. Difficulties in meiotic cytokinesis are immediately obvious because of the characteristic appearance of spermatids directly after their formation at the so-called onion stage. Wild-type onion stage spermatids contain a single phase-light nucleus and a similarly sized phase-dark Nebenkern (a mitochondrial derivative). Failures in cytokinesis result in abnormally large Nebenkern ...
In higher plants, microtubule-based and actin filament-based structures play important roles in mitosis and cytokinesis. Besides the mitotic spindle, the evolution of a band comprising cortical microtubules and actin filaments, namely, the preprophase band, is evident in plant cells. This band forecasts a specific division plane before the initiation of mitosis. During cytokinesis, another plant-specific cytoskeletal structure called the phragmoplast guides vesicles in the creation of a new cell wall. In addition, a number of cytoskeleton-associated proteins are reportedly involved in the formation and function of the preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and phragmoplast. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and discusses the interaction between microtubules and actin filaments involved in mitosis and cytokinesis.
Septum formation needs cell wall synthesis, and cell separation needs cell wall degradation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the lateral cell wall and the primary septum is required to produce two independent daughter cells. The recent characterization of the endo-(1,3)-β-d-glucanase encoded by eng1+ indicates that it is responsible for the primary septum degradation (33). Another protein, named Eng2p, also exhibits endo-(1,3)-β-d-glucanase activity, but it does not seem to be involved in cell separation (33). There are also two genes coding for putative α-glucanases in the S. pombe genome, and at least one of them (agn1+) has recently been shown to be involved in cell separation, being required for degradation of the lateral cell wall around the primary septum (2, 17, 20). The proper secretion of those hydrolases during cell division is necessary for the process to be achieved successfully. In previous work, we demonstrated that Rho4p regulates wall degradation during cell division (43). The results ...
Mutations in the Drosophila gene pavarotti result in the formation of abnormally large cells in the embryonic nervous system. In mitotic cycle 16, cells of pav mutant embryos undergo normal anaphase but then develop an abnormal telophase spindle and fail to undertake cytokinesis. We show that the septin Peanut, actin, and the actin-associated protein Anillin, do not become correctly localized in pav mutants. pav encodes a kinesin-like protein, PAV-KLP, related to the mammalian MKLP-1. In cellularized embryos, the protein is localized to centrosomes early in mitosis, and to the midbody region of the spindle in late anaphase and telophase. We show that Polo kinase associates with PAV-KLP with which it shows an overlapping pattern of subcellular localization during the mitotic cycle and this distribution is disrupted in pavmutants. We suggest that PAV-KLP is required both to establish the structure of the telophase spindle to provide a framework for the assembly of the contractile ring, and to ...
During cytokinesis, the cells equator contracts against the cells global stiffness. Identifying the biochemical basis for these mechanical parameters is essential for understanding how cells divide. To achieve this goal, the distribution and flux of the cell division machinery must be quantified. Here we report the first quantitative analysis of the distribution and flux of myosin-II, an essential element of the contractile ring. The fluxes of myosin-II in the furrow cortex, the polar cortex, and the cytoplasm were examined using ratio imaging of GFP fusion proteins expressed in Dictyostelium. The peak concentration of GFP-myosin-II in the furrow cortex is 1.8-fold higher than in the polar cortex and 2.0-fold higher than in the cytoplasm. The myosin-II in the furrow cortex, however, represents only 10% of the total cellular myosin-II. An estimate of the minimal amount of this motor needed to produce the required force for cell cleavage fits well with this 10% value. The cell may, therefore, regulate
Signals from the mitotic spindle during anaphase specify the location of the actomyosin contractile ring during cytokinesis, but the detailed mechanism remains unresolved. Here, we have imaged the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged myosin filaments, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 (which carri …
DIC phenotype -- Reduced cleavage furrow ingression in second embryonic division; a phenotype not observed in either single (or36 mutation or zen-4 RNAi) treatments, cf RNAi [cgc4544]:air- ...
During fission yeast cytokinesis, actin filaments nucleated by cortical formin Cdc12 are captured by myosin motors bound to a band of cortical nodes. The myosin motors exert forces that pull nodes together into a contractile ring. Cross-linking interactions help align actin filaments and nodes into …
Integrin-mediated adhesion is normally required for cytokinetic abscission, and failure in the process can generate potentially oncogenic tetraploid cells. Here, detachment-induced formation of oncogenic tetraploid cells was analyzed in non-transformed human BJ fibroblasts and BJ expressing SV40LT (BJ-LT) ± overactive HRas. In contrast to BJ and BJ-LT cells, non-adherent BJ-LT-Ras cells recruited ALIX and CHMP4B to the midbody and divided. In detached BJ and BJ-LT cells regression of the cytokinetic furrow was suppressed by intercellular bridge-associated septin; after re-adhesion these cells divided by cytofission, however, some cells became bi-nucleated because of septin reorganization and furrow regression. Adherent bi-nucleated BJ cells became senescent in G1 with p21 accumulation in the nucleus, apparently due to p53 activation since adherent bi-nucleated BJ-LT cells passed through next cell cycle and divided into mono-nucleated tetraploids; the two centrosomes present in bi-nucleated BJ cells
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is well established that Hof1, Cyk3, and Inn1 contribute to septum formation and cytokinesis. Because hof1∆ and cyk3∆ single mutants have relatively mild defects but hof1∆ cyk3∆ double mutants are nearly dead, it has been hypothesized that these proteins contribute to parallel pathways. However, there is also evidence that they interact physically. In this study, we examined this interaction and its functional significance in detail. Our data indicate that the interaction (i) is mediated by a direct binding of the Hof1 SH3 domain to a proline-rich motif in Cyk3; (ii) occurs specifically at the time of cytokinesis but is independent of the (hyper)phosphorylation of both proteins that occurs at about the same time; (iii) is dispensable for the normal localization of both proteins; (iv) is essential for normal primary-septum formation and a normal rate of cleavage-furrow ingression; and (v) becomes critical for growth when either Inn1 or the type II myosin ...
Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of telophase; however, cytokinesis is a separate process that begins at the same time as telophase. Cytokinesis is technically not even a phase of mitosis, but rather a separate process, necessary for completing cell division. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, pinching off the separated nuclei.[17] In both animal and plant cells, cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus, which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell.[18] In plants this structure coalesces into a cell plate at the center of the phragmoplast and develops into a cell wall, separating the two nuclei. The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule array during cytokinesis.[19] Each daughter cell has a complete copy of the genome of its parent cell. The end of cytokinesis ...
Cell division is required for the propagation of all living things. A critical phase of cell division occurs just after segregation of the duplicated genome, when the chromosomes, cytoplasm and organelles are partitioned to two daughter cells in a process termed cytokinesis. In animal cells, cytokinesis is driven by a cortical contraction that physically pinches the cell into two, and requires coordination of the mitotic spindle, actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Failures in cytokinesis can cause cell death and age-related disorders, or lead to a genome amplification characteristic of many cancers. Although cytokinesis has been studied for over 125 years, little is known about the molecular factors and mechanisms involved. We are particularly interested in understanding how the cleavage furrow is established, how the completion of cytokinesis is achieved and what roles the spindle midzone and midbody play in cell division. My laboratory integrates multiple approaches in both mammalian and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of the cell division cycle in yeast. IV. Genes controlling bud emergence and cytokinesis. AU - Hartwell, Leland. PY - 1971. Y1 - 1971. N2 - Temperature-sensitive mutations in one gene (cdc1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer a defect in bud emergence. Asynchronous cultures of cells defective in cdc1 collect uniformly as unbudded cells (or cells with very tiny buds) following a shift from the permissive to the restrictive temperature. Studies with synchronous cultures demonstrate that the thermolabile product of cdc1 completes its function (the execution point) for bud emergence at the time of bud emergence (0.2 fractions of a cell cycle). When this function is not completed at the restrictive temperature. cells complete DNA replication but do not undergo nuclear division. Temperature-sensitive mutations in four genes (cdc3, 10, 11, and 12) result in a defect in cytokinesis. At the restrictive temperature these mutant strains develop multiple elongated buds that ...
Supplementary Components1. become permanently damaged by repetitive or chronic injury or disease. Identification of the mechanism by which superficial cells are produced may be important for developing strategies for urothelial restoration. Graphical Abstract In Brief Binucleated superficial cells are critical for urothelial barrier function. Wang et al. display that they derive from binucleated intermediate cells that form via incomplete cytokinesis. Both superficial and intermediate cells increase ploidy via endoreplication, a feature likely to be important for restoration and response to Monodansylcadaverine environmental changes. Intro The urothelium is an epithelial barrier that extends from your renal pelvis to the bladder neck, protects against pathogens and toxins, and handles the passing of ions and drinking water between your mucosa and underlying tissues. The adult urothelium s almost quiescent but can easily regenerate after severe injury from urinary system an infection (UTI) or ...
The cell grows larger, makes copies of all components, and then replicates the DNA. Replicated DNA is allocated equally to the new cells and the cell splits in half. This splitting is called cytokinesis. This division is a type of asexual reproduction, as each new cell contains an exact copy of the parent cell DNA. There are five steps to mitosis: These steps are defined by condensing DNA into chromosomes, followed by temporary removal of the nuclear membrane, separation of newly copied chromosomes, and movement of separated chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell.. During telophase, nuclear membranes are then reformed around each cluster of separated chromosomes. Cytokinesis occurs after telophase.. It should be noted that this process only occurs in somatic cells, with meiosis being the process for sex cells, such as eggs and sperm.. ...
Acts as a regulator of endocytic traffic by participating in membrane delivery. Required for the abcission step in cytokinesis, possibly by acting as an address tag delivering recycling endosome membranes to the cleavage furrow during late cytokinesis. Also required for the structural integrity of the endosomal recycling compartment during interphase. May play a role in breast cancer cell motility by regulating actin cytoskeleton. Acts as an adapter protein linking the dynein motor complex to various cargos and converts dynein from a non-processive to a highly processive motor in the presence of dynactin. Facilitates the interaction between dynein and dynactin and activates dynein processivity (the ability to move along a microtubule for a long distance without falling off the track) (PubMed:25035494).
If cytokinesis took place before mitosis, the two daughter cells would end up with only half the required genetic material and, unable to function, would die. In eukaryotic cells, cytokinesis...
The essence of cytokinesis in animal cells is the relocation of cell material out of the equatorial plane. Any mechanism that appears to move material in the opposite direction would seem to be working against the division mechanism. The earliest oil drop models of the cell surface that were developed at the end of the 19th century revealed that streaming movements were produced when drops of soap solution were applied to restricted parts of the oil drop surface. The streaming was directed away from the region where the soap lowered the surface tension. Heilbrunn, The Colloid Chemistry of Protoplasm (p. 256) Accurate descriptions of the events of mitosis and cytokinesis were available at a time when fascination with the mechanical forces that shape cells and organisms was widespread. Although the genetic basis of development was acknowledged, the physical basis for the arrangements and the form that typify cells and developing organisms was considered an equally important area of investigation ...
Calcium signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of calcium dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free calcium in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent calcium indicator dyes, mainly Calcium Green-1. Cleavage formation was followed by calcium transients that localized to cleavage furrows and propagated along the furrows as calcium waves. The calcium transients at the cleavage furrows were observed at each cleavage furrow at least until blastula stage. The velocity of the calcium waves at the first cleavage furrow was approximately 3 microns/s, which was much slower than that associated with fertilization/egg activation. These calcium waves traveled only along the cleavage furrows and not in the direction orthogonal to the furrows. These observations imply that there exists an intracellular calcium-releasing activity specifically associated with cleavage furrows. The calcium waves occurred in ...
Anyway, what the oxidized product does is to stop the process of cytokinesis in place. So you can freeze frame the process of cytokinesis at any timepoint where you add a drop of the compound. If you wash it out, cytokinesis picks up where it left off.. The mechanism of action turns out to be that furrowstatin binds a protein called non-muscle myosin II. This showed that this motor protein is involved in cytokinesis, but is not involved in sister chromatid separation, since that process could continue in the presence of furrowstatin.. Once this was known, people started staining for non-muscle myosin II, and found that it co-localized with actin during cytokinesis. Then they stained for other things and found that anillin co-localized with actin as well, suggesting it might also be involved.. A phenotypic screen revealed a second tool compound, which caused a phenotype never before seen in nature: it made segregating chromosomes and microtubules explode into an astral shape, with the centromeres ...
In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed‐color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days
Cytoplasm division occurs after telophase and it is called cytokinesis. In animal cells an invagination of the plasma membrane toward the cell center appears in the equator of the parent cell and then the cell is strangulated in that region and divided into two daughter cells. This type of division is called centripetal cytokinesis from outside.In plant cells the cytokinesis is not centripetal since the division happens from the inside. Membranous sacs full of pectin concentrate in the internal central region of the cell and propagate to the periphery toward the plasma membrane. The pectin-containing sacs fuse themselves and form a central structure called phragmoplast. On the phragmoplast cellulose deposition occurs and a true cell wall is created to separate the daughter cells. Plant cells thus present centrifugal cytokinesis ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in protein kinase activity involved in regulation of protein localization to cell division site involved in cytokinesis pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
To properly form the daughter cell poles and drive outer membrane invagination, the divisome of gram‐negative bacteria orchestrates a high level of PG hydrolase activity at the division site shortly after it initiates septal PG biogenesis and cell constriction (Heidrich et al, 2001; Priyadarshini et al, 2006; Uehara and Park, 2008; Uehara et al, 2009). While investigating the regulation of a putative PG hydrolase involved in this process, we discovered an essential step in the activation of PG hydrolysis by the cytokinetic ring. We have shown that the E. coli LytM factors, EnvC and NlpD, are divisome‐associated activators of the three PG amidases, AmiA, AmiB and AmiC, required for septal PG splitting in E. coli. At high concentrations (4 μM) and long incubation times (⩾4 h), the amidases alone showed some PG cleavage activity in vitro (Figure 6A). This activity was dramatically enhanced when EnvC or NlpD were included in the reaction (Figures 6 and 7). EnvC specifically enhanced PG ...
Cytoplasm division occurs after telophase and it is called cytokinesis. In animal cells an invagination of the plasma membrane toward the cell center appears in the equator of the parent cell and then the cell is strangulated in that region and divided into two daughter cells. This type of division is called centripetal cytokinesis from outside.In plant cells the cytokinesis is not centripetal since the division happens from the inside. Membranous sacs full of pectin concentrate in the internal central region of the cell and propagate to the periphery toward the plasma membrane. The pectin-containing sacs fuse themselves and form a central structure called phragmoplast. On the phragmoplast cellulose deposition occurs and a true cell wall is created to separate the daughter cells. Plant cells thus present centrifugal cytokinesis ...
Important life processes are handled by a variety of positive and adverse feedback systems heavily. the cell, contracting it to rounded the cellular and completing department that AVN-944 supplier generates proportionally formed girl cellular material then. This observation suggested that an active mechanism for correcting and controlling shape may exist. We after that used mechanised pushes to cells using micropipette hope to deform them in particular methods and notice their reactions. Mitotic cells in anaphase through the conclusion of cytokinesis gathered myosin-II and cortexillin-I at the micropipette (Fig. 2). In early cytokinesis, cells caught from the pipette regularly, getting away it, and rerounding therefore that cell department could become finished after that, creating two proportionally size girl cells (Fig. 2A). The cells slowed down cytokinesis development if the deformation was activated before AVN-944 supplier significant furrow ingression happened and needed approximately 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles of the fission yeast UNC-13/Munc13 protein Ync13 in late stages of cytokinesis. AU - Zhu, Yi Hua. AU - Hyun, Joanne. AU - Pan, Yun Zu. AU - Hopper, James E.. AU - Rizo-Rey, Jose. AU - Wu, Jian Qiu. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Mohan Balasubramanian, Juan Carlos, Kathy Gould, Sophie Martin, Dan Mulvihill, Beatriz Santos, Shelley Sazer, Vladimir Sirotkin, and Takashi Toda for yeast strains; Jianjie Ma and Mingzhai Sun for PALM; the Campus Microscopy and Imaging facility at OSU and the Boulder Electron Microscopy Services at the University of Colorado for help with EM; the Anita Hopper, Joseph Krzycki, Dmitri Kudryashov, and Stephen Osmani laboratories for equipment; Victoria Esser in the Rizo lab for help with liposome cofloatation assays; and the current and former members of the Wu lab and rotation student Vedud Purde for helpful suggestions and technical supports. This study was supported by a Pelotonia Graduate Fellowship to Y.-H. Z., a Pelotonia Undergraduate ...
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:68:\A TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT DEFECTIVE IN MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS.\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1976\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:6:\SHIOMI\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:1:\T\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:2:{i:0;s:8:\SHIOMI T\;i:1;s:6:\SATO ...
Inhibition of cytokinesis by microinjection of anti-ECT2 antibodies. (A) Affinity-purified anti-ECT2 antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal domain (αECT2-N),
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1) as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
View Notes - IMG_0002 from BIO 102 at Harvard. envelope absent. (x250) Chromosome Figure 1-3 Metaphase Darkly stained chromosomes positioned by microtubular framework to align at cell equator.
Peer Marking Introduction concisely describes what cytokinesis briefly is about. It does not use complex terms that will confuse the reader and even provides a nice picture. The history does list important events and is referenced correctly but clearly is lacking a few more recent key events (ends in 1972). Not quite sure what ZEN-4 is required for cytokinesis9778533 is for, but that should be noted in the discussion page and not left there. The Assembly of the Central Spindle section does provide helpful information on the topic and linking important terms to the Glossary was a brilliant and helpful formatting decision. The diagram provided also aids in the understanding as there are several complex terms used in this section. The following sections in the Mechanism subheading provide appropriate information but it was incredibly difficult to read due to the huge wall of text each subsection had. Adding some pictures and diagrams would do a much better job at engaging the reading and probably ...
The act of division itself - cytokinesis - is probably the single most complicated mechanical act an animal cell ever performs on its own. To pinch itself in two, the cell first has to sort replicated chromosomes, then figure out where its middle is, assemble contractile proteins at the cell surface around that equator (and nowhere else), then squeeze the equator smaller and smaller to partition surface, organelles, and cytoplasm into two new daughter cells. Finally the daughters have to sever their connection and re-establish their own internal organization. Throughout cytokinesis, the cell has to ensure that each half of itself will end up with a complete set of chromosomes, one microtubule organizing center apiece, and of course portions of every other organelle ...
MKlp2 is a kinesin-like motor protein of the central mitotic spindle required for completion of cytokinesis. Papillomavirus E2 is a sequence specific DNA binding protein that regulates viral transcription and replication and is responsible for partitioning viral episomes into daughter cells during cell division. We demonstrate that MKlp2 specifically associates with the E2 protein during mitosis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show viral genomes are in complex with MKlp2 only within this stage of cell cycle. By immunofluorescence, a subpopulation of papillomavirus E2 colocalizes with MKlp2 in the midbody/midplate during late mitosis. We conclude that during specific stages of mitosis, the papillomavirus E2 protein binds to MKlp2, and infer that association with this motor protein ensures viral genome partitioning during cytokinesis.
Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Required for proper attachment of the midbody to the cell membrane during cytokinesis. Plays key roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through mechanisms other than regulating Rac GTPase activity. Also involved in the regulation of growth-related processes in adipocytes and myoblasts. May be involved in regulating spermatogenesis and in the RACGAP1 pathway in neuronal proliferation. Shows strong GAP (GTPase activation) activity towards CDC42 and RAC1 and less towards RHOA. Essential for the early stages of embryogenesis. May play a role in regulating cortical activity through RHOA during cytokinesis. May participate in the regulation of sulfate transport in male germ cells.
Beckman scholars from five New England colleges and universities-Boston College, Boston University, Smith College, Wellesley College, and Yale University-assembled in the Merkert Chemistry Center on January 23 to discuss their research projects in the fields of biochemistry, chemistry, and the biological and medical sciences. The scholarship program, which is funded by the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation, supports research by undergraduates-71 from 40 institutions at present-who work with a faculty mentor full-time during two summers and part-time during the intervening academic year. The 15 students meeting at Boston College, including the Universitys four current Beckman scholars, discussed topics ranging from the Role of myosin II in cytokinetic contractile ring formation in fission yeast to Identifying mechanisms for polymeric degradation by endophytic fungi. Above, reviewing a poster presentation in the Merkert foyer are, from left, Courtney McKee 11 (Studies on the nuclear ...
Carbonylated proteins were visualized in single cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing that they accumulate with replicative age. Furthermore, carbonylated proteins were not inherited by daughter cells during cytokinesis. Mother cells of a yeast strain lacking the sir2 gene, a life-span determinant, failed to retain oxidatively damaged proteins during cytokinesis. These findings suggest that a genetically determined, Sir2p-dependent asymmetric inheritance of oxidatively damaged proteins may contribute to free-radical defense and the fitness of newborn cells. ...
The discovery of an essential role for annexin 11 in cell division is unexpected when considered in the broader context of annexin biology. Although annexins are now firmly implicated in various cellular activities, including endocytosis, calcium signaling, and apoptosis, no member of this protein family has been demonstrated to function in the cell cycle. The membrane binding and vesicle fusogenic properties that define annexins in biochemical terms could provide clues as to the possible role of annexin 11 in the last stage of cytokinesis. Before cells can be completely separated in a process known as abscission, the actomyosin constriction ring at the cleavage furrow has to be disassembled and the central spindle must separate. During this series of events, it is likely that the plasma membrane must be tightly attached to the midbody microtubules for abscission to be successfully completed. CHO1 has previously been suggested to be responsible for this connection (Kuriyama et al., 2002), but ...
The Cell Cycle - Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis - Cell Division of somatic cells. Study notes for basic courses in human biology and anatomy and physiology e.g. for training in nursing, therapies and other health sciences.
34 Cell Division Mitosis And Cytokinesis Worksheet Answers from cell cycle diagram worksheet, image source:
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob1p is required for cytokinesis and mitotic exit. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This gene is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family and encodes a protein with a DHR-1 (CZH-1) domain, a DHR-2 (CZH-2) domain and an SH3 domain. This membrane-associated, cytoplasmic protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and is involved in regulation of adherens junctions between cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ovarian, prostate, glioma, and colorectal cancers. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described, but only one has been fully characterized.
This gene is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family and encodes a protein with a DHR-1 (CZH-1) domain, a DHR-2 (CZH-2) domain and an SH3 domain. This membrane-associated, cytoplasmic protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and is involved in regulation of adherens junctions between cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ovarian, prostate, glioma, and colorectal cancers. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described, but only one has been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Cell biologists have long thought that cytokinesis, the final step of cell division in which the cytoplasm and its contents are split, is necessary for the proper assortment of chromosomes. Disrupt this process, the prevailing wisdom held, and aneuploidy will result, with cancerous implications. But a team led by Mark Burkard at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has discovered a new type of cell division, dubbed klerokinesis, that protects cells from failed cytokinesis.. Using live-cell imaging, the researchers watched retinal pigment epithelial cells for five days after they had chemically inhibited cytokinesis. Reporting today at the American Society for Cell Biologys annual meeting in San Francisco, they showed that many cells managed to split into two during the first growth phase of the next cell cycle-not during mitosis-allowing each to recover a normal chromosome set. Burkard says that therapeutic strategies that boost this type of nonmitotic cell fission could prevent cancer in ...
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Mitosis-- Movie Narrative (Advanced Look). Cell division is required for an organism to grow, mature, and maintain tissues. During the mitotic phase, a cell will undergo mitosis to form two new nuclei and then divide to form two new individual cells during cytokinesis. Mitosis is the process of dividing the duplicated DNA of a cell into two new nuclei. Mitosis is split into distinct stages. The first stage is prophase; the DNA condenses, organizes, and the classic chromosome structure appears. Next comes prometaphase where microtubules attach to the chromosomes. This step is followed by metaphase where the chromosomes align. Metaphase is followed by anaphase where the chromosomes separate. Finally, during telophase nuclear membranes reappear around the two sets of chromosomes. Mitosis is now complete. After mitosis two new cells are formed by a process called cytokinesis.. Mitosis is only one part of what is called the cell cycle. For many eukaryotic cells, a cell is duplicated every 24 hours. ...
Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, and each set ends up in its own nucleus. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle: the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to spindle fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. The result is two ...
Transcription factor required for septum destruction after cytokinesis; phosphorylation by Cbk1p blocks nuclear exit during M/G1 transition, causing localization to daughter cell nuclei, and also increases Ace2p activity; phosphorylation by Cdc28p and Pho85p prevents nuclear import during cell cycle phases other than cytokinesis; part of RAM network that regulates cellular polarity and morphogenesis; ACE2 has a paralog, SWI5, that arose from the whole genome duplication ...
Cell undergoes first division/meiosis I/cytokinesis; chromosomes separate again; two cells from first division undergo second division/meiosis II/cytokinesis; one cell has given rise to four cells; diploid number/2n becomes haploid number/n; haploid cell contains only one chromosome from each original homologous pair; different haploid cells form because of random orientation during meiosis are basis for first variety; mixture of maternal and paternal chromosomes in any haploid cell is different; ...
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Caring for animals can be an extremely fulfilling and rewarding career. From working in kennels and catteries to pet shops, rescue centres or sanctuaries, there is a wide range of careers available on successful completion of your course. With access to animal collections on campus you will gain the practical training you need to pursue a career in this exciting industry.. There are one- and two-year options available with the Level 3 pathway and we will work with you to decide which is best for you.. We offer three options for you to start your studies in the animal management industry depending on your GCSE results. Our Level 3 course offers you the choice of university study or employment on successful completion of your course. Our Level 2 and Level 1 courses are ideal should your GCSEs not be what you expected, with the option to progress to Level 2 or Level 3.. ...
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From: Robin S. Wilson, President. Subject: Definitions of a Major and a Minor. DEFINITION OF A MAJOR AND A MINOR. Upon recommendation of the Faculty Senate, the revised wording for EM 75-006 defining majors and minors is approved. This replaces EM 75-006.. Definition of a Major. A major is an approved group of related courses and experiences, successful completion of which is recognized by the award of the appropriate degree. The approval of these related courses and experiences and the approval of the definition of successful completion will be obtained through current University and system procedures. A major shall include courses required by the department(s), or academic unit(s) having administrative control of the program and, in addition, shall include all college-level prerequisites to the courses so required.. A major leading to a liberal arts degree (B.A.) shall include not fewer than 24 nor more than 60 semester units. Requests for exceptions to the upper limit on units in the major ...
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Differentiate cytokinesis in plant cell and cytokinesis in animal cell. 2. Section-C. 11. Define guttation, hydathodes and transpiration. 3. 12. Draw a labelled diagram of closed circulatory system of earthworm. 3. 13. Draw labelled diagram of T.S. of dicot root. 3. 14. Differentiate male and female Ascaris. 3. 15. Explain the different categories of animals based on the presence or absence of coelom. 3. 16. Enumerate the important universal rules of nomenclature. 3. 17. How chromosomes are classified based on the position of centromere ? 3. 18. What is night blindness ? What lacks in the eye in this condition ? Give one remedy. ...
A tight ring-shaped structure that forms in the division plane at the site of cytokinesis; composed of members of the conserved family of filament-forming proteins called septins as well as septin-associated proteins. This type of septin structure is obse…
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Researchers have discovered that chromosomes play an active role in animal cell division. This occurs at a precise stage - cytokinesis - when the cell splits into two new daughter cells.
All organisms must control their cell division. Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct order of events is...
Stage Number of Cells in Part 1 Number of Cells in Part 2 Interphase 11 9 Prophase 7 4 Metaphase 5 3 Anaphase 9 7 Telophase 4 3 Cytokinesis 2 2 Create a
M ITOSIS Almost every cell of the body uses mitosis to divide the nucleus Somatic cells - cells that are not sex cells/gametes Exs) liver cell, bone cell, brain cell etc. AS LONG AS IT IS NOT SPERM OR EGGS IT USES MITOSIS Cell grows (G1), synthesizes DNA (S), makes molecules and organelles (G2) and then is ready for cell division (mitosis and cytokinesis)
CDC11 is a component of Septins. Septins are GTPases involved in cytokinesis. They assemble early in the cell cycle as a patch at the incipient bud…
This unit covers instructional content including Chromosome Structure, Limits to Cell Growth, Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Cytokinesis, Regulation of the Cell Cycle, and Cell Differentiation.
The cell cycle is a five-stage process that begins with the prophase stage and ends with the cytokinesis stage. In between the beginning and end stages, the dividing cell passes through the stages of...
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This is a 46-hour class with a 10-hour clinical, totaling 56 hours, to prepare individuals to safely administer medications in long-term care and residential care facilities. Successful completion qualifies the participants to pass medication according to regulatory standards. Applicant must be employed at least six months in the sponsoring facility, be recommended by their facility, and, if CAN, must be eligible on the DCW Registry if employed in a certified nursing facility. All other applicants must provide recommendation from their administrator at the facility where they are employed. Text is available in SCC bookstore and is not included in cost of tuition. The CORE Training Certificate MUST be completed prior to the first day of class. It can be accessed at To register for this class, call 319-208-5391. ...
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Cytokinesis. Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter ... Pelham RJ, Chang F (Sep 2002). "Actin dynamics in the contractile ring during cytokinesis in fission yeast". Nature. 419 (6902 ... Actin's cytoskeleton is key to the processes of endocytosis, cytokinesis, determination of cell polarity and morphogenesis in ... cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell ...
The end of cytokinesis marks the end of the M-phase. There are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, ... Main article: Cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is not a phase of mitosis but rather a separate process, necessary for completing cell ... Cytokinesis does not always occur; coenocytic (a type of multinucleate condition) cells undergo mitosis without cytokinesis. ... Karyokinesis without cytokinesis originates multinucleated cells called coenocytes. Related cell processes[edit]. Cell rounding ...
In animals the cytokinesis ends with formation of a contractile ring and thereafter a cleavage. But in plants it happen ... The last stage of the cell division process is cytokinesis. In this stage there is a cytoplasmic division that occurs at the ... Telophase is the last stage of the cell cycle in which a cleavage furrow splits the cells cytoplasm (cytokinesis) and chromatin ... In Fission yeast (S. pombe) the cytokinesis happens in G1 phase Cells are broadly classified into two main categories: simple ...
This prevents cytokinesis. When MPF activity falls at anaphase, the inhibitory sites are dephosphorylated and cytokinesis ...
... and cytokinesis. JADE1S negatively regulates cytokinesis of the epithelial cell cycle, a function specific to the small ... The number of reports concerning cytokinesis control has been growing over the past decade. JADE1 role in cytokinesis was ... The data demonstrated that JADE1 negatively controls cytokinesis, presumably by contributing to cytokinesis delay. JADE1 down- ... Cytokinesis is the final step of cell cycle which controls fidelity of division of cellular content, including cytoplasm, ...
oocyte cytokinesis effective at 300 μM[33] C. elegans nonmuscle myosin-2 acto-myosin colocalization microscopy effective at 100 ... At a cellular level, blebbistatin also inhibits cytokinesis [11] and may also disrupt mitotic spindle formation.[12] Migration ... "Dissecting temporal and spatial control of cytokinesis with a myosin II Inhibitor". Science. 299 (5613): 1743-7. doi:10.1126/ ...
In cytokinesis the cell cortex plays a central role by producing a myosin-rich contractile ring to constrict the dividing cell ... Green RA, Paluch E, Oegema K (November 2012). "Cytokinesis in animal cells". Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. ...
Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay; Sister-chromatid exchange assay; Allium assay; Alamar blue assay; Trypan blue ... cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay and sister chromatids exchange assay. Evaluation of cytotoxic and cytostatic ...
Contractile ring in cytokinesis. *Contractile vacuole. *Muscle contraction *Myocardial contractility. *See contractile cell for ...
Robinson DN, Spudich JA (2000). "Towards a molecular understanding of cytokinesis". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (6): 228-237. ...
In red algae, cytokinesis is incomplete. Typically, a small pore is left in the middle of the newly formed partition. The pit ... Pit connections and pit plugs are unique and distinctive features of red algae that form during the process of cytokinesis ...
Lee, KY; Davies, T; Mishima, M (Aug 1, 2012). "Cytokinesis microtubule organisers at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. 125 ( ... The central spindle is widely regarded as a key regulating center for cytokinesis, recruiting proteins for successful cleavage ... Without this regulation, signaling faults in cytokinesis can occur, resulting in unequal chromosome segregation or polyploid ...
After karyokinesis, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. At this point the nuclei are already spherical and resemble that of mature ...
DOCK8, or "dedicator of cytokinesis 8", is a protein involved in regulating the actin skeleton of the cell. It may also be a ... Su, Helen C. (2010-12-01). "DOCK8 (Dedicator of cytokinesis 8) deficiency". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology ...
Smith LG (March 2002). "Plant cytokinesis: motoring to the finish". Current Biology. 12 (6): R206-8. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02) ... bipolar thick filaments provide the force of contraction needed to divide the cell into two daughter cells during cytokinesis. ...
Cytokinesis begins with the budding process in late G1 and is not completed until about halfway through the next cycle. The ... This bud grows during the cell cycle and detaches; fission yeast divide by forming a cell wall Cytokinesis begins at G1 for ... Bi, Erfei (2002). "Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast: the Relationship between Actomyosin Ring Function and Septum Formation". Cell ... Thus, the AMR and septum formation are the major drivers of cytokinesis.[citation needed] Budding yeast form a bud from the ...
"Entrez Gene: PRC1 protein regulator of cytokinesis 1". Eggert US, Mitchison TJ, Field CM (2006). "Animal Cytokinesis: From ... Protein Regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRC1 gene and is involved in ... This regulation is crucial in order for cytokinesis to progress properly. PRC1 is a non-motor microtubule-associated protein ( ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O43663 (Protein regulator of cytokinesis 1) at the ...
Transverse: Here cytokinesis takes place along the transverse axis. e.g. in ciliate protozoans like Paramecium. ... Longitudinal: Here cytokinesis takes place along the longitudinal axis. e.g. in flagellates like Euglena. ... In this type of fission, a multinucleate adult parent undergoes cytokinesis to form two multinucleate (or coenocytic) daughter ... Irregular: In this fission, cytokinesis may take place along any plane but it is always perpendicular to the plane of ...
... (Dedicator of cytokinesis), also known as Zizimin2, is a large (~240 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling ... "Entrez Gene: DOCK11 dedicator of cytokinesis 11". Côté JF, Vuori K (December 2002). "Identification of an evolutionarily ...
Skop AR, Bergmann D, Mohler WA, White JG (May 2001). "Completion of cytokinesis in C. elegans requires a brefeldin A-sensitive ... The bridge is then broken and resealed to form two identical daughter cells during cytokinesis. The breakage is formed by ... Plant cells do not perform cytokinesis through this exact method but the two procedures are not totally different. Animal cells ... ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. "The Cleavage Furrow (contractile ring) and Cytokinesis". Maciver Lab Cytoskeleton. University of Edinburgh ...
Though the exact mechanism by which Aurora A aids cytokinesis is unknown, it is well documented that it relocalizes to the mid- ... Dysregulation of Aurora A may lead to cancer because Aurora A is required for the completion of cytokinesis. If the cell begins ... Finally, Aurora A helps orchestrate an exit from mitosis by contributing to the completion of cytokinesis- the process by which ... The Aurora B kinase is a chromosome passenger protein and regulates chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Although there is ...
... (Dedicator of cytokinesis 3), also known as MOCA (modifier of cell adhesion) and PBP (presenilin-binding protein), is a ... "Entrez Gene: DOCK3 dedicator of cytokinesis 3". Kashiwa A, Yoshida H, Lee S, et al. (July 2000). "Isolation and ...
Drechsel DN, Hyman AA, Hall A, Glotzer M (January 1997). "A requirement for Rho and Cdc42 during cytokinesis in Xenopus embryos ... Piekny AJ, Mains PE (June 2002). "Rho-binding kinase (LET-502) and myosin phosphatase (MEL-11) regulate cytokinesis in the ... "Rho-kinase/ROCK is involved in cytokinesis through the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and not ezrin/radixin/moesin ... which is necessary for the completion of cytokinesis. ROCKs also seem to antagonize the insulin signaling pathway, resulting in ...
... (Dedicator of cytokinesis 6), also known as Zir1 is a large (~200 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling ... "Entrez gene: DOCK6 dedicator of cytokinesis 6". Côté JF, Vuori K (December 2002). "Identification of an evolutionarily ...
During cytokinesis, RACGAP1 has been shown to interact with KIF23 to form the centralspindlin complex. This complex is ... Mishima M, Kaitna S, Glotzer M (January 2002). "Central spindle assembly and cytokinesis require a kinesin-like protein/RhoGAP ... June 2000). "CYK-4: A Rho family gtpase activating protein (GAP) required for central spindle formation and cytokinesis". The ... Hirose K, Kawashima T, Iwamoto I, Nosaka T, Kitamura T (February 2001). "MgcRacGAP is involved in cytokinesis through ...
... (Dedicator of cytokinesis 2), also known as DOCK2, is a large (~180 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q92608 (Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 2) at the ... "Entrez Gene: DOCK2 dedicator of cytokinesis 2". Nishihara H, Kobayashi S, Hashimoto Y, et al. (November 1999). "Non-adherent ...
... , (Dedicator of cytokinesis 4) also known as DOCK4, is a large (~190 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling ... "Entrez Gene: DOCK4 dedicator of cytokinesis 4". Yajnik V, Paulding C, Sordella R, et al. (March 2003). "DOCK4, a GTPase ...
Cytokinesis, which is the next stage, is inhibited by cytochalasin B. A key advantage of this method is that it allows ... Cytokinesis is inhibited, however, mitosis is unaffected. Due to the effects on several cellular functions but lack of general ... In order to do so, cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay) with human lymphocytes is applied. This works in vitro. ... Another group found that CB inhibits the ability of HeLa cells to undergo cytokinesis by decomposition of the contractile ring ...
Cytokinesis is defined by actomyosin-based contraction. RhoA-dependent diaphanous-related formins (DRFs) localize to the ... cleavage furrow during cytokinesis while stimulating local actin polymerization by coordinating microtubules with actin ...
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis differ in that mitosis the process in which a duplicated genome within a cell separates into identical halves, while cytokinesis in. (
  • The M phase in the cell cycle is known as the mitotic phase and is comprised of mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • The structure and distribution of cytoplasmic membranes during mitosis and cytokinesis in maize root tip meristematic cells was investigated by low and high voltage electron microscopy. (
  • Computer animation illustrates mitosis and cytokinesis in a clear and understandable way. (
  • Details the four phases of mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • The APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) targets a large number of substrates for proteolysis during the final steps of mitosis and cytokinesis, but the significance of these targeting events, particularly in mammalian cells, is largely unknown. (
  • The strict temporal coupling between mitosis and cytokinesis complicates genetic and biochemical studies of this coordination (reviewed by S atterwhite and P ollard 1992 ) because mitotic regulatory molecules likely control both processes by distinct mechanisms. (
  • In higher plants, microtubule (MT)-based, and actin filament (AF)-based structures play important roles in mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • This review summarizes current knowledge on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and discusses the interaction between MTs and AFs involved in mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • In this review, we summarize the current findings on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and focus on the MT and AF interactions involved in mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • However, in the insect (procyclic) form of an ancient protist, Trypanosoma brucei , a blockade at the G 2 /M checkpoint results in an enrichment of anucleate cells (zoids), suggesting separated regulations between mitosis and cytokinesis (X. Tu and C. C. Wang, J. Biol. (
  • Polo-like kinases (Plks) are known to play critical roles in controlling both mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • One such protein that plays a crucial role in both mitosis and cytokinesis is polo-like kinase (Plk). (
  • How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was at the end of G2 of the cell cycle? (
  • MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: In this lesson, we'll be exploring the M phase of the cell cycle including mitosis and cytokinesis. (
  • O:13:\"PanistOpenUrl\":36:{s:10:\"\u0000*\u0000openUrl\";N;s:6:\"\u0000*\u0000idc\";N;s:6:\"\u0000*\u0000fmt\";s:7:\"journal\";s:6:\"\u0000*\u0000doi\";s:0:\"\";s:6:\"\u0000*\u0000pii\";s:0:\"\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000pmid\";s:0:\"\";s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000atitle\";s:68:\"A TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT DEFECTIVE IN MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS. (
  • s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000aucorp\";s:0:\"\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000isbn\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000coden\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000genre\";s:7:\"article\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000part\";s:0:\"\";s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000btitle\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000title\";s:68:\"A TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE MUTANT DEFECTIVE IN MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS. (
  • Abscission depends on septin filaments beneath the cleavage furrow, which provide a structural basis to ensure completion of cytokinesis. (
  • Further analysis revealed that p27CK- expression caused a cytokinesis and abscission defect in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (
  • After furrow ingression is completed, there is a period (from 1.5 to 5 hours) during which daughter cells are still linked by a cytoplasmic bridge before cytokinesis is complete (abscission). (
  • It has been postulated that termination of cytokinesis (abscission) depends on the migration of a centriole to the intercellular bridge and then back to the cell center. (
  • These findings show that centrioles are highly mobile during cytokinesis and suggest that the repositioning of a centriole to the intercellular bridge is not essential for controlling abscission. (
  • Cytokinesis is terminated by midbody cleavage (abscission) [ 20 , 21 ] and each daughter cell then receives only one centrosome [ 22 ]. (
  • In addition, a diffusion-based assay that precisely discerns the timing of abscission and cell separation shows that BRCA2 does not have a role in these final stages of cytokinesis. (
  • Loss of midbody MTs accompanies the abscission stage of cytokinesis. (
  • They all induced cytokinesis failure at the point of abscission, consistent with inhibition of dynamin while not affecting other cell cycle stages. (
  • In addition, ESCRT proteins have an established role in the final stage of cytokinesis, abscission, although the functional mechanisms by which they mediate daughter cell separation have yet to be demonstrated biochemically in vivo. (
  • and although Plk1 proteolysis facilitates abscission complex assembly, Plk1 re-emerges at the midbody late during cytokinesis. (
  • When a cell divides, it produces two daughter cells initially connected by a cytokinesis bridge, which is eventually cut through abscission. (
  • Membrane bending and scission during ILV formation is topologically similar to cytokinesis in that both events require the abscission of a membrane neck that is oriented away from the cytoplasm. (
  • Animal cell cytokinesis begins shortly after the onset of sister chromatid separation in the anaphase of mitosis. (
  • During normal proliferative divisions, animal cell cytokinesis begins shortly after the onset of sister chromatid separation in the anaphase of mitosis. (
  • The final stage in the process of cell division is known as cytokinesis, which usually begins during late anaphase or early telophase (before mitosis ends) as the nuclear envelope and nucleoli are reforming and the chromosomes are de-condensing. (
  • Cytokinesis starts during anaphase, when the microtubules gradually concentrate at the spindle midzone and a perpendicular ring of actomyosin contracts to form a cleavage furrow. (
  • Plks play multiple pivotal roles in regulating the G 2 /M transition ( 1 ), the metaphase/anaphase transition ( 2 ), anaphase release ( 19 ), mitotic exit ( 17 ), and initiation of cytokinesis ( 14 ), and these roles are largely conserved throughout evolution ( 12 ). (
  • In the presence of excess Nup96, [they] observed a slight delay from metaphase to anaphase and from anaphase to cytokinesis (Table 1). (
  • They] show, in Table 1, that increased levels of Nup96 had modest effects on mitotic timing in NRK cells causing a slight acceleration from NEBD to metaphase and from anaphase to cytokinesis. (
  • In mitotic cycle 16, cells of pav mutant embryos undergo normal anaphase but then develop an abnormal telophase spindle and fail to undertake cytokinesis. (
  • Furthermore, Ect2 can interact with anillin, a conserved scaffold protein that also localizes to the cell cortex during anaphase and is essential for cytokinesis. (
  • Aurora B phosphorylates MKlp1 during anaphase and is required for its function in cytokinesis. (
  • Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 10 (Dock10), also known as Zizimin3, is a large (~240 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks that in humans is encoded by the DOCK10 gene. (
  • Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q96BY6 (Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 10) at the PDBe-KB. (
  • This gene is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family and encodes a protein with a DHR-1 (CZH-1) domain, a DHR-2 (CZH-2) domain and an SH3 domain. (
  • The test detects the expression of dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) in T cells, B cells, NK cells, and monocytes in the peripheral blood. (
  • During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm divides by a process termed cleavage , driven by the tightening of a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin protein subunits. (
  • Orientation of the contractile ring and cleavage furrow, which lie parallel to the metaphase plate and perpendicular to the polar axis of the spindle, is strictly controlled by the mitotic apparatus during cytokinesis. (
  • Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins accumulated in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis, and isolated detergent-resistant membranes (believed to consist of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains) contained GM1, Src family proteins, and the Src effector phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ). (
  • Pharmacological analysis further implicated Src activity and PLC-γ in cleavage furrow progression and cytokinesis. (
  • Cytokinesis is accomplished through progression of a cleavage furrow (invaginations of a de novo added plasma membrane in green) which divides a cell into two daughter cells. (
  • Surprisingly, it still localizes to the cleavage furrow region during cytokinesis. (
  • However, little is known about how myosin localizes into the cleavage furrow region during cytokinesis. (
  • Cytokinesis is initiated by the formation of a cleavage furrow whose ingression is powered by an actomyosin network known as the contractile ring. (
  • In cytokinesis, when the cleavage furrow has been formed, the two centrioles in each daughter cell separate. (
  • How dividing cells signal where the cleavage furrow should be during cytokinesis has long interested cell biologists. (
  • Freeze substitution reveals a new model for sporangial cleavage in Phytophthora, a result with implications for cytokinesis in other eukaryotes. (
  • During cytokinesis the spindle apparatus partitions and transports duplicated chromatids into the cytoplasm of the separating daughter cells. (
  • Animal cell cytokinesis starts with the stabilization of microtubules and reorganization of the mitotic spindle to form the central spindle. (
  • Besides being a structural component of the central spindle itself, CPC also plays a role in the phosphoregulation of other central spindle components, including PRC1 (microtubule-bundling protein required for cytokinesis 1) and MKLP1 (a kinesin motor protein). (
  • Seemingly vital for the formation of the central spindle (and therefore efficient cytokinesis) is a heterotetrameric protein complex called centralspindlin . (
  • Cytokinesis is coordinated by the mitotic spindle, which delivers cues to the actin-rich cortex. (
  • Depletion of WHAMM by microinjection of specific short interfering (si)RNA into the oocyte cytoplasm resulted in failure of spindle migration, disruption of asymmetric cytokinesis and a decrease in the first polar body extrusion rate during meiotic maturation. (
  • Taken together, our data suggest that WHAMM is required for peripheral spindle migration and asymmetric cytokinesis during mouse oocyte maturation. (
  • The coupling of cytokinesis and chromosome segregation to the mitotic spindle ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic division are tightly coordinated. (
  • Using live-cell time-lapse microscopy, I found that Ect2 concentrates not only at the spindle midzone but also accumulates at equatorial plasma membrane during cytokinesis. (
  • Here we report that separated centrioles that migrate from the cell pole are very mobile during cytokinesis and their movements can be characterized as 1) along the nuclear envelope, 2) irregular, and 3) along microtubules forming the spindle axis. (
  • Finally, the authors show that, in contrast to results from a previous study, BRCA2 does not localise to the spindle midzone or midbody, two structures of the mitotic spindle that play important roles during cytokinesis. (
  • Our results also indicated that the central spindle and the contractile ring are interdependent structures that interact throughout cytokinesis. (
  • During cytokinesis, dynamin localizes to the spindle midzone and the intracellular bridge ( 21 , 26 ). (
  • When we examined the integrity of spindle assembly in these cells, we found that downregulation of p53 in the absence of LMW cyclin E, nor induction of LMW cyclin E in the presence of p53 were not sufficient to mediate abnormalities in cytokinesis. (
  • However when we induced LMW cyclin E in p53 downregulated clones, we observed severe spindle abnormalities leading to failure of cytokinesis in MCF-7 cells. (
  • pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis Richard R. Adams, Alvaro A.M. Tavares, Adi Salzberg, Hugo J. Bellen, and David M. Glover Genes Dev. (
  • ASAP, a human microtubule-associated protein required for bipolar spindle assembly and cytokinesis. (
  • ASAP localizes to microtubules in interphase, associates with the mitotic spindle during mitosis, localizes to the central body during cytokinesis and directly binds to purified microtubules by its COOH-terminal domain. (
  • Depletion of ASAP by RNA interference results in severe mitotic defects: it provokes aberrant mitotic spindle, delays mitotic progression, and leads to defective cytokinesis or cell death. (
  • These results suggest a crucial role for ASAP in the organization of the bipolar mitotic spindle, mitosis progression, and cytokinesis and define ASAP as a key factor for proper spindle assembly. (
  • MKlp1(S911A) targets to the central spindle but is prematurely imported into the nucleus and fails to support cytokinesis. (
  • Spatial restriction of Aurora B to the central spindle by MKlp2 therefore regulates MKlp1 during cytokinesis in human cells. (
  • Plant cytokinesis involves formation of a cell plate that is generated from the phragmoplast, a membranous structure located between two daughter nuclei that contains a network of microtubules and proteins related to vesicle trafficking. (
  • From the analysis, wild-type cytokinesis appears to proceed through an active, extremely regulated process in which globally distributed proteins generate resistive forces that slow the rate of furrow ingression. (
  • Consequently, many proteins may contribute important functions to cytokinesis without producing gross phenotypes when mutated ( 12 ). (
  • We analyzed the role of equatorial proteins, myosin II and the actin crosslinker cortexillin I, and global proteins, RacE small GTPase and the actin crosslinker dynacortin ( Fig. 1 A ). Each protein plays an important role in cytokinesis and cortical mechanics ( 7 , 13 - 18 ). (
  • Furthermore, carbonylated proteins were not inherited by daughter cells during cytokinesis. (
  • Mother cells of a yeast strain lacking the sir2 gene, a life-span determinant, failed to retain oxidatively damaged proteins during cytokinesis. (
  • Yet, the identity of proteins required for the spatial and temporal regulation of molecular events during cytokinesis remains largely an open question. (
  • Some of the first regulatory proteins shown to be required for cytokinesis were small G proteins of the Ras and Rho (Ras homologous) families. (
  • The assembly of actin and myosin filaments (together with septins and actin-interacting proteins) into a contractile ring and the regulation of actomyosin contractility during cytokinesis are even more poorly understood. (
  • The midbody consists of overlapping microtubules and additional proteins, many of which are required for cytokinesis. (
  • Furthermore, we hope to provide others in the field with potential insights on how Mso1/Rng15 family proteins work in cytokinesis in other model systems, such as mammals. (
  • Several conserved proteins, including PRC1 and MKLP1, have been identified by cytology and genetics as C phase-specific microtubule-binding proteins that are required for midzone assembly and cytokinesis ( 7 ), but given the complexities of cytokinesis, others are likely to exist. (
  • These zones blocked the interpenetration of neighboring asters and recruited cytokinesis midzone proteins, including the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) and centralspindlin. (
  • ESCRT genes were shown to be required for cytokinesis and cell separation in fission yeast, implying a role for the ESCRT proteins in this process. (
  • Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins, are an absolute requirement for cytokinesis in budding yeast. (
  • Nucleus- and phragmoplast-localized protein kinase 1 (NPK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that accumulates in the phragmoplast and is required for normal cytokinesis. (
  • In this study we investigated the potential role of the BRCA2 protein in cytokinesis in unmodified primary human fibroblast carrying a heterozygous mutation in the BRCA2 gene. (
  • To investigate the localization of the BRCA2 protein during cytokinesis, immunofluorescence staining using antibody directed against BRCA2 was carried out. (
  • The BRCA2 protein localizes and accumulates to the midbody during cytokinesis, and no difference was detected in distribution and localization of the protein between BRCA2 +/− and BRCA2 +/+ samples or cells with delayed cytokinesis and normal division time. (
  • The delayed cytokinesis phenotype of the BRCA2 heterozygous cells and localization of the BRCA2 protein to the midbody confirms that BRCA2 plays a role in cytokinesis. (
  • We identified the Rho effector citron kinase (citron-K) as a p27-interacting protein in vitro and in vivo and found that p27 and citron-K colocalized at the contractile ring and mid-body during telophase and cytokinesis. (
  • GTP/FH protein-mediated pathway initiating actin polymerization during cytokinesis has been demonstrated, the role of ROCK-like kinases in assembly of myosin filaments during cytokinesis is presumed, based on their known roles in other actin-dependent processes. (
  • Using a genetic complementation system, I have been able to replace the endogenous Ect2 protein with a fluorescently-tagged transgene to study its dynamic localization during cytokinesis. (
  • A novel mutant screen in fission yeast has identified the 'ethanol dependent' protein etd1p as a potential link between the septation initiation network (SIN), which initiates cytokinesis, and the actomyosin contractile ring that drives separation of the two daughter cells at the end of mitosis. (
  • Additionally, Eng1- or Agn1-green fluorescent protein did not properly localize to the septum in rho4Δ cells grown at 37°C. There was a decreased amount of these enzymes in the cell wall and in the culture medium of rho4Δ cells at 37°C. These results provide evidence that Rho4p is involved in the regulation of Eng1p and Agn1p secretion during cytokinesis. (
  • We identified the microtubule depolymerizing protein stathmin as a key molecule aiding in septin-independent cytokinesis, demonstrated that stathmin supplementation is sufficient to override cytokinesis failure in SEPT7-null fibroblasts, and that knockdown of stathmin makes proliferation of a hematopoietic cell line sensitive to the septin inhibitor forchlorfenuron. (
  • During cytokinesis, green fluorescent protein-tagged exocyst subunits SEC6, SEC8, SEC15b, EXO70A1, and EXO84b exhibit distinctive localization maxima at cell plate initiation and cell plate maturation, stages with a high demand for vesicle fusion. (
  • Building on the biochemical defect in an inherited metabolic disease ( Suzuki 1998 ), these papers reveal an unexpected connection between lipid mediators, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, and cytokinesis mechanism. (
  • To gain more insight into this question, we are exploring the potential phylogenetic information inferred from gene sequences of phragmoplastin, a dynamin-like protein that has been associated with cell-plate formation during phragmoplast-mediated cytokinesis in land plants. (
  • The kinesin-6 family motor protein MKlp1 is a key regulator of cytokinesis and an ideal substrate for studying spatially regulated protein-phosphorylation events. (
  • These experiments provide evidence of an unexpected link between this chromosomal protein and cytokinesis, and suggest that one function of INCENP may be to integrate the chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. (
  • Cytokinesis (/ˌsaɪtoʊkɪˈniːsɪs/) is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. (
  • it omits cytokinesis, thereby yielding multinucleate cells. (
  • Throughout phylogeny, Anillins contribute to cytokinesis, the cell shape change that occurs at the end of meiosis and mitosis to separate a cell into daughter cells. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining was performed directly after live-cell imaging and cells with delayed cytokinesis, of which the co-ordinates were saved, were automatically repositioned and visualized. (
  • A Subset of the BRCA2 +/− cells had delayed cytokinesis (40 min or longer) making the mean cell division time 6 min longer compared with BRCA2 +/+ cells, 33 min versus 27 min, respectively. (
  • Our observations indicate that in a subset of cells the presence of only one wild type BRCA2 allele is insufficient for efficient cytokinesis. (
  • Cytokinesis is the process whereby the cytoplasm of a single cell is divided to spawn two daughter cells. (
  • In animal cells, one notable exception to the normal process of cytokinesis is oogenesis (the creation of an ovum in the ovarian follicle of the ovary ), where the ovum takes almost all the cytoplasm and organelles , leaving very little for the resulting polar bodies, which then die. (
  • Due to the presence of a cell wall , cytokinesis in plant cells is significantly different from that in animal cells. (
  • Presented in the digital fluorescence micrograph above is a pair of newly formed daughter rat kangaroo ( PtK2 ) kidney epithelial cells in the late stages of cytokinesis. (
  • At the end of cytokinesis, the contractile ring dissociates, leaving behind only a narrow bridge between the daughter cells (the midbody) filled with actin filaments. (
  • In higher plant cells, cytokinesis is regulated by the cell wall and occurs by a different mechanism. (
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of 55 kD Src and of PLC-γ was increased in dividing cells compared with those at interphase, and this was inhibited by depletion of cholesterol with filipin (which also blocked cytokinesis). (
  • Cytokinesis, the fission of a mother cell into two daughter cells, is a simple and dramatic cell shape change. (
  • Cytokinesis, the mechanical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, is a simple shape change that is essential for cell viability. (
  • Cytokinesis differs in plants and animals because unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall that needs to be split up. (
  • These cytoskeletal elements include filamentous actin and myosin and are the same structures responsible for cytokinesis in fungal cells. (
  • Plant cells cannot undergo cytokinesis in the same manner because the cell wall stands in the way: it is rigid and cannot constrict like a plasma membrane. (
  • If cytokinesis took place before mitosis, the two daughter cells would end up with only half the required genetic material and, unable to function, would die. (
  • In eukaryotic cells, cytokinesis normally happens just after or during the last stage of mitosis, known as telophase. (
  • Once the two sets of chromosomes on two sides of the parent cell start forming nuclei, cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm in half and two daughter cells are created. (
  • Plant cells divide through the process of mitosis, followed by cytokinesis. (
  • Cytokinesis is the process that separates two daughter cells after chromosome segregation. (
  • Cytokinesis results in distribution of chromosomes (nuclei in pink) and cytoplasm with organelles (yellow) between daughter cells, thus completing the mitotic cycle. (
  • Early studies of cytokinesis in animal cells took advantage of the ability to easily manipulate and observe large transparent eggs of marine invertebrates, such as echinoderms and ctenophores (reviewed by Rappaport 1996 ). (
  • Dictyostelium cells lacking functional myosin II are unable to undergo cytokinesis in the absence of adhesion ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • In mammalian cells, completion of cytokinesis relies on targeted delivery of recycling membranes to the midbody. (
  • Using time-lapse imaging of HeLa cells, the authors show that depletion of BRCA2 abrogates its function in DNA repair but has no effect on cytokinesis. (
  • Furthermore, DLD1 colon cancer cells in which both BRCA2 alleles are disrupted successfully complete cytokinesis. (
  • Together, these data indicate that BRCA2 does not regulate cytokinesis in human cells, which is a finding of crucial importance for understanding cancers with which BRCA2 mutations are associated. (
  • Cells with rng15 gene deleted (rng15Δ) cannot grow at 36°C due to defective cytokinesis and accumulate secretory vesicles at the division site. (
  • To further investigate how Rng15 functions in cytokinesis, we screened for high-copy suppressors of rng15Δ at 36°C by transforming rng15Δ cells with plasmid DNA from a fission yeast genomic DNA library. (
  • Animal cells are competent to undergo cytokinesis during a brief window in the cell cycle, called C phase, which starts shortly after cells exit mitosis (M phase) and lasts ∼30-60 min ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • cells were arrested in monopolar mitosis where microtubule dynamics are relatively normal with a Kinesin-5 inhibitor and then forced into monopolar cytokinesis using a CDK1 inhibitor, giving excellent C phase synchrony ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Cytokinesis, when two daughter cells are physically separated from one another, is the final stage of cell division. (
  • In a new paper appearing in Science (10 October 2014, Science 346 (6206):244-247 ), Phuong Nguyen and Aaron Groen, along with their colleagues at Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA), have reconstituted the organization of cytokinesis signaling outside living cells, using a the cell-free Xenopus system. (
  • CYTOKINESIS is temporally coordinated with the nuclear division cycle to help ensure the proper segregation of genetic material and cytoplasm to daughter cells. (
  • Growing evidence indicates that membrane traffic plays a crucial role during the late post-furrowing steps of cytokinesis in animal cells. (
  • Here, we now show that SCAMPs are diverted to the cell plate during cytokinesis dividing Bright Yellow-2 cells. (
  • As cells progress from metaphase to cytokinesis, punctate OsSCAMP1-labeled structures begin to collect in the future division plane. (
  • During cytokinesis, the cell's cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells. (
  • Cell death was induced specifically following cytokinesis failure, suggesting that dynole 34-2 selectively targets dividing cells. (
  • This last step of cytokinesis is required to separate the two cells. (
  • 37. Both animals and plant cells undergo cytokinesis after mitosis ends. (
  • In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs through the inward movement of the cell membrane. (
  • These cells exhibit cytokinesis defects, whereby an increased percentage of cells is connected via an intracellular bridge with detectable midbodies ( 24 ). (
  • Growth arrest and cell death followed cytokinesis failure in cancer cells. (
  • These formin homology domains, which we have termed FH1 and FH2, are also found in Bni1p, the product of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for normal cytokinesis in diploid yeast cells. (
  • Cytokinesis terminates mitosis, resulting in separation of the two sister cells. (
  • We demonstrate that septin-dependence of mammalian cytokinesis differs greatly between cell types: genetic loss of the pivotal septin subunit SEPT7 in vivo reveals that septins are indispensable for cytokinesis in fibroblasts, but expendable in cells of the hematopoietic system. (
  • Cytokinesis in nearly all prokaryotic cells is mediated by a filamentous structure at the division site of the cell. (
  • We conclude that the exocyst complex is involved in secretory processes during cytokinesis in Arabidopsis cells, notably in cell plate initiation, cell plate maturation, and formation of new primary cell wall. (
  • How germ cells undergo cytokinesis while maintaining this syncytial architecture is not completely understood. (
  • MN frequencies were determined in irradiated human lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block technique, and the results from LSC were compared with visual scoring results obtained from slides of cells stained using Fast Green and 4′,6-diamidinophenylindole DAPI. (
  • In this study, we have employed the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay with WIL2-NS B lymphoblastoid cells to test the potential genotoxicity, as well as the cytotoxicity, of toxic species generated in cell culture media by an argon (Ar) plasma jet. (
  • Cytokinesis in all organisms involves the creation of membranous barriers that demarcate individual daughter cells. (
  • During meiosis, however, four daughter cells (spores) are generated through a unique form of cytokinesis, called sporulation. (
  • 2006). However, as in the case of mitotic cells, the precise mechanism linking SIN and FSM assembly during meiotic cytokinesis is not fully understood. (
  • The myb3r1 myb3r4 double mutant often fails to complete cytokinesis, resulting in multinucleate cells with gapped walls and cell wall stubs in diverse tissues. (
  • Phragmoplast in cytokinesis of Cephaleuros parasiticus (Chlorophyta) and a comparison with C. virescens vegetative cells. (
  • Cytokinesis is the division of one cell into two genetically identical daughter cells due to the ingression of an actin-myosin based contractile ring. (
  • Cells don't simply separate at cytokinesis. (
  • The first evidence that animal cell cytokinesis requires membrane traffic, as in plant cells, was provided about 15 years ago. (
  • Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm of the cell into two daughter cells. (
  • These simple but informative micromanipulation experiments have demonstrated that an actomyosin contractile ring is the driving force of cytokinesis and have led to some initial speculations about the nature of the signal inducing cytokinesis. (
  • NabKin not only binds microtubules but also F-actin structures, such as the intranuclear actin bundles in prophase and the contractile actomyosin ring during cytokinesis. (
  • Our results support a model in which the initial expansion of the C. elegans syncytial germline occurs by incomplete cytokinesis, where one daughter germ cell inherits the actomyosin ring that was newly formed by stabilization of the cytokinetic ring, while the other inherits the pre-existing stable actomyosin ring. (
  • Successful cytokinesis relies on the assembly and activation of an actomyosin-based contractile ring and membrane deposition/fusion in a spatially and temporally precise manner. (
  • During mitosis, it divides using actomyosin ring constriction of which is coordinated with the formation of new membrane/cell wall during cytokinesis. (
  • In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). (
  • During cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, an actin-based ring at the equator constricts to split the cell in two. (
  • These results indicate that myosin II localization during cytokinesis occurs through a mechanism that does not require it to be the force-generating element or to interact with actin filaments directly. (
  • Cell division concludes with cytokinesis, a process driven by a contractile ring of actin and myosin that lies underneath the plasma membrane at the cell's equator. (
  • Although myosin is essential for cytokinesis in various animal models, whether and to what extent this reflects its motor activity or its ability to crosslink actin has been a matter of debate. (
  • Mutations introduced into the ATPase domain of non-muscle myosin-2 (NMY-2, the sole myosin required for early cytokinesis) bind to actin but fail to translocate it in vitro . (
  • Thus, myosin's motor activity is essential for cytokinesis, and its ability to crosslink actin filaments is not sufficient. (
  • Cytokinesis requires coordinated reorganization of microtubules, actin, and membranes, which implies global regulation of cellular biochemistry. (
  • Examination of preparations stained for tubulin, anillin, KLP3A, and F-actin revealed discrete defects in the components of the cytokinetic apparatus, suggesting that these genes act at four major points in a stepwise pathway for cytokinesis. (
  • The nuclear F-actin interactome of Xenopus oocytes reveals an actin-bundling kinesin that is essential for meiotic cytokinesis. (
  • Disconnecting NabKin from F-actin during meiosis caused cytokinesis failure and egg polyploidy. (
  • Our data are consistent with the notion that NabKin/KIF14 directly link microtubules with F-actin and that such link is essential for cytokinesis. (
  • Probing the Plant Actin Cytoskeleton during Cytokinesis and Interphase by Profilin Microinjection. (
  • Cytokinesis largely resembles the prokaryotic process of binary fission, but because of differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures and functions, the mechanisms differ. (
  • To further our understanding of exocytosis during cytokinesis, we investigate Rng15 in fission yeast, a popular model organism for cytokinesis. (
  • Through this investigation, we will have a better understanding of the role of exocytosis in the delivery of materials during fission yeast cytokinesis. (
  • Initially, ESCRT function in fission yeast cytokinesis was examined by characterising formation of the specialised medial cell wall, the septum, in individual ESCRT deletion strains. (
  • The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe uses two distinct mechanisms of cytokinesis depending on the mode of cell cycle regulation. (
  • After the completion of the telophase and cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the interphase of the cell cycle. (
  • After cytokinesis, non-kinetochore microtubules reorganize and disappear into a new cytoskeleton as the cell cycle returns to interphase (see also cell cycle ). (
  • mitosis is the division of the components of the nucleus, whereas cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm and its constituents. (
  • Cell division includes division of the nucleus, called mitosis, and division of the cytoplasm, called cytokinesis. (
  • The final step of the M phase is cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm. (
  • During the M phase, cell division occurs through two processes: mitosis, when the nucleus divides, and cytokinesis, when the cytoplasm divides. (
  • Cytokinesis is division of the cytoplasm. (
  • Secretory pathways supported by the activity of the Golgi apparatus play a crucial role in cytokinesis in plants. (
  • The need for several intracellular transport routes probably reflects the complex events that occur during the late cytokinesis steps such as local remodelling of the plasma membrane composition, removal of components required for earlier steps of cytokinesis and membrane sealing that leads to daughter cell separation. (
  • In this mini-review, I will focus on recent evidence showing that endocytic pathways, such as the Rab35-regulated recycling pathway, contribute to the establishment of a PtdIns(4,5) P 2 lipid domain at the intercellular bridge which is involved in the localization of cytoskeletal elements essential for the late steps of cytokinesis. (
  • Cooperation between mitotic kinesins controls the late stages of cytokinesis. (
  • To define the primary defects leading to failure of cytokinesis, we analyzed meiotic divisions in male mutants for each of these 19 genes. (
  • failure of cytokinesis is observed in the follicle cell layer. (
  • Disruption of the interaction or expression of a truncated NACK1 lacking the motor domain caused mislocalization of NPK1 and defective cytokinesis. (
  • Drosophila mutants defective in meiotic cytokinesis can be easily identified by their multinucleate spermatids. (
  • Together, these results show that multinucleated neurons arising from defective cytokinesis can extend multiple cilia. (
  • Experiments with various mitotic mutants have demonstrated that this pattern of growth, nuclear division, and septation are dependent on controls that ensure that germlings acquire a minimum threshold cell size and undergo at least one nuclear division before cytokinesis. (
  • Rho-mediated signal transduction pathways operating during cytokinesis. (
  • Possible cross-talk between Rab35 and other endocytic pathways involved in cytokinesis are also discussed. (
  • As such, the molecular pathways governing cytokinesis are highly complex, involving a large number of components forming intricate interactive networks. (
  • Here, we review our current knowledge of the secretory and endocytic recycling pathways involved in cytokinesis, and how vesicles defined by specific Rab and Arf GTPases are targeted and fused to the membrane of the intercellular bridge thanks to different molecular motors, tethering complexes and SNARE machineries. (
  • It has been suggested that the centrioles facilitate and regulate cytokinesis to some extent. (
  • in addition, previous work has suggested that BRCA2 might regulate cytokinesis, the final step of cell division. (
  • Our results suggest that a pair of structurally related R1R2R3-Myb transcription factors may positively regulate cytokinesis mainly through transcriptional activation of the KN gene. (
  • Study of Anillin in several model organisms has provided us with insight into how the cytoskeleton is coordinated to ensure that cytokinesis occurs with high fidelity. (
  • The cytoskeleton globally reorganizes between mitosis (M phase) and cytokinesis (C phase), which presumably requires extensive regulatory changes. (
  • These results suggest that a cell cycle-regulated reduction in endogenous p190 levels is linked to completion of cytokinesis and generation of viable cell progeny. (
  • 2014. "Genetic Deletion of SEPT7 Reveals a Cell Type-Specific Role of Septins in Microtubule Destabilization for the Completion of Cytokinesis. (
  • INCENP1-405 interferes with both prometaphase chromosome alignment and the completion of cytokinesis. (
  • implicated cholesterol-, sphingolipid-, and signaling molecule-rich plasma membrane microdomains (thought to form signaling platforms involved in various cellular processes) in assembly of a signaling pathway critical to cytokinesis. (
  • Genetic dissection of meiotic cytokinesis in Drosophila males. (
  • Moreover, our genetic and cytological analyses provide further evidence for a cell type-specific control of Drosophila cytokinesis, suggesting that several genes required for meiotic cytokinesis in males are not required for mitotic cytokinesis. (
  • In summary, this study provides a novel link between the SIN and vesicle trafficking during meiotic cytokinesis. (
  • The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has become a fully-validated and standardized method for radiation biodosimetry. (
  • The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN cyt) assay is a new and comprehensive technique for measuring DNA damage. (
  • DNA damage and cytotoxicity biomarkers in the lymphocyte Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay. (
  • Cytokinexis health status assessed by a cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in a healthy middle-aged Korean population. (
  • Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay evolves into a "cytome" cytokinseis of chromosomal instability, mitotic dysfunction and cell death. (
  • The application of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes for the assessment of genome damage micronucleux long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration, Journal of Radiation ResearchVolume 55, Issue 1, 1 JanuaryPages 61-66, https: This paper has been referenced on Twitter 7 times over the past 90 days. (
  • The outcomes of the treatments were evaluated using the apoptosis/necrosis assay, the alkaline comet assay, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay. (
  • Contractile FtsZ rings forming around the cell equator are thought to play a key role in bacterial cytokinesis. (
  • In this paper, a mathematical model of contractile ring-driven cytokinesis is presented by using both phase-field and immersed-boundary methods in a three-dimensional domain. (
  • Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Cytome Assays for the Determination of Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Cecal Water in Rats and Fecal Water. (
  • Finally, we propose that, in addition to myosin II, a Laplace pressure, resulting from material properties and the geometry of the dividing cell, generates force to help drive furrow ingression late in cytokinesis. (
  • Puzzlingly, cytokinesis in some cell types proceeds fairly normally without myosin II. (
  • A ) Schematic cartoon showing localizations of myosin II, RacE, dynacortin, and cortexillin I. ( B ) A cartoon of the shape changes of wild-type cytokinesis. (
  • We developed a cell-free system to recapitulate cytokinesis signaling using cytoplasmic extract from Xenopus eggs. (
  • However, the mechanism that controls endosome positioning during cytokinesis is not known. (
  • We have used Drosophila male meiosis as a model system for genetic dissection of the cytokinesis mechanism. (
  • Taken together, our results revealed a novel mechanism of cytokinesis initiation in the trypanosome that may serve as a useful model for further in-depth investigations. (
  • We have reported that the MiTMAB class of dynamin small molecule inhibitors are new antimitotic agents with a novel mechanism of action, blocking cytokinesis. (
  • We propose that such a mechanism of iterative cytokinesis incompletion underpins C. elegans germline expansion and maintenance. (
  • Cytokinesis is a crucial step in cell proliferation, and remarkably, it is also an important mechanism for developmental regulation in the generation of diverse cell types in eukaryotic organisms. (
  • A signalling module termed the Septation Initiation Network (SIN) plays an essential role in the assembly of new membranes and cell wall during mitotic cytokinesis. (
  • Thus, the authors conclude that formation of a specialized membrane domain at the cell equator is critical for animal cell cytokinesis. (
  • M. M. Ng, F. Chang, D. R. Burgess, Movement of membrane domains and requirement of membrane signaling molecules for cytokinesis. (
  • Once moved to opposite poles, a nuclear membrane forms around each group, and the cell is ready to proceed to cytokinesis. (
  • We will finally review recent evidence showing a tight coupling between membrane traffic and cytokinesis in complex processes, such as during the establishment of de novo apico-basal polarity. (
  • Cytokinesis must be temporally controlled to ensure that it occurs only after sister chromatid separation during normal proliferative cell divisions. (
  • The process of cytokinesis is a coordinated series of events that occurs in late mitosis. (
  • The M phase is complete after cytokinesis occurs. (
  • We show here that two structurally related genes, MYB3R1 and MYB3R4, which encode homologs of NtmybA1 and NtmybA2, play a partially redundant role in positively regulating cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • What Divides Unequally in the Female Cytokinesis? (
  • The authors examined the biophysics involved in spatial signaling during cytokinesis using powerful imaging techniques, taking advantage of microtubule cytokinesis zones that they assembled on the surface of a microscope slide. (
  • New horizons for cytokinesis. (
  • During cytokinesis, another plant-specific cytoskeletal structure called the phragmoplast guides vesicles in the creation of a new cell wall. (
  • Cross-linkers both drive and brake cytoskeletal remodeling and furrowing in cytokinesis. (
  • It also reflects the importance of a close coordination between mitotic exit and initiation of cytokinesis in cell cycle progression. (
  • These include 16 novel loci and three genes, diaphanous, four wheel drive, and pebble, already known to be involved in Drosophila cytokinesis. (
  • We show that the Drosophila gene diaphanous is required for cytokinesis. (
  • In mitosis and in meiosis in the male, cytokinesis is a symmetric process. (
  • In meiosis in the female the final step, the cytokinesis, is shifted way over to one side. (
  • Genetic analyses in simple model systems (yeast, slime mold, fruit fly) have demonstrated that defects in either karyokinesis, or nuclear division (e.g., mutations that affect cell cycle checkpoints, mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation, etc.), or cytokinesis ( Fig. 1 ), both may delay or block development. (
  • Functional studies using gene disruption and conditional knockdown revealed essential roles of APC3 during these mitotic stages with loss resulting in a lack of chromosome condensation, abnormal cytokinesis and absence of microgamete formation. (
  • We have screened a collection of 1955 homozygous mutant male sterile lines for those with multinucleate spermatids, and thereby identified mutations in 19 genes required for cytokinesis. (
  • In addition, a kn heterozygous mutation enhanced cytokinesis defects resulting from heterozygous or homozygous mutations in the MYB3R1 and MYB3R4 genes. (
  • RhoA Recruits Ect2 and Anillin to the Cortex where they interact to Maintain Furrow Ingression during Cytokinesis. (
  • We demonstrate that unmodified primary human fibroblasts derived from heterozygous BRCA2 mutation carriers show significantly prolonged cytokinesis. (
  • In the animal, these 'motor-dead' mutations lead to adult sterility and embryonic inviability, and fail to support cytokinesis. (

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