Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macrophage-Activating Factors: Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Rickettsia prowazekii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus fever acquired through contact with lice (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE) as well as Brill's disease.Mice, Inbred BALB CCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Inbred C57BLT-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mice, Inbred C3HAntigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Suppressor Factors, Immunologic: Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred CBAReceptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred DBAImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Cell SeparationT-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ThymidineReceptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. Interleukin 1 ... Cytokines of the IL6/GCSF/MGF family are glycoproteins of about 170 to 180 amino acid residues that contain four conserved ... Cytokine tutorial, The University of Arizona Archived 2008-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. Kotowicz K, Callard RE, Friedrich K, ... Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a cytokine that serves as a growth factor for early lymphoid cells of both B- and T-cell lineages. ...
Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. They are protein ... Lymphokines aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: Interleukin 2 ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ... Lymphokines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
The macrophages also carry receptors for lymphokines, and lymphoines act as cytokines which further attract T cells, B cells ...
... plus TH2-inducing cytokines increase antibody responses, whereas pro-inflammatory agents and TH1-inducing cytokines decrease ... lymphokines or co-stimulatory molecules. These "genetic adjuvants" can be administered as a: mixture of 2 plasmids, one ... However, they can also be stimulated to secrete antiviral cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which do not kill the cell, but ... For example, some cytokine plasmid DNAs are best delivered after immunogen pDNA, because pre- or co-delivery can decrease ...
Cytokine-Induced killer cells are important because harmful cells that do not contain MHC cannot be traced and removed by other ... CIK cells respond to lymphokines by lysing tumorous cells that are resistant to NK cells or LAK cell activity. CIK cells show a ... cytokine-induced killer cells can recognize infected or malignant cells even when antibodies and MHC are not available. This ... T cells that actively responds to a stimulus Cytokine-induced killer cells, strongly productive cytotoxic effector cells that ...
... and lymphokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor β, interleukin 2, and gamma-interferon).These cytokines(TNFα, TNFβ) seem to mediate ...
... and while on the way issue commands in the form of cytokines and chemokines and lymphokines, commands that affect many cell ... Note explaining the barcode parameter details: Flt3 is a cytokine tyrosine kinase receptor thought to be important in early ... cytokines and growth factors, which are critical for proliferation, differentiation, and survival of early lymphocyte and B- ... is chiefly responsible for cytokine production and has enhanced survival. Traveling to lymph nodes the 'CD56 bright' NK cells ...
... especially by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells changes in cytokine profile e.g. increased pro-inflammatory cytokines milieu present in ... B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction capabilities diminished capacity to produce effector lymphokines ...
Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ... Cytokine Signalling Forum Cytokine Tutorial Cytokine Gene Summary, Ontology, Pathways and More: Immunology Database and ... likely increasing cytokine levels. Another important example of cytokine storm is seen in acute pancreatitis. Cytokines are ... Cytokines may include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors but generally not ...
Also, the exact cytokine responsible has yet to be elucidated, with IL-12, IL-18 and IL-13 having been most studied in this ... Rather, an altered cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to reduce ...
CIK cells respond to these lymphokines, particularly IL-2, by lysing tumor cells that were already known to be resistant to NK ... They were given the name "cytokine-induced killer" because cultivation with certain cytokines is mandatory for the maturation ... Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ... Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) International registry on ...
Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones ... Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ... Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are ... Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidative stress.[14][15] The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release ...
"Lymphokines": Non-Antibody Mediators of Cellular Immunity generated by Lymphocyte Activation. Nature, 1969-10, roč. 224, čís. ... CANNON, Joseph G.. Inflammatory Cytokines in Nonpathological States. News in Physiological Sciences: An International Journal ... "Cytokine", in Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (2006) ...
This cytokine is produced as a precursor peptide (pro-IL-16) that requires processing by an enzyme called caspase-3 to become ... "Modulation of lymphocyte migration by human lymphokines. II. Purification of a lymphotactic factor (LCF)". J. Immunol. 128 (6 ... The cytokine function is exclusively attributed to the secreted C-terminal peptide, while the N-terminal product may play a ... The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell ...
In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ... The most common presentation is a fever (release of endogenous pyrogens often related to lymphokines or tissue pyrogens), but ...
... s also secrete a number of factors such as growth factors and other cytokines, especially during the third and fourth ... they carry receptors for lymphokines that allow them to be "activated" into single-minded pursuit of microbes and tumour cells ... pathogens and cytokines released by macrophages already at the site. At some sites such as the testis, macrophages have been ... and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue". Journal of leukocyte biology. 98 (4): 467-77. doi:10.1189/jlb.3HI0115-018R. ...
These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue ... This combination of MHC and antigen attracts a matching helper T cell, which releases lymphokines and activates the B cell. As ... These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue ... Cytokine signals produced by helper T cells enhance the microbicidal function of macrophages and the activity of killer T cells ...
With a lack of these growth factors/anti-inflammatory cytokines and an overabundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines from M1 ... At the same time, they carry receptors for lymphokines that allow them to be "activated" into single-minded pursuit of microbes ... These cytokines are essential in the initial process of wound healing. Unlike M1 macrophages, M2's secrete an anti-inflammatory ... Whereas tissue macrophages release various inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, intestinal macrophages do not ...
... lymphokines MeSH D12.644.276.174.480.350 --- interferon type ii MeSH D12.644.276.174.480.372 --- interleukin-2 MeSH D12.644. ... suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins MeSH D12.644.360.024.500 --- tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated peptides and ... cytokines MeSH D12.644.276.174.050 --- autocrine motility factor MeSH D12.644.276.174.200 --- chemokines MeSH D12.644.276.174. ...
... cytokines - cytomegalovirus (CMV) - Cytomegalovirus retinitis - cytopenia - cytotoxic - cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) DAIDS - ... lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis MAC - macrophage - macrophage-tropic virus - ...
... cytokines - cytomegalovirus (CMV) - Cytomegalovirus retinitis - cytopenia - cytotoxic - cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) ... lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ...
Cytokines: 54678*Lymphokines: 740*Macrophage-Activating Factors: 12*Interferon-gamma: 12287. *vitamin D-binding protein- ... Cytokines: 54678*Lymphokines: 740*Macrophage-Activating Factors: 12*Interferon-gamma: 12287. *vitamin D-binding protein- ... Cytokines: 54678*Lymphokines: 740*Macrophage-Activating Factors: 12*Interferon-gamma: 12287. *vitamin D-binding protein- ...
Metabolic labeling of lymphokines. The 2 × 106 prestimulated T cells/mL were triggered for 4 hours in presence of 3.7 MBq/mL ( ... and cytokine measurements (right y-axis, ▪, ●) were overlayed within the same graph. (C) Analysis of cytokine mRNA in ... Chimeric Fv-ζ or Fv-ε receptors are not sufficient to induce activation or cytokine production in peripheral T cells. Thomas ... We then tested whether the lack of autocrine cytokine supply might have an effect on the use of these modified T cells in a ...
Lymphokines See Cytokines.. M protein. Monoclonal immunoglobulin, a protein made by myeloma cells. This protein, also called "M ... Cytokines. Cell- (cyto-) derived chemicals that are secreted by various types of cells and act on other cells to stimulate or ... Some cytokines can be made commercially and used in treatment. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte ... Chemicals derived from lymphocytes are called "lymphokines." Chemicals derived from lymphocytes that act on other white cells ...
Cytokines are a group of proteins made by the immune system that act as chemical messengers. Learn about the functions of ... Lymphokines & TNF. Lymphokines are cytokines that are produced by lymphocytes, hence the name. You may recall that lymphocytes ... Lymphokines are cytokines that are produced by lymphocytes. Lymphokines send signals out to other cells, such as macrophages ... Define what cytokines are and their function in the immune system *Examine the five different types of cytokines found in the ...
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; EXCITATION; HEART; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY; INFLAMMATION; INFUSION; INHIBITION; LYMPHOKINES; ... PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates PVN NF-κB ... reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young ... These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte ...
Elderberry stimulates favorable cytokine production. [Eur Cytokine Netw 2001 Apr-Jun; 12(2): pp.290-6] ... Lymphokines. Substances produced by the cells of the immune system when exposed to antigens. These substances are not ... Cytokines. Cytokines are chemical messengers that control immune responses. They are secreted by white blood cells, T cells, ... A shift in cytokine balance can result in many serious disorders. If you have an imbalance between Th1 and Th2, it will be ...
... and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating ... Immunoconjugates for the selective delivery of a cytokine to a target cell are disclosed. The immunoconjugates are comprised of ... 1982) "A standardized automated computer assisted micro-assay for lymphotoxin." In: Human Lymphokines, Biological response ... The cytokine can be any cytokine or analog or fragment thereof which has a therapeutically valuable biological function. Useful ...
Lymphokines and cytokines • Nonantibody immunity • Parasite immunology • Resistance to intracellular microbial and viral ...
Lymphokines and cytokines Thymus and lymphocyte immunobiology Systemic lupus erythmatosus Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission ...
Lymphokines and cytokines Thymus and lymphocyte immunobiology Systemic lupus erythmatosus Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission ...
lymphokines. *cytokines. *tumor immunobiology. Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL ... there is a change in the cytokine pattern detected from TH1 cytokines (i.e., IL-2 and IFN-γ) to TH2 cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and ... Whereas late MF/CTCL−B exhibits cytokines with a TH2 and TH17 bias, late MF/CTCL+B shows a global depression in cytokine ... Aberrant cytokine production by Sezary syndrome patients: cytokine secretion pattern resembles murine Th2 cells. J Invest ...
Cytokines * Lymphokines * Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins * Monokines * Oligopeptides * Receptors, Cell Surface * Viral ...
Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones ... Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines, interleukins, and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, ... Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are ... Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidative stress.[14][15] The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release ...
Cytokines. *Chemokines. *Lymphokines. *Hormones. *Growth factors. *Steroids. *Complement factors. *Injury markers. *Validated ...
Lymphokines and Cytokines Res. 12. 373- (1993). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」より ... Lymphokines and Cytokines Res.12. 373 (1993). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(欧文)」より ... 2.Inflammatory cytokines. (1)Interferon-gamma induced apoptosis in liver cells while hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)cancelled ... Publications] Morita M,Akaike T,et al.: Enhancement by inflammatory cytokines of ICAM-1 expression on hepatocytes
J. Wagstaff, M. Kees: Lymphokines and Cytokines. Cancer Chemotherapy and Biological Response Modifiers. Annual 10 H.M. Pinedo, ... J.J. Mule, S. Rosenberg:Immunotherapy with Lymphokines Combination. Important Advances in Cancer and Oncology 1989Google ...
Examples of such cytokines include lymphokines, monokines; interleukins ("ILs") such as IL-1, IL-la, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL ... As used herein, the term "cytokine" refers generically to proteins released by one cell population that act on another cell as ... As used herein, the term "chemokine" refers to soluble factors (e.g., cytokines) that have the ability to selectively induce ... cytokine secretion and effector function. Lenschow et al., Ann. Rev. Immunol. 14:233 (1996). In the absence of co-stimulation, ...
Cytokines includes, but are not limited to, monokines and lymphokines. Examples of cytokines include, but are not limited to, ... A cytokine includes, but is not limited to, monokines and lymphokines regardless of which cells produce them. For instance, a ... Lymphokines are generally referred to as being produced by lymphocyte cells. Examples of cytokines include, but are not limited ... The term "cytokine" as used herein refers to any secreted amino acid sequence that affects the functions of cells and is a ...
MeSH 1974 Broader term: Protein categories: cytokines lysis: Cell rupture caused by physical or chemical means, or by phage ... lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in ... They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune ... Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF: tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
C07K14/52-Cytokines; Lymphokines; Interferons * C07K14/525-Tumour necrosis factor [TNF] * * A-HUMAN NECESSITIES ... Other cytokine-like cell surface proteins including the CD40 protein have recently been shown to share certain similarities ... T. Farrah and C. Smith, Emerging Cytokine Family,. Nature, 358, p. 26 (1992)].. We have now identified a novel surface ... 45-53 (1988)]. In the case of the fully processed cytokines, i.e., secreted forms, TNF contains cysteine and not methionine, ...
Lymphokines- produced by lymphocytes. Chemokines- cytokines that have the ability to stimulate leukocyte movement (chemokinesis ...
Lymphokines (Cytokines). TRAIL Signal Transduction Reagents. Nitric Oxide Assays Protein Kinase Assay Systems Protein Kinases ...
Lymphokines (Cytokines). Eotaxin Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor ... Cytokine Receptors, Human Cytokine Receptors, Mouse Cytokines, Human Cytokines, Mouse Growth Factors, Human Growth Factors, ... Cytokine Detection Hybridoma Production and Screening Reagents. Hybridoma Screening and Isotyping. Human Mouse Rat ... Assays, Multiple Cytokine Custom Services. Immunology-related Services. Antibody Labeling. Enzymes and Fluorochromes ELISA ...
Lymphokines (Cytokines) Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) ... Cytokines, Mouse IgG Subclasses, Human Hapten Carrier Conjugation Immunofluorescence Immunostaining Matched Antibody Pairs ... Cytokine Detection Hybridoma Production and Screening Reagents Hybridoma Growth Media Hybridoma Production HAT Supplement ...
... chemical inducers of lymphokines, R.V. Salley, R.K. Oldham; lymphokines and cytokines, W. Lewko, et al; interferon therapy in ...
  • We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (osti.gov)
  • CD28 delivers a positive costimulatory signal ( 3 )( 4 )( 5 ), enhancing the production of certain lymphokines such as IL-2 via transcriptional ( 6 ) and posttranscriptional mechanisms ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • We propose that the AU sequences are the recognition signal for an mRNA processing pathway which specifically degrades the mRNAs for certain lymphokines, cytokines, and proto-oncogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Designations such as HBGF group (heparin binding growth factors) take into account biochemical shared properties by a variety of cytokines which also problematic. (prospecbio.com)
  • 14 . A chimeric immunoglobulin (Ig) chain comprising an Ig heavy chain having a variable region specific for a target cell antigen and a heavy chain including CH1, CH2, and CH3 domains, joined, through a peptide bond, to the amino terminus amino acid of a cytokine. (google.com)
  • These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. (osti.gov)
  • From the same patients, we isolated H. pylori -specific T cell lines and clones and examined their ex vivo release of proinflammatory cytokines. (physiology.org)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′ untranslated region target the mRNAs encoding many protooncoproteins, cytokines, and lymphokines for rapid degradation. (pnas.org)
  • The biochemistry and molecular biology of cytokine actions explain some well-known and sometimes also some of the more obscure clinical aspects of diseases. (prospecbio.com)
  • With the use of serial histological sections, this study showed for the first time the in situ correlation of TNF-α and IFN-γ with epithelial cell apoptosis, bacterial load, and histological severity of disease and emphasizes the role of these cytokines in the pathophysiology of H. pylori -associated disease. (physiology.org)
  • All the data were calculated as pg/ml of IFN-γ (a) and IL-4 (b) as computed by comparison with the standard curve using recombinant lymphokines. (nih.gov)
  • The treatment of CLD is currently centered on the suppression of cytokine production. (bioscience.org)
  • In contrast, the cytokine profile of BALB/c mice exposed to infected nymphal ticks resulted in only transient alterations in IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-gamma production throughout a 12-day period postinfestation. (asm.org)
  • Myelosuppressive cytokines, in particular IFN-γ and TNF-α, play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic aplastic anemia in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • Myelosuppressive cytokines, particularly IFN-γ and TNF-α, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow failure syndromes in humans ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)