Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/33104)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (2/33104)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (3/33104)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (4/33104)

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (5/33104)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (6/33104)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (7/33104)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (8/33104)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Title:Synthesis of Eicosapentaenoic Acid-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and its Effect on Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression. VOLUME: 25 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Jae Yeul Baek, Eun Na and Sun Young Lim*. Affiliation:Division of Marine Bioscience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Ocean Science and Technology School, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Division of Marine Bioscience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan. Keywords:Eicosapentaenoic acid, phosphatidylcholine, cytokines, PUFAs, EPA, LPS.. Abstract:Aim and Objective: We synthesized eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and investigated its effect on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced cytokines in murine splenocytes. Material and Methods: The culture supernatants of splenocytes, which was exposed to EPA-PC along with LPS, was harvested to determine the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 , IL-5, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2 and IL-12/IL-23(p40)]. Cytokines were ...
The systemic cytokine response to major surgical trauma was studied in 20 patients undergoing elective aortic surgery and five patients after inguinal hernia repair. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were not detected in these patients. An early and short-lived interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) response to major surgery was detected only by intensive sampling in the perioperative period. The IL-1 beta peak preceded a more marked interleukin 6 (IL-6) response that peaked 4-48 h after surgery. IL-6 levels had fallen sharply by 48-72 h in all patients who had an uneventful postoperative course. The IL-6 peaks were significantly lower after hernia surgery than after major aortic operations (P | 0.001); IL-1 beta was not detected in any samples. Three patients undergoing aortic surgery developed unexpected major postoperative complications. IL-6 levels in this group were significantly higher than those of the other patients undergoing aortic surgery within 6-8 h of skin incision, and remained
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PMN are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with intestinal inflammation and can be downregulated by IL-10.PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather reflects intestinal inflammation in general. IL-10 markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokine secretion as well as corresponding mRNA concentrations.Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN.To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10.Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel ...
BACKGROUND Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) are the most abundant cell type in intestinal lesions in IBD. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important contra-inflammatory cytokine which induces downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. AIMS To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10. METHODS Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN. RESULTS PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather
Ashraf, R, Vasiljevic, T, Day, SL, Smith, SC and Donkor, ON 2014, Lactic acid bacteria and probiotic organisms induce different cytokine profile and regulatory T cells mechanisms, Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 6, pp. 395-409, doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.11.006. ...
Diabetes has been identified as an important risk factor for infection. But relatively little is known about how diabetes alters the inflammatory response to bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate how diabetes affects host-bacteria interactions by focusing on the inflammatory respo … is the marketplace for research antibodies.Multiplex Cytokine Assays Find the right antibody for your research needs.
Chronic Sedentary lifestyles have been linked to increased odds of stress, elevated anxiety and diminished wellbeing, inducing cytokine production and predispose to hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections can trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. However, the impact of these infections on cytokine response profiles in individuals engaged in chronic sedentary activities is unknown. This study was aimed at addressing these concerns using a predominantly sedentary population of traders in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana. Four hundred respondents were categorized, based on their number of working years (| or ≥ 5 years) and number of working hours per day (| or ≥ 10 h), into sedentary (≥5 years + ≥ 10 h) and non-sedentary (≥ 5 years + | 10 h, | 5 years + ≥ 10 h and | 5 years + | 10 h) groups. The participants were tested for P. falciparum and HBV infections using polymerase chain reaction. Blood pressure
Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelium derived interleukin (IL)-15 signalling via IL-15Ralpha is critical for the development, activation, and survival of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). We aimed to better understand the IL-15 driven effects on IEL underlying mucosal damage and lymphomagenesis in coeliac disease (CD). METHODS: Enterocytes, IEL, and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated from 46 patients with uncomplicated CD (25 untreated and 21 treated) and 22 controls. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha expression were determined by immunoblotting. Secretion of IL-15, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granzyme B into cell culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. The ability of IL-15 to regulate IEL proliferation, perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis was tested by adding different combinations of IL-15, IL-15 blocking antibody, or chloroquine to IEL cultured alone or with Caco-2 cells as target. IL-15 mucosal levels were also ...
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Simultaneous quantification of cytokines is a powerful tool to identify associations between host immune defense and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. None of the commercially available cytokine detection methods however, have been rigorously validated in the context of HIV infection. Here we compared performance characteristics of two multiplex assays: the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform and the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) in specimens obtained from HIV-infected subjects. Overall, the MSD had a wider dynamic range and lower limits of quantification which lead to the ability to detect endogenous levels of serum cytokines that were assumed to not be present by CBA. In recombinant cytokine-spiked sera, MSD had better precision and accuracy based on intra-assay variability less than 25% and percent recovery within 25% of added concentrations. Regardless of the quantitation range, we observed variability between the analytes in both platforms with respect to the capacity to ...
Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins representing important components of inflammatory and immune reactions (1). In response to multiple stimuli (2), cytokines are rapidly induced and secreted into the extracellular milieu. However, in some situations, cytokines are constitutively present. Cytokines exert numerous biological activities which are critical for host defense, physiologic responses to stress, and immune surveillance. Cytokines, along with complement, are considered to be part of the innate immune system. The world of cytokine biology has exploded in the past decades. It can be said without hyperbole that cytokines are critical from birth (gestation) (3) to death (apoptosis) (4).
Breast cancer is the most prevalent solid tumor worldwide, being the second most common cause of death in women. Treatments recommended for breast cancer include both loc..
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Variable clinical response to cytokine targeted therapies as TNFalpha and IL-6, strongly highlights the heterogeneity of inflammatory process in RA. Another cytokine, IL-15 has also been related to the inflammatory process in RA. Recently we described for the first time, the presence of its specific receptor, IL-15Ralpha, in synovial fluid (SF). The aim of this work was to compare the expression profile of IL-15Ralpha, its ligand IL-15, TNFalpha and IL-6 and how these cytokines are correlated in SF from RA patients taking as a reference Osteoarthritis (OA), an articular but not autoinmmune disease. Synovial fluids were obtained from the knee joints of 60 patients, 30 with confirmed diagnosis of RA and 30 with OA diagnosis. The levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha were measured by ELISA. A statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism v5.0 using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearmans
Nrf2 activation has been shown to contribute to anti-inflammatory responses in rodent models of inflammation (Itoh et al. 2004, Khor et al. 2006, Thimmulappa et al. 2006, Lin et al. 2008, Kobayashi et al. 2016), including autoimmune inflammatory models (Wruck et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2014). In this study, we demonstrated that genetic activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway prevented the development and progression of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. We also showed that suppression of insulitis was the primary mechanism underlying this protective action of Nrf2 in NOD mice. Since Nrf2 upregulates a battery of anti-oxidative genes in a canonical manner, suppressing reactive oxygen species levels was considered initially to be the key molecular mechanism underlying the Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. However, recent studies have shown that Nrf2 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene expression directly and prevents cytokine storms. In fact, we found that the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway also contributed ...
Median cervico-vaginal levels of IL-6, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα were higher than corresponding serum cytokines, significantly so for IL-6 and IP-10. Cervico-vaginal and serum cytokines were not correlated, but cytokines from the same fluid were correlated. ICCs for most serum cytokines were ≤0.40, while ICCs were higher in cervico-vaginal cytokines (range 0.52-0.83). IP-10 and Eotaxin had the highest ICCs for both cytokine sources. In adjusted models, PM10 was positively associated with serum cytokines IL-6, IP-10, MIP-1β and Eotaxin but inversely associated with cervico-vaginal cytokine TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin, controlling for false discovery rate. CO was inversely associated with cervico-vaginal TNFα, IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin.. ...
Cellular activation and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a single cell label-free multi parameter optical interrogation system can detect endothelial cell and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) activation in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before endothelial activation was validated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of inflammatory marker expression (PECAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1). A centrifugal microfluidic system and V-cup array was used to capture individual cells before optical measurement of light scattering, immunocytofluorescence, auto-fluorescence (AF) and cell morphology was determined. In vitro, TNF-alpha promoted specific changes to the refractive index and cell morphology of individual cells concomitant with enhanced photon ...
Cytokines expression levels from tissue, plasma or serum as promising clinical biomarkers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A systematic review of recent findings
NovoPro offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.. Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. For example, cytokines made by lymphocytes can also be referred to as lymphokines, while interleukins are made by one leukocyte and act on other leukocytes. And chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.. Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine ...
Materials and Methods:. Twenty-four participants recruited between May 2016 and June 2017 met GDD diagnostic criteria. The 64 control subjects provided serum samples before prophylactic flu vaccination. Serum cytokine levels were obtained with Luminex serum cytokine assay using eBiosciences/Affymetrix human 62-plex kits. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to assess the difference between the median fluorescence intensity values for the participants and the control group. Generalized linear models were built to evaluate the association between each cytokine of interest and selected participant symptoms. ...
Health Canada has approved golimumab IV for the treatment of adult patients with RA. Golimumab IV works by blocking the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that causes the bodys immune system to attack healthy tissues. Golimumab IV, when taken in combination with methotrexate, help improve your ability to do simple daily activities and prevent further damage to your bones and joints, but can also reduce your immune systems ability to fight off infections ...
Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKRs in ART patients. A prospective non-placebo control trial of antioxidant treatment for abnormal peripheral inflammatory cytokine ratios was performed. CKRs were assessed using flow cytometry in stimulated versus unstimulated whole blood samples in 337 IVF patients presenting with a previous history of poor outcome (RM or implantation failure). CKRs were found to be elevated in 150/337. 70/150 patients in this elevated group agreed to a 10 week regime of Omega 3, vitamin
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are believed to play an important role in suppressing autoimmunity and maintaining peripheral tolerance. How their survival is regulated in the periphery is less clear. Here we show that Treg cells express receptors for gamma chain cytokines and are dependent on an exogenous supply of these cytokines to overcome cytokine withdrawal apoptosis in vitro. This result was validated in vivo by the accumulation of Treg cells in Bim-/- and Bcl-2 tg mice which have arrested cytokine deprivation apoptosis. We also found that CD25 and Foxp3 expression were down-regulated in the absence of these cytokines. CD25+ cells from Scurfy mice do not depend on cytokines for survival demonstrating that Foxp3 increases their dependence on cytokines by suppressing cytokine production in Treg cells. Our study reveals that the survival of Treg cells is strictly dependent on cytokines and cytokine producing cells because they do not produce cytokines. Our study thus, demonstrates that
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
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A cytokine signature found in certain kinds of breast cancer cells can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in serum cytokines after repeated bouts of downhill running.. AU - Smith, LL. AU - McKune, AJ. AU - Semple, SJ. AU - Sibanda, E. AU - Steel, H. AU - Anderson, R. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine changes in serum cytokines after repeated bouts of aerobically biased eccentric exercise. Six untrained males ran down a -13.5% treadmill grade for 60 min on two occasions (RUN1 and RUN2) at a speed equal to 75% of their VO2 peak on a level grade; runs were spaced 14 d apart. Serum was collected before, after, and every hour for 12 h, and every 24 h for 6 d. Cytokines were assessed using 17 multiplex bead technology (Bio-Rad). Creatine kinase (CK) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed before and 24-120 h after. Results were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (p ,or= 0.05). All comparisons were between RUN1 and RUN2. CK and DOMS were significantly elevated after RUN1 compared with RUN2, indicative of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycotrienin II, a translation inhibitor that prevents ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. AU - Yamada, Yuriko. AU - Tashiro, Etsu. AU - Taketani, Shigeru. AU - Imoto, Masaya. AU - Kataoka, Takao. N1 - Funding Information: We are very grateful to Drs. Kazuo Nagai, Yoshinori Tsukumo and Rei Koyanagi for their initial contributions to start this work. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid from the Naito Foundation.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1α (IL-1α), trigger the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-B, a molecule that induces the expression of a variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Here, we report that mycotrienin II, a member of the triene-ansamycin group, inhibited the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
Cytokines are protein mediators involved in inflammation, the immune response, cell growth, repair and fibrosis. All of these processes are ongoing in active autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and so it would be expected that many cytokines would be actively produced in RA joints or Graves disease (GD) thyroid glands. The cDNA cloning of cytokines has permitted the generation of pure recombinant molecules, and of newer more sensitive assays, and spurred the rapid development of knowledge in this field. Here we review the molecular strategies devised to study the possible role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA and GD, and describe some of the initial results. After cataloguing the relative abundance of various cytokines, we sought to discover which cytokines are of major importance in pathogenesis. For that purpose we used neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies and found that TNF alpha is one of the major signals regulating the production of IL-1 in the RA but not in the
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
The role of JAK-3 in TLR-mediated innate immune responses is poorly understood, although the suppressive function of JAK3 inhibition in adaptive immune response has been well studied. In this study, we found that JAK3 inhibition enhanced TLR-mediated immune responses by differentially regulating pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine production in innate immune cells. Specifically, JAK3 inhibition by pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNA or JAK3 gene knockout resulted in an increase in TLR-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines while concurrently decreasing the production of IL-10. Inhibition of JAK3 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K downstream effectors including Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and CREB. Constitutive activation of Akt or inhibition of GSK3β abrogated the capability of JAK3 inhibition to enhance proinflammatory cytokines and suppress IL-10 production. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K enhanced ...
Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. Precise treatment strategies are focused on restoring the immune balance, not eliminating the natural process necessary for getting rid of infection. This requires clinicians to be able to rapidly measure therapeutic targets, such as serum cytokines (small inflammatory proteins), to guide therapy and determine its effectiveness. However, no FDA-approved devices exist to do this, so the measurements are currently not performed.. The University of Michigan has developed the MicroKine Assay Device, a platform that utilizes a microfluidic chip and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) technology to rapidly and simultaneously measure serum cytokine concentrations in a small sample of blood and provide simultaneous analysis of multiple cytokines.. The next step is to design and develop an automated reader for the MicroKine Assay Device. The goal is to produce a reader that can rapidly detect serum cytokines in less than 30 ...
Buy Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Inflammatory) and other ELISA Kits for multiplex human cytokines. Anogen supplies ELISA Kits and Antibodies around the globe.
Cytokine-driven inflammation and tissue destruction is a common theme of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerosis. Research over the last two decades demonstrated the importance of cytokines that are not only expressed chronically but also are capable of signaling at sites of chronic inflammation. Cytokines thus regulate major pathological processes that include inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and fibrosis. This research led to the identification of key cytokines involved in these processes, two of which, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, have also been successfully targeted in the clinic. However, what triggers and maintains cytokine gene expression in chronic inflammation remains a mystery. In this article, we review current progress in the understanding of cytokine-driven inflammation and discuss current evidence implicating Toll-like receptors
BackgroundHIV specific T cells are putatively anergic in vivo. IL-2, a member of a class of cytokines that binds to receptors containing the common gamma chain (γc) has been shown to reverse anergy. We examined the role of γc cytokines in reversing HIV specific T cell anergy.MethodsPBMC from untreated HIV-infected individuals were briefly exposed to a panel of γc cytokines, and frequencies of gag specific T cells were enumerated by intracellular IFN-γ flow cytometry.ResultsOf the γc cytokines, brief exposure to IL-2, IL-15, or combined IL-15/IL-7 significantly enhanced (range 2-7 fold) the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to HIV gag, with IL-15 giving the greatest enhancement. The effects of cytokines were not due to enhanced proliferation of pre-existing antigen specific cells, but were due to a combination of enhanced cytokine production from antigen specific T cells plus activation of non-epitope specific T cells.ConclusionsThese observations support the notion that a significant number of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive serum cytokine analysis identifies IL-1RA and soluble IL-2Rα as predictors of event-free survival in T-cell lymphoma. AU - Gupta, Mamta. AU - Stenson, M.. AU - OByrne, M.. AU - Maurer, M. J.. AU - Habermann, T.. AU - Cerhan, J. R.. AU - Weiner, G. W.. AU - Witzig, T. E.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Background: T-cell malignancies are heterogeneous in their clinical presentation and pathology, and have a poor prognosis. New biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis and to provide insights into signal pathways used by these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate pretreatment serum cytokines in patients with newly diagnosed T-cell neoplasms and correlate with clinical outcome. Patients and methods: We evaluated 30 cytokines in pretreatment serum from 68 untreated patients and 14 normal controls. Significantly elevated cytokines were correlated with patterns of abnormalities, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Our data ...
Recombinant human cytokines HEK293 and recombinant human growth factors expressed from proprietary engineered human cells. Worldwide distributors available.
DCs are very efficient professional APCs [3]. They play a unique role in initiating immunity through the activation of naïve T cells and support local immune responses by the attraction, accumulation and activation of both CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. During maturation, DCs undergo changes in phenotype, expressing long dendrites with an upregulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules. At the same time, DCs switch from an antigen-capturing cell into an APC that can activate antigen-specific T cells. Cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, combined with IL-4, are known to contribute to DC maturation [7]. Indeed, these cytokines are used in sequential combination to obtain ex vivo mature functional DCs from blood monocytes. Out of this list of cytokines, only IL-4 is considered not to be produced by RA synovitis [8].. Two main types of DCs that mediate distinct biological outcomes are distinguished by their lineage ...
TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsTSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsAA00892882 ...
Flow cytometry in combination with microspheres (beads) in a suspension have gained increasing interest by the research community
T cells play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Costimulation of T cells is necessary to fully activate them. An inducible costimulator (ICOS) of T cells is predominantly expressed on Th2 cells. Therefore, interference of signaling pathways precipitated by ICOS may present new therapeutic options for Th2 dominated diseases such as asthma. However, these signaling pathways are poorly characterized in vitro and in vivo. Human primary CD4+ T cells from blood were activated by beads with defined combinations of surface receptor stimulating antibodies and costimulatory receptor ligands. Real-time RT-PCR was used for measuring the production of cytokines from activated T cells. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways leading to cytokine synthesis were investigated by western blot analysis and by specific inhibitors. The effect of inhibitors in vivo was tested in a murine asthma model of late phase eosinophilia. Lung inflammation was assessed by differential cell
Inflammation has been linked to hair loss and to diet. A diet that produces systemic inflammation is more likely to exist with hair loss than do anti-inflammatory diets.. Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidant stress. The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release of other cytokines and also lead to increased oxidant stress makes them important in chronic inflammation. Toxic cytokines can be influenced by diet modifications.. Over production of pro-inflammatory hormone-like messengers (ex. prostaglandin E2 PGE2) and a lack of production of anti-inflammatory messengers (ex. prostaglandin E1 and E3) is a common cause of inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids seem to suppress the production of PGE2 and promote the production of the beneficial prostaglandin PGE3. Thus the recommendation is to reduce foods that are high in omega-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of foods high in omega-3. This will lead to more of the beneficial prostaglandins (E1 and E3) and less of the PGE2 ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs Industry Outlook 2021 The outbreak of covid-19 in the global market has made companies uncertain about their future scenario as the prolonged lock-down finds a serious economic slump. The latest survey on COVID-19 Outbreak-Global Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs Market is conducted to provide hidden gems performance analysis. Essential growth factors and study of Basis points [BPS] have been discussed in the following report. Research Report explains a detailed overview of market dynamics, segmentation, product portfolio, business plans, and the latest development in the industry.. Staying on top of market trends & drivers is crucial for decision-makers to hold this emerging opportunity. The study provides information on market trends and development, drivers, capacities, technologies, and the changing investment structure of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs market. The development scope, feasibility study, Tumor Necrosis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at week 8 (P = .001). Plasma TNF-α ...
ProblemMaternal immunopathology in pre-eclampsia is well studied; however, less is known regarding the immunological effects on the newborns. Increased inflammation and activation of immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface in pre-eclampsia could influence the neonatal immune compartment. Method of StudyMonocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ResultsNeonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers had an inflammatory serum cytokine profile. While CB monocyte characteristics seemed unaffected, CB NK cells from pre-eclamptic pregnancies had higher NKp30, but borderline lower NKG2D expression. ConclusionIn utero inflammatory priming of neonatal innate immunity taking place in pre-eclamptic pregnancies might influence specific NK cell functions in newborns.. ...
Hamlet, S., Alfarsi, M., George, R. & Ivanovski, S., 2012, The effect of hydrophilic titanium surface modification on macrophage inflammatory cytokine gene expression, Clinical Oral Implants Research, 23(5), pp. 584-90. K Bokhari, MS Hameed, M Ajmal, RA Togoo Benign osteoblastoma involving maxilla: a case report and review of the literature Case reports in dentistry 2012 Haralur SB, Gana NS, Al-Dowah, et al. Quantitative evaluation on the ability of dental plaque adherence to commonly used provisional crowns. JIOH Sep-Dec2012,4(3).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early increase in mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their interactions in the mouse hippocampus after transient global ischemia. AU - Zhu, Yuyan. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Murakami, Yuki. AU - Asano, Masahide. AU - Iwakura, Yoichiro. AU - Seishima, Mitsuru. PY - 2006/1/30. Y1 - 2006/1/30. N2 - There is convincing evidence that cytokines are involved in the inflammatory response following cerebral ischemia, but the interactions among the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the early stage of ischemic reperfusion are not yet completely understood. In this study, we examined the early mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ischemic hippocampus after 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and TNF-α, IL-1α/β or IL-6 gene knockout (KO) mice utilizing real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. TNF-alpha is mainly secreted by macrophages. TNF-alpha is involved in the regulat...
Thalidomide selectively inhibits the production of human monocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) when these cells are triggered with lipopolysaccharide and other agonists in culture. 40% inhibition occurs at the clinically achievable dose of the drug of 1 micrograms/ml. In contrast, the amount of total protein and individual proteins labeled with [35S]methionine and expressed on SDS-PAGE are not influenced. The amounts of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by monocytes remain unaltered. The selectivity of this drug may be useful in determining the role of TNF-alpha in vivo and modulating its toxic effects in a clinical setting. ...
In order to define whether CD4+ T cells from autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid tissue could be classified according to their mediator production, lymphokine production was studied in 63 thyroid-derived CD4+ T-cell clones from four patients with Graves disease, one with Hashimotos thyroiditis, and one with non-toxic goitre (9-12 clones per patient). The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lymphotoxin (LT), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was assessed at the mRNA level by slot-blot analysis in unstimulated clones as well as after activation with monoclonal anti-CD3 (OKT3) and IL-2. No lymphokine production was found in unstimulated clones, whereas 56% of the clones produced all six lymphokines simultaneously after stimulation. In the remaining 44% usually not more than one lymphokine was missing from the complete panel. Lymphokine mRNA concentrations varied between different clones and
A B Millar, R F Miller, N M Foley, G A W Rook, S J G Semple; Tumour Necrosis Factor (Tnf Alpha) Production by Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Alveolar Macrophages from Patients with Hiv-Related Lung Disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1990; 78 (s22): 17P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Background and purpose: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to inhibit cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE2 has not been elucidated definitively. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently-developed EP receptor ligands. Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP2-selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP4-selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) antagonists on PGE2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. Key results: PGE2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplexed femtomolar quantitation of human cytokines in a fluoropolymer microcapillary film. AU - Castanheira, Ana P.. AU - Barbosa, Ana I.. AU - Edwards, Alexander D.. AU - Reis, Nuno M.. PY - 2015/8/21. Y1 - 2015/8/21. N2 - Sensitive quantitation of multiple cytokines can provide important diagnostic information during infection, inflammation and immunopathology. In this study sensitive immunoassay detection of human cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNFα is shown for singleplex and multiplex formats using a novel miniaturized ELISA platform. The platform uses a disposable plastic multi-syringe aspirator (MSA) integrating 8 disposable fluoropolymer microfluidic test strips, each containing an array of ten 200 μm mean i.d. microcapillaries coated with a set of monoclonal antibodies. Each MSA device thus performs 10 tests on 8 samples, delivering 80 measurements. Unprecedented levels of sensitivity were obtained with the novel fluoropolymer microfluidic material and simple ...
Transendothelial migration of myeloma cells is increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha via TNF receptor 2 and autocrine up-regulation of MCP-1 ...
We describe here a monoclonal antibody (H398) that immunoprecipitates a human 60-kD tumor necrosis factor (TNF) membrane receptor (p60) and competes with TNF binding to p60 but not to p85 TNF receptors. Despite partial inhibition of TNF binding capacity of cells coexpressing both TNF receptor molecules, H398 uniformly and completely inhibits very distinct TNF responses on a variety of cell lines. These data suggest a limited structural heterogeneity in those components actually contributing to TNF responsiveness and identify p60 as a common receptor molecule essential for TNF signal transduction. As H398 is a highly effective TNF antagonist in vitro, it might be useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of TNF-mediated acute toxicity. ...
Detect 36 human cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins simultaneously with our Proteome Profiler Human Cytokine Array Kit.
Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha concentrations were minimal 30 and 120 min after intravenous injection and maximal 60 and 90 min after CAM injection. The relative ...
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif. & COLLEGEVILLE, Pa., Jun 04, 2008 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a division of Wyeth (NYSE: WYE), issued a statement in response to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Early Communication regarding an ongoing safety review of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) blockers (marketed as Remicade, Enbrel, Humira and Cimzia) and the possible association between the use of these medicines and the development of lymphoma and other cancers in children and young adults. These individuals were treated with TNF blockers for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), Crohns disease or other diseases. AMGEN AND WYETH STATEMENT: Amgen and Wyeth are committed to the safety of patients and have consistently updated the product labeling for Enbrel(R) (etanercept) over the past decade. The companies maintain ongoing safety surveillance programs worldwide to analyze and evaluate safety reports, including reports of malignancies, from controlled and open-label clinical ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. OX40 - Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. OX40 - Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
BioTek Anwendungshinweise, 13-Jul-10, Multiplexing Magnetic Bead-based Human Cytokine Assays - Automated Magnetic Bead Washing Using the ELx405
Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been detected in tumor specimens and primary cell cultures from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. IL-1α has been reported to play an important role in inducing the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF during inflammation. We examined whether these cytokines are expressed together in five primary and seven established UM-SCC cell lines, and we also examined the effects of IL-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist or neutralizing antibody (Ab) upon expression of this repertoire of proinflammatory cytokines in established UM-SCC lines. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF was detected by ELISA in both the primary and established UM-SCC lines. Constitutive expression of specific mRNAs for these cytokines was confirmed in the UM-SCC lines by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Addition of recombinant IL ...
The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline) and long-acting (formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol) β-agonists before activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cytokine (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) generation. The experiments showed that short-acting β-agonists were poor inhibitors of cytokine generation. Of the long-acting β-agonists studied, formoterol was also a weak inhibitor of cytokine generation whereas only indacaterol and salmeterol showed moderate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. AU - Slifka, Mark K.. AU - Whitton, J. Lindsay. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cytokines are soluble proteins that are produced and secreted as part of the immune response to a variety of tissue insults including infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Most cytokines are secreted by cells of the immune system, but some (for example, type I interferons) are released from nonimmunological cells such as fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Cytokines have pleiotropic effects, acting on many somatic cell types to modulate the hosts immune response. For the most part, cytokines exert their antimicrobial actions locally - they are secreted by cells in the area of infection, and their effects are restricted to neighboring cells. While many of their local effects benefit the host, cytokines are soluble molecules that may act systemically and are often responsible for ...
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Purpose: The biochemical mechanisms for retinal capillary cell death in diabetes are not clear. In the diabetic retina of humans and rodents, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we have investigated the effect if pro-inflammatory cytokines on a small heat shock protein, Hsp27 in primary human retinal endothelial cells (HREC).. Methods: HREC were cultured in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon -γ (IFN-γ, 50 and 100 units/ml), interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 10 and 20 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 10 and 20 ng/ml) for 48 hrs and in the presence or absence of high glucose (25 mM, HG). The roles of the kynurenine pathway and NOS were determined by adding 20 μM 1-methyl tryptophan (MT) and 500 μM L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), respectively to the culture medium. The mRNA and protein levels of Hsp27 and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) were determined by PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4/CD8 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti-Cytokine antibodies of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal integration via PKR. AU - Williams, B. R.. PY - 2001/7/3. Y1 - 2001/7/3. N2 - The vital role of interferons (IFNs) as mediators of innate immunity is well established. It has recently become apparent that one of the pivotal proteins in mediating the antiviral activity of IFNs, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR), also functions as a signal transducer in the proinflammatory response to different agents. PKR is a member of a small family of kinases that are activated by extracellular stresses and that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. The activation of PKR during infection by viral dsRNA intermediates results in the inhibition of viral replication. PKR also mediates the activation of signal transduction pathways by proinflammatory stimuli, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin 1 (IL-1). PKR is a ...
We explored the function of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN-1) in the colon using the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis. Colon mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) constitutively produced IFN-1 in a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β-dependent manner. Transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells from wild-type (WT) or IFN-α/β receptor subunit 1 knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice into RAG(-/-) hosts resulted in similar onset and severity of colitis. In contrast, RAG(-/-) × IFNAR1(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice developed accelerated severe colitis compared with RAG(-/-) hosts when transferred with WT CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. IFNAR signaling on host hematopoietic cells was required to delay colitis development. MPs isolated from the colon lamina propria of IFNAR1(-/-) mice produced less IL-10, IL-1R antagonist, and IL-27 compared with WT MPs. Accelerated colitis development in DKO mice was characterized by early T cell proliferation and accumulation of CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells in the mesenteric
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may cause inflammatory responses, which can deteriorate the outcomes. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6,-8 and -10, can act as both the effector and the predictor for post-operative inflammatory responses. Plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was found as a pro-inflammatory agent recently, which was released when cells were insulted. In the present study, we included 38 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) to analyze their perioperative plasma mtDNA and levels of inflammatory cytokines. Blood samples were collected before aortic cross-clamping (T1), at the end of CPB (T2), 6 h post-CPB (T3), 12 h post-CPB (T4), and 24 h post-CPB (T5). Rt-PCR and specific ELISA kits were used to quantify the plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Bivariate correlations analysis was used to check the correlations between plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines respectively. Results shown that
RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine that includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. It is commonly treated with one of several available biological drugs that block an inflammatory molecule called Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha), but not everybody is helped by this treatment.. New research by a team of biomedical scientists at the University of California, Riverside, led by David Lo, M.D., Ph.D., now offers a valuable tip that could help make these drugs more effective.. TNF-alpha is a protein produced by the bodys cells. It signals other cells that then produce additional inflammatory factors. But Los lab discovered earlier this year that TNF-alpha also induces specialized immune surveillance cells, called M cells, which both promote inflammation and suppress it. In other words, TNF-alpha plays a role in the destruction and the healing of tissues - a double-edged sword.. M cells normally help the immune system ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were one of the first few cytokines to be discovered. The normative data for levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in particular and all other cytokines in general have not yet been established well. The normal levels for each of the cytokines vary from one race to another. Therefore, all studies need to be done in cases and controls belonging to the same race or same populations. The kits for cytokine assays are expensive and running the assays is laborious and time consuming. It is recommended that the serum/plasma samples are run in duplicates and triplicates to avoid error. Immunology and the field of cytokines is an area which has many domains unexplored. As yet, it is not clearly understood by what mechanisms and pathways each of the cytokines alter the levels of other cytokines. Exercise or physical activity is an intervention which can be administered easily and levels of cytokines measured before and after intervention in same ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play an important role in the blood-brain barrier breakdown present in several neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis and AIDS. However, the specific effects of these cytokines on central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC) is not fully understood. In this study the effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were tested on different permeability mechanisms of CNS-EC. METHODS: Central nervous system endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and retina and cultured in vitro in a transwell system. Fluid-phase endocytosis and transcytosis, absorptive-mediated endocytosis, and ammonia diffusion were measured with specific methods. Endothelial cells were studied with electron microscopy for the ultrastructural effects of cytokine stimulation. RESULTS: Fluid-phase endocytosis and transcytosis were significantly increased by TNF-alpha and IL-6. This effect was dose ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines and expression of CD154. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated CD154+CD4+ T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD154+CD4+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti
To the Editor:. As testified to by the report of Dybdahl and colleagues,1 and the subsequent editorial by Pockley, 2 heat shock proteins (HSPs) are increasingly seen as important mediators in a number of cardiovascular disease states. The former work describes the release of HSP70 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as well as the liberation of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from murine and human mononuclear cells by HSP70 signaling through CD14 and toll-like receptor-4. It is tempting to conclude that the first observation is as a direct consequence of the latter, as the authors speculate, but there are alternative possibilities.. Endotoxaemia is a salient feature of CPB (thought consequent on the translocation of endotoxin across gut mucosa) and has long been associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine liberation in this context.3 Therefore endotoxaemia alone could explain the increase in IL-6 found in patients undergoing CPB. Furthermore, ...
Can linseed oil be a natural alternative? This question can neither with still no answer will be, but must be regarded as differentiated by medication and type of rheumatism. So it is undoubtedly so that modern developments in the field of anti-inflammatory drugs have made the rheumatism therapy while maintaining the effectiveness of friendly. However, new risks can arise. So its only understandable, if people are looking for alternatives, which are on the one hand effective, should be on the other but also largely free of side effects. Patients with inflammatory or degenerative rheumatic diseases are often very high values of the so-called inflammatory markers. One of them is the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The control and reduction of TNF-alpha is a target of treating rheumatism. This common anti-inflammatory pain relievers (NSAID) and in severe cases called DMARDs (Biologicals) be used. The latter can effectively inhibit TNF-alpha, and are a valuable support for those affected. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplex analysis of enzyme kinetics and inhibition by droplet microfluidics using picoinjectors. AU - Sjostrom, Staffan L.. AU - Jönsson, Håkan. AU - Svahn, Helene Andersson. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Enzyme kinetics and inhibition is important for a wide range of disciplines including pharmacology, medicine and industrial bioprocess technology. We present a novel microdroplet-based device for extensive characterization of the reaction kinetics of enzyme substrate inhibitor systems in a single experiment utilizing an integrated droplet picoinjector for bioanalysis. This device enables the scanning of multiple fluorescently-barcoded inhibitor concentrations and substrate conditions in a single, highly time-resolved experiment yielding the Michaelis constant (Km), the turnover number (kcat) and the enzyme inhibitor dissociation constants (ki, ki′). Using this device we determine Km and kcat for β-galactosidase and the fluorogenic substrate Resorufin β-d-galactopyranoside ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salivary cytokines in healthy adolescent girls. T2 - Intercorrelations, stability, and associations with serum cytokines, age, and pubertal stage. AU - Riis, Jenna L.. AU - Out, Dorothee. AU - Dorn, Lorah D.. AU - Beal, Sarah J.. AU - Denson, Lee A.. AU - Pabst, Stephanie. AU - Jaedicke, Katrin. AU - Granger, Douglas A.. PY - 2014/5/1. Y1 - 2014/5/1. N2 - Theoretically, the measurement of cytokines in saliva may have utility for studies of brain, behavior, and immunity in youth. Cytokines in saliva and serum were analyzed across three annual assessments in healthy adolescent girls (N = 114, 11-17 years at enrollment). Samples were assayed for GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNFα, adiponectin, and cotinine. Results revealed: (1) cytokine levels, except IFNγ and IL-10, were detectable in saliva, and salivary levels, except IL-8 and IL-1β, were lower than serum levels; (2) salivary cytokine levels were lower in older girls and positively associated with ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA). Interleukin-1g (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL) CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception
Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-1 beta and TNT alpha, but Not IL-8, Cause Aberrant Lung Epithelial Wound Repair Via TGF-beta 1 Driven Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT ...
Cytokines also activate these immune cells, and stimulate them to produce more cytokines. This positive feedback loop will attract more T-cells and macrophages to join the fight. Usually, the body is able to keep the feedback loop in check so that a cytokine storm (which is energy-consuming and harms the body) doesnt occur.. Sometimes the body is unable to control the loop, for reasons we dont fully understand and we end up with a CS. Its speculated that a CS might be triggered when the immune system is attacked by a new and highly pathogenic invader. The cytokine storm results in systemic symptoms, such as liver dysfunction, acute renal failure, and shock. In the nervous system, it leads to brain injury through alteration of vessel wall permeability without vessel wall disruption. According to this hypothesis, ANE is an encephalopathy concomitant with systemic immune imbalance.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced caspase activation mediates endotoxin-related cardiac dysfunction. AU - Carlson, Deborah L.. AU - Willis, Monte. AU - White, D. Jean. AU - Norton, Jureta W.. AU - Giroir, Brett P.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Objective: Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is a serious clinical syndrome characterized by hypotension, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and elevated cardiac index. Although cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been shown to play a significant role early in this response, the downstream effects of TNF-α signaling on cardiac function, specifically its relationship to apoptosis, have not been fully elucidated. Design: Previous studies from our laboratory have identified endotoxin-induced apoptosis in cardiac cells in vitro. To further determine the role of lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in vivo, mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg), and cardiac apoptosis was detected and ...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, the immunologic model of which has been profoundly revised following recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In the current model, a crosstalk between keratinocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells. Among these key cytokines lie therapeutic targets for currently approved antipsoriatic therapies. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the immune-mediated mechanisms characterizing the current pathogenic model of
Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune
Cytokines[edit]. Extravasation is regulated by the background cytokine environment produced by the inflammatory response, and ... These cytokines induce the externalisation of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells, presenting pre-formed P-selectins on ... Cytokines released in the initial immune response induce vasodilation and lower the electrical charge along the vessel's ... Upon recognition of and activation by pathogens, resident macrophages in the affected tissue release cytokines such as IL-1, ...
Versus cytokines[edit]. Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] ... While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on cell growth or ... Some cytokines, such as Fas ligand, are used as "death" signals; they cause target cells to undergo programmed cell death or ... Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells. ...
Cytokine signaling[edit]. TF is related to a protein family known as the cytokine receptor class II family. The members of this ... cytokine receptor activity. • phospholipid binding. • serine-type endopeptidase activity. • protease binding. Cellular ... Cytokines are small proteins that can influence the behavior of white blood cells. Binding of VIIa to TF has also been found to ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • activation of blood coagulation via clotting ...
Cytokines. Colony-stimulating factors. *G-CSF *Filgrastim / Lipegfilgrastim / Pegfilgrastim. *Lenograstim. *Eflapegrastim. *GM- ...
Cytokine. See here instead.. Endothelin. *Agonists: Endothelin 1. *Endothelin 2. *Endothelin 3 ...
cytokine activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • external side of plasma membrane. • ... Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.[5] The ... IFNγ is the primary cytokine that defines Th1 cells: Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ ... Equivalent defining cytokines for other cells include IL-4 for Th2 cells and IL-17 for Th17 cells.) ...
Cytokines: Cytokine receptor modulators. *Chemokine receptor modulators. *Interleukin receptor modulators. *TNF receptor ...
Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ...
Cytokine-induced NK and Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation[edit]. Cytokines play a crucial role in NK cell activation. As ... NK cells secrete a high level of cytokines which help mediate their function. Some important cytokines they secrete include TNF ... A number of cytokines are produced by NKs, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IFNγ, and interleukin (IL-10). TNFα and IL ... Cytokines involved in NK activation include IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IL-2, and CCL5. NK cells are activated in response to ...
Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ...
... s are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein ...
"Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. 34 (8): 559-76. doi:10.1089/jir.2014.0021. PMC 4118707. PMID 25084173.. ... Hertzog PJ, Williams BR (June 2013). "Fine tuning type I interferon responses". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 24 (3): 217- ... Hebenstreit D, Horejs-Hoeck J, Duschl A (May 2005). "JAK/STAT-dependent gene regulation by cytokines". Drug News & Perspectives ... Negative regulators of type I IFN signaling, such as suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and ubiquitin-specific ...
cytokine activity. • metal ion binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • ... TRAIL is a cytokine that is produced and secreted by most normal tissue cells. It causes apoptosis primarily in tumor cells,[7] ... Almasan A, Ashkenazi A (2004). "Apo2L/TRAIL: apoptosis signaling, biology, and potential for cancer therapy". Cytokine & Growth ... a new member of the tumor necrosis factor cytokine family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (22): 12687-90. doi: ...
cytokine activity. • CD40 receptor binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • protein binding. ... Subauste CS (February 2002). "CD154 and type-1 cytokine response: from hyper IgM syndrome to human immunodeficiency virus ... The activated macrophage can then destroy phagocytosed bacteria and produce more cytokines. ... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ...
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. It ... a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor. It has U.S. F.D.A. approval to treat rheumatoid arthritis, ... those found embedded in white blood cells that respond to TNF by releasing other cytokines, and soluble TNF receptors that are ...
Proinflammatory cytokines. ↑Antiinflammatory cytokines Antimitogenic ↓VEGF. ↓TGF-β ↓Angiogenesis. ↑ECM remodeling As mentioned ...
cytokine activity. • type I interferon receptor binding. • cytokine receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • innate immune response. • regulation of ... 2000). "Limitin: An interferon-like cytokine that preferentially influences B-lymphocyte precursors". Nat. Med. 6 (6): 659-66. ...
Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ...
This cytokine, called osteopontin, may be able to aid in axon regeneration by exposing its integrin receptor binding sites. ... Trophic factors and cytokines. (2004). Journal of Neurochemistry, 88, 90-90. doi:10.1046/j.1474-1644.2003.2314p37_01.x] ... A recently discovered and understood cytokine is currently being used to try to treat the axotomy before the rise in pressure ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ... cytokine activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • cell surface. • integral component of ... positive regulation of cytokine secretion. • response to virus. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • negative ... Clark IA (June-August 2007). "How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 335- ...
Cytokine. See here instead.. Endothelin. *Agonists: Endothelin 1. *Endothelin 2. *Endothelin 3 ...
Cytokine. See here instead.. Endothelin. *Agonists: Endothelin 1. *Endothelin 2. *Endothelin 3 ...
Cytokine. See here instead.. Endothelin. *Agonists: Endothelin 1. *Endothelin 2. *Endothelin 3 ...
Cytokine. See here instead.. Endothelin. *Agonists: Endothelin 1. *Endothelin 2. *Endothelin 3 ...
Cytokine. 101: 78-88. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.09.013. ISSN 1043-4666. PMID 27688201. S2CID 20837188.. ...
Cytokine. 9 (8): 540-9. doi:10.1006/cyto.1997.0199. PMID 9245480.. ...
Despite cytokines often being too large to pass through the blood-brain barrier alone, their effect on the central nervous ... Due to this sensitivity and NLPR3's role in triggering cytokine release, NLPR3 is thought to be a key component in sterile ... This is due to cytokines being directly involved with inflammatory responses while also serving as a signal that can lead to ... Once peripheral cytokines initially communicate the existence of inflammation outside of the CNS, microglia and astrocytes ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Newsletter" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Committees". Cytokines-interferons. Retrieved 17 October 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... and was Chair of the Publications Committee of the International Cytokine and Interferon Society from 2010 to 2016. 1990: ... President of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 2005: Maurice Saltzman Award, The Mt Sinai Health ...
IL-7 is a cytokine important for B and T cell development. This cytokine and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) form a ... This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell ... This cytokine can be produced locally by intestinal epithelial and epithelial goblet cells, and may serve as a regulatory ... A study also demonstrate how the autocrine production of the IL-7 cytokine mediated by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T- ...
IL7R-α is a type I cytokine receptor and is a subunit of the functional Interleukin-7 receptor and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin ... Appasamy PM (1999). "Biological and clinical implications of interleukin-7 and lymphopoiesis". Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther. 5 (1 ...
Click here to download human multiplex cytokine assay request form.. Click here to download mouse multiplex cytokine assay ... Cytokines were measured using Millipore human cytokine multiplex kits (EMD Millipore.Corporation, Billerica, MA). Calibration ... The multiplex cytokine assay format differs from conventional ELISA in one significant way- the multiplex capture antibody is ... Cytokines were measured according to Manufacturers instructions using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) multi-spot assay system ...
... including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of ... Cytokines and Disease. Arkadiusz Orzechowski,1,2 Agueda A. Rostagno,3 Sabina Pucci,4 and Gilles Chiocchia5 ...
Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of ... cytokine is derived from a combination of two Greek words - cyto meaning cell and kinos meaning movement. ... Cytokines exist in peptide, protein and glycoprotein (proteins with a sugar attached) forms. The cytokines are a large family ... Another factor that contributes to the difficulty in distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that cytokines can exert ...
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006 Oct;17(5):325-37. Epub 2006 Aug 22. Review ... Cytokines in breast cancer.. Nicolini A1, Carpi A, Rossi G.. Author information. 1. Department of Internal Medicine, University ... Some cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, TGFbeta) stimulate while others (IL-12, IL-18, IFNs) inhibit breast cancer proliferation and ... So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of ...
Behavioral effects of cytokines.. Larson SJ1, Dunn AJ.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychology, Concordia College, ...
... Brian D. Poole,1 Timothy B. Niewold,2 George C. Tsokos,3 and Charles S. Via4 ... Brian D. Poole, Timothy B. Niewold, George C. Tsokos, and Charles S. Via, "Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus," Journal ...
The cytokines include a wide range of proteins, peptides and glycopeptides. ... Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. ... Initially, the term IL-1 was used to define a cytokine from a monocyte and the term IL-2 was used to define a cytokine from a ... Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. The cytokines include ...
... Seth Corey corey at MED.PITT.EDU Tue Apr 26 22:58:31 EST 1994 *Previous message: Cytokines follow-up ...
On the one hand, cytokines may directly influence carcinogenesis and metastasis by modifying the tumor phenotype. On the other ... The relationships between cytokines and cancer are multiple and bidirectional. ... hand, during tumor progression, modifications of the cytokine expression in the tumor environm … ... The relationships between cytokines and cancer are multiple and bidirectional. On the one hand, cytokines may directly ...
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A complex cytokine network is involved in normal immune function, and this network is comprised of positive and negative ... Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. ... T cell cytokines - Interferon (IFN)-gamma was the initial target of cytokine research in RA. This was due, in part, to the ... Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. A complex cytokine ...
Cytokines -- the architects of your bodys inflammation response -- are heavily influenced by the food in your diet. ... Cytokines. In the Greek language, cytokines translates to setting cells in motion. Cytokines are cells in your body that ... The cytokines derived from processes in your body that metabolize omega-6 fats are more likely to promote inflammation. Consume ... Both omega-3 and omega-6 fats are precursors in the production of new cytokines. According to a 2008 article in Lipids in ...
Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your bodys inflammatory response. Chronic ... Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your bodys inflammatory response. Chronic ... v4-460px-Reduce-Cytokines-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/c5\/Reduce-Cytokines-Step-2.jpg\/aid10184644-v4-728px- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Cytokines-Step-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/c2\/Reduce-Cytokines-Step-3.jpg\/aid10184644-v4-728px- ...
HOW TO POST IN THE CYTOKINE FORUMS:. 1. To make browsing and finding specific posts easier, messages in all forums are ... The IL12-related cytokines. *Log in to post new content in the forum. ...
... and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating ... Immunoconjugates for the selective delivery of a cytokine to a target cell are disclosed. The immunoconjugates are comprised of ... The cytokine can be any cytokine or analog or fragment thereof which has a therapeutically valuable biological function. Useful ... An immunoconjugate of the invention can be used to deliver selectively a cytokine to a target cell in vivo so that the cytokine ...
HOW TO POST IN THE CYTOKINE FORUMS:. 1. To make browsing and finding specific posts easier, messages in all forums are ...
Early-life adversity programs long-term cytokine and microglia expression within the HPA axis in female Japanese quail David J ... Developmental exposure to a non-pathogenic stressor can cause long-term changes in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine ...
In particular, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that occurs … ... Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohns disease and ulcerative ... Cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 May;14(5):329-42. doi: 10.1038/nri3661. Epub 2014 Apr 22. ... Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohns disease and ulcerative ...
The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. Cytokines and ... The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. Cytokines and ... Common Cytokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 important ... Common Cytokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 ...
Cytokines are a diverse family of intercellular signaling proteins that influence the movement, proliferation, differentiation ... skeletal muscle cytokines tumour necrosis factor leukocyte fibroblasts neutrophils necrosis regeneration exercise ... Taniguchi T: Cytokine signalling through nonreceptor protein tyrosine kineses. Science 268: 251-255, 1995Google Scholar ... Cannon JG: Cytokines in muscle homeostasis and disease. In: JJ Oppenheim, JL Rossio, AJH Gearing (eds). Clinical Applications ...
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Cytokine definition is - any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins (such as interleukin or interferon) that are secreted by ... Comments on cytokine. What made you want to look up cytokine? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of cytokine to Facebook Share the Definition of cytokine on Twitter ... Examples of cytokine in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. Successful repair of damaged skin, and collagen synthesis, have ...
Dr Richard P. Kraig presents a webinar on the use of cytokine analysis in the investigation of nor... ... Dr Richard P. Kraig presents a webinar on the use of cytokine analysis in the investigation of normal brain function. Dr Kraig ... Dr Kraig discusses some of the issues encountered during work in his laboratory using femtomolar-level cytokine analysis in a ... and high dynamic range of Bio-Plex cell signaling assays enable these researchers to obtain precise measurements of cytokine ...
... Paula paula at Tue Sep 17 09:32:08 EST 2002 *Previous message: Staining of ...
Cytokines/cytokine receptors in the pipeline *Exploring the usefulness of cytokines and cytokine antagonists in disease ... Cytokine based therapies in development: targeted cytokine therapies *Immunocytokines: targeted antibody linked to cytokine * ... Increasingly, cytokine-based drugs and anti-cytokines are playing a crucial role in the treatment and management of these ... Therapeutic importance of cytokine traps *The role of molecular and cellular research in improving and modifying cytokine trap ...
Eosinophil granules store a vast array of cytokines and chemokines, many of which possess opposing activities. Specific stimuli ...
Cytokine Bioassays: Methods and Protocols provides a comprehensive collection of classic and cutting-edge methodologies that ... are used to analyze and quantify cytokines and their biological activities ... Cytokines RT-PCR analysis of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry biologically active cytokines clinical samples cytokine ... and analysis of cytokine-induced immunoglobulin class switching. Part three presents analysis of intracellular cytokines by ...
A body of clinical evidence is emerging that two different approaches to immune-stimulating cytokine therapies could increase ... POC for cytokines. Cytokines are emerging as a logical combination partner to boost PD-1 responses ... Early data showed the cytokines can flip tumors from PD-L1-negative to -positive, leading to responses comparable to those in ... While the biggest cytokine story at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting focused on... ...
Cytokines and Disease Team. Group Leader. Frank Brombacher. ICGEB Cape Town, South Africa. E-mail: [email protected] ... Cytokines and Disease. INFECTIOUS DISEASES / Parasitic Diseases. Research Interests. Immunological mechanisms of host ... Major general topics include cytokine network and regulation, lymphocyte differentiation and function, dendritic cell and ...
... , Lymphokine, Monokine, Interferon, Chemokine, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin, Colony Stimulating Factor, Colony- ... Cytokine-producing cell secretes Cytokine in response to trigger. *Cytokine regions of activity. *Autocrine Action. *Bind and ... Cytokine function. *Cytokines are pleiotropic (multiple effects at different cells). *Released Cytokine activity may be ... Cytokine. search Cytokine, Lymphokine, Monokine, Interferon, Chemokine, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin, Colony Stimulating ...
  • Aging is associated with increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased circulating levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, cytokine antagonists and acute phase proteins in vivo. (
  • Accordingly, a dysregulated production of inflammatory cytokines has an important role in the process of aging. (
  • One thing that happens with Lyme, or in your case, a protozoal infection, is an increase in cytokines during the inflammatory process. (
  • Certain foods in your diet largely dictate the activity and levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in your body. (
  • A research paper published in 2004 in the 'American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,' discovered that women who ate the most trans fat had the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in their blood when compared to women who avoided trans fat. (
  • Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your body's inflammatory response. (
  • All plant-based foods contain polyphenols, a class of compounds that decreases your body's activation of the protein complex NF-kB, which in turn reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Omega-3 fatty acids aren't technically polyphenols, but they have a similar impact on reducing your production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Developmental exposure to a non-pathogenic stressor can cause long-term changes in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and microglia abundance in different brain regions involved in stress response regulation. (
  • Dysregulation of cytokine expression is a cause of immunological and inflammatory diseases as well as other disease states. (
  • One of the things that happens is that Interleukin-1, an inflammatory type of cytokine , is activated. (
  • Laura Haynes, Washington Post , "How the flu hijacks your body to make you feel so wretched," 17 Feb. 2018 One of the things that happens is that Interleukin-1, an inflammatory type of cytokine , is activated. (
  • Cytokines are implicated in many major diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, asthma and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (
  • BACKGROUND The study aim was to determine the kinetics of serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in hip-fracture patients over a month postfracture, and their relationship to postoperative (postop) complications and cognitive level. (
  • In spite of the anti-inflammatory effects of food restriction (FR), there is a lack of data demonstrating if the blood level of a specific cytokine could better express the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction. (
  • However, in adjunct therapy, we observed significant results (in terms of parasite clearance in visceral organs, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines response and decreased/ marginal increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine response). (
  • Cytokines are polypeptide mediators produced by a variety of cell types that play crucial roles in immune and inflammatory responses. (
  • Many SNPs that affect cytokine expression represent disease modifiers and influence the severity or progression of immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. (
  • In addition, several cytokines are critical mediators of chronic inflammatory intestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. (
  • Anti-cytokine therapies, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor and anti-p40 monoclonal antibodies, have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, and are now FDA approved for the treatment of these devastating diseases. (
  • This Research Topic aims to understand the role of cytokines in intestinal immune responses with a focus on infections, tumorigenesis, inflammatory conditions, and the relationship with the gut microbiome. (
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is another cytokine, but it reduces inflammation by inhibiting TNF-alpha, although it also has pro-inflammatory functions as well. (
  • A second similarity to the periphery that is important to bear in mind is that different inflammatory insults result in the induction of diverse inflammatory phenotypes, involving distinct cells and particular cytokine mediators. (
  • The nuanced, intricate, double-edged role of cytokines in pathologic inflammatory conditions in the CNS makes understanding the timing and context of their presence a matter of utmost importance. (
  • Chemokines represents the largest family of cytokines and based on their biological function, chemokines are divided into two categories: (i) Homeostatic chemokines which are typically expressed constitutively and are involved in immune surveillance as well as navigation of cells through hematopoiesis (ii) Inflammatory chemokines which are produced during infections or as a result of an inflammatory stimulus and facilitate an immune response by targeting cells of the innate/adaptive immune system. (
  • Now researchers led by Jesús Rivera-Nieves, MD, of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, have discovered that expression of a newly identified human cytokine - Interleukin 37 (IL-37) - protects mice from colitis. (
  • Cytokines are inflammatory immunologic proteins that are there to fight off infections and ward off cancers," Cron explained. (
  • J. J. Oppenheim and M. Feldmann(p7) Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in very low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation. (
  • Cytokines play a vital role in the immune system and are known to be involved in the body's response to a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. (
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a regulatory and inflammatory cytokine, which exists in two forms, (IL-1α) and (IL-1β), which share 25% homology at amino acid level. (
  • Recent studies have shown that the high fatality rate of avian influenza virus infections is a consequence of an overactive inflammatory response and the severity of infection is closely related with virus-induced cytokine dysregulation. (
  • The most important feature of A/H5N1 immunopathogenesis is the appearence of hypercytokinemia ("cytokine storm") which is characterized by the extreme (exaggerated) production and secretion of large numbers and excessive levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as communicating molecules between the liver and brain for hepatic encephalopathy pathogenesis and Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protection. (
  • Key phenotypes of clinical HE were phenocopied in the mice model, including high mortality, severe hepatic histology injury, increased hepatic oxidative stress, apoptosis, enhanced circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ammonia, suppressed tryptophan hydroxylase activity, and deficits in locomotor activity. (
  • Knockout of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α or IL-6 effectively ameliorated impaired mice locomotor activity and MAPK activation in the brain. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines may serve as communicating molecules linking the liver and brain for the HE pathogenesis, partly through MAPK regulation. (
  • The immune system goes into overdrive, churning out inflammatory mediators called cytokines at a very high rate, that then trigger even more cytokine production. (
  • Long-term, high-level consumers of alcohol or tobacco exhibited elevated salivary concentrations of the three inflammatory cytokines with respect to control values. (
  • Previous studies have highlighted the role played by pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in disease processes in the oral cavity. (
  • The balance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines is essential for maintenance of health. (
  • However, inflammatory cells also produce cytokines that can limit tumor growth. (
  • Cytokines secreted by tumor and inflammatory/immune cells can either promote tumor development and tumor cell survival or exert antitumor effects. (
  • The company has been granted licence for emergency use of CytoSorb, an extracorporeal blood purification device CytoSorb to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, to treat COVID-19 patients who are 18 years of age or older. (
  • The drug inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteins released by cells. (
  • The company's technology-which it licensed from The Scripps Research Institute in 2014 -is facilitating its development of enhanced versions of proteins called cytokines, which regulate immune and inflammatory responses. (
  • In recent decades many advances have occurred in the understanding of the role of cytokines in breast cancer. (
  • Issues relating to the role of cytokines in rheumatic diseases are reviewed here. (
  • See 'Role of cytokines in the immune system' and 'Cytokine networks in rheumatic diseases: Implications for therapy' . (
  • There is more information on the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in any other rheumatic disease. (
  • In order to grasp the science behind inflammation, understanding the role of cytokines is vital. (
  • This Review focuses on the role of cytokines in three of the most prevalent human disorders of the CNS in which immunity and inflammation play vital roles. (
  • While there have been many articles that review the role of cytokines in animal models of CNS diseases (e.g. (
  • This book examines the possible role of cytokines in mental depression, based on recent clinical and experimental data, and constitutes the first attempt to make a synthesis between the exciting new developments in cytokine research and their implications for the pathophysiology of mental disorders. (
  • Cytokines may be categorized into various different groups such as lymphokines, chemokines or interleukins depending on factors such as the type of cell they are secreted from, their function and the target they act upon. (
  • Cytokines were termed chemokines if they mediated the chemically-induced movement of body cells known of as chemotaxis or chemoattraction. (
  • Historically, cytokines were functionally separated into 2 families: lymphokines/interleukins and chemokines. (
  • All cytokines released by immune cells were called lymphokines/interleukins, whereas chemotactic cytokines were called chemokines. (
  • The Human Cytokines & Chemokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key secreted proteins central to the immune response and other functions. (
  • Cytokines as Drug Targets & Therapeutics covers up to the minute clinical developments concerning the major classes of cytokine and chemokines. (
  • Cytokines include chemokines , interferons , interleukins , lymphokines , and tumour necrosis factors , but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology ). (
  • Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines , interleukins , and chemokines , based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. (
  • Submit your event on Chemokines-Cytokines to be featured. (
  • Cytokines are broadly classified into categories such as chemokines, interleukins (IL), colony-stimulating factors (CSF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF), interferons (IFN), transforming growth factors (TGF) etc. (
  • In summary, elevated levels of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines were generated in infants during and after acute malaria tropica. (
  • IL-8 is a member of a structurally similar family of cytokines called chemokines, which demonstrate chemotactic activity for neutrophils. (
  • Copenhagen, Denmark, Saturday 13 June 2009: Up-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines (signaling molecules involved in the functioning of the immune system) can predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three years before the onset of symptoms, according to the results of a new study presented today at EULAR 2009, the Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism in Copenhagen, Denmark. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are small signalling molecules which are integral to the immune system, as they mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and the development of blood cells (haematopoiesis). (
  • 30 cytokines, cytokine receptors and chemokines** were measured in plasma samples using multiplex detection kits from Bio-Rad analysed by a Bio-Plex Array Reader (Luminex200, Labmap™ system). (
  • Examples of cytokines include the agents interleukin and the interferon which are involved in regulating the immune system's response to inflammation and infection. (
  • In addition, cytokines have a much larger distribution of sources for their production, with nearly all cells that have a nucleus capable of producing interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), particularly endothelial cells, epithelial cells and resident macrophages. (
  • Interleukin was originally the term used to describe cytokines that were assumed by researchers to primarily be targeting leukocytes. (
  • These observations, along with later studies demonstrating putative interleukin (IL)-2 activity in synovial effusions [ 2 ] and the presence of T-cell surface markers associated with activation (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] DR+, VLA4+, CD69+), tended to support the hypothesis that the T cells in RA were highly activated and that the local milieu contained significant concentrations of T cell derived cytokines. (
  • The immunoconjugates are comprised of an immunoglobulin heavy chain having a specificity for the target cell, such as a cancer or virus-infected cell, and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, joined via Aits amino terminal amino acid to the carboxy-Aterminus of the immunoglobulin. (
  • 9 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is interleukin-2. (
  • 15 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 14 , wherein the cytokine is selected from the group consisting of lymphotoxin, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (
  • 18 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is interleukin-2. (
  • Jolene Edgar, Allure , "The Truth About Growth Factors in Skin Care and Why They're Controversial," 2 Aug. 2018 Perhaps the cytokine that testosterone induces mast cells to make, interleukin-33, might one day join them. (
  • Alice Park, Time , "How Scientists Are Testing Cancer Drugs to Slow Down Aging," 9 July 2018 The researchers injected some of the mice with the cytokines interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor. (
  • The term interleukin was initially used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes . (
  • The first cytokine which will has been produced is interleukin-1 (Il-1). (
  • Since the discovery of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in 1984, a variety of cytokines and cytokine factors have been discovered and cloned. (
  • One example of this complex interplay is the two cytokines known as Tumor Necrosis Factor -alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6. (
  • Newly identified human cytokine - Interleukin 37 (IL-37) protects mice from ulcerative colitis - inflammation of the lining of the colon. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. (
  • Interleukin-10 (IL-10), alternatively known as B-cell-derived T-cell growth factor (B-TCGF), cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) or T-cell growth inhibitory factor is a homodimeric protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa. (
  • Notably, the concentration of interleukin 17 (IL-17, a cytokine which acts as a regulator of multiple immune functions) was found to be significantly higher before onset compared with post-diagnosis (p>0.01). (
  • As a result, the objectives of the study were to determine 1) whether CBD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) stimulated with beryllium would produce a similar cytokine pattern as BAL cells, and 2) whether this response could be modulated by interleukin-4 (IL-4), an immunomodulatory cytokine. (
  • Interleukin-4's inability to downregulate any of the beryllium-stimulated cytokines makes it an unlikely therapeutic candidate in chronic beryllium disease. (
  • Interleukin-32: a cytokine and inducer of TNFalpha. (
  • and functions of a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32. (
  • Behavioral effects of cytokines. (
  • Overviews of the effects of cytokines on the immune response and the therapeutic implications of cytokine networks in rheumatic disease are presented separately. (
  • A contributing factor to the difficulty of distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that some immunomodulating effects of cytokines are systemic rather than local. (
  • Section II: Brain Effects of Cytokines. (
  • Section IV: Effects of Cytokines and Cytokine Antagonists in Animal Models of Depression. (
  • Interactions between various cell types in the tumor microenvironment determine the effects of cytokines on tumor development and progression. (
  • Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma. (
  • Cytokines, however, circulate in picomolar concentrations and may increase in magnitude almost a thousand-fold in response to an infection or inflammation. (
  • Cytokines/Inflammation? (
  • Cytokines -- the architects of your body's inflammation response -- are heavily influenced by the food in your diet. (
  • The cytokines derived from processes in your body that metabolize omega-6 fats are more likely to promote inflammation. (
  • Cytokines and their receptors participate in a diverse array of functions beyond innate and adaptive immunity including inflammation, immune cell differentiation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, development, neurobiology, and viral pathogenesis. (
  • Diana Gitig, Ars Technica , "Testosterone may protect men from autoimmune diseases," 2 Feb. 2018 Now Like a contagion, senescent cells seem to pass on their accelerated aging abilities to healthy cells by releasing a number of factors, including inflammation-producing cytokines that can cause tissues like muscle to deteriorate. (
  • Interleukins (ILs) are biologically active mediators of inflammation and immune response that belong to cytokine family. (
  • What is the Relationship Between Cytokines and Inflammation? (
  • The relationship between cytokines and inflammation is a complex one, but there are a few key factors to be aware of, because cytokines are always present with inflammation. (
  • There are many types of cytokine , but the ones that are involved with inflammation interact with the immune system . (
  • In the case of inflammation, certain cytokines trigger responses to fight infection or injury. (
  • The types of cytokines involved in the relationship between cytokines and inflammation are numerous. (
  • Cytokines essentially help keep the balance of the body in regards to inflammation. (
  • TNF-Alpha is a cytokine that is active during the acute phase of inflammation and induces inflammation. (
  • The relationship between cytokines and inflammation is also apparent in the treatment of inflammation. (
  • In cases of chronic inflammation, which can cause long term damage, the medications used are often ones that inhibit cytokine production or function. (
  • Overproduction of certain cytokines can lead to disease often involving inflammation, once again showing the interdependence of cytokines and inflammation. (
  • Angelika Daser and colleagues at the Rudolf Virchow University in Berlin highlight the function of another group of genes, which are responsible for making products known as cytokines, which play an important role in promoting or suppressing inflammation, in response to immunological disease ( Cytokine , Vol 8, No 8). (
  • These functions include releasing one or more cytokines that induce proliferation, modulate inflammation, mediate cytolysis of other cells, and inhibit viral replication ( 1 ). (
  • Often characterized as "alarmins" that are released by the barrier epithelium in response to external insults, these epithelial cell-derived cytokines were initially thought to act only early in allergic inflammation. (
  • Cytokines are small, hormone-like, class of small proteins/signaling peptides generated de novo by cells and besides their critical role in the regulation of inflammation/immunity, they are now well known for their ability to modulate cellular activities such as growth, survival and differentiation. (
  • The aberrant immune response found in IBD is prompted by different cytokines - small signaling proteins secreted by various cells, including immune cells - that activate the immune system, causing chronic inflammation. (
  • Immunophyseology-The Role of Cells and Cytokines in Immunity and Inflammation:167 (1990). (
  • Cytokine storms are a common complication of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection triggering viral sepsis, where viral replication and excessive, uncontrolled systemic inflammation may lead to pneumonitis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure, shock, multiple organ failure, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and potentially death. (
  • However, the cytokine changes observed are likely to more indicative of immune activation and inflammation, rather than specific for CFS. (
  • One of the mediators of inflammation in the body are proteins called cytokines . (
  • Ultimately, this spiral, called a cytokine storm, can directly damage organs and cause such severe whole body inflammation that vital organs like the lungs, heart, and kidneys begin to fail. (
  • A cytokine-mediated link between innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. (
  • Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of the role of inflammation-induced cytokines in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. (
  • Signal transduction pathways and major biological responses of inflammation-modulating cytokines in cancer. (
  • Stahl N, Farruggella TJ, Boulton TG, Zhong Z, Darnell JJE, Yancopoulos GD: Choice of STATS and other substrates specified by modular tyrosinebased motifs in cytokine receptors. (
  • Cytokines are small proteins produced by cells, and mediate between other cells for normal functioning by reacting with certain cell receptors. (
  • Various cytokines act via binding to their respective membrane receptors, which then activate second messengers for altering the target gene expression. (
  • some viruses subvert the immune response by producing homologs of mammalian cytokines or their receptors. (
  • Randox offer testing solutions for a comprehensive range of cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors designed to assist with COVID-19 risk stratification, monitoring of treatment efficacy and recovery. (
  • Cytokine receptors are receptors that bind to cytokines. (
  • In recent years, the cytokine receptors have come to demand the attention of more investigators than cytokines themselves, partly because of their remarkable characteristics, and partly because a deficiency of cytokine receptors has now been directly linked to certain debilitating immunodeficiency states. (
  • In this regard, and also because the redundancy and pleiotropy of cytokines are a consequence of their homologous receptors, many authorities are now of the opinion that a classification of cytokine receptors would be more clinically and experimentally useful. (
  • A classification of cytokine receptors based on their three-dimensional structure has been attempted. (
  • Type I cytokine receptors, whose members have certain conserved motifs in their extracellular amino-acid domain. (
  • Type II cytokine receptors, whose members are receptors mainly for interferons. (
  • Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, which are ubiquitously present throughout several cells and tissues of the vertebrate body Tumor necrosis factor receptor family, whose members share a cysteine-rich common extracellular binding domain, and includes several other non-cytokine ligands like receptors, CD40, CD27 and CD30, besides the ligands on which the family is named (TNF). (
  • Includes the TGF beta receptors Cytokine receptors may be both membrane-bound and soluble. (
  • Soluble cytokine receptors are extremely common regulators of cytokine function. (
  • Soluble cytokine receptors typically consist of the extracellular portions of membrane-bound receptors. (
  • T cell cytokines - Interferon (IFN)-gamma was the initial target of cytokine research in RA. (
  • It is the official journal of the International Cytokine & Interferon Society. (
  • Although the term cytokine had not yet even been defined, interferon-α, the first cytokine known, was identified in 1957 as a protein that interfered with virus replication. (
  • The cytokines are a large family of molecules that are classified in various different ways due to an absence of a unified classification system. (
  • There is debate among experts over whether certain molecules should be called hormones or cytokines. (
  • Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. (
  • Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. (
  • The resulting "cytokine storm" releases a swarm of molecules that attack the patient's lungs and other organs, leading to deadly acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury. (
  • Essentially, cytokines are not limited to their immunomodulatory status as molecules. (
  • It is now used largely for designation of newer cytokine molecules and bears little relation to their presumed function. (
  • Cytokines are molecules (hormones) produced by cells following an antigenic stimulation or an activation by other factors. (
  • The inference is that cytokines and their associated molecules are likely to play a role, not just as passive responders, but as ameliorating agents of the basic genetic conditions that predispose immunological disease. (
  • Normal cells of multicellular organisms are constantly signaling to one another via molecules called growth factors and cytokines. (
  • These regulatory molecules are known as cytokines. (
  • Cytokines are soluble messenger molecules that mediate the interplay between innate and adaptive immune system 1 . (
  • Previous studies with infectious disease in mice have shown that high levels of cytokines, small signalling molecules unique to the immune system, can prevent the formation of these helper T cells and therefore of germinal centers. (
  • This review, however, will present evidence that non-infectious stimuli can induce cytokine secretion from leukocytes and other cells (including muscle cells) following myocellular injury. (
  • It has been postulated that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within coding and promoter sequences of cytokine genes could affect their secretion pattern (10,11). (
  • Here, we used serial, time-dependent, single-cell analysis of primary human T cells to resolve the temporal dynamics of cytokine secretion from individual cells after activation ex vivo. (
  • That is, cells predominantly release one of these cytokines at a time rather than maintain active secretion of multiple cytokines simultaneously. (
  • A ) T effector cells respond to MHC/peptide on antigen presenting cells (APC) and, in the context of IL-6-, IL-23-, and IL-21-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation, transcribe RORC to drive Th17 and Tc17 differentiation with secretion of IL-17 and related cytokines. (
  • 8 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • 19 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • This led to his proposal of the term cytokine. (
  • In 1974, Cohen and colleagues reported production of macrophage migration inhibitory factors in virus-infected fibroblasts, which led (finally) to proposal of the term cytokine. (
  • The goal of this study was to verify that transdermal administration of nico-tine downregulates proinflammatory cytokine release after burn trauma. (
  • However, it emerged that interleukins did not only target leukocytes and the term is now mainly used to name and number new cytokines as they are discovered. (
  • Over the past three decades, a large body of work has been directed at the development of therapeutic cytokines. (
  • One of the major challenges associated with the therapeutic use of cytokines relates to their short serum half-life and low bioavailability. (
  • Vazquez-Lombardi R, Roome B, Christ D. Molecular Engineering of Therapeutic Cytokines. (
  • If SBI-101 can calm the hyperinflammatory cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19, its therapeutic impact could be significant. (
  • Cytokines in human health: immunotoxicology, pathology, and therapeutic applications. (
  • The good news is that "we now have a variety of therapeutic options to treat cytokine storm syndrome," Cron said. (
  • G2- 31 HIV-1+ individuals undergoing HAART without virological therapeutic failure (TF), G3- 43 HIV-1+ individuals undergoing HAART with TF, and GC- 20 normal individuals who served as controls for serum cytokines. (
  • If the primary cell from which they are derived is a monocyte, for example, the cytokine is termed a monokine, while those derived from lymphocytes are called lymphokines. (
  • The subject of the present invention is defective recombinant adenoviruses, characterized in that they contain a defective, non-replicable adenovirus genome into which one or more nucleic acid sequences coding for one more cytokines, in particular lymphokines, are inserted under the control of one or more promoters capable of being recognised by the polymerases of human cells, more especially of human tumor cells or of cells infiltrating these tumors. (
  • Experts said cases of cytokine storm and long Covid are behind this and have advised self-monitoring for three months after being discharged from the hospital. (
  • Also reported, although less common, are cases of cytokine storm syndrome in patients with rare metabolic disorders and in patients who go on heart-lung bypass machines such as ECMO. (
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (
  • The company is marketing the drug as a replacement to Roche's tocilizumab (originally approved for rheumatoid arthritis) that is currently in off-label use among Covid-19 patients who suffer from cytokine release syndrome (CRS). (
  • Cytokines are important regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune response. (
  • Dr Kraig and his colleagues use the Bio-Plex® suspension array system to explore innate cytokine signaling activity in the brain, focusing on downstream gene activation and protein transcription and how the resulting phenotypes affect neural activity. (
  • NK cells also produce cytokines such as IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) to protect the host during the innate response to infection. (
  • NK cells are innate lymphocytes capable of recognizing and killing target cells and producing immunoregulatory cytokines, especially IFN-γ ( 4 ). (
  • Important components in this linkage are the cytokines produced by activated innate immune cells that stimulate tumor growth and progression. (
  • A body of clinical evidence is emerging that two different approaches to immune-stimulating cytokine therapies could increase efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in both hot and cold tumors. (
  • But COVID-19 has now dialed up global attention on cytokine storms-and any effective therapies that could treat the sometimes deadly coronavirus-induced condition. (
  • Go to our Antibodies to Growth Factors & Cytokines . (
  • This Review provides an overview of TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 and the development of blocking antibodies that target these epithelial cell-derived cytokines. (
  • In contrast, some cytokines (such as IL-6) circulate in picomolar (10 -12 M) concentrations that can increase up to 1,000 times during trauma or infection. (
  • Thereafter, cell-free plasma/RPMI samples were obtained by centrifugation and stored at -70oC until assessment of cytokine concentrations by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). (
  • The types and concentrations of cytokines in the extracellular milieu, and percentages of cells producing them, are known to shift globally over time ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • IFN-y, IL-2, TNF-, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine concentrations were determined from cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), while IL-4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • Great product for wide range of cytokines detection at nano or picogram levels. (
  • It will explain how the study of genomics is being applied to discover genes that express cytokines and identify cytokine inhibitors and regulatory pathways. (
  • Cytokines and signaling pathways associated with the effector populations of cGVHD. (
  • IL-32 activates typical cytokine signal pathways of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. (
  • Pegilodecakin is a long-acting, pegylated form of recombinant IL-10 that stimulates a different population of cancer-fighting immune cells than are stimulated by cytokines that signal through the IL-2 intermediate-affinity receptor. (
  • Most cytokines are secreted by immune cells in response to infection, although other types of cells can also produce them 1 . (
  • CRS happens when there is a large release of messenger proteins (cytokines) from immune cells that have been activated by immunotherapy treatment. (
  • The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. (
  • Oncologists who spoke to BioCentury said, taken together, data presented for Nektar Therapeutics' NKTR-214 at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting and data published on NantWorks LLC's N-803 suggest that cytokines that signal through a common heterodimeric receptor can increase responses to PD-1 inhibitors beyond what would be expected from the inhibitors alone. (
  • However, much more needs to be learned regarding the role of classical and novel cytokine/receptor pairs in mediating intestinal immune responses and intestinal tumorigenesis. (
  • These work by blocking the receptor sites on cells that bind to a specific cytokine. (
  • Recent identification of memory Th2 cell subsets that are characterized by high receptor expression for TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 further supports a role for these cytokines in allergic exacerbations. (
  • The IL-2 receptor belongs to this chain, whose γ-chain (common to several other cytokines) deficiency is directly responsible for the x-linked form of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (X-SCID). (
  • An IL-18 unresponsive cell was converted to a responsive cell by transfection of the IL-18 receptor beta chain, and IL-18-induced microarray revealed high expression of a cytokine-like gene. (
  • Similarly, high circulating levels of some cytokines seem to be favourable (soluble IL-2R) while others are unfavourable (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, gp130) prognostic indicators. (
  • BOSTON - Shiv Pillai, MD, PhD, investigator in the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard and professor at Harvard Medical School (HMS), recently published a paper in Cell showing that high levels of some cytokines seen in COVID-19 patients, as part of a cytokine storm, may prevent the development of long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Another factor that contributes to the difficulty in distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that cytokines can exert systemic as well as local effects. (
  • The Human Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 important cytokine genes. (
  • Genes that code for cytokines are highly polymorphic, and some of these polymorphisms directly or indirectly influence cytokine expression. (
  • SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with common diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, allergy, and asthma, and data are now accumulating on their role in occupational/environmental diseases. (
  • Intriguingly, they suggest that a crucial role may be played by regions of cytokine genes, known as control regions, which determine the circumstances under which a gene might act. (
  • What might be the benefit of having two different cytokine genes? (
  • Mutations in the genes responsible for "any one of the 10-plus proteins that get perforin to do what it does" are linked to a higher risk of cytokine storm syndrome, Cron said. (
  • It has been detected that, mutations of some viral genes (NS1, PB2, HA and NA) are responsible for the cytokine storm, by increasing the viral replication rate, expending the tissue tropism, facilitating the systemic invasion and emerging of resistance against the host antiviral response. (
  • Although IL-32 does not share sequence homology with known cytokine families, IL-32 induces various cytokines, human TNFalpha, and IL-8 in THP-1 monocytic cells as well as mouse TNFalpha and MIP-2 in Raw macrophage cells. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytokine and chemokine research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • Major emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary significance of cytokines and growth factors in areas as diverse as signal transduction , cell growth and differentiation , embryonic development , immunology , tumorigenesis and clinical medicine . (
  • Cytokine is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of cytokines as they relate to multiple disciplines, including molecular biology, immunology, and genetics. (
  • 10 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is a lymphokine. (
  • 20 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is a lymphokine. (
  • The results of the study showed that up-regulation of certain cytokines (specifically Th1, Th2 and Treg) involved in the growth and proliferation of various cells integral to the immune system, predicted which individuals go on to develop RA. (
  • Even sepsis patients will get cytokine storm syndrome on top of the sepsis, and if you don't treat the cytokine storm syndrome, even if you treat the infection causing the sepsis, they may still die. (
  • The over stimulation of these cytokines in response to infection is referred to as a 'cytokine storm' and strongly correlates with poor disease outcomes. (
  • In this review article, the immunopathogenesis of influenza infection and the mechanisms of cytokine storm caused by influenza A/H5N1 viruses have been discussed under the light of recent literature. (
  • Chan says the goal of this "Brita filter for your blood," as some call it, is to reduce the level of cytokines to a level where it no longer hurts the body-but still allows the body to fight the infection. (
  • Upon pathogen infection, both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced by activated myeloid cells. (
  • So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (
  • Cytokines are cells in your body that regulate immunity. (
  • The field of cytokines and their role in intestinal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last two decades. (
  • There is strong evidence that cytokines play a critical role during intestinal immunity, and their role as mediators of intestinal immune responses to infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, and fungi has been demonstrated. (
  • Both Review and Original Research articles are welcome for submission to this Research Topic in order to further expand our understanding of the roles of cytokines in intestinal mucosal immunity. (
  • As in the periphery, both the activated resident cells and the infiltrating cells express, release, and/or respond to pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines, which function in the CNS as both regulators of immunity and modulators of neuronal and glial function. (
  • The epithelial cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25 are central regulators of type 2 immunity, which drives a broad array of allergic responses. (
  • In general, T cell-derived factors are not as prominent as macrophage and fibroblast cytokines in the rheumatoid joint. (
  • Major general topics include cytokine network and regulation, lymphocyte differentiation and function, dendritic cell and macrophage activation, as well as the role of non-immunological effector cells in health/disease like smooth muscle cells, goblet cells, activated by IL-4 and IL13. (
  • A cytokine storm - aka cytokine release syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis - is the result of an immune system gone wild. (
  • The most current terminology used to describe cytokines is 'immunomodulating agents' or agents that modulate or alter the immune system response. (
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (
  • Therefore, resolving when activated T cells initiate the release of cytokines, and how their responses evolve in time, should provide fundamental insight into how individual cells dynamically modulate intercellular signals to affect population-level responses toward pathological conditions or clinical interventions. (
  • Synthesis and release of cytokines from leukocytes in response to microbial stimuli are well known. (
  • The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. (
  • To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of cytokines. (
  • One area of particular interest is the relationship between cytokines and the gut microbiome and how the cross-talk between these two important components of the intestinal mucosal immune system affects the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium and of the gut micro-environment. (
  • However, these family descriptions are no longer accurate because some growth factors and hormones exhibit cellular effects very similar to cytokine family members. (
  • Successful repair of damaged skin, and collagen synthesis, have been shown to require the involvement of growth factors and cytokines . (
  • View our entire offering of Growth Factors & Cytokines . (
  • The signals released by growth factors and cytokines can tell individual cells whether to divide or not. (
  • Utilising patented Biochip technology up to 12 cytokines and growth factors may be detected simultaneously from a single patient sample. (
  • The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. (
  • Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. (
  • Laura Haynes, Newsweek , "Here's How The Flu Attacks Your Body-And Why It's So Painful," 17 Feb. 2018 Aside from their tuft, these cells are known for making IL-25, a cytokine that coordinates the immune response to tapeworms and other parasites. (
  • Felton, California, 2018-Feb-19 - /EPR Network/ - Global cytokines market is segmented on the basis of type, application, and geography. (
  • We are particularly interested in conversations involving cytokines such as IL-6, interferons, TRAIL and Fas. (
  • The present invention relates to a novel cytokine that stimulates the function of cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and to processes for obtaining the factor and producing it by recombinant genetic engineering techniques. (
  • The production of multiple cytokines by T cells has been associated with productive immune responses to infectious diseases ( 5 - 7 ) and to vaccines ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • It has not been possible, however, to determine whether cells release multiple cytokines simultaneously, or sequentially, in time because techniques such as intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and multiparametric ELISpot provide only integrative, endpoint measures ( 15 - 18 ). (
  • Charles A. Dinarello, MD, from the University of Colorado, recently expressed human IL-37 in lab mice, which do not have an orthologue, or similar molecule, for this particular cytokine. (
  • Calibration curves from recombinant cytokine standards were prepared with threefold dilution steps in the same matrix as the samples. (
  • Calibration curves from recombinant cytokine standards were prepared with fivefold dilution steps in supplied diluent. (
  • Turning back the " storm " of cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients may seem like the opposite of what doctors should be doing. (
  • Cross-sectional study to assess the behavior of Beta-2 microglobulin and serum cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 as indicators of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure. (
  • Demographic, clinical and HAART data were reviewed, and Beta-2 microglobulin, serum cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10), HIV-1 genotyping, plasma viral load and CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes tests were performed. (
  • 20 normal individuals who served as controls for serum cytokines. (