Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.
A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/33104)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (2/33104)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (3/33104)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (4/33104)

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (5/33104)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (6/33104)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (7/33104)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (8/33104)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

The systemic cytokine response to major surgical trauma was studied in 20 patients undergoing elective aortic surgery and five patients after inguinal hernia repair. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were not detected in these patients. An early and short-lived interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) response to major surgery was detected only by intensive sampling in the perioperative period. The IL-1 beta peak preceded a more marked interleukin 6 (IL-6) response that peaked 4-48 h after surgery. IL-6 levels had fallen sharply by 48-72 h in all patients who had an uneventful postoperative course. The IL-6 peaks were significantly lower after hernia surgery than after major aortic operations (P | 0.001); IL-1 beta was not detected in any samples. Three patients undergoing aortic surgery developed unexpected major postoperative complications. IL-6 levels in this group were significantly higher than those of the other patients undergoing aortic surgery within 6-8 h of skin incision, and remained
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PMN are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with intestinal inflammation and can be downregulated by IL-10.PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather reflects intestinal inflammation in general. IL-10 markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokine secretion as well as corresponding mRNA concentrations.Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN.To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10.Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel ...
BACKGROUND Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) are the most abundant cell type in intestinal lesions in IBD. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important contra-inflammatory cytokine which induces downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. AIMS To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10. METHODS Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN. RESULTS PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather
Ashraf, R, Vasiljevic, T, Day, SL, Smith, SC and Donkor, ON 2014, Lactic acid bacteria and probiotic organisms induce different cytokine profile and regulatory T cells mechanisms, Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 6, pp. 395-409, doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.11.006. ...
Diabetes has been identified as an important risk factor for infection. But relatively little is known about how diabetes alters the inflammatory response to bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate how diabetes affects host-bacteria interactions by focusing on the inflammatory respo … is the marketplace for research antibodies.Multiplex Cytokine Assays Find the right antibody for your research needs.
Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelium derived interleukin (IL)-15 signalling via IL-15Ralpha is critical for the development, activation, and survival of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). We aimed to better understand the IL-15 driven effects on IEL underlying mucosal damage and lymphomagenesis in coeliac disease (CD). METHODS: Enterocytes, IEL, and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated from 46 patients with uncomplicated CD (25 untreated and 21 treated) and 22 controls. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha expression were determined by immunoblotting. Secretion of IL-15, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granzyme B into cell culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. The ability of IL-15 to regulate IEL proliferation, perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis was tested by adding different combinations of IL-15, IL-15 blocking antibody, or chloroquine to IEL cultured alone or with Caco-2 cells as target. IL-15 mucosal levels were also ...
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Simultaneous quantification of cytokines is a powerful tool to identify associations between host immune defense and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. None of the commercially available cytokine detection methods however, have been rigorously validated in the context of HIV infection. Here we compared performance characteristics of two multiplex assays: the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform and the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) in specimens obtained from HIV-infected subjects. Overall, the MSD had a wider dynamic range and lower limits of quantification which lead to the ability to detect endogenous levels of serum cytokines that were assumed to not be present by CBA. In recombinant cytokine-spiked sera, MSD had better precision and accuracy based on intra-assay variability less than 25% and percent recovery within 25% of added concentrations. Regardless of the quantitation range, we observed variability between the analytes in both platforms with respect to the capacity to ...
Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins representing important components of inflammatory and immune reactions (1). In response to multiple stimuli (2), cytokines are rapidly induced and secreted into the extracellular milieu. However, in some situations, cytokines are constitutively present. Cytokines exert numerous biological activities which are critical for host defense, physiologic responses to stress, and immune surveillance. Cytokines, along with complement, are considered to be part of the innate immune system. The world of cytokine biology has exploded in the past decades. It can be said without hyperbole that cytokines are critical from birth (gestation) (3) to death (apoptosis) (4).
Breast cancer is the most prevalent solid tumor worldwide, being the second most common cause of death in women. Treatments recommended for breast cancer include both loc..
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Variable clinical response to cytokine targeted therapies as TNFalpha and IL-6, strongly highlights the heterogeneity of inflammatory process in RA. Another cytokine, IL-15 has also been related to the inflammatory process in RA. Recently we described for the first time, the presence of its specific receptor, IL-15Ralpha, in synovial fluid (SF). The aim of this work was to compare the expression profile of IL-15Ralpha, its ligand IL-15, TNFalpha and IL-6 and how these cytokines are correlated in SF from RA patients taking as a reference Osteoarthritis (OA), an articular but not autoinmmune disease. Synovial fluids were obtained from the knee joints of 60 patients, 30 with confirmed diagnosis of RA and 30 with OA diagnosis. The levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha were measured by ELISA. A statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism v5.0 using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearmans
Nrf2 activation has been shown to contribute to anti-inflammatory responses in rodent models of inflammation (Itoh et al. 2004, Khor et al. 2006, Thimmulappa et al. 2006, Lin et al. 2008, Kobayashi et al. 2016), including autoimmune inflammatory models (Wruck et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2014). In this study, we demonstrated that genetic activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway prevented the development and progression of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. We also showed that suppression of insulitis was the primary mechanism underlying this protective action of Nrf2 in NOD mice. Since Nrf2 upregulates a battery of anti-oxidative genes in a canonical manner, suppressing reactive oxygen species levels was considered initially to be the key molecular mechanism underlying the Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. However, recent studies have shown that Nrf2 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene expression directly and prevents cytokine storms. In fact, we found that the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway also contributed ...
Cellular activation and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a single cell label-free multi parameter optical interrogation system can detect endothelial cell and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) activation in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before endothelial activation was validated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of inflammatory marker expression (PECAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1). A centrifugal microfluidic system and V-cup array was used to capture individual cells before optical measurement of light scattering, immunocytofluorescence, auto-fluorescence (AF) and cell morphology was determined. In vitro, TNF-alpha promoted specific changes to the refractive index and cell morphology of individual cells concomitant with enhanced photon ...
Cytokines expression levels from tissue, plasma or serum as promising clinical biomarkers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A systematic review of recent findings
NovoPro offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.. Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. For example, cytokines made by lymphocytes can also be referred to as lymphokines, while interleukins are made by one leukocyte and act on other leukocytes. And chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.. Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine ...
Materials and Methods:. Twenty-four participants recruited between May 2016 and June 2017 met GDD diagnostic criteria. The 64 control subjects provided serum samples before prophylactic flu vaccination. Serum cytokine levels were obtained with Luminex serum cytokine assay using eBiosciences/Affymetrix human 62-plex kits. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to assess the difference between the median fluorescence intensity values for the participants and the control group. Generalized linear models were built to evaluate the association between each cytokine of interest and selected participant symptoms. ...
Health Canada has approved golimumab IV for the treatment of adult patients with RA. Golimumab IV works by blocking the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that causes the bodys immune system to attack healthy tissues. Golimumab IV, when taken in combination with methotrexate, help improve your ability to do simple daily activities and prevent further damage to your bones and joints, but can also reduce your immune systems ability to fight off infections ...
Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKRs in ART patients. A prospective non-placebo control trial of antioxidant treatment for abnormal peripheral inflammatory cytokine ratios was performed. CKRs were assessed using flow cytometry in stimulated versus unstimulated whole blood samples in 337 IVF patients presenting with a previous history of poor outcome (RM or implantation failure). CKRs were found to be elevated in 150/337. 70/150 patients in this elevated group agreed to a 10 week regime of Omega 3, vitamin
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are believed to play an important role in suppressing autoimmunity and maintaining peripheral tolerance. How their survival is regulated in the periphery is less clear. Here we show that Treg cells express receptors for gamma chain cytokines and are dependent on an exogenous supply of these cytokines to overcome cytokine withdrawal apoptosis in vitro. This result was validated in vivo by the accumulation of Treg cells in Bim-/- and Bcl-2 tg mice which have arrested cytokine deprivation apoptosis. We also found that CD25 and Foxp3 expression were down-regulated in the absence of these cytokines. CD25+ cells from Scurfy mice do not depend on cytokines for survival demonstrating that Foxp3 increases their dependence on cytokines by suppressing cytokine production in Treg cells. Our study reveals that the survival of Treg cells is strictly dependent on cytokines and cytokine producing cells because they do not produce cytokines. Our study thus, demonstrates that
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
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A cytokine signature found in certain kinds of breast cancer cells can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
Cytokines are protein mediators involved in inflammation, the immune response, cell growth, repair and fibrosis. All of these processes are ongoing in active autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and so it would be expected that many cytokines would be actively produced in RA joints or Graves disease (GD) thyroid glands. The cDNA cloning of cytokines has permitted the generation of pure recombinant molecules, and of newer more sensitive assays, and spurred the rapid development of knowledge in this field. Here we review the molecular strategies devised to study the possible role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA and GD, and describe some of the initial results. After cataloguing the relative abundance of various cytokines, we sought to discover which cytokines are of major importance in pathogenesis. For that purpose we used neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies and found that TNF alpha is one of the major signals regulating the production of IL-1 in the RA but not in the
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
The role of JAK-3 in TLR-mediated innate immune responses is poorly understood, although the suppressive function of JAK3 inhibition in adaptive immune response has been well studied. In this study, we found that JAK3 inhibition enhanced TLR-mediated immune responses by differentially regulating pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine production in innate immune cells. Specifically, JAK3 inhibition by pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNA or JAK3 gene knockout resulted in an increase in TLR-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines while concurrently decreasing the production of IL-10. Inhibition of JAK3 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K downstream effectors including Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and CREB. Constitutive activation of Akt or inhibition of GSK3β abrogated the capability of JAK3 inhibition to enhance proinflammatory cytokines and suppress IL-10 production. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K enhanced ...
Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. Precise treatment strategies are focused on restoring the immune balance, not eliminating the natural process necessary for getting rid of infection. This requires clinicians to be able to rapidly measure therapeutic targets, such as serum cytokines (small inflammatory proteins), to guide therapy and determine its effectiveness. However, no FDA-approved devices exist to do this, so the measurements are currently not performed.. The University of Michigan has developed the MicroKine Assay Device, a platform that utilizes a microfluidic chip and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) technology to rapidly and simultaneously measure serum cytokine concentrations in a small sample of blood and provide simultaneous analysis of multiple cytokines.. The next step is to design and develop an automated reader for the MicroKine Assay Device. The goal is to produce a reader that can rapidly detect serum cytokines in less than 30 ...
Buy Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Inflammatory) and other ELISA Kits for multiplex human cytokines. Anogen supplies ELISA Kits and Antibodies around the globe.
Cytokine-driven inflammation and tissue destruction is a common theme of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerosis. Research over the last two decades demonstrated the importance of cytokines that are not only expressed chronically but also are capable of signaling at sites of chronic inflammation. Cytokines thus regulate major pathological processes that include inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and fibrosis. This research led to the identification of key cytokines involved in these processes, two of which, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, have also been successfully targeted in the clinic. However, what triggers and maintains cytokine gene expression in chronic inflammation remains a mystery. In this article, we review current progress in the understanding of cytokine-driven inflammation and discuss current evidence implicating Toll-like receptors
BackgroundHIV specific T cells are putatively anergic in vivo. IL-2, a member of a class of cytokines that binds to receptors containing the common gamma chain (γc) has been shown to reverse anergy. We examined the role of γc cytokines in reversing HIV specific T cell anergy.MethodsPBMC from untreated HIV-infected individuals were briefly exposed to a panel of γc cytokines, and frequencies of gag specific T cells were enumerated by intracellular IFN-γ flow cytometry.ResultsOf the γc cytokines, brief exposure to IL-2, IL-15, or combined IL-15/IL-7 significantly enhanced (range 2-7 fold) the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to HIV gag, with IL-15 giving the greatest enhancement. The effects of cytokines were not due to enhanced proliferation of pre-existing antigen specific cells, but were due to a combination of enhanced cytokine production from antigen specific T cells plus activation of non-epitope specific T cells.ConclusionsThese observations support the notion that a significant number of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive serum cytokine analysis identifies IL-1RA and soluble IL-2Rα as predictors of event-free survival in T-cell lymphoma. AU - Gupta, Mamta. AU - Stenson, M.. AU - OByrne, M.. AU - Maurer, M. J.. AU - Habermann, T.. AU - Cerhan, J. R.. AU - Weiner, G. W.. AU - Witzig, T. E.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Background: T-cell malignancies are heterogeneous in their clinical presentation and pathology, and have a poor prognosis. New biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis and to provide insights into signal pathways used by these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate pretreatment serum cytokines in patients with newly diagnosed T-cell neoplasms and correlate with clinical outcome. Patients and methods: We evaluated 30 cytokines in pretreatment serum from 68 untreated patients and 14 normal controls. Significantly elevated cytokines were correlated with patterns of abnormalities, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Our data ...
DCs are very efficient professional APCs [3]. They play a unique role in initiating immunity through the activation of naïve T cells and support local immune responses by the attraction, accumulation and activation of both CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. During maturation, DCs undergo changes in phenotype, expressing long dendrites with an upregulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules. At the same time, DCs switch from an antigen-capturing cell into an APC that can activate antigen-specific T cells. Cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, combined with IL-4, are known to contribute to DC maturation [7]. Indeed, these cytokines are used in sequential combination to obtain ex vivo mature functional DCs from blood monocytes. Out of this list of cytokines, only IL-4 is considered not to be produced by RA synovitis [8].. Two main types of DCs that mediate distinct biological outcomes are distinguished by their lineage ...
TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsTSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsAA00892882 ...
Flow cytometry in combination with microspheres (beads) in a suspension have gained increasing interest by the research community
T cells play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Costimulation of T cells is necessary to fully activate them. An inducible costimulator (ICOS) of T cells is predominantly expressed on Th2 cells. Therefore, interference of signaling pathways precipitated by ICOS may present new therapeutic options for Th2 dominated diseases such as asthma. However, these signaling pathways are poorly characterized in vitro and in vivo. Human primary CD4+ T cells from blood were activated by beads with defined combinations of surface receptor stimulating antibodies and costimulatory receptor ligands. Real-time RT-PCR was used for measuring the production of cytokines from activated T cells. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways leading to cytokine synthesis were investigated by western blot analysis and by specific inhibitors. The effect of inhibitors in vivo was tested in a murine asthma model of late phase eosinophilia. Lung inflammation was assessed by differential cell
Inflammation has been linked to hair loss and to diet. A diet that produces systemic inflammation is more likely to exist with hair loss than do anti-inflammatory diets.. Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidant stress. The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release of other cytokines and also lead to increased oxidant stress makes them important in chronic inflammation. Toxic cytokines can be influenced by diet modifications.. Over production of pro-inflammatory hormone-like messengers (ex. prostaglandin E2 PGE2) and a lack of production of anti-inflammatory messengers (ex. prostaglandin E1 and E3) is a common cause of inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids seem to suppress the production of PGE2 and promote the production of the beneficial prostaglandin PGE3. Thus the recommendation is to reduce foods that are high in omega-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of foods high in omega-3. This will lead to more of the beneficial prostaglandins (E1 and E3) and less of the PGE2 ...
I den här avhandlingen behandlades monocyter och lymfocyter från friska personer med IL-2 och -4 i laboratorium för att inducera resistens mot glukokortikosteroider. Sedan stimulerades cytokinproduktionen med ett bakterieämne (endotoxin) och vi undersökte effekten av glukokortikosteroider på produktionen av olika cytokiner. I arbete I undersöktes först effekten av en vanligt använd glukokortikosteroid, budesonid, på produktionen av tre olika cytokiner från obehandlade monocyter. Produktionen av ett nyligen upptäckt cytokin, IL-12, visade sig mycket känslig för budesonid. I arbete nummer II fann vi att produktionen av GM-CSF blev resistent mot budesonid i monocyter och lymfocyter som hade behandlats med IL-2 och -4. Detta visade att IL-2 och IL-4 inducerade en funktionell resistens mot glukokortikosteroider. Vidare fann vi att effekten av två andra glukokortikosteroider med annorlunda kemisk struktur än budesonid också försämrades. Detta tyder på att IL-2 och -4 troligen ...
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in industrial nations. The basis of these diseases is a dysfunction in the interaction between the cells the heart is composed of. The main types of cells making up the human heart are cardiomyocytes that build the myocardium and provide the contraction properties, endothelial cells that delimit the blood flowing through the inner chambers and coronary arteries from the myocardial tissue, and fibroblasts, which build the connective tissue. A common process in the development of cardiovascular diseases is the formation of fibrosis due to injury of the endothelium and subsequent infiltration of the cardiac tissue by immune cells, and inflammatory agents like cytokines. Cytokines exert different functions in cardiac cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is an inducer of apoptosis. Transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) is known for activation of proliferation. Other cytokines like C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or ...
This study was designed to define the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitivity of aged mice in terms of lethality and cytokine production and to determine down-regulating responses of corticosterone and interleukin 10 (IL-10). The 50% lethal doses of LPS in young (6- to 7-week-old) and aged (98- to 102-week-old) mice were 601 and 93 microg per mouse (25.6 and 1.6 mg per kg of body weight), respectively. Aged mice were approximately 6.5-fold more sensitive to the lethal toxicity of LPS in micrograms per mouse (16-fold more sensitive in milligrams per kilogram) than young mice. Levels in sera of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) IL-1alpha, and IL-6 after intraperitoneal injection of 100 microg of LPS peaked at 1.5, 3, and 3 h, respectively, and declined thereafter in both groups of mice. However, the peak values of these cytokines were significantly higher in aged than in young mice (P , 0.05). Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detectable at 3 h, and sustained high levels were still detected ...
Results Stimulation of DC subsets from patients with early lSSc and dSSc with ligands for TLR2, TLR3 or TLR4 resulted in higher secretion of IL-6 and TNFα compared with those having late disease or healthy controls. Remarkably, the production of IL-12 was lower upon stimulation with TLR ligands in most patients with SSc, whereas the secretion of IL-10 was very high in patients with the dSSc phenotype, particularly in those having early dSSc. The combination of various TLR ligands led to reduced cytokine secretion in all patients with SSc. Circulating levels of these cytokines further underscored the presence of differences between various SSc phenotypes.. ...
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Proinflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are the typical proinflammatory cytokines.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at week 8 (P = .001). Plasma TNF-α ...
ProblemMaternal immunopathology in pre-eclampsia is well studied; however, less is known regarding the immunological effects on the newborns. Increased inflammation and activation of immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface in pre-eclampsia could influence the neonatal immune compartment. Method of StudyMonocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ResultsNeonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers had an inflammatory serum cytokine profile. While CB monocyte characteristics seemed unaffected, CB NK cells from pre-eclamptic pregnancies had higher NKp30, but borderline lower NKG2D expression. ConclusionIn utero inflammatory priming of neonatal innate immunity taking place in pre-eclamptic pregnancies might influence specific NK cell functions in newborns.. ...
Hamlet, S., Alfarsi, M., George, R. & Ivanovski, S., 2012, The effect of hydrophilic titanium surface modification on macrophage inflammatory cytokine gene expression, Clinical Oral Implants Research, 23(5), pp. 584-90. K Bokhari, MS Hameed, M Ajmal, RA Togoo Benign osteoblastoma involving maxilla: a case report and review of the literature Case reports in dentistry 2012 Haralur SB, Gana NS, Al-Dowah, et al. Quantitative evaluation on the ability of dental plaque adherence to commonly used provisional crowns. JIOH Sep-Dec2012,4(3).
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. TNF-alpha is mainly secreted by macrophages. TNF-alpha is involved in the regulat...
Thalidomide selectively inhibits the production of human monocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) when these cells are triggered with lipopolysaccharide and other agonists in culture. 40% inhibition occurs at the clinically achievable dose of the drug of 1 micrograms/ml. In contrast, the amount of total protein and individual proteins labeled with [35S]methionine and expressed on SDS-PAGE are not influenced. The amounts of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by monocytes remain unaltered. The selectivity of this drug may be useful in determining the role of TNF-alpha in vivo and modulating its toxic effects in a clinical setting. ...
In order to define whether CD4+ T cells from autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid tissue could be classified according to their mediator production, lymphokine production was studied in 63 thyroid-derived CD4+ T-cell clones from four patients with Graves disease, one with Hashimotos thyroiditis, and one with non-toxic goitre (9-12 clones per patient). The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lymphotoxin (LT), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was assessed at the mRNA level by slot-blot analysis in unstimulated clones as well as after activation with monoclonal anti-CD3 (OKT3) and IL-2. No lymphokine production was found in unstimulated clones, whereas 56% of the clones produced all six lymphokines simultaneously after stimulation. In the remaining 44% usually not more than one lymphokine was missing from the complete panel. Lymphokine mRNA concentrations varied between different clones and
A B Millar, R F Miller, N M Foley, G A W Rook, S J G Semple; Tumour Necrosis Factor (Tnf Alpha) Production by Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Alveolar Macrophages from Patients with Hiv-Related Lung Disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1990; 78 (s22): 17P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Background and purpose: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to inhibit cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE2 has not been elucidated definitively. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently-developed EP receptor ligands. Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP2-selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP4-selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) antagonists on PGE2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. Key results: PGE2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplexed femtomolar quantitation of human cytokines in a fluoropolymer microcapillary film. AU - Castanheira, Ana P.. AU - Barbosa, Ana I.. AU - Edwards, Alexander D.. AU - Reis, Nuno M.. PY - 2015/8/21. Y1 - 2015/8/21. N2 - Sensitive quantitation of multiple cytokines can provide important diagnostic information during infection, inflammation and immunopathology. In this study sensitive immunoassay detection of human cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNFα is shown for singleplex and multiplex formats using a novel miniaturized ELISA platform. The platform uses a disposable plastic multi-syringe aspirator (MSA) integrating 8 disposable fluoropolymer microfluidic test strips, each containing an array of ten 200 μm mean i.d. microcapillaries coated with a set of monoclonal antibodies. Each MSA device thus performs 10 tests on 8 samples, delivering 80 measurements. Unprecedented levels of sensitivity were obtained with the novel fluoropolymer microfluidic material and simple ...
We describe here a monoclonal antibody (H398) that immunoprecipitates a human 60-kD tumor necrosis factor (TNF) membrane receptor (p60) and competes with TNF binding to p60 but not to p85 TNF receptors. Despite partial inhibition of TNF binding capacity of cells coexpressing both TNF receptor molecules, H398 uniformly and completely inhibits very distinct TNF responses on a variety of cell lines. These data suggest a limited structural heterogeneity in those components actually contributing to TNF responsiveness and identify p60 as a common receptor molecule essential for TNF signal transduction. As H398 is a highly effective TNF antagonist in vitro, it might be useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of TNF-mediated acute toxicity. ...
Detect 36 human cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins simultaneously with our Proteome Profiler Human Cytokine Array Kit.
Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha concentrations were minimal 30 and 120 min after intravenous injection and maximal 60 and 90 min after CAM injection. The relative ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. OX40 - Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been detected in tumor specimens and primary cell cultures from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. IL-1α has been reported to play an important role in inducing the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF during inflammation. We examined whether these cytokines are expressed together in five primary and seven established UM-SCC cell lines, and we also examined the effects of IL-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist or neutralizing antibody (Ab) upon expression of this repertoire of proinflammatory cytokines in established UM-SCC lines. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF was detected by ELISA in both the primary and established UM-SCC lines. Constitutive expression of specific mRNAs for these cytokines was confirmed in the UM-SCC lines by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Addition of recombinant IL ...
The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline) and long-acting (formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol) β-agonists before activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cytokine (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) generation. The experiments showed that short-acting β-agonists were poor inhibitors of cytokine generation. Of the long-acting β-agonists studied, formoterol was also a weak inhibitor of cytokine generation whereas only indacaterol and salmeterol showed moderate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. AU - Slifka, Mark K.. AU - Whitton, J. Lindsay. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cytokines are soluble proteins that are produced and secreted as part of the immune response to a variety of tissue insults including infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Most cytokines are secreted by cells of the immune system, but some (for example, type I interferons) are released from nonimmunological cells such as fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Cytokines have pleiotropic effects, acting on many somatic cell types to modulate the hosts immune response. For the most part, cytokines exert their antimicrobial actions locally - they are secreted by cells in the area of infection, and their effects are restricted to neighboring cells. While many of their local effects benefit the host, cytokines are soluble molecules that may act systemically and are often responsible for ...
EPO EIA Human Cytokines 021-SDX021 Erythropoietin Anemia,EPO EIA Human Cytokines 021-SDX021 Erythropoietin Anemia,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Purpose: The biochemical mechanisms for retinal capillary cell death in diabetes are not clear. In the diabetic retina of humans and rodents, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we have investigated the effect if pro-inflammatory cytokines on a small heat shock protein, Hsp27 in primary human retinal endothelial cells (HREC).. Methods: HREC were cultured in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon -γ (IFN-γ, 50 and 100 units/ml), interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 10 and 20 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 10 and 20 ng/ml) for 48 hrs and in the presence or absence of high glucose (25 mM, HG). The roles of the kynurenine pathway and NOS were determined by adding 20 μM 1-methyl tryptophan (MT) and 500 μM L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), respectively to the culture medium. The mRNA and protein levels of Hsp27 and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) were determined by PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4/CD8 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti-Cytokine antibodies of
We explored the function of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN-1) in the colon using the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis. Colon mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) constitutively produced IFN-1 in a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β-dependent manner. Transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells from wild-type (WT) or IFN-α/β receptor subunit 1 knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice into RAG(-/-) hosts resulted in similar onset and severity of colitis. In contrast, RAG(-/-) × IFNAR1(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice developed accelerated severe colitis compared with RAG(-/-) hosts when transferred with WT CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. IFNAR signaling on host hematopoietic cells was required to delay colitis development. MPs isolated from the colon lamina propria of IFNAR1(-/-) mice produced less IL-10, IL-1R antagonist, and IL-27 compared with WT MPs. Accelerated colitis development in DKO mice was characterized by early T cell proliferation and accumulation of CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells in the mesenteric
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may cause inflammatory responses, which can deteriorate the outcomes. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6,-8 and -10, can act as both the effector and the predictor for post-operative inflammatory responses. Plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was found as a pro-inflammatory agent recently, which was released when cells were insulted. In the present study, we included 38 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) to analyze their perioperative plasma mtDNA and levels of inflammatory cytokines. Blood samples were collected before aortic cross-clamping (T1), at the end of CPB (T2), 6 h post-CPB (T3), 12 h post-CPB (T4), and 24 h post-CPB (T5). Rt-PCR and specific ELISA kits were used to quantify the plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Bivariate correlations analysis was used to check the correlations between plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines respectively. Results shown that
RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine that includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. It is commonly treated with one of several available biological drugs that block an inflammatory molecule called Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha), but not everybody is helped by this treatment.. New research by a team of biomedical scientists at the University of California, Riverside, led by David Lo, M.D., Ph.D., now offers a valuable tip that could help make these drugs more effective.. TNF-alpha is a protein produced by the bodys cells. It signals other cells that then produce additional inflammatory factors. But Los lab discovered earlier this year that TNF-alpha also induces specialized immune surveillance cells, called M cells, which both promote inflammation and suppress it. In other words, TNF-alpha plays a role in the destruction and the healing of tissues - a double-edged sword.. M cells normally help the immune system ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were one of the first few cytokines to be discovered. The normative data for levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in particular and all other cytokines in general have not yet been established well. The normal levels for each of the cytokines vary from one race to another. Therefore, all studies need to be done in cases and controls belonging to the same race or same populations. The kits for cytokine assays are expensive and running the assays is laborious and time consuming. It is recommended that the serum/plasma samples are run in duplicates and triplicates to avoid error. Immunology and the field of cytokines is an area which has many domains unexplored. As yet, it is not clearly understood by what mechanisms and pathways each of the cytokines alter the levels of other cytokines. Exercise or physical activity is an intervention which can be administered easily and levels of cytokines measured before and after intervention in same ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines and expression of CD154. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated CD154+ CD4+ T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD154+ CD4+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti
To the Editor:. As testified to by the report of Dybdahl and colleagues,1 and the subsequent editorial by Pockley, 2 heat shock proteins (HSPs) are increasingly seen as important mediators in a number of cardiovascular disease states. The former work describes the release of HSP70 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as well as the liberation of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from murine and human mononuclear cells by HSP70 signaling through CD14 and toll-like receptor-4. It is tempting to conclude that the first observation is as a direct consequence of the latter, as the authors speculate, but there are alternative possibilities.. Endotoxaemia is a salient feature of CPB (thought consequent on the translocation of endotoxin across gut mucosa) and has long been associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine liberation in this context.3 Therefore endotoxaemia alone could explain the increase in IL-6 found in patients undergoing CPB. Furthermore, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplex analysis of enzyme kinetics and inhibition by droplet microfluidics using picoinjectors. AU - Sjostrom, Staffan L.. AU - Jönsson, Håkan. AU - Svahn, Helene Andersson. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Enzyme kinetics and inhibition is important for a wide range of disciplines including pharmacology, medicine and industrial bioprocess technology. We present a novel microdroplet-based device for extensive characterization of the reaction kinetics of enzyme substrate inhibitor systems in a single experiment utilizing an integrated droplet picoinjector for bioanalysis. This device enables the scanning of multiple fluorescently-barcoded inhibitor concentrations and substrate conditions in a single, highly time-resolved experiment yielding the Michaelis constant (Km), the turnover number (kcat) and the enzyme inhibitor dissociation constants (ki, ki′). Using this device we determine Km and kcat for β-galactosidase and the fluorogenic substrate Resorufin β-d-galactopyranoside ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA). Interleukin-1g (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL) CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception
Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-1 beta and TNT alpha, but Not IL-8, Cause Aberrant Lung Epithelial Wound Repair Via TGF-beta 1 Driven Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT ...
Cytokines also activate these immune cells, and stimulate them to produce more cytokines. This positive feedback loop will attract more T-cells and macrophages to join the fight. Usually, the body is able to keep the feedback loop in check so that a cytokine storm (which is energy-consuming and harms the body) doesnt occur.. Sometimes the body is unable to control the loop, for reasons we dont fully understand and we end up with a CS. Its speculated that a CS might be triggered when the immune system is attacked by a new and highly pathogenic invader. The cytokine storm results in systemic symptoms, such as liver dysfunction, acute renal failure, and shock. In the nervous system, it leads to brain injury through alteration of vessel wall permeability without vessel wall disruption. According to this hypothesis, ANE is an encephalopathy concomitant with systemic immune imbalance.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced caspase activation mediates endotoxin-related cardiac dysfunction. AU - Carlson, Deborah L.. AU - Willis, Monte. AU - White, D. Jean. AU - Norton, Jureta W.. AU - Giroir, Brett P.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Objective: Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is a serious clinical syndrome characterized by hypotension, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and elevated cardiac index. Although cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been shown to play a significant role early in this response, the downstream effects of TNF-α signaling on cardiac function, specifically its relationship to apoptosis, have not been fully elucidated. Design: Previous studies from our laboratory have identified endotoxin-induced apoptosis in cardiac cells in vitro. To further determine the role of lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in vivo, mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg), and cardiac apoptosis was detected and ...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, the immunologic model of which has been profoundly revised following recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In the current model, a crosstalk between keratinocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells. Among these key cytokines lie therapeutic targets for currently approved antipsoriatic therapies. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the immune-mediated mechanisms characterizing the current pathogenic model of
The mechanisms of wound healing in the gut are poorly understood but are mediated by cytokines in other tissues. In this study we wanted to determine which cytokines were expressed after nonspecific colonie injury, the kinetics of that expression, and how cytokine expression correlated with tissue histology. At 0,4, 8,12,24,48, and 72 h after intrarectal administration of 3% acetic acid to C3H/HeJ mice, their colons were removed for histology, organ culture, and RNA extraction. Cytokine mRNA expression for various cytokines was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for each cytokine. Cytokine production in organ cultures was measured with bioassays. Shortly after colonie injury and during colonie regeneration, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-lβ (IL-lβ), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were expressed. In contrast, expression of T cell-derived ...
Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man, are thought to be caused by an excessive and poorly controlled immune response that is directed against components of the normal microflora. The exact sequence of events by which this pathological process is triggered and maintained is not fully understood, but studies in experimental models of IBD and data emerging from recent clinical trials indicate that T cell-derived cytokines are crucial mediators of the tissue damage. Although CD and UC have been traditionally considered two typical examples of T helper (Th)1 or Th2-associated disease respectively, it is now known that CD- and UC-related inflammation is also marked by enhanced production of cytokines made by a distinct subset of Th cells, termed Th17 cells. Th17 cytokines can have both tissue-protective and inflammatory effects in the gut and there is evidence that Th17 cells can alter their cytokine program according to the stimuli
Rationale: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained syndrome for which no somatic or pharmacological treatment has been proven effective. Dysfunction of the cytokine network has been suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of CFS. Although derangements of the cytokine network in CFS are controversial, a major problem is that many studies did not use adequate controls. In addition, all studies have been performed on peripheral venous blood of the patients. As cytokines mainly act in the tissues, e.g., the brain, the information that can be derived from peripheral blood cells is limited. The only information regarding the possible role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of CFS could come from intervention studies in which pathogenetically important cytokines are inhibited. A potentially relevant cytokine which can be blocked in humans without severe side effects is IL-1. Although it is plausible that these cytokines play a role in CFS, there is limited evidence for ...
A cytokine storm is an over-protective immune response that can actually be fatal. Cytokine storms occur when the body sends too...
Vaccines do not cause cytokine storm, although some vaccine-preventable diseases do, and some vaccines are being tested to prevent COVID-19 induced cytokine storm.. ...
The role of cytokine storm in COVID-19 severity and useful laboratory testing for COVID-19 patients at risk for or experiencing a cytokine storm
This is a new term for me but apparently I missed the memo that had to do with a cytokine storm and the flu. Actually the cytokine storm has more to do with (...)
Many components of signal transduction pathways for growth factors or cytokines have been found to be modified by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers in various physiologic or pathologic settings, but only a few have the characteristics of KNUBs such as IκB kinase (IKK) in the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway (which is activated, among others, by the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β), β-catenin in the Wnt signaling cascade, and SMADs in the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway.. The transcription factor NF-κB mediates the expression of several genes involved in certain immune responses, inflammation, and apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin 1β lead to the activation of the IKK complex, which phosphorylates the inhibitor of NF-κB, IκB. In turn, this becomes polyubiquitylated by the ligase SCF-βTrCP, and is degraded in the proteasome. Consequently, NF-κB is released and translocates into ...
0077] 1. Boehm, U., T. Klamp, M. Groot, and J. C. Howard. 1997. Cellular responses to interferon-gamma. Annu Rev Immunol 15:749. [0078] 2. Doolan, D. L., and S. L. Hoffman. 1999. IL-12 and NK cells are required for antigen-specific adaptive immunity against malaria initiated by CD8.sup.+ T cells in the Plasmodium yoelii model J. Immunol. 163:884. [0079] 3. Good, M. F., and D. L. Doolan. 1999. Immune effector mechanisms in malaria. Curr Opin Immunol 11:412. [0080] 4. Sher, A., and R. L. Coffman. 1992. Regulation of immunity to parasites by T cells and T cell-derived cytokines. Annu Rev Immunol 10:385. [0081] 5. Jouanguy, E., R. Doffinger, S. Dupuis, A. Pallier, F. Altare, and J. L. Casanova. 1999. IL-12 and IFN-gamma in host defense against mycobacteria and salmonella in mice and men. Curr Opin Immunol 11:346. [0082] 6. Baggiolini, M., B. Dewald, and B. Moser. 1997. Human chemokines: an update. Annu Rev Immunol 15:675. [0083] 7. Amichay, D., R. T. Gizzinelli, G. Karupiah, T. R. Moench, A. Sher, ...
Immunosynthen is our proprietary immunostimulatory ADC platform designed to take ADCs beyond delivery of traditional cytotoxic drugs to immunomodulatory molecules that can stimulate an anti-tumor innate immune response. Through the safe and efficient delivery of immunomodulatory molecules, ADCs created with our Immunosynthen platform have the potential to address the challenges of systemic delivery and tolerability. The Immunosynthen platform utilizes a novel agonist of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING), which has emerged as an innate immune pathway capable of inducing anti-tumor immune activity. Preclinical datashow that our STING agonist ADCs result in a greater than 100-fold increase in in vitro activity compared to a free agonist. In addition, treatment with our STING agonist ADCs resulted in complete regression of in vivo tumors after a single, well-tolerated dose in a variety of preclinical tumor models. Increased immune cell infiltration and cytokine expression profile within the ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that skin and lung epithelial cells displayed an unusual pattern of responsiveness to Th17 and other proinflammatory cytokines that was distinct from that of the other cell types tested. This previously unrecognized modes of cytokine responses could fill in the apparent gap between the systemic Th17 deficiency and the tissue-dependent susceptibility to staphylococcal infections in the HIES patients. Both Th17 cytokines and other classical proinflammatory cytokines stimulate a variety of cells to produce neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and antimicrobial peptides, which are important for providing protection against bacterial infections (7). We found that skin and lung epithelial cells efficiently secreted antibacterial factors only when stimulated with a combination of Th17 cytokines and classical proinflammatory cytokines. These observations were made using primary cells that were grown on plastic. In contrast, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and ...
FirePlex NHP Key Cytokines - Immunoassay Panel (ab239455) uses the FirePlex particle technology to quantify 16 non-human primate cytokines in the same well, from 12.5 µL sample input with a readout…
The immune system, particularly T lymphocytes and cytokines, has been implicated in the progression of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although studies have shown that transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) protect the central nervous system (CNS) from inflammatory damage, their effects on subpopulations of T lymphocytes and their corresponding cytokines are largely unexplored. Here, rats were subjected to ICH and NSCs were intracerebrally injected at 3 h after ICH. The profiles of subpopulations of T cells in the brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that regulatory T (Treg) cells in the brain and peripheral blood were increased, but γδT cells (gamma delta T cells) were decreased, along with increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β) and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, and IFN-γ), compared to the vehicle-treated control. Our data suggest that transplanted NSCs protect brain injury after ICH via modulation of Treg and
Cytokines play an essential role in maturation of progenitors in the bone marrow, in innate immunity, and in the maturation of antigen specific adaptive immunity. As antigen specific immunity develops later-for example, at 2 years of age in the case of encapsulated bacteria-neonates initially depend on natural (innate) immunity. This includes phagocytosis (by monocytes, tissue macrophages, and neutrophils), natural killer cells, and humoral mediators (CRP, complement, and transplacentally acquired maternal antibodies). In response to antigens such as bacterial endotoxins,29 activated tissue macrophages produce TNF and IL1. These proinflammatory cytokines stimulate endothelial cells to express receptors for intercellular adhesion molecule on white blood cells. This initiates the cytokine cascade towards increased production of IL6, IL8, and chemokines.30 Some bacteria activate epithelial cells directly to produce inflammatory cytokines.. Newborn infants display a higher percentage of IL6 and IL8 ...
Despite cytokines often being too large to pass through the blood-brain barrier alone, their effect on the central nervous ... Due to this sensitivity and NLPR3's role in triggering cytokine release, NLPR3 is thought to be a key component in sterile ... This is due to cytokines being directly involved with inflammatory responses while also serving as a signal that can lead to ... Once peripheral cytokines initially communicate the existence of inflammation outside of the CNS, microglia and astrocytes ...
Stimulation of myeloblasts by G-CSF and other cytokines triggers maturation, differentiation, proliferation and cell survival. ... "Hematopoietic cytokines". Blood. 111 (2): 485-91. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-03-079681. PMC 2200848. PMID 18182579. Figure 12-14 in ...
Cytokines & Inflammation (1). US application 2010305210, Barkan R, Ghicavii V, "S-Alkylisothiouronium Derivatives for Treating ...
Part I: angiogenic cytokines. Circulation. 2004 109: 2487-2491 4. Cao L, Mooney DJ. Spatiotemporal control over growth factor ...
"Cytokines, "Depression Due to A General Medical Condition," and Antidepressant Drugs". Cytokines, Stress, and Depression. ... Peripheral cytokines are capable of entering the brain directly but are large lipophilic polypeptide proteins that generally do ... In the 1980s, the blood-borne factor was shown to be proinflammatory cytokines produced by activated leukocytes in the immune ... Evolutionary medicine Proinflammatory cytokines Hart, BL (1988). "Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals". ...
His works help to establish the concept of "decoy receptors". From the study of the regulation of the cytokines, Mantovani was ... Pharmacology of cytokines. 2000. Gianfranco Bazzoni; Elisabetta Dejana; Alberto Mantovani (2006). Piccin (ed.). L' endotelio. ... "The Milstein Award: Alberto Montavani". International Cytokine and Interferon Society (ICIS). Archived from the original on 7 ... International Cytokine and Interferon Society (ICIS) 2015 - Ferrari Soave Award, Academy of Sciences of Turin 2015 - The Albert ...
Cytokine. 56 (3): 589-92. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2011.08.019. PMID 21907588. Kashiyama K, Mitsutake N, Matsuse M, Ogi T, Saenko VA ...
... is a designer cytokine, which was generated by the German biochemist Stefan Rose-John. Hyper-IL-6 is a fusion ... Hyper-IL-6 has been used to test which cells depend on Interleukin-6 trans-signaling in their response to the cytokine ... Rose-John, S; Heinrich, P C (1 June 1994). "Soluble receptors for cytokines and growth factors: generation and biological ... Jones, Simon A.; Jenkins, Brendan J. (25 September 2018). "Recent insights into targeting the IL-6 cytokine family in ...
"TLR-signaling and proinflammatory cytokines as drivers of tumorigenesis". Cytokine. 89: 127-135. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.021 ... Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 26 (4): 389-403. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2015.06.001. PMC 4526340. PMID 26119834. Vlahopoulos, ...
"TLR-signaling and proinflammatory cytokines as drivers of tumorigenesis". Cytokine. 89: 127-135. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.021 ... severe allergic reactions or cytokine release syndromes. Live vaccines should not be administered to patients receiving ...
These cytokines activate ILC2s, and therefore, an increased number of ILC2s, and type-2 cytokines (IL-4/5/13) are present in ... they rely on cytokine signalling through the common cytokine- receptor gamma chain and the JAK3 kinase pathway for development ... Both cells can also produce IFN-γ when the cytokines IL-15 or IL-12 are up-regulated in tissues after infection or injury, and ... Due to their cytokine signature, they are considered the innate counterparts of Th2 cells. They express characteristic surface ...
The cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6 and Activin A are found in the testis, often at high levels. In other tissues, these ... Kern S, Robertson SA, Mau VJ, Maddocks S (1995). "Cytokine secretion by macrophages in the rat testis". Biology of Reproduction ... An example is production of the inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β by activated rat testicular macrophages: these ... Curiously, the testis contains factors such as cytokines, which are usually only produced upon infections and tissue damage. ...
"TLR-signaling and proinflammatory cytokines as drivers of tumorigenesis". Cytokine. 89: 127-135. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.021 ... Ruddle NH (April 2014). "Lymphotoxin and TNF: how it all began-a tribute to the travelers". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. ... Ruddle NH (April 2014). "Lymphotoxin and TNF: how it all began-a tribute to the travelers". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. ... Lymphotoxin is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines, whose members are responsible for ...
They also secrete inflammatory cytokines. IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive ... cytokine secretion, or clearance of pathogens. Similar molecules may cause development of an inhibitory, regulatory phenotype. ... causes macrophages to secrete minimal amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and to have lower activity against intracellular ...
"Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopedia". Retrieved 25 April 2013. "hepatoblast differentiation". GONUTS. Archived ...
Cytokine-binding proteins bind to and sequester cytokines, occluding the binding surface through which they interact with ... A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. Due to the ... Fickenscher, H; Hör, S; Küpers, H; Knappe, A; Wittmann, S; Sticht, H (February 2002). "The interleukin-10 family of cytokines ... Such proteins are referred to as virokines if they resemble cytokines, growth factors, or complement regulators; the term ...
These mediators include histamine; leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4; and a host of cytokines. Together, these mediators cause ...
The differentiation and proliferation of CFU-GEMM are promoted by growth factors, such as interleukins and cytokines. IL-3 and ... "CFU-GEMM (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)". Retrieved 2015-11-19. CS1 maint: discouraged ... The stem cell will follow a specific lineage depending on the presence of certain growth factors and cytokines. The GM-CSF and ... can be classified as a stem cell due to its high replating efficiency in the presence of certain growth factors and cytokines. ...
Crohn's disease cytokines are of the type 1 (Th1) cytokines, which include TNF-α, interleukin-2, and interferon γ. Ulcerative ... Interleukins are a cytokine that play a major role in the immune system. IL-12 and IL-23 help with the activation and ... Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis show an increase in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL ... Many of these molecules, which are mainly cytokines, are directly involved in the immune system. Biological therapy has found a ...
Nian, Min; Lee, Paul; Khaper, Neelam; Liu, Peter (2004-06-25). "Inflammatory cytokines and postmyocardial infarction remodeling ...
It is a heterodimeric cytokine encoded by two separate genes, IL-12A (p35) and IL-12B (p40). The active heterodimer (referred ... IL-12 family is unique in comprising the only heterodimeric cytokines, which includes IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35. Despite ... Vignali DA, Kuchroo VK (July 2012). "IL-12 family cytokines: immunological playmakers". Nature Immunology. 13 (8): 722-8. doi: ... November 1996). "A functional interleukin 12 receptor complex is composed of two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits". ...
Flagellin, a TLR5 ligand, induces cytokine secretion on interacting with TLR5 on human T cells. TLRs are a type of pattern ... Activation of these receptor leads to production of inflammatory cytokines as well as type I interferons (interferon type I) to ... This difference might reflect a function of these receptors as cytokine receptors rather than PRRs. The Toll pathway is ... Both late and early phase activation of NFκB is required for production of inflammatory cytokines. Imiquimod (cardinally used ...
Arend WP, Evans CH (2003). "Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1F3]". In Thomson AW, Lotze MT (eds.). The Cytokine Handbook ... Dinarello CA (2003). Interleukin-1 family;The Cytokine Handbook. London: Academic Press. Steinkasserer A, Spurr NK, Cox S, ...
The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is a type I cytokine receptor encoded in humans by the PRLR gene on chromosome 5p13-14. It is the ... The PRLR is a cytokine receptor and second messenger cascades include the JAK-STAT pathway, JAK-RUSH pathway, Ras-Raf-MAPK, and ... European Cytokine Network. 11 (3): 435-42. PMID 11022129. Horseman ND (6 December 2012). Prolactin. Springer Science & Business ...
Given that many JAKs are associated with cytokine receptors, the JAK-STAT signalling pathway plays a major role in cytokine ... In response to cytokines, such as IL-4, JAK-STAT signalling is also able to stimulate STAT6, which can promote B-cell ... Since cytokines are substances produced by immune cells that can alter the activity of neighbouring cells, the effects of JAK- ... It is also required for the transcription of some target genes of the cytokines IL-6 and IFN- γ. It has been proposed that ...
The high level of cytokines causes sepsis-like symptoms which is life-threatening instead of helping to fight against the ... Those with severe leptospirosis can experience a high level of cytokines such as interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha ( ... Cagliero J, Villanueva SY, Matsui M (20 June 2018). "Leptospirosis Pathophysiology: Into the Storm of Cytokines". Frontiers in ... The endothelial cells produce cytokines and antimicrobial peptides against the bacteria. These products regulate the ...
RNase7, mediates tissue repair, and the production of inflammatory cytokines induced either by tobacco smoke, or by microbial ... Other innate immune mediators include beta-defensin 2, and lipocalin-2; pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL6, and IL8; ...
They produce a profile of signals in response to pro-allergenic cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 that is similar to those produced in ... ILC2s produce type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13) and are involved in responses to helminths, allergens, some ... Besides the type 2 cytokines, ILC2s can also produce IL-6, which induces antibody production by B-cells, acts as a growth ... In response to allergen exposure in the lungs, ILC2s produce IL-13, a necessary cytokine in the pathogenesis of allergic ...
"Interleukin-1 family cytokines in liver diseases." Mediators of inflammation 2015 (2015). Fowler, Ashley J., et al. "Liver X ... liver-X-receptor-specific inhibition of inflammation and primary cytokine production." Journal of Investigative Dermatology ...
Because different cellular mechanisms require distinct levels of TGF-β signaling, the inactive complex of this cytokine gives ... Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 11 (1-2): 59-69. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00029-5. PMID 10708953. Huang, X.Z.; Wu, J.F.; Cass, D ... Cytokine Growth Factor Review. 10 (2): 99-117. doi:10.1016/s1359-6101(99)00010-6. PMID 10743502. Sterner-Kock, A.; Thorey, I. S ...
Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your bodys inflammatory response. Chronic ... Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your bodys inflammatory response. Chronic ... v4-460px-Reduce-Cytokines-Step-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/c5\/Reduce-Cytokines-Step-2.jpg\/aid10184644-v4-728px- ... v4-460px-Reduce-Cytokines-Step-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/c\/c2\/Reduce-Cytokines-Step-3.jpg\/aid10184644-v4-728px- ...
Each cytokine has multiple effects and overlaps with other cytokines, including structurally dissimilar ones, in those effects ... The multiple effects (pleiotropy) are explained by the presence of cytokine receptors on a wide variety of cells, and the ... some viruses subvert the immune response by producing homologs of mammalian cytokines or their receptors. J. J. Oppenheim and M ... Feldmann(p7) Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act ...
... and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in protecting from the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection, and their balance ... Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in protecting from the pathogenesis ... Cytokines are the major orchestrators of host defense processes and playing pivotal roles in modulating the host immune ... Pro-inflammatory cytokines are created primarily to amplify inflammatory reactions; triggers the immune response to Leishmania ...
The statistically significant hypercitokinemia owing to the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with the highest ... The cytokines levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, levels of lactoferrin, of the circulating immune ... Jimenez, J.C., Fontaine, J., Grzych, J.M., Capron, M. and Dei-Cas, E. (2009) Antibody and Cytokine Responses in BALB/c Mice ... The cytokines levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, levels of lactoferrin, of the circulating immune ...
Previous studies had postulated an exclusive selective effect of cytokines (22-28). In those studies, however, cytokine ... or expressing chimeric cytokine receptors (23, 27, 28) demonstrated the interchangeability of cytokine receptor-derived signals ... it is disputed whether cytokines instruct HPCs to differentiate into a specific lineage (2). Alternatively, cytokines may ... The cytokines function would then only be to select the right cell types from a pool of already lineage-restricted cells (3). ...
Postoperative changes of serum cytokine levels. Outcome Description:. Serum cytokine levels will be determined at 1st, 2nd and ... Postoperative Serum Cytokine Changes After Radical Resection of Colorectal Cancer. Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 20 Years. ... Postoperative Serum Cytokine Changes After Radical Resection of Colorectal Cancer. Every surgical intervention represents a ...
Cytokine is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of cytokines as they relate to multiple disciplines, ... It is the official journal of the International Cytokine & Interferon Society. The editor-in-chief is Dhan Kalvakolanu ( ... "Cytokine". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2017. Official website v t e. ...
These NK cells referred to as cytokine induced memory-like natural killer cells are induced using cytokines, most commonly a ... They were given the name "cytokine-induced killer" because cultivation with certain cytokines is mandatory for the maturation ... Rosato Antonio, Sommaggio Roberta (Aug 2017). "Cytokines for the induction of antitumor effectors: The paradigm of Cytokine- ... Rosato Antonio, Sommaggio Roberta (Aug 2017). "Cytokines for the induction of antitumor effectors: The paradigm of Cytokine- ...
Click here to download human multiplex cytokine assay request form.. Click here to download mouse multiplex cytokine assay ... Cytokines were measured using Millipore human cytokine multiplex kits (EMD Millipore.Corporation, Billerica, MA). Calibration ... The multiplex cytokine assay format differs from conventional ELISA in one significant way- the multiplex capture antibody is ... Cytokines were measured according to Manufacturers instructions using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) multi-spot assay system ...
... including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of ... Cytokines and Disease. Arkadiusz Orzechowski,1,2 Agueda A. Rostagno,3 Sabina Pucci,4 and Gilles Chiocchia5 ...
Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of ... cytokine is derived from a combination of two Greek words - cyto meaning cell and kinos meaning movement. ... Cytokines exist in peptide, protein and glycoprotein (proteins with a sugar attached) forms. The cytokines are a large family ... Another factor that contributes to the difficulty in distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that cytokines can exert ...
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006 Oct;17(5):325-37. Epub 2006 Aug 22. Review ... Cytokines in breast cancer.. Nicolini A1, Carpi A, Rossi G.. Author information. 1. Department of Internal Medicine, University ... Some cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, TGFbeta) stimulate while others (IL-12, IL-18, IFNs) inhibit breast cancer proliferation and ... So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of ...
Behavioral effects of cytokines.. Larson SJ1, Dunn AJ.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychology, Concordia College, ...
... Brian D. Poole,1 Timothy B. Niewold,2 George C. Tsokos,3 and Charles S. Via4 ... Brian D. Poole, Timothy B. Niewold, George C. Tsokos, and Charles S. Via, "Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus," Journal ...
The cytokines include a wide range of proteins, peptides and glycopeptides. ... Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. ... Initially, the term IL-1 was used to define a cytokine from a monocyte and the term IL-2 was used to define a cytokine from a ... Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. The cytokines include ...
... Seth Corey corey at MED.PITT.EDU Tue Apr 26 22:58:31 EST 1994 *Previous message: Cytokines follow-up ...
On the one hand, cytokines may directly influence carcinogenesis and metastasis by modifying the tumor phenotype. On the other ... The relationships between cytokines and cancer are multiple and bidirectional. ... hand, during tumor progression, modifications of the cytokine expression in the tumor environm … ... The relationships between cytokines and cancer are multiple and bidirectional. On the one hand, cytokines may directly ...
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A complex cytokine network is involved in normal immune function, and this network is comprised of positive and negative ... Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. ... T cell cytokines - Interferon (IFN)-gamma was the initial target of cytokine research in RA. This was due, in part, to the ... Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. A complex cytokine ...
And therefore treat lyme by reducing cytokines, and with time i will start to feel better. Can this be a right theory?. I have ... And therefore treat lyme by reducing cytokines, and with time i will start to feel better. Can this be a right theory?. I have ... Cytokines directly affect the Kynurenine Pathway and the breakdown of Tryptophan. Long story short, you have more Quinolinic ... One thing that happens with Lyme, or in your case, a protozoal infection, is an increase in cytokines during the inflammatory ...
Cytokines -- the architects of your bodys inflammation response -- are heavily influenced by the food in your diet. ... Cytokines. In the Greek language, cytokines translates to setting cells in motion. Cytokines are cells in your body that ... The cytokines derived from processes in your body that metabolize omega-6 fats are more likely to promote inflammation. Consume ... Both omega-3 and omega-6 fats are precursors in the production of new cytokines. According to a 2008 article in Lipids in ...
... and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating ... Immunoconjugates for the selective delivery of a cytokine to a target cell are disclosed. The immunoconjugates are comprised of ... The cytokine can be any cytokine or analog or fragment thereof which has a therapeutically valuable biological function. Useful ... An immunoconjugate of the invention can be used to deliver selectively a cytokine to a target cell in vivo so that the cytokine ...
HOW TO POST IN THE CYTOKINE FORUMS:. 1. To make browsing and finding specific posts easier, messages in all forums are ...
Early-life adversity programs long-term cytokine and microglia expression within the HPA axis in female Japanese quail David J ... Developmental exposure to a non-pathogenic stressor can cause long-term changes in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine ...
In particular, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that occurs … ... Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohns disease and ulcerative ... Cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 May;14(5):329-42. doi: 10.1038/nri3661. Epub 2014 Apr 22. ... Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohns disease and ulcerative ...
The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. Cytokines and ... The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. Cytokines and ... Common Cytokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 important ... Common Cytokines RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 ...
Cytokines are a diverse family of intercellular signaling proteins that influence the movement, proliferation, differentiation ... skeletal muscle cytokines tumour necrosis factor leukocyte fibroblasts neutrophils necrosis regeneration exercise ... Taniguchi T: Cytokine signalling through nonreceptor protein tyrosine kineses. Science 268: 251-255, 1995Google Scholar ... Cannon JG: Cytokines in muscle homeostasis and disease. In: JJ Oppenheim, JL Rossio, AJH Gearing (eds). Clinical Applications ...
An eBook version of this title already exists in your shopping cart. If you would like to replace it with a different purchasing option please remove the current eBook option from your cart.. ...
Cytokine definition is - any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins (such as interleukin or interferon) that are secreted by ... Comments on cytokine. What made you want to look up cytokine? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, ... Post the Definition of cytokine to Facebook Share the Definition of cytokine on Twitter ... Examples of cytokine in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web. Successful repair of damaged skin, and collagen synthesis, have ...
Dr Richard P. Kraig presents a webinar on the use of cytokine analysis in the investigation of nor... ... Dr Richard P. Kraig presents a webinar on the use of cytokine analysis in the investigation of normal brain function. Dr Kraig ... Dr Kraig discusses some of the issues encountered during work in his laboratory using femtomolar-level cytokine analysis in a ... and high dynamic range of Bio-Plex cell signaling assays enable these researchers to obtain precise measurements of cytokine ...
... Paula paula at Tue Sep 17 09:32:08 EST 2002 *Previous message: Staining of ...
Cytokines/cytokine receptors in the pipeline *Exploring the usefulness of cytokines and cytokine antagonists in disease ... Cytokine based therapies in development: targeted cytokine therapies *Immunocytokines: targeted antibody linked to cytokine * ... Increasingly, cytokine-based drugs and anti-cytokines are playing a crucial role in the treatment and management of these ... Therapeutic importance of cytokine traps *The role of molecular and cellular research in improving and modifying cytokine trap ...
Eosinophil granules store a vast array of cytokines and chemokines, many of which possess opposing activities. Specific stimuli ...
Cytokine Bioassays: Methods and Protocols provides a comprehensive collection of classic and cutting-edge methodologies that ... are used to analyze and quantify cytokines and their biological activities ... Cytokines RT-PCR analysis of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry biologically active cytokines clinical samples cytokine ... and analysis of cytokine-induced immunoglobulin class switching. Part three presents analysis of intracellular cytokines by ...
A body of clinical evidence is emerging that two different approaches to immune-stimulating cytokine therapies could increase ... POC for cytokines. Cytokines are emerging as a logical combination partner to boost PD-1 responses ... Early data showed the cytokines can flip tumors from PD-L1-negative to -positive, leading to responses comparable to those in ... While the biggest cytokine story at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting focused on... ...
  • Cell-intrinsic transcription factors ( 4 - 7 ) and activation of ectopically expressed cytokine receptors ( 8 - 10 ) were shown to instruct lineage decisions. (
  • Cytokines binds with high affinity to specific receptors present on the target cells and the cells that show response to the cytokines are either: 1) by same cell that secreted called autocrine, 2) by a neighboring cell called paracrine or 3) by a distant cell reached through the circulation called endocrine. (
  • NovoPro offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. (
  • Cytokines act on their target cells by binding specific membrane receptors. (
  • The receptors and their corresponding cytokines have been divided into several families based on their structure and activities. (
  • Type I cytokine receptors have certain conserved motifs in their extracellular amino-acid domain, and lack an intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity. (
  • Type II cytokine receptors are multimeric receptors composed of heterologous subunits, and are receptors mainly for interferons. (
  • The extracellular domains of type II cytokine receptors share structural similarities in their ligand-binding domain. (
  • Other cytokine receptors include TNF receptor family, chemokine receptors, and TGF-beta receptors. (
  • They interact with high affinity cell surface receptors specific for each cytokine or cytokine group and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram range. (
  • Backed by detailed investigation and careful design, Biocytogen presents a series of mice models for preclinical evaluation of immunotherapy drugs with humanized cytokines and their receptors. (
  • Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in protecting from the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection, and their balance and dynamic changes may control or predict clinical outcome. (
  • The cytokines' levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, levels of lactoferrin, of the circulating immune complexes and the level of antibodies to antigens of the native deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are investigated. (
  • The statistically significant hypercitokinemia owing to the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with the highest concentration of IL-1β, IL-4, the high level of lactoferrin-protein of acute phase, the occurrence of markers of cellular damage, the high level of immune complexes and the stimulation of humoral link of immune system, the high level of antibodies to the antigen of native DNA, are registered. (
  • Whether or not this altered pattern of cytokine production in tolerant animals is causally related to the induction and/or maintenance of the tolerant state has yet to be fully determined, although experiments blocking selectively the action of IL-2 with CD25 antibodies suggest that manipulation of cytokine production may at least be a route to tolerance. (
  • Cytokine antibodies in drug development have demonstrated positive clinical significance for treating autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. (
  • In the new study, 11 women with advanced metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer received anakinra treatment, and after just two weeks showed reduced gene expression of IL1b and other cytokines and signaling pathways. (
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines act through ligand-mediated trimerization, causing recruitment of several intracellular adaptors to activate multiple signal transduction pathways for cell survival, death, and differentiation. (
  • The mechanisms and signal pathways of cytokines in the body are complex. (
  • Activation of these subsets is characterized by the secretion of distinct patterns of cytokines. (
  • Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-γ, but not of other measured cytokines. (
  • Interferons are cytokines which are made and released by the cells of most vertebrates in response to the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites, or tumor cells). (
  • We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. (
  • Frieling, T. (2005) Serum Cytokine Changes in Turkish Children Infected with Giardia lamblia with and without Allergy: Effect of Metronidazole Treatment. (
  • Jimenez, J.C., Fontaine, J., Grzych, J.M., Capron, M. and Dei-Cas, E. (2009) Antibody and Cytokine Responses in BALB/c Mice Immunized with the Excreted/Secreted Proteins of Giardia intestinalis: The Role of Cysteine Proteases. (
  • All plant-based foods contain polyphenols, a class of compounds that decreases your body's activation of the protein complex NF-kB, which in turn reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your body's inflammatory response. (
  • It was therefore disputed whether cell-extrinsic cytokines can instruct HPC lineage choice or only allow survival of cells that are already lineage-restricted. (
  • Alternatively, cytokines may simply allow the survival or proliferation of cells that had already independently decided for this lineage. (
  • The cytokines' function would then only be to select the right cell types from a pool of already lineage-restricted cells ( 3 ). (
  • Cytokines are the chemical messengers released by the cells that help in the communication between the different cells. (
  • Cytokines are mainly secreted by the immune cells that act on other cells for coordinated immune response. (
  • With research and premium grade, we offer a comprehensive portfolio of cytokines for reliable research with human and rodent cells. (
  • A cytokine signature found in certain kinds of breast cancer cells can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target. (
  • Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. (
  • Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. (
  • Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine action). (
  • Therefore, the characteristics of an immune response can be best studied by determining the amounts of cytokines produced by the responding T cells and APC. (
  • The induction of peripheral tolerance to alloantigen is accompanied in many cases by a decrease in the production of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN gamma, yet a sustained production of cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-4. (
  • Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, an official journal of OMICS Group publishes all types of articles on cytokines, these articles are Open Access. (
  • MACS Premium-Grade Cytokines are standardized recombinant proteins of highest quality, which facilitate a seamless transition to clinical research with MACS GMP Cytokines. (
  • Discover our comprehensive MACS GMP Cytokine portfolio for ex vivo cell processing and manufacturing. (
  • Cytokines play an important role in regulating the body's immune, hematopoietic, nervous, and endocrine systems. (
  • Cytokines have been proved useful in immune-based therapies. (
  • In fact, several cytokine therapies are now routinely used by many people living with HIV. (
  • and other cytokines such as, interferon gamma, IL-3, IL-7 and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (
  • For example, interferon-alpha, a cytokine with broad antiviral properties, has been proven to be useful in treating cancers, such as malignant melanoma. (
  • In recent decades many advances have occurred in the understanding of the role of cytokines in breast cancer. (
  • Issues relating to the role of cytokines in rheumatic diseases are reviewed here. (
  • See 'Role of cytokines in the immune system' and 'Cytokine networks in rheumatic diseases: Implications for therapy' . (
  • There is more information on the role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in any other rheumatic disease. (
  • Special emphasis is placed on the role of cytokines and growth factors as well as signal transduction pathways. (
  • In this Review, we discuss the role of cytokines produced by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as their relevance to the future therapy of IBD. (
  • This Research Topic aims to understand the role of cytokines in intestinal immune responses with a focus on infections, tumorigenesis, inflammatory conditions, and the relationship with the gut microbiome. (
  • In order to grasp the science behind inflammation, understanding the role of cytokines is vital. (
  • The nuanced, intricate, double-edged role of cytokines in pathologic inflammatory conditions in the CNS makes understanding the timing and context of their presence a matter of utmost importance. (
  • This Review focuses on the role of cytokines in three of the most prevalent human disorders of the CNS in which immunity and inflammation play vital roles. (
  • While there have been many articles that review the role of cytokines in animal models of CNS diseases (e.g. (
  • This book examines the possible role of cytokines in mental depression, based on recent clinical and experimental data, and constitutes the first attempt to make a synthesis between the exciting new developments in cytokine research and their implications for the pathophysiology of mental disorders. (
  • Behavioral effects of cytokines. (
  • Overviews of the effects of cytokines on the immune response and the therapeutic implications of cytokine networks in rheumatic disease are presented separately. (
  • A contributing factor to the difficulty of distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that some immunomodulating effects of cytokines are systemic rather than local. (
  • Section II: Brain Effects of Cytokines. (
  • Section IV: Effects of Cytokines and Cytokine Antagonists in Animal Models of Depression. (
  • Interactions between various cell types in the tumor microenvironment determine the effects of cytokines on tumor development and progression. (
  • Examples of cytokines include the agents interleukin and the interferon which are involved in regulating the immune system's response to inflammation and infection. (
  • In addition, cytokines have a much larger distribution of sources for their production, with nearly all cells that have a nucleus capable of producing interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), particularly endothelial cells, epithelial cells and resident macrophages. (
  • Interleukin was originally the term used to describe cytokines that were assumed by researchers to primarily be targeting leukocytes. (
  • These observations, along with later studies demonstrating putative interleukin (IL)-2 activity in synovial effusions [ 2 ] and the presence of T-cell surface markers associated with activation (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] DR+, VLA4+, CD69+), tended to support the hypothesis that the T cells in RA were highly activated and that the local milieu contained significant concentrations of T cell derived cytokines. (
  • The immunoconjugates are comprised of an immunoglobulin heavy chain having a specificity for the target cell, such as a cancer or virus-infected cell, and a cytokine, such as lymphotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, joined via Aits amino terminal amino acid to the carboxy-Aterminus of the immunoglobulin. (
  • 9 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is interleukin-2. (
  • 15 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 14 , wherein the cytokine is selected from the group consisting of lymphotoxin, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (
  • 18 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is interleukin-2. (
  • Jolene Edgar, Allure , "The Truth About Growth Factors in Skin Care and Why They're Controversial," 2 Aug. 2018 Perhaps the cytokine that testosterone induces mast cells to make, interleukin-33, might one day join them. (
  • Alice Park, Time , "How Scientists Are Testing Cancer Drugs to Slow Down Aging," 9 July 2018 The researchers injected some of the mice with the cytokines interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor. (
  • One of the things that happens is that Interleukin-1, an inflammatory type of cytokine , is activated. (
  • Laura Haynes, Washington Post , "How the flu hijacks your body to make you feel so wretched," 17 Feb. 2018 One of the things that happens is that Interleukin-1, an inflammatory type of cytokine , is activated. (
  • The term interleukin was initially used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes . (
  • The first cytokine which will has been produced is interleukin-1 (Il-1). (
  • Since the discovery of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in 1984, a variety of cytokines and cytokine factors have been discovered and cloned. (
  • One example of this complex interplay is the two cytokines known as Tumor Necrosis Factor -alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6. (
  • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is another cytokine, but it reduces inflammation by inhibiting TNF-alpha, although it also has pro-inflammatory functions as well. (
  • Now researchers led by Jesús Rivera-Nieves, MD, of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, have discovered that expression of a newly identified human cytokine - Interleukin 37 (IL-37) - protects mice from colitis. (
  • Newly identified human cytokine - Interleukin 37 (IL-37) protects mice from ulcerative colitis - inflammation of the lining of the colon. (
  • Notably, the concentration of interleukin 17 (IL-17, a cytokine which acts as a regulator of multiple immune functions) was found to be significantly higher before onset compared with post-diagnosis (p>0.01). (
  • Previous studies have highlighted the role played by pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in disease processes in the oral cavity. (
  • As a result, the objectives of the study were to determine 1) whether CBD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) stimulated with beryllium would produce a similar cytokine pattern as BAL cells, and 2) whether this response could be modulated by interleukin-4 (IL-4), an immunomodulatory cytokine. (
  • Interleukin-4's inability to downregulate any of the beryllium-stimulated cytokines makes it an unlikely therapeutic candidate in chronic beryllium disease. (
  • Interleukin-32: a cytokine and inducer of TNFalpha. (
  • and functions of a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32. (
  • Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma. (
  • The cytokines are a large family of molecules that are classified in various different ways due to an absence of a unified classification system. (
  • There is debate among experts over whether certain molecules should be called hormones or cytokines. (
  • Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that are vital in mediating the immune response within the body. (
  • Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. (
  • The resulting "cytokine storm" releases a swarm of molecules that attack the patient's lungs and other organs, leading to deadly acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury. (
  • Essentially, cytokines are not limited to their immunomodulatory status as molecules. (
  • It is now used largely for designation of newer cytokine molecules and bears little relation to their presumed function. (
  • Cytokines are molecules (hormones) produced by cells following an antigenic stimulation or an activation by other factors. (
  • The inference is that cytokines and their associated molecules are likely to play a role, not just as passive responders, but as ameliorating agents of the basic genetic conditions that predispose immunological disease. (
  • Normal cells of multicellular organisms are constantly signaling to one another via molecules called growth factors and cytokines. (
  • Recombinant cytokines are in clinical use, and continues attempts are made to develop hybrid molecules from cytokines. (
  • These regulatory molecules are known as cytokines. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as communicating molecules between the liver and brain for hepatic encephalopathy pathogenesis and Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protection. (
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines may serve as communicating molecules linking the liver and brain for the HE pathogenesis, partly through MAPK regulation. (
  • Cytokines are soluble messenger molecules that mediate the interplay between innate and adaptive immune system 1 . (
  • Previous studies with infectious disease in mice have shown that high levels of cytokines, small signalling molecules unique to the immune system, can prevent the formation of these helper T cells and therefore of germinal centers. (
  • Cytokines, however, circulate in picomolar concentrations and may increase in magnitude almost a thousand-fold in response to an infection or inflammation. (
  • Cytokines/Inflammation? (
  • Cytokines -- the architects of your body's inflammation response -- are heavily influenced by the food in your diet. (
  • The cytokines derived from processes in your body that metabolize omega-6 fats are more likely to promote inflammation. (
  • In particular, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that occurs in IBD impedes the resolution of inflammation and instead leads to disease perpetuation and tissue destruction. (
  • Cytokines and their receptors participate in a diverse array of functions beyond innate and adaptive immunity including inflammation, immune cell differentiation, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, development, neurobiology, and viral pathogenesis. (
  • Diana Gitig, Ars Technica , "Testosterone may protect men from autoimmune diseases," 2 Feb. 2018 Now Like a contagion, senescent cells seem to pass on their accelerated aging abilities to healthy cells by releasing a number of factors, including inflammation-producing cytokines that can cause tissues like muscle to deteriorate. (
  • Interleukins (ILs) are biologically active mediators of inflammation and immune response that belong to cytokine family. (
  • What is the Relationship Between Cytokines and Inflammation? (
  • The relationship between cytokines and inflammation is a complex one, but there are a few key factors to be aware of, because cytokines are always present with inflammation. (
  • There are many types of cytokine , but the ones that are involved with inflammation interact with the immune system . (
  • In the case of inflammation, certain cytokines trigger responses to fight infection or injury. (
  • The types of cytokines involved in the relationship between cytokines and inflammation are numerous. (
  • Cytokines essentially help keep the balance of the body in regards to inflammation. (
  • TNF-Alpha is a cytokine that is active during the acute phase of inflammation and induces inflammation. (
  • The relationship between cytokines and inflammation is also apparent in the treatment of inflammation. (
  • In cases of chronic inflammation, which can cause long term damage, the medications used are often ones that inhibit cytokine production or function. (
  • Overproduction of certain cytokines can lead to disease often involving inflammation, once again showing the interdependence of cytokines and inflammation. (
  • Angelika Daser and colleagues at the Rudolf Virchow University in Berlin highlight the function of another group of genes, which are responsible for making products known as cytokines, which play an important role in promoting or suppressing inflammation, in response to immunological disease ( Cytokine , Vol 8, No 8). (
  • These functions include releasing one or more cytokines that induce proliferation, modulate inflammation, mediate cytolysis of other cells, and inhibit viral replication ( 1 ). (
  • Often characterized as "alarmins" that are released by the barrier epithelium in response to external insults, these epithelial cell-derived cytokines were initially thought to act only early in allergic inflammation. (
  • Cytokines are small, hormone-like, class of small proteins/signaling peptides generated de novo by cells and besides their critical role in the regulation of inflammation/immunity, they are now well known for their ability to modulate cellular activities such as growth, survival and differentiation. (
  • The aberrant immune response found in IBD is prompted by different cytokines - small signaling proteins secreted by various cells, including immune cells - that activate the immune system, causing chronic inflammation. (
  • Immunophyseology-The Role of Cells and Cytokines in Immunity and Inflammation:167 (1990). (
  • However, the cytokine changes observed are likely to more indicative of immune activation and inflammation, rather than specific for CFS. (
  • One of the mediators of inflammation in the body are proteins called cytokines . (
  • Ultimately, this spiral, called a cytokine storm, can directly damage organs and cause such severe whole body inflammation that vital organs like the lungs, heart, and kidneys begin to fail. (
  • A cytokine-mediated link between innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. (
  • Here we provide an overview of the current understanding of the role of inflammation-induced cytokines in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. (
  • Signal transduction pathways and major biological responses of inflammation-modulating cytokines in cancer. (
  • Another factor that contributes to the difficulty in distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that cytokines can exert systemic as well as local effects. (
  • The major feature distinguishing cytokines from hormones is the fact that cytokines are not produced by specialized cells organized in specialized glands. (
  • Designations such as HBGF group (heparin binding growth factors) take into account biochemical shared properties by a variety of cytokines which also problematic. (
  • If the primary cell from which they are derived is a monocyte, for example, the cytokine is termed a monokine, while those derived from lymphocytes are called lymphokines. (
  • The subject of the present invention is defective recombinant adenoviruses, characterized in that they contain a defective, non-replicable adenovirus genome into which one or more nucleic acid sequences coding for one more cytokines, in particular lymphokines, are inserted under the control of one or more promoters capable of being recognised by the polymerases of human cells, more especially of human tumor cells or of cells infiltrating these tumors. (
  • They were given the name "cytokine-induced killer" because cultivation with certain cytokines is mandatory for the maturation into terminally differentiated CIK cells. (
  • The results of the study showed that up-regulation of certain cytokines (specifically Th1, Th2 and Treg) involved in the growth and proliferation of various cells integral to the immune system, predicted which individuals go on to develop RA. (
  • All plant-based foods contain polyphenols, a class of compounds that decreases your body's activation of the protein complex NF-kB, which in turn reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Omega-3 fatty acids aren't technically polyphenols, but they have a similar impact on reducing your production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • The drug inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteins released by cells. (
  • The term 'cytokine' is derived from a combination of two Greek words - 'cyto' meaning cell and 'kinos' meaning movement. (
  • This led to his proposal of the term cytokine. (
  • The term cytokine is used today as a generic name for a diverse group which includes proteins and peptides that act in nano-picomolar concentrations as humoral regulators and modulate the functional activities of individual cells & tissues. (
  • In 1974, Cohen and colleagues reported production of macrophage migration inhibitory factors in virus-infected fibroblasts, which led (finally) to proposal of the term cytokine. (
  • 8 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • 19 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • The goal of this study was to verify that transdermal administration of nico-tine downregulates proinflammatory cytokine release after burn trauma. (
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (
  • Pegilodecakin is a long-acting, pegylated form of recombinant IL-10 that stimulates a different population of cancer-fighting immune cells than are stimulated by cytokines that signal through the IL-2 intermediate-affinity receptor. (
  • Cytokines/immunocytokines, were initially used to separate the immunomodulatory proteins, also called immunotransmitters, from other growth factors that modulate proliferation and bioactivities of non-immune cells. (
  • J. J. Oppenheim and M. Feldmann(p7) Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in very low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation. (
  • Most cytokines are secreted by immune cells in response to infection, although other types of cells can also produce them 1 . (
  • Important components in this linkage are the cytokines produced by activated innate immune cells that stimulate tumor growth and progression. (
  • Cytokines secreted by tumor and inflammatory/immune cells can either promote tumor development and tumor cell survival or exert antitumor effects. (
  • CRS happens when there is a large release of messenger proteins (cytokines) from immune cells that have been activated by immunotherapy treatment. (
  • The company is marketing the drug as a replacement to Roche's tocilizumab (originally approved for rheumatoid arthritis) that is currently in off-label use among Covid-19 patients who suffer from cytokine release syndrome (CRS). (
  • The most current terminology used to describe cytokines is 'immunomodulating agents' or agents that modulate or alter the immune system response. (
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (
  • Therefore, resolving when activated T cells initiate the release of cytokines, and how their responses evolve in time, should provide fundamental insight into how individual cells dynamically modulate intercellular signals to affect population-level responses toward pathological conditions or clinical interventions. (
  • However, these family descriptions are no longer accurate because some growth factors and hormones exhibit cellular effects very similar to cytokine family members. (
  • The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. (
  • Cytokines act on a wider spectrum of target cells than hormones. (
  • The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. (
  • In spite of the anti-inflammatory effects of food restriction (FR), there is a lack of data demonstrating if the blood level of a specific cytokine could better express the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of caloric restriction. (
  • These work by blocking the receptor sites on cells that bind to a specific cytokine. (
  • Similarly, high circulating levels of some cytokines seem to be favourable (soluble IL-2R) while others are unfavourable (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, gp130) prognostic indicators. (
  • BOSTON - Shiv Pillai, MD, PhD, investigator in the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard and professor at Harvard Medical School (HMS), recently published a paper in Cell showing that high levels of some cytokines seen in COVID-19 patients, as part of a cytokine storm, may prevent the development of long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (
  • Cytokines are important regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune response. (
  • The Human Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 important cytokine genes. (
  • Genes that code for cytokines are highly polymorphic, and some of these polymorphisms directly or indirectly influence cytokine expression. (
  • SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with common diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, allergy, and asthma, and data are now accumulating on their role in occupational/environmental diseases. (
  • Intriguingly, they suggest that a crucial role may be played by regions of cytokine genes, known as control regions, which determine the circumstances under which a gene might act. (
  • What might be the benefit of having two different cytokine genes? (
  • Mutations in the genes responsible for "any one of the 10-plus proteins that get perforin to do what it does" are linked to a higher risk of cytokine storm syndrome, Cron said. (
  • It has been detected that, mutations of some viral genes (NS1, PB2, HA and NA) are responsible for the cytokine storm, by increasing the viral replication rate, expending the tissue tropism, facilitating the systemic invasion and emerging of resistance against the host antiviral response. (
  • Developmental exposure to a non-pathogenic stressor can cause long-term changes in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and microglia abundance in different brain regions involved in stress response regulation. (
  • However, in adjunct therapy, we observed significant results (in terms of parasite clearance in visceral organs, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines response and decreased/ marginal increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine response). (
  • 10 . The chimeric Ig chain of claim 1 , wherein the cytokine is a lymphokine. (
  • 20 . The immunoconjugate of claim 16 , wherein the cytokine is a lymphokine. (
  • Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, where they control multiple aspects of the inflammatory response. (
  • In addition, several cytokines are critical mediators of chronic inflammatory intestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. (
  • So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (
  • Cytokines are cells in your body that regulate immunity. (
  • The field of cytokines and their role in intestinal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last two decades. (
  • There is strong evidence that cytokines play a critical role during intestinal immunity, and their role as mediators of intestinal immune responses to infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, and fungi has been demonstrated. (
  • Both Review and Original Research articles are welcome for submission to this Research Topic in order to further expand our understanding of the roles of cytokines in intestinal mucosal immunity. (
  • As in the periphery, both the activated resident cells and the infiltrating cells express, release, and/or respond to pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines, which function in the CNS as both regulators of immunity and modulators of neuronal and glial function. (
  • The epithelial cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25 are central regulators of type 2 immunity, which drives a broad array of allergic responses. (
  • Successful repair of damaged skin, and collagen synthesis, have been shown to require the involvement of growth factors and cytokines . (
  • View our entire offering of Growth Factors & Cytokines . (
  • The signals released by growth factors and cytokines can tell individual cells whether to divide or not. (
  • Many growth factors and cytokines act as cellular survival factors by preventing programmed cell death. (
  • In general, T cell-derived factors are not as prominent as macrophage and fibroblast cytokines in the rheumatoid joint. (
  • Major general topics include cytokine network and regulation, lymphocyte differentiation and function, dendritic cell and macrophage activation, as well as the role of non-immunological effector cells in health/disease like smooth muscle cells, goblet cells, activated by IL-4 and IL13. (
  • A cytokine storm - aka cytokine release syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis - is the result of an immune system gone wild. (
  • These NK cells are activated by these cytokines to stimulate an infection and induce an adaptive immune response. (
  • One thing that happens with Lyme, or in your case, a protozoal infection, is an increase in cytokines during the inflammatory process. (
  • NK cells also produce cytokines such as IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) to protect the host during the innate response to infection. (
  • Even sepsis patients will get cytokine storm syndrome on top of the sepsis, and if you don't treat the cytokine storm syndrome, even if you treat the infection causing the sepsis, they may still die. (
  • Recent studies have shown that the high fatality rate of avian influenza virus infections is a consequence of an overactive inflammatory response and the severity of infection is closely related with virus-induced cytokine dysregulation. (
  • In this review article, the immunopathogenesis of influenza infection and the mechanisms of cytokine storm caused by influenza A/H5N1 viruses have been discussed under the light of recent literature. (
  • Chan says the goal of this "Brita filter for your blood," as some call it, is to reduce the level of cytokines to a level where it no longer hurts the body-but still allows the body to fight the infection. (
  • Upon pathogen infection, both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced by activated myeloid cells. (
  • Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, and some types of cytokines trigger your body's inflammatory response. (
  • Synthesis and release of cytokines from leukocytes in response to microbial stimuli are well known. (
  • The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. (
  • To date, time-integrated end-point measurements have obscured whether these polyfunctional states arise from the simultaneous or successive release of cytokines. (
  • One area of particular interest is the relationship between cytokines and the gut microbiome and how the cross-talk between these two important components of the intestinal mucosal immune system affects the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium and of the gut micro-environment. (
  • Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. (
  • Cytokines also mediate interactions between cells & regulate processes taking place in the extracellular environment. (
  • IL-4 fails to regulate in vitro beryllium-induced cytokines in berylliosis. (
  • The company's technology-which it licensed from The Scripps Research Institute in 2014 -is facilitating its development of enhanced versions of proteins called cytokines, which regulate immune and inflammatory responses. (
  • From the Greek cyto (cavity or cell) and kine (movement), cytokines are proteins involved in cell signaling and function as immunomodulating agents. (
  • Laura Haynes, Newsweek , "Here's How The Flu Attacks Your Body-And Why It's So Painful," 17 Feb. 2018 Aside from their tuft, these cells are known for making IL-25, a cytokine that coordinates the immune response to tapeworms and other parasites. (
  • The present invention relates to a novel cytokine that stimulates the function of cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and to processes for obtaining the factor and producing it by recombinant genetic engineering techniques. (
  • The production of multiple cytokines by T cells has been associated with productive immune responses to infectious diseases ( 5 - 7 ) and to vaccines ( 8 - 10 ). (
  • It has not been possible, however, to determine whether cells release multiple cytokines simultaneously, or sequentially, in time because techniques such as intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and multiparametric ELISpot provide only integrative, endpoint measures ( 15 - 18 ). (
  • A second similarity to the periphery that is important to bear in mind is that different inflammatory insults result in the induction of diverse inflammatory phenotypes, involving distinct cells and particular cytokine mediators. (
  • Charles A. Dinarello, MD, from the University of Colorado, recently expressed human IL-37 in lab mice, which do not have an orthologue, or similar molecule, for this particular cytokine. (
  • Calibration curves from recombinant cytokine standards were prepared with threefold dilution steps in the same matrix as the samples. (
  • Calibration curves from recombinant cytokine standards were prepared with fivefold dilution steps in supplied diluent. (
  • Turning back the " storm " of cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients may seem like the opposite of what doctors should be doing. (