Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Mice, Inbred C3HReceptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Cell SeparationChemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Mice, Inbred DBAAutoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Rats, Inbred LewI-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/33104)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (2/33104)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

Interleukin-18 binding protein: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. (3/33104)

An interleukin-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) was purified from urine by chromatography on IL-18 beads, sequenced, cloned, and expressed in COS7 cells. IL-18BP abolished IL-18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL-8, and activation of NF-kappaB in vitro. Administration of IL-18BP to mice abrogated circulating IFNgamma following LPS. Thus, IL-18BP functions as an inhibitor of the early Th1 cytokine response. IL-18BP is constitutively expressed in the spleen, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and has limited homology to the IL-1 type II receptor. Its gene was localized on human chromosome 11q13, and no exon coding for a transmembrane domain was found in an 8.3 kb genomic sequence. Several Poxviruses encode putative proteins highly homologous to IL-18BP, suggesting that viral products may attenuate IL-18 and interfere with the cytotoxic T cell response.  (+info)

Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like-tyrosine kinase is mediated by nitric oxide in rat renal mesangial cells. (4/33104)

Under conditions associated with local and systemic inflammation, mesangial cells and invading immune cells are likely to be responsible for the release of large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the glomerulus. To further define the mechanisms of NO action in the glomerulus, we attempted to identify genes which are regulated by NO in rat glomerular mesangial cells. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT-1) to be under the regulatory control of exogenously applied NO in these cells. Using S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) as an NO-donating agent, VEGF expression was strongly induced, whereas expression of its FLT-1 receptor simultaneously decreased. Expressional regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA was transient and occurred rapidly within 1-3 h after GSNO treatment. Expression of a second VEGF-specific receptor, fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1/KDR), could not be detected. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta mediated a moderate increase in VEGF expression after 24 h and had no influence on FLT-1 expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB and basic fibroblast growth factor had no effect on VEGF expression, but strongly induced FLT-1 mRNA levels. Obviously, there is a differential regulation of VEGF and its receptor FLT-1 by NO, cytokines and growth factors in rat mesangial cells.  (+info)

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (5/33104)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (6/33104)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (7/33104)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (8/33104)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

The systemic cytokine response to major surgical trauma was studied in 20 patients undergoing elective aortic surgery and five patients after inguinal hernia repair. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were not detected in these patients. An early and short-lived interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) response to major surgery was detected only by intensive sampling in the perioperative period. The IL-1 beta peak preceded a more marked interleukin 6 (IL-6) response that peaked 4-48 h after surgery. IL-6 levels had fallen sharply by 48-72 h in all patients who had an uneventful postoperative course. The IL-6 peaks were significantly lower after hernia surgery than after major aortic operations (P | 0.001); IL-1 beta was not detected in any samples. Three patients undergoing aortic surgery developed unexpected major postoperative complications. IL-6 levels in this group were significantly higher than those of the other patients undergoing aortic surgery within 6-8 h of skin incision, and remained
PMN are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with intestinal inflammation and can be downregulated by IL-10.PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather reflects intestinal inflammation in general. IL-10 markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokine secretion as well as corresponding mRNA concentrations.Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN.To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10.Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel ...
BACKGROUND Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) are the most abundant cell type in intestinal lesions in IBD. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important contra-inflammatory cytokine which induces downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. AIMS To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10. METHODS Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN. RESULTS PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather
Ashraf, R, Vasiljevic, T, Day, SL, Smith, SC and Donkor, ON 2014, Lactic acid bacteria and probiotic organisms induce different cytokine profile and regulatory T cells mechanisms, Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 6, pp. 395-409, doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.11.006. ... is the marketplace for research antibodies.Multiplex Cytokine Assays Find the right antibody for your research needs.
Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelium derived interleukin (IL)-15 signalling via IL-15Ralpha is critical for the development, activation, and survival of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). We aimed to better understand the IL-15 driven effects on IEL underlying mucosal damage and lymphomagenesis in coeliac disease (CD). METHODS: Enterocytes, IEL, and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated from 46 patients with uncomplicated CD (25 untreated and 21 treated) and 22 controls. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha expression were determined by immunoblotting. Secretion of IL-15, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granzyme B into cell culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. The ability of IL-15 to regulate IEL proliferation, perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis was tested by adding different combinations of IL-15, IL-15 blocking antibody, or chloroquine to IEL cultured alone or with Caco-2 cells as target. IL-15 mucosal levels were also ...
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Simultaneous quantification of cytokines is a powerful tool to identify associations between host immune defense and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. None of the commercially available cytokine detection methods however, have been rigorously validated in the context of HIV infection. Here we compared performance characteristics of two multiplex assays: the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform and the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) in specimens obtained from HIV-infected subjects. Overall, the MSD had a wider dynamic range and lower limits of quantification which lead to the ability to detect endogenous levels of serum cytokines that were assumed to not be present by CBA. In recombinant cytokine-spiked sera, MSD had better precision and accuracy based on intra-assay variability less than 25% and percent recovery within 25% of added concentrations. Regardless of the quantitation range, we observed variability between the analytes in both platforms with respect to the capacity to ...
Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins representing important components of inflammatory and immune reactions (1). In response to multiple stimuli (2), cytokines are rapidly induced and secreted into the extracellular milieu. However, in some situations, cytokines are constitutively present. Cytokines exert numerous biological activities which are critical for host defense, physiologic responses to stress, and immune surveillance. Cytokines, along with complement, are considered to be part of the innate immune system. The world of cytokine biology has exploded in the past decades. It can be said without hyperbole that cytokines are critical from birth (gestation) (3) to death (apoptosis) (4).
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Variable clinical response to cytokine targeted therapies as TNFalpha and IL-6, strongly highlights the heterogeneity of inflammatory process in RA. Another cytokine, IL-15 has also been related to the inflammatory process in RA. Recently we described for the first time, the presence of its specific receptor, IL-15Ralpha, in synovial fluid (SF). The aim of this work was to compare the expression profile of IL-15Ralpha, its ligand IL-15, TNFalpha and IL-6 and how these cytokines are correlated in SF from RA patients taking as a reference Osteoarthritis (OA), an articular but not autoinmmune disease. Synovial fluids were obtained from the knee joints of 60 patients, 30 with confirmed diagnosis of RA and 30 with OA diagnosis. The levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha were measured by ELISA. A statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism v5.0 using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearmans
Nrf2 activation has been shown to contribute to anti-inflammatory responses in rodent models of inflammation (Itoh et al. 2004, Khor et al. 2006, Thimmulappa et al. 2006, Lin et al. 2008, Kobayashi et al. 2016), including autoimmune inflammatory models (Wruck et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2014). In this study, we demonstrated that genetic activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway prevented the development and progression of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. We also showed that suppression of insulitis was the primary mechanism underlying this protective action of Nrf2 in NOD mice. Since Nrf2 upregulates a battery of anti-oxidative genes in a canonical manner, suppressing reactive oxygen species levels was considered initially to be the key molecular mechanism underlying the Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. However, recent studies have shown that Nrf2 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene expression directly and prevents cytokine storms. In fact, we found that the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway also contributed ...
Cellular activation and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a single cell label-free multi parameter optical interrogation system can detect endothelial cell and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) activation in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before endothelial activation was validated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of inflammatory marker expression (PECAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1). A centrifugal microfluidic system and V-cup array was used to capture individual cells before optical measurement of light scattering, immunocytofluorescence, auto-fluorescence (AF) and cell morphology was determined. In vitro, TNF-alpha promoted specific changes to the refractive index and cell morphology of individual cells concomitant with enhanced photon ...
Cytokines expression levels from tissue, plasma or serum as promising clinical biomarkers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A systematic review of recent findings
NovoPro offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.. Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. For example, cytokines made by lymphocytes can also be referred to as lymphokines, while interleukins are made by one leukocyte and act on other leukocytes. And chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.. Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine ...
Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKRs in ART patients. A prospective non-placebo control trial of antioxidant treatment for abnormal peripheral inflammatory cytokine ratios was performed. CKRs were assessed using flow cytometry in stimulated versus unstimulated whole blood samples in 337 IVF patients presenting with a previous history of poor outcome (RM or implantation failure). CKRs were found to be elevated in 150/337. 70/150 patients in this elevated group agreed to a 10 week regime of Omega 3, vitamin
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
A cytokine signature found in certain kinds of breast cancer cells can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
The role of JAK-3 in TLR-mediated innate immune responses is poorly understood, although the suppressive function of JAK3 inhibition in adaptive immune response has been well studied. In this study, we found that JAK3 inhibition enhanced TLR-mediated immune responses by differentially regulating pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine production in innate immune cells. Specifically, JAK3 inhibition by pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNA or JAK3 gene knockout resulted in an increase in TLR-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines while concurrently decreasing the production of IL-10. Inhibition of JAK3 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K downstream effectors including Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and CREB. Constitutive activation of Akt or inhibition of GSK3β abrogated the capability of JAK3 inhibition to enhance proinflammatory cytokines and suppress IL-10 production. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K enhanced ...
Buy Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Inflammatory) and other ELISA Kits for multiplex human cytokines. Anogen supplies ELISA Kits and Antibodies around the globe.
Cytokine-driven inflammation and tissue destruction is a common theme of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerosis. Research over the last two decades demonstrated the importance of cytokines that are not only expressed chronically but also are capable of signaling at sites of chronic inflammation. Cytokines thus regulate major pathological processes that include inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and fibrosis. This research led to the identification of key cytokines involved in these processes, two of which, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, have also been successfully targeted in the clinic. However, what triggers and maintains cytokine gene expression in chronic inflammation remains a mystery. In this article, we review current progress in the understanding of cytokine-driven inflammation and discuss current evidence implicating Toll-like receptors
BackgroundHIV specific T cells are putatively anergic in vivo. IL-2, a member of a class of cytokines that binds to receptors containing the common gamma chain (γc) has been shown to reverse anergy. We examined the role of γc cytokines in reversing HIV specific T cell anergy.MethodsPBMC from untreated HIV-infected individuals were briefly exposed to a panel of γc cytokines, and frequencies of gag specific T cells were enumerated by intracellular IFN-γ flow cytometry.ResultsOf the γc cytokines, brief exposure to IL-2, IL-15, or combined IL-15/IL-7 significantly enhanced (range 2-7 fold) the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to HIV gag, with IL-15 giving the greatest enhancement. The effects of cytokines were not due to enhanced proliferation of pre-existing antigen specific cells, but were due to a combination of enhanced cytokine production from antigen specific T cells plus activation of non-epitope specific T cells.ConclusionsThese observations support the notion that a significant number of
DCs are very efficient professional APCs [3]. They play a unique role in initiating immunity through the activation of naïve T cells and support local immune responses by the attraction, accumulation and activation of both CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. During maturation, DCs undergo changes in phenotype, expressing long dendrites with an upregulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules. At the same time, DCs switch from an antigen-capturing cell into an APC that can activate antigen-specific T cells. Cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, combined with IL-4, are known to contribute to DC maturation [7]. Indeed, these cytokines are used in sequential combination to obtain ex vivo mature functional DCs from blood monocytes. Out of this list of cytokines, only IL-4 is considered not to be produced by RA synovitis [8].. Two main types of DCs that mediate distinct biological outcomes are distinguished by their lineage ...
TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsTSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsAA00892882 ...
Flow cytometry in combination with microspheres (beads) in a suspension have gained increasing interest by the research community
I den här avhandlingen behandlades monocyter och lymfocyter från friska personer med IL-2 och -4 i laboratorium för att inducera resistens mot glukokortikosteroider. Sedan stimulerades cytokinproduktionen med ett bakterieämne (endotoxin) och vi undersökte effekten av glukokortikosteroider på produktionen av olika cytokiner. I arbete I undersöktes först effekten av en vanligt använd glukokortikosteroid, budesonid, på produktionen av tre olika cytokiner från obehandlade monocyter. Produktionen av ett nyligen upptäckt cytokin, IL-12, visade sig mycket känslig för budesonid. I arbete nummer II fann vi att produktionen av GM-CSF blev resistent mot budesonid i monocyter och lymfocyter som hade behandlats med IL-2 och -4. Detta visade att IL-2 och IL-4 inducerade en funktionell resistens mot glukokortikosteroider. Vidare fann vi att effekten av två andra glukokortikosteroider med annorlunda kemisk struktur än budesonid också försämrades. Detta tyder på att IL-2 och -4 troligen ...
Results Stimulation of DC subsets from patients with early lSSc and dSSc with ligands for TLR2, TLR3 or TLR4 resulted in higher secretion of IL-6 and TNFα compared with those having late disease or healthy controls. Remarkably, the production of IL-12 was lower upon stimulation with TLR ligands in most patients with SSc, whereas the secretion of IL-10 was very high in patients with the dSSc phenotype, particularly in those having early dSSc. The combination of various TLR ligands led to reduced cytokine secretion in all patients with SSc. Circulating levels of these cytokines further underscored the presence of differences between various SSc phenotypes.. ...
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Proinflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are the typical proinflammatory cytokines.
The induction of peripheral tolerance to alloantigen is accompanied in many cases by a decrease in the production of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN gamma, yet a sustained production of cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-4. Whether or not this altered pattern of cytokine production in tolerant animals is causally related to the induction and/or maintenance of the tolerant state has yet to be fully determined, although experiments blocking selectively the action of IL-2 with CD25 antibodies suggest that manipulation of cytokine production may at least be a route to tolerance. Alternative methods for directly influencing the cytokine balance are sought and recent experiments on the CD28/CTLA-4-B7 interaction suggest a possible approach.
Here, we show that breast cancer is infiltrated with inflammatory Th2 cells and that such T cells are driven by OX40L on DCs. Blocking OX40L in vitro prevents generation of these CD4+ T cells without impact on IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. Blocking OX40L in vivo partially prevents T cell-dependent acceleration of breast cancer tumor development. OX40L is not constitutively expressed, but can be induced on DCs, macrophages, and B cells; e.g., upon CD40 engagement or cytokine signals such as TSLP or IL-18, as well as upon TLR stimulation (Ito et al., 2005; Croft et al., 2009). Thus, the presence of OX40L+ mDCs in breast tumors indicate sustained activation of DCs in tumor environment. Indeed, OX40L expression by DCs is driven by TSLP secreted from breast cancer cells. Accordingly, TSLP expression can be found in primary and metastatic tumors. Blocking TSLP reduces inflammation and partially inhibits tumor development.. Based on our results presented herein and in our earlier studies, we propose a ...
Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human BM, adipose tissue, and placenta was carried out. The cells were compared by the levels of constitutive, spontaneous, and LPS-induced production of Th1/proinflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-
Background: Cytokine dysregulation plays an important role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) with a commonality in pathogenic me
Insight Biotechnology supply high quality reagents for cell and molecular biology, specializing in antibodies for medical research.
KRISHGEN BIOSYSTEMS is leading manufacturer of human cytokine ELISA kits. These kits are designed for the in vitro quantification of a range of cytokines in various biological fluids for human.
KRISHGEN BIOSYSTEMS is leading manufacturer of human cytokine ELISA kits. These kits are designed for the in vitro quantification of a range of cytokines in various biological fluids for human.
CD8hiCD57+ T cells have previously been described as effector memory T cells with minimal expansion capacity and high susceptibility to activation-induced cell death. In contrast, we demonstrate here that CD8hiCD57+ T cells are capable of rapid expansion using multiple techniques including [3H]thymidine uptake, flow cytometric bead-based enumeration and standard haemocytometer counting. Previous reports can be explained by marked inhibition of activation-induced expansion and increased 7-amino-actinomycin D uptake by CD8hiCD57+ T cells following treatment with CFSE, a dye previously used to measure their proliferation, combined with specific media requirements for the growth of this cell subset. The ability of CD8hiCD57+ T cells to further differentiate is highlighted by a distinct cytokine profile late after activation that includes the unexpected release of high levels of interleukin 5. These data indicate that CD8hiCD57+ T cells should not be considered as "end-stage" effector T cells ...
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did not alter plasma cholesterol levels, but reduced the development of both early and late atherosclerotic lesions. We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-γ, but not of other measured cytokines. Transfer of sortilin-deficient BM into irradiated atherosclerotic mice reduced atherosclerosis and systemic markers of inflammation. Together, these data demonstrate that sortilin influences cytokine secretion and that targeting sortilin in immune cells attenuates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis.. ...
Cytokines play an important role in regulating the bodys immune, hematopoietic, nervous, and endocrine systems. Cytokine antibodies in drug development have demonstrated positive clinical significance for treating autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms and signal pathways of cytokines in the body are complex. Backed by detailed investigation and careful design, Biocytogen presents a series of mice models for preclinical evaluation of immunotherapy drugs with humanized cytokines and their receptors.. ...
Cytokines From Basic Mechanisms of Cellular Control to New Therapeutics ebook free. Cytokines and chemokines are secreted, small cell-sig- naling protein molecules between antigen-specific CD4 T cells and B cells is essential for ertheless, among biological cancer therapeutics, IL-2 remains T cells can control many aspects of inflammation and immunoregula- Liss, Allen New York, NY, USA. 6. Furthermore, 4/21 ICR-CAR T cells persisted and eradicated established IL-4+ tumors in vivo. Thus, 4/21 ICR is a promising clinical CAR-T cell therapeutics for poses a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy including CAR-T cell Th2-specific GATA3 expression was up-regulated in control cells Buy Cytokines: From Basic Mechanisms of Cellular Control to New Therapeutics for $177.99 at Mighty Ape Australia. Cytokines are small proteins released Alternatively, it may be that certain AML cases require a cytokine or cell cell interaction that The control of self-renewal is under the control of various regulators. ...
Epithelial cells are instrumental in orchestrating allergic immune responses. They are an important source of the Th2-inducing cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP (87). Considerable efforts have been made to elucidate the distinct roles of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP in both early and late phases of allergic responses. Exposure to allergens, infections, or tissue damage can promote the release of these cytokines from the epithelium. Early priming of the allergen-specific immune responses with these cytokines may play an important role in the development of Th2 priming by DCs and type 2 ILCs. Decreased production of these cytokines represents an important target for the priming of type 2 immune responses as discussed below. Currently, IL-33 and TSLP are promising targets, but IL-25-related studies are not ongoing on a large scale. This may be due to more exhaustive effects of IL-33 and TSLP in in vitro and in vivo studies compared with IL-25, although further studies are needed (88).. IL-25. IL-25 (also ...
In recent years, it has been firmly established that inflammation not only contributes to acute cardiovascular events but is also a key player in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.42 However, little is known about the potentially unique features of this inflammatory process in diabetes.. Several inflammatory markers have been identified in atherosclerotic lesions. Among them are cytokines and growth factors, which are released by activated macrophages that, together with T cells, are major cellular components in atherosclerotic lesions.42 Cytokines increase the synthesis of platelet activating factor, stimulate lipolysis, markedly stimulate the expression of adhesion molecules, and upregulate the synthesis and cell surface expression of procoagulant activity in ECs. Thus, cytokines may play crucial roles not only in the initiation but also in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.. The release of cytokines may be greater in diabetes because some of the processes known to ...
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, microflora and antioxidant capacity in heat-stressed broilers. Four hundred 28-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned into four groups, with 10 replicates per group and 10 broilers per replicate. The broilers in the normal (NOR) group were kept at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet, and each of the other three groups were treated with cyclic heat (33 ± 1°C from 0800 to 1800 and 22 ± 1°C from 1800 to 0800) and fed the basal diet with 0 (HT), 1 (CT1) or 2 (CT2) g of CT/kg of diet ...
Methods: The study included primary cultures of CAFs isolated from freshly resected NSCLC (n = 7) and freshly isolated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) isolated from randomly selected healthy volunteers. A potential crosstalk between irradiated or non-irradiated CAFs and T-lymphocytes was examined using in vitro co-cultures and PBMCs exposed to CAF-conditioned medium (CM). Relevant cell functions were analyzed by a series of assays including lymphocyte proliferation assays, lymphocyte migration assays, Treg assays and T-cell cytokine production. In the search for mechanisms behind the observed effects, a series of molecular assays including multiplex protein arrays, ELISAs, LC-MS/MS proteomics and cytokines specific blocking assays were performed. Finally the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) of CAFs in response to HD-RT (1 x 18 Gy) was studied by examining the release of high motility group box 1 (HMGB1) and ATP into the extracellular space ...
Cytokines are the chemical messengers released by the cells that help in the communication between the different cells. Cytokines are mainly secreted by th..
Abstract: Interleukin-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by a variety of cells, including a newly identified subset of activated CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells), gd T cells, CD8+ cells and NKT cells. Th17 cells are thought to be a distinct lineage of Th cells that mainly produce IL-17, IL-22 and other cytokines which are involved in inflammatory response. gd T cells have also been shown to be a potent source of IL-17 and, in some cases, produce more IL-17 than ab T cells. IL-17-producing T cells are important in the host defense against acute pulmonary infection during the early immune response, also have the potential to elicit detrimental responses during chronic infection-related inflammatory conditions. This review will introduce recent research progress on the role of IL-17-producing T cells in the pulmonary bacterial infection ...
Link between inflammation and overexpression of CCL2 suggests potential of anti-inflammatory medications as a breast cancer preventive in some women.
(2005) Matsuda et al. Surgery. Background. Lysis-deficient (LyD) bacteriophages (phages) kill bacteria without endotoxin (Et) release. This may minimize systemic cytokine responses and limit inflammation in bacterial sepsis. We ...
Several related methods for multiplexed detection of one or more posttranslational modifications of a plurality of proteins are provided. Methods for detecting one or more nucleic acid binding proteins are also provided. Use of such methods (e.g., methods of detecting phosphorylation of protein kinases) for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease is also included. Compositions, systems and kits that relate to each of the methods are described.
The milieu of cytokines by which cells within tissues and organism modify their collective behavior plays a key role to change cancer processes. Cytokines both guard the bodies immune response against cancer or they are directly involved in pathogenesis of oncologic processes. Cytokines control for example core cancer pathways such as RAS/RAF, PI3K-PTEN-mTOR or JAK-STAT signaling, they change cell invasion, cell adhesion or DNA damage response. Moreover, cytokines are crucial in regulation of survival and control of G1-S progression or they are dominant factors to execute or prevent senescence. Importantly, cytokine action can be a cancer driver or a cancer cell blocker, often incompletely understood and dependent on the cancer type associated with microenvrionmental signaling pathways. We are starting to recognize that cytokines can affect the sensitivity of cancers to drug treatment, often by a complex cancer cell-stroma cell interaction. Moreover, the status of the cytokine response in an ...
… some viruses subvert the immune response by producing homologs of mammalian cytokines or their receptors. J. J. Oppenheim and M. Feldmann(p7) Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in very low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation., Each cytokine has multiple effects and overlaps with other cytokines, including structurally dissimilar ones, in those effects. The multiple effects (pleiotropy) are explained by the presence of cytokine receptors on a wide variety of cells, and the overlap (redundancy)
… some viruses subvert the immune response by producing homologs of mammalian cytokines or their receptors. J. J. Oppenheim and M. Feldmann(p7) Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in very low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation., Each cytokine has multiple effects and overlaps with other cytokines, including structurally dissimilar ones, in those effects. The multiple effects (pleiotropy) are explained by the presence of cytokine receptors on a wide variety of cells, and the overlap (redundancy)
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Cytokines Cytokines are a group of regulatory proteins critically involved in many physiological processes such as immune recognition, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. They have been identified in many vertebrate species and are produced by a variety of different cell types. Cytokines are usually produced transiently and locally, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner. They interact with high affinity cell surface receptors specific for each cytokine or cytokine group and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram range.
Cytokines Cytokines are a group of regulatory proteins critically involved in many physiological processes such as immune recognition, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. They have been identified in many vertebrate species and are produced by a variety of different cell types. Cytokines are usually produced transiently and locally, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner. They interact with high affinity cell surface receptors specific for each cytokine or cytokine group and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram range.
Based on our previous research, this study aims to determine reliable surgical stress response markers in patients undergoing radical resection of color
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, The inflammatory reaction and the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to a novel polyester-polyurethane aortic prosthesis evaluated in dog sat 6 and 12 months post-implantation - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
With Custom Mix-n-Match Multi-Analyte ELISArray Kits, a custom panel of cytokines or chemokines is arranged in a 96-well microplate to your specifications. Select 12 individual cytokines or select fewer cytokines and increase the number of samples per plate ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates in African Americans (AAs) are up to 38% higher than in Caucasian Americans (CAs). Moreover, our previous studies reported that AAs have hypermethylated DNA regions in inflammatory genes such as NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4; suggesting that AAs have differences in their inflammation patterns when compared to CAs. Therefore, we used two AA tumor-derived cell lines, which were generated in Dr. Williams laboratory, and two CA tumor-derived cell lines to study the production of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 and anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokines as they relate to possible differences in the inflammatory response. The inflammatory inducers IL-1B and TNF-alpha as well as Lipopolysaccharide from E. coli were used to mimic colonic inflammatory niches and induce cytokines secretion in these four cell lines. As hypothesized, our results show a significantly higher inflammatory cytokine production of IL-8 in the CA cell lines in response to all the ...
A ABKIT oferece uma linha completa de anticorpos, kits de ELISA, proteínas e equipamentos para pesquisa científica incluindo Câncer e Apoptose, Citosinas Inflamatórias, Hormônios, Metabolismo, Neurociência, Segurança Alimentar, Stress Oxidativo e Testes S
Cytokine: is any number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, which are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and ha
Djoba SJF ; Roberts T ; Babb C ; Black G ; Golakai HJ ; Stanley K ; Bapela NB ; Hoal EG ; Parida S ; van Helden PD ; Walzl G (2008) ...
Bio-Plex Pro™ cell signaling assays take advantage of the magnetic bead workflow to detect phosphorylated and total protein targets involved in key intracellular signaling pathways.
Our prospective study reveals higher serum CRP, sE-selectin, and specific cytokines (IL-1ra and IP-10) and lower eotaxin in pregnant women with T1DM who subsequently developed PE compared with those who remained normotensive. In general, serum CRP, adhesion molecules, and cytokines were higher at most visits in women with T1DM who later developed PE than in those who remained normotensive. This suggests that exacerbated maternal inflammatory responses confer susceptibility to PE. Because these significant findings persisted following adjustments for covariates, our results show independent temporal associations of these selected inflammatory mediators with PE in women with pregestational T1DM.. CRP, an acute-phase protein produced by the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines, has been used routinely as a biomarker to monitor progression of disease and response to treatment in patients with inflammatory diseases (19). Multiple epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that CRP can ...
Gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in joints of Dnase2 deficient mice relies on AIM2.A: Protein lysates were generated from the joints of 15 months ol
Measurement of cytokines expressed by splenocytes of immunized mice groups.Cytokines expressed by splenocytes collected from mice immunized with F1, F1+HSP70(II
The brain is not only immunologically active of its own accord, but also has complex peripheral immune interactions. Given the central role of cytokines in neuroimmmunoendocrine processes, it is hypothesized that these molecules influence cognition via diverse mechanisms. Peripheral cytokines penetr …
Systemic toxicity prevents full clinical application of cytokines such as type I interferons or Tumor Necrosis Factor, including their use in cancer. We will evaluate a novel strategy to selectively target cytokine activity in vivo, aiming at an up to 1000-fold enhanced activity on cells expressing a specific surface marker. We will develop so-called AcTakines (Activity-on-Target cytokines), which resemble immunocytokines but employ mutant cytokines with reduced binding affinity for their receptor complex ...
291995831 - EP 1212085 B1 2007-10-31 - COMPOSITIONS FOR STIMULATING CYTOKINE SECRETION AND INDUCING AN IMMUNE RESPONSE - [origin: WO0115726A2] Lipid-nucleic acid particles can provide therapeutic benefits, even when the nucleic acid is not complementary to coding sequences in target cells. It has been found that lipid-nucleic acid particles, including those containing non-sequence specific oligodeoxynucleotides, can be used to stimulate cytokine secretion, thus enhancing the overall immune response of a treated mammal. Further, immune response to specific target antigens can be induced by administration of an antigenic molecule in association with lipid particles containing non-sequence specific oligodeoxynucleotides. The nucleic acid which is included in the lipid-nucleic acid particle can be a phosphodiester (i.e., an oligodeoxynucleotide consisting of nucleotide residues joined by phosphodiester linkages) or a modified nucleic acid which includes phosphorothioate or other modified linkages, and may
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If you want to modify this formula please do so with our Custom Formula product. Cytokines play a vital role in the bodys normal ability to fight disease. If cytokin levels are too low an immune response cant be mounted. If cytokine levels are too high a life-threatening cyokine storm may result. The HomeGrown Herb
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
With INVIGATE you will find an expert for expression and purification of recombinant cytokines, chemokines and growth factors from different species. INVIGATE developes superior cell-based assay formats for the analysis of cytokine action.
JS Friedland, Y Suputtamongkol, DG Remick, W Chaowagul, NJ White, NJ White, GE Griffin; Prolonged Elevation of Interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 Plasma Concentrations and Leucocyte mRNA in Septicaemic and Localised Gram Negative Infection. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 1992; 82 (s26): 10P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are associated with the induction of a number of pathologies - most famously allergy and asthma - and inhibiting IRE1α allows for inhibition of these cytokines, making IRE1α an attractive target for the treatment of diseases caused or exacerbated by IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines," says Kemp. "However, further research will have to be performed to determine if there are any clinical applications for inhibition of IRE1α in Th2 cytokine-mediated pathologies.". ...
Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) initiates signaling from several cytokine receptors and is required for biological responses such as erythropoiesis. JAK2 activity is controlled by regulatory proteins such as Suppressor of Cytokine ...
Cytokines, small proteins (about 5-20 kDa), are very important in human health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.
Thiebaut, R., Liquet, B., Hocini, H., Hue, S., Richert, L., Raimbault, M., Le Cao, K. and Levy, Y. (2012). A new method for integrated analysis applied to gene expression and cytokines secretion in response to LIPO-5 vaccine in HIV-negative volunteers. In: Retrovirology. , , (). . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-S2-P121 ...
... are a net-workof tissue-specific regulators, being important in cell production, in regulating inflammatory, wound-healing, and antiviral responses.
The team from the Universities of Bristol and Reading found that 28-day old piglets produced very different levels of immune cells, antibodies and other immune-associated molecules depending on their sex, contradicting previous evidence suggesting that the difference in immunity begins during puberty.. Dr Marie Lewis, principal investigator and Lecturer in Gut Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Reading, said: "Correct development of the immune system is essential in ensuring it responds appropriately to both harmful and harmless stimulation throughout life and this development, even during the first days of life, depends on your sex. Although we dont know why, we know that young girls tend to produce a more protective immune response to vaccination than boys. But what we did not expect to find is that young girls also appear to have a more regulated immune environment in their intestinal tissues than boys. This is important because around 70 per cent of the immune system is in the ...
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Learn Cytokines facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Bomba-Opon D, Wielgos M, Horosz E, Bartkowiak R, Szymusik I, Mazanowski N, Bochenska K. Maternal plasma cytokines concentrations and insulin resistance in first trimester in relation to fetal growth. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009 Jan; 30(6): 729-732 ...
The ViBE® platform from BioScale allows rapid design and configuration of protein assays to achieve highly-sensitive detection and quantitation of proteins in complex biological samples with real-time results. In this video Ken Dick, an Applications Scientist at BioScale, tells SelectScience about ViBE technology and some of its applications, for example in cancer research. As an example Ken discusses how cytokine assays have been developed using the ViBE workstation. Interview filmed by SelectScience at SLAS2013.
Description - NHP interleukin 17C (CX2, IL17C; Gene ID: 710618) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the innate immune system. It binds to the heterodimeric IL-17RA/IL-17RE receptor on immune cells, synergizing with IL-22 to stimulate the release of various antibacterial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. Excessive activation of IL-17C causes pathogenic inflammatory effects seen in various autoimmune disorders ...
Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by…
Recently, a number of cytokines belonging to the interleukin (IL)-17 family have been identified. These are termed as IL-17B, IL-17C and IL-17E. IL-17…
changes in frequency, activation state, and HIV-specific functional capacity of T and NK cells in blood, as monitored by expression of intracellular cytokines during the first 12 weeks after stopping HAART, with respect to termination of Step ...
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During various inflammatory processes circulating cytokines including IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα elicit a broad and clinically relevant impairment of hepatic detoxification that is based on the downregulation ...
Characterize the expression of caspase-4 and -5 in by measuring the production of cytokines: IL-1β concentrations and IL-1α will determined by ELISA in the cell supernatant will be collected from monocytes stimulated or ...
Page contains details about example of cytokine macro-aggregates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at week 8 (P = .001). Plasma TNF-α ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Static Magnetic Field Reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels of Fibroblasts by Altering Membrane Fluidity. AU - Lin, Che-Tong. AU - Chen, Chi-An. AU - Chen, Yu-Fu. AU - Chen, Chun-Yang. AU - Lee, Sheng-Yang. AU - Huang, Haw-Ming. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the major substances that initiate an immune host response in microbial infections which results in cytotoxicity. In terms of the treatment of the immune response, much research on endotoxin tolerance that can reduce LPS-induced damages has been conducted. In this experiment, cultured fibroblasts were challenged with LPS in order to initiate an inflammatory reaction. Cell numbers and various proinflammatory cytokine levels were compared between a static magnetic field (SMF)-exposed group and an unexposed group. Our results showed that with LPS challenge, fibroblasts exposed to a 4000-G SMF demonstrated a higher cell density (8.28±0.14 10^4 cells/ml) when compared ...
Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Graves Disease and Hashimotos Thyroiditis. But what exactly are cytokines? They are similar to hormones, and some sources actually classify them as a type of hormone. Either way, cytokines are immunomodulating proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins that are involved in cellular communication (1). They are regulators of host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma (2).. Certain cytokines play a pro-inflammatory role in autoimmune conditions such as Graves Disease and Hashimotos Thyroiditis. In other words, these cytokines promote inflammation. Two examples of pro-inflammatory cytokines include Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). However, there are also anti-inflammatory cytokines, as these cytokines act in concert with specific cytokine inhibitors and soluble cytokine receptors to regulate the human immune response (3).. What Role Do Cytokines Play In ...
Control of Trypanosoma congolense infections requires an early cell-mediated immune response. To unravel the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process, 6 different T. congolense strains were used in 6 different gene-deficient mouse models that included TNF(-/-), TNF receptor-1 (TNFp55)(-/-), and TNF receptor-2 (TNFp75)(-/-) mice, 2 cell type-specific TNF(-/-) mice, as well as TNF-knock-in mice that expressed only membrane-bound TNF. Our results indicate that soluble TNF produced by macrophages/neutrophils and TNFp55 signaling are essential and sufficient to control parasitemia. The downstream mechanism in the control of T. congolense infection depends on inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the liver. Such a role for nitric oxide is corroborated ex vivo, because the inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine blocks the trypanolytic activity of the adherent liver cell population, whereas exogenous interferon- gamma that stimulates nitric oxide production enhances parasite killing. In ...
Purpose: Several key components of the complement cascade are associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including the Y402H variation in the gene encoding complement factor H (CFH), which confers a several-fold increased risk for developing AMD. Earlier studies, including ours, demonstrated an association between drusen, a hallmark of early AMD, and increased inflammatory cytokines in retina of postmortem eye tissues. In this study, we address the correlation between plasma cytokines and drusen load, choroidal thickness and the Y402H polymorphism in CFH gene in patients with dry AMD.. Methods: Forty-four patients with dry AMD were recruited. Drusen area and volume were determined using the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) software, and choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging (EDI). The subjects blood samples were analyzed for multiple cytokines using Bio-Plex suspension assays and genotyped for the CFH Y402H ...
Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac) infected
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotides prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. AU - Agrawal, Devendra K.. AU - Edwan, Jehad. AU - Kandimalla, Ekambar R.. AU - Yu, Dong. AU - Bhagat, Lakshmi. AU - Wang, Daqing. AU - Agrawal, Sudhir. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG oligos) have been shown to prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of asthma. Recently, we reported immunomodulatory oligonucleotides (IMOs) containing novel structures (immunomers) and synthetic immunostimulatory CpR (R=2′-deoxy-7- deazguanosine) motifs show potent stimulatory activity with distinct cytokine secretion profiles. Since type 2 T cells predominate in asthma and increase in type 1 cells can prevent the differentiation of naïve T lymphocytes to a type 2 phenotype, we hypothesized that IMOs can prevent the development of allergic ...
The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid co-evolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step RT-qPCR assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15 and CXCLi2, syn. IL8L). These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms. AU - Engel, Stephanie A Mulherin. AU - Erichsen, Hans Christian. AU - Savitz, David A.. AU - Thorp, John. AU - Chanock, Stephen J.. AU - Olshan, Andrew F.. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Background: Preliminary data suggest that common genetic variation in immune response genes can contribute to the risk for spontaneous preterm birth and possibly small-for-gestational age (SGA). Methods: We investigated the relationship of polymorphisms in 6 cytokine genes associated with inflammation-interleukin (IL)1α, IL1β, IL2, IL6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and lymphotoxin α (LTA)-with spontaneous preterm and SGA birth in a nested case-control study drawn from a prospective pregnancy cohort. Women were recruited between 24 and 29 weeks gestation at the Wake County and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill obstetric clinics between February 1996 and June 2000. We inferred haplotypes ...
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine. It is a cardiac hypertrophic factor of 21.5 kDa and a protein member of the IL-6 cytokine family. CT-1 is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The protein exerts its cellular effects by interacting with the glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta (LIFR) heterodimer. In addition, CT-1 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) in cardiac myocytes and enhances transcription factor NF-κB DNA -binding activities. CT-1 is highly expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle, prostate and ovary and to lower levels in lung, kidney, pancreas, thymus, testis and small intestine. "Recombinant human Cardiotrophin 1 protein (ab9838)". Retrieved 2017-08-09. cardiotrophin 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Irving, Michael (August 8, 2017). "The protein that can make your ...
... s (MIP) belong to the family of chemotactic cytokines known as chemokines. In humans, there are two major forms, MIP-1α and MIP-1β that are now officially named CCL3 and CCL4, respectively. Both are major factors produced by macrophages after they are stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. They are crucial for immune responses towards infection and inflammation. They activate human granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) which can lead to acute neutrophilic inflammation. They also induce the synthesis and release of other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-α from fibroblasts and macrophages. The genes for CCL3 and CCL4 are both located on human chromosome 17. They are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. Biophysical analyses and mathematical modelling has shown ...
... s (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. Their name is derived from their ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells; they are chemotactic cytokines. Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. These proteins have historically been known under several other names including the SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are ...
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides. It plays a central role in cell immunity as an inflammatory response initiator. Once activated through formation of an inflammasome complex, it initiates a proinflammatory response through the cleavage and thus activation of the two inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as well as pyroptosis, a programmed lytic cell death pathway, through cleavage of Gasdermin D. The two inflammatory cytokines activated by Caspase-1 are excreted from the cell to further induce the inflammatory response in neighboring cells. Caspase-1 is evolutionarily conserved in many Eukaryotes of the Kingdom Animalia. Due to its role in the inflammatory immune ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells that belongs to a family inflammatory cytokines known as chemokines. CCL1 attracts monocytes, NK cells, and immature B cells and dendritic cells by interacting with a cell surface chemokine receptor called CCR8. This chemokine resides in a large cluster of CC chemokines on human chromosome 17. Miller MD, Krangel MS (April 1992). "The human cytokine I-309 is a monocyte chemoattractant". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (7): 2950-4. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.7.2950. PMC 48781 . PMID 1557400. Roos RS, Loetscher M, Legler DF, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (July 1997). "Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (28): 17251-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.28.17251. PMID 9211859 ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL19 gene. This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene may play a role in normal lymphocyte recirculation and homing. It also plays an important role in trafficking of T cells in thymus, and in T cell and B cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor CCR7. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta (MIP-3-beta). CCL19 is expressed abundantly in thymus and lymph nodes, with moderate levels in trachea and colon and low levels in stomach, small intestine, lung, ...
In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to the CD14 receptor on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Engagement of CD14 (even at doses as minute as 10 pg/mL) results in intracellular signaling via an associated "Toll-like receptor" protein 4 (TLR-4). This signaling results in the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), which leads to transcription of a number of genes that trigger a proinflammatory response. It was the result of significant activation of mononuclear cells and synthesis of effector cytokines. It also results in profound activation of mononuclear cells and the production of potent effector cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. TLR-mediated activation helps to trigger the innate immune system to efficiently eradicate invading microbes, but the cytokines they produce also act on endothelial cells. There, they have a variety of effects, including reduced synthesis of ...
... is a subunit for the interleukin-28 receptor. IL28RA is its human gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class II cytokine receptor family. This protein forms a receptor complex with interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB). The receptor complex has been shown to interact with three closely related cytokines, including interleukin 28A (IL28A), interleukin 28B (IL28B), and interleukin 29 (IL29). The expression of all three cytokines can be induced by viral infection. The cells overexpressing this protein have been found to have enhanced responses to IL28A and IL29, but decreased response to IL28B. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000185436 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000062157 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: IL28RA interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (interferon, lambda ...
... (Il32) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL32 gene. This gene encodes a member of the cytokine family. The protein contains a tyrosine sulfation site, 3 potential N-myristoylation sites, multiple putative phosphorylation sites, and an RGD cell-attachment sequence. Expression of this protein is increased after the activation of T-cells by mitogens or the activation of NK cells by IL-2. This protein induces the production of TNF-alpha from macrophage cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce cells of the immune system (such as monocytes and macrophages) to secrete inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6. In addition, it can also induce the production of chemokines such as IL-8 and MIP-2 / CXCL2. IL-32 can also support osteoclast differentiation but not osteoclast activation by regulating the MAPK/ERK ...
... (IL-1R2) also known as CD121b (Cluster of Differentiation 121b) is an interleukin receptor. IL1R2 also denotes its human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a decoy receptor for certain cytokines that belongs to the interleukin-1 receptor family. This protein binds interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra), preventing them from binding to their regular receptors and thereby inhibiting the transduction of their signaling. IL-1R2 protein also interacts non-productively with the second component of the signalling IL-1 receptor, namely IL-1RAcP, and a complex of the IL-1R2 and IL-1RAcP extracellular domains with interleukin-1 beta has been solved by X-ray crystallography. Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize the activity of interleukin 1 by inducing the expression and release of this cytokine. This gene and three other genes form a cytokine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 2q12. Two alternatively ...
Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system. These cells are divided in many subsets based upon their ability to produce different cytokines. Following the discovery of interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing T helper (Th17) cells as a distinct lineage of T helper cells it became clear that these cells play an important role in the host defense and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The Th17 cells can alter their differentiation program ultimately giving rise to either protective or pro-inflammatory pathogenic cells. The protective and non-pathogenic Th17 cells are termed as Treg17 cells. Like conventional regulatory T cells (Treg), induction of regulatory Treg17 cells could play an important role in modulating and preventing certain autoimmune diseases. Treg17 (Regulatory Th17) cells are generated from CD4+ T cells. Treg17 cells with regulatory phenotype with in vivo immune-suppressive properties in the gut have also been identified as rTh17 ...
The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RN gene. IL-1RA was initially called the IL-1 inhibitor and was discovered separately in 1984 by two independent laboratories. IL-1RA is an agent that binds non-productively to the cell surface interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), the same receptor that binds interleukin 1 (IL-1), preventing IL-1 from sending a signal to that cell. IL-1RA is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. IL1Ra is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1β. This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of interleukin 1 related immune and inflammatory responses. This gene and five other closely related cytokine genes form a gene cluster spanning approximately 400 kb on chromosome 2. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants ...
Interleukin 17 receptor A, also known as IL17RA and CDw217 (cluster of differentiation w217), is a human gene. Interleukin 17A (IL17A)is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted by activated T-lymphocytes. It is a potent inducer of the maturation of CD34-positive hematopoietic precursors into neutrophils. The protein encoded by this gene (interleukin 17A receptor; IL17RA) is a ubiquitous type I membrane glycoprotein that binds with low affinity to interleukin 17A. Interleukin 17A and its receptor play a pathogenic role in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Like other cytokine receptors, this receptor likely has a multimeric structure. Interleukin-17 receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177663 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000002897 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: IL17RA interleukin 17 receptor A". Yao Z, Spriggs MK, Derry JM, et al. (1998). "Molecular characterization of ...
AST-005 is a topically-applied SNA that targets tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be a key ...
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. Br J Community Nurs. Skin Disease, Immune Response and Cytokines. Clin Rev Allerg Immunol. The ... A Review of T-cell Subsets and Cytokine Profiles". J Cutan Med Surg. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Clinical dermatology 4th ... Several monoclonal antibodies target cytokines, the molecules that cells Psoriasis Psoriasis to send inflammatory signals to ...
Effects of cyclosporine on cytokines and cytokine receptors in psoriasis. Cyclosporine improves psoriasis in a double-blind ...

No data available that match "cytokines"

  • A research paper published in 2004 in the 'American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,' discovered that women who ate the most trans fat had the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in their blood when compared to women who avoided trans fat. (
  • The most important feature of A/H5N1 immunopathogenesis is the appearence of hypercytokinemia ("cytokine storm") which is characterized by the extreme (exaggerated) production and secretion of large numbers and excessive levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • Key phenotypes of clinical HE were phenocopied in the mice model, including high mortality, severe hepatic histology injury, increased hepatic oxidative stress, apoptosis, enhanced circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ammonia, suppressed tryptophan hydroxylase activity, and deficits in locomotor activity. (
  • If the primary cell from which they are derived is a monocyte, for example, the cytokine is termed a monokine, while those derived from lymphocytes are called lymphokines. (
  • The subject of the present invention is defective recombinant adenoviruses, characterized in that they contain a defective, non-replicable adenovirus genome into which one or more nucleic acid sequences coding for one more cytokines, in particular lymphokines, are inserted under the control of one or more promoters capable of being recognised by the polymerases of human cells, more especially of human tumor cells or of cells infiltrating these tumors. (
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (
  • The multiplex cytokine assay format differs from conventional ELISA in one significant way- the multiplex capture antibody is attached to a bead whereas the ELISA capture antibody is attached to the microplate well. (
  • Click here to download human multiplex cytokine assay request form. (
  • Cytokines were measured according to Manufacturer's instructions using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) multi-spot assay system with V-plex or ultra-sensitive kits. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cytokine and chemokine research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • Serum levels of 48 cytokines were analyzed using Luminex multiplex magnetic bead-based antibody detection assay. (
  • The Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay detects IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and IFN-α in equine samples (see below). (
  • The assay can thus be used to identify typical T-cells and anti-viral cytokines. (
  • The Horse Cytokine 5-plex assay is based on fluorescent beads ('microspheres') that are color-coded and can be distinguished during the analysis of the assay 6 . (
  • Horse Cytokine 5-plex Assay for detection of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and IFN-α. (
  • Cytokine values are calculated according to five cytokine standards that are included in the assay. (
  • The analytical sensitivities (lower limit of detection) and the upper limits of detection for cytokines in the 5-plex assay are shown in Table 1. (
  • The sensitivity of cytokine detection by the multiplex assay is increased by 13 to 150-fold compared to corresponding ELISAs 6 . (
  • This allows the measurement of equine cytokines in the 5-plex assay within their physiological ranges. (
  • Lower and upper limits of detection of the Horse Cytokine 5-plex assay. (
  • Similarly, high circulating levels of some cytokines seem to be favourable (soluble IL-2R) while others are unfavourable (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, gp130) prognostic indicators. (
  • Multiplex assays use the principle of simultaneous detection of soluble analytes, such as cytokines, in biological samples 4, 5 . (
  • Designations such as HBGF group (heparin binding growth factors) take into account biochemical shared properties by a variety of cytokines which also problematic. (
  • Cytokines are implicated in many major diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, asthma and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (
  • The major feature distinguishing cytokines from hormones is the fact that cytokines are not produced by specialized cells organized in specialized glands. (
  • We are particularly interested in conversations involving cytokines such as IL-6, interferons, TRAIL and Fas. (
  • However, these family descriptions are no longer accurate because some growth factors and hormones exhibit cellular effects very similar to cytokine family members. (
  • Successful repair of damaged skin, and collagen synthesis, have been shown to require the involvement of growth factors and cytokines . (
  • All cytokines and growth factors listed below are produced in-house, ensuring the highest standards of quality and consistency. (
  • View our entire offering of Growth Factors & Cytokines . (
  • The signals released by growth factors and cytokines can tell individual cells whether to divide or not. (
  • Major emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary significance of cytokines and growth factors in areas as diverse as signal transduction , cell growth and differentiation , embryonic development , immunology , tumorigenesis and clinical medicine . (
  • Cytokines/immunocytokines, were initially used to separate the immunomodulatory proteins, also called immunotransmitters, from other growth factors that modulate proliferation and bioactivities of non-immune cells. (
  • Many growth factors and cytokines act as cellular survival factors by preventing programmed cell death. (
  • The Human Common Cytokines RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 important cytokine genes. (
  • Genes that code for cytokines are highly polymorphic, and some of these polymorphisms directly or indirectly influence cytokine expression. (
  • SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with common diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, allergy, and asthma, and data are now accumulating on their role in occupational/environmental diseases. (
  • Intriguingly, they suggest that a crucial role may be played by regions of cytokine genes, known as control regions, which determine the circumstances under which a gene might act. (
  • What might be the benefit of having two different cytokine genes? (
  • Mutations in the genes responsible for "any one of the 10-plus proteins that get perforin to do what it does" are linked to a higher risk of cytokine storm syndrome, Cron said. (
  • It has been detected that, mutations of some viral genes (NS1, PB2, HA and NA) are responsible for the cytokine storm, by increasing the viral replication rate, expending the tissue tropism, facilitating the systemic invasion and emerging of resistance against the host antiviral response. (
  • Cytokines are low molecular-weight proteins that serve as chemical messengers to regulate the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • Cytokines are proteins that regulate the immune system and that participate in intercellular communications. (
  • Cytokines are cells in your body that regulate immunity. (
  • cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. (
  • Cytokines also mediate interactions between cells & regulate processes taking place in the extracellular environment. (
  • IL-4 fails to regulate in vitro beryllium-induced cytokines in berylliosis. (
  • The results of the study showed that up-regulation of certain cytokines (specifically Th1, Th2 and Treg) involved in the growth and proliferation of various cells integral to the immune system, predicted which individuals go on to develop RA. (
  • So far IL-2, IFNalpha, IFNbeta and occasionally IFNgamma, IL-6, IL-12 have been the cytokines used for anti tumour treatment of advanced breast cancer either to induce or increase hormone sensitivity and/or to stimulate cellular immunity. (
  • Cytokines were measured using Millipore human cytokine multiplex kits (EMD Millipore.Corporation, Billerica, MA). (
  • Multiplex technology permits the determination of cytokines for a large panel of cytokines simultaneously with high sensitivity and with only 30 ul of plasma per sample. (
  • According to a 2008 article in 'Lipids in Health and Disease,' consuming inadequate omega-3 fats increases the production of cytokines from omega-6 fats, commonly found in vegetable oils. (
  • One area of particular interest is the relationship between cytokines and the gut microbiome and how the cross-talk between these two important components of the intestinal mucosal immune system affects the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium and of the gut micro-environment. (
  • Despite their central role in immune modulation, only a handful of cytokine therapeutics has achieved regulatory approval. (
  • Knowledge that cytokines create regulatory hierarchies and provide independent and/or interrelated regulatory mechanisms that can confer distinct and interactive developmental functions lays a solid, albeit rather complicated foundation, for current and future clinical experiences. (
  • Many other cell types of the innate and adaptive immune response also secrete IL-10 which functions as a regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. (
  • The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. (
  • Cytokines act on a wider spectrum of target cells than hormones. (
  • However, more research is required in this area of defining cytokines and hormones. (
  • Further activation of the adaptive immune response depends on cytokine regulation of T-cell differentiation into subsets of T-cells that serve specific functions to defend against harmful stimuli. (
  • Many immune-mediated diseases (especially rheumatic diseases) involve the abnormal regulation of cytokines ( table 1 ). (
  • As a result, understanding cytokine regulation abnormalities in these diseases could ultimately lead to novel and specific treatments. (
  • Major general topics include cytokine network and regulation, lymphocyte differentiation and function, dendritic cell and macrophage activation, as well as the role of non-immunological effector cells in health/disease like smooth muscle cells, goblet cells, activated by IL-4 and IL13. (
  • Furthermore, we show that TAp73 suppress proangiogenic cytokines and HIF-1α protein accumulation and that this repression is unleashed on TAp73 loss or ΔNp73 up-regulation, thus further fuelling tumor development. (
  • They were originally thought to be produced by lymphocytes/monocytes only, however, studies later on established that any nucleated cells can generate and secrete cytokines. (
  • There is strong evidence that cytokines play a critical role during intestinal immunity, and their role as mediators of intestinal immune responses to infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, and fungi has been demonstrated. (
  • This Research Topic aims to understand the role of cytokines in intestinal immune responses with a focus on infections, tumorigenesis, inflammatory conditions, and the relationship with the gut microbiome. (
  • Individual cytokines are indicative for certain immune responses and can be used to access the immune status during health and disease. (
  • Anti-cytokine beads and samples containing equine cytokines are mixed and incubated. (
  • IFN-γ is the most important cytokine of the Th1 response and supports the induction of cellular immunity to defend intracellular pathogens. (
  • The goal of this study was to verify that transdermal administration of nico-tine downregulates proinflammatory cytokine release after burn trauma. (
  • The biological actions and potential adaptive values of these cytokines through the course of muscle necrosis and regeneration will be described. (
  • Postolache's group has also explored cytokines that may be involved in triggering fatigue, hypothesizing that the allergic reaction is the direct biological cause of low mood. (
  • The sensitivity, reproducibility, and high dynamic range of Bio-Plex cell signaling assays enable these researchers to obtain precise measurements of cytokine levels and gain insight into this biological system. (
  • What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. (
  • The understanding of the biological mechanisms governing cytokine actions are an important contribution to medical knowledge. (
  • Cytokines are secreted proteins which means that their expression sites does not predict where they exert their biological function. (
  • Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. (
  • The field of cytokines and their role in intestinal immunity has expanded tremendously in the last two decades. (
  • Both Review and Original Research articles are welcome for submission to this Research Topic in order to further expand our understanding of the roles of cytokines in intestinal mucosal immunity. (
  • The epithelial cell-derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25 are central regulators of type 2 immunity, which drives a broad array of allergic responses. (
  • In recent decades many advances have occurred in the understanding of the role of cytokines in breast cancer. (
  • Issues relating to the role of cytokines in rheumatic diseases are reviewed here. (
  • See 'Role of cytokines in the immune system' and 'Cytokine networks in rheumatic diseases: Implications for therapy' . (
  • Cytokine expression plays a fundamental role in the development and function of the immune system. (
  • Increasingly, cytokine-based drugs and anti-cytokines are playing a crucial role in the treatment and management of these diseases. (
  • This conference will look at the development of new cytokine-based drugs, new uses for existing drugs and the role these drugs can play in treating disease. (
  • Recognizing the role of proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • While some cytokines play a role in suppressing the immune system, others such as IL-2 play a role in activating the immune system. (
  • This book examines the possible role of cytokines in mental depression, based on recent clinical and experimental data, and constitutes the first attempt to make a synthesis between the exciting new developments in cytokine research and their implications for the pathophysiology of mental disorders. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contributes significantly to cytokine-induced β-cell death and suggest a functional role of calcineurin-mediated Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation and Bax activity in cytokine-induced apoptosis. (
  • therefore, it has been suggested that "cytokine storm" may play crucial role in disease presentation. (
  • In order to identify the serological markers distinguishing NE and HPS, team led by Dr Svetlana Khaiboullina (University of Nevada, Reno, USA) and Prof Albert Rizvanov (Kazan Federal University, Russia) initiated study of the cytokine profile of serum samples collected during early and late phases of HPS and NE. (
  • Overall, HPS serum cytokine profile revealed more proinflammatory status in HPS cases as compared to NE. (
  • Furthermore, HPS was characterized by exclusively upregulated serum cytokine levels, with no cytokines being downregulated. (
  • On the contrary, NE cases were characterized by dichotomy in serum cytokine level. (
  • Taken together, our analysis of serum cytokine profile in HPS and NE cases suggests that although HPS and NE share many characteristic features, there are distinct cytokine markers separating these diseases. (
  • HPS and NE serum cytokine profile presents evidence to suggest degradation of extracellular matrix, increased mononuclear leukocyte proliferation and transendothelial migration. (
  • See 'Cytokine networks in rheumatic diseases: Implications for therapy' and 'Overview of biologic agents and kinase inhibitors in the rheumatic diseases' . (
  • Dysregulation of cytokine expression is a cause of immunological and inflammatory diseases as well as other disease states. (
  • Many SNPs that affect cytokine expression represent disease modifiers and influence the severity or progression of immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. (
  • The critical observation of Daser's team is that cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with many immunological diseases. (
  • The biochemistry and molecular biology of cytokine actions explain some well-known and sometimes also some of the more obscure clinical aspects of diseases. (
  • In addition to rheumatic diseases, such as juvenile arthritis and lupus, certain types of blood cancers, like leukemias and lymphomas," can cause cytokine storm syndrome, he said. (
  • Cytokines are easily accessible in different body secretions and their measurement has a wide variety of potential applications during infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions. (