Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Receptors, Erythropoietin: Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Janus Kinase 3: A Janus kinase subtype that is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cell. It is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS including ones that utilize the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit that was originally discovered as a component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR. It was subsequently found to be a component of several other receptors including the INTERLEUKIN 4 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN 7 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-9 RECEPTOR, the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR, and the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR. Mutations in the gene for the interleukin receptor common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Thrombopoietin: Cell surface receptors that are specific for THROMBOPOIETIN. They signal through interaction with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 2.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-10 receptor. It plays a role in receptor signaling by associating with TYK2 KINASE.Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Receptors, Interleukin-10: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Receptors, Interleukin-12: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Interleukin-21: Cell surface receptors for interleukin 21. They are heterodimeric proteins found on DENDRITIC CELLS and LYMPHOCYTES that consist of the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interleukin-21 Receptor alpha Subunit: An interleukin-21 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for interleukin-21. It signals via interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1 and JANUS KINASE 3.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Interleukin-15: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Mice, Inbred BALB CTh1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.TYK2 Kinase: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. The TYK2 kinase is considered the founding member of the janus kinase family and was initially discovered as a signaling partner for the INTERFERON ALPHA-BETA RECEPTOR. The kinase has since been shown to signal from several INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptors, Oncostatin M: Cell surface receptors with specificity for ONCOSTATIN M. Two subtypes of receptors have been identified and are defined by their subunit composition.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.STAT Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.Receptors, Interleukin-18: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-18 found on a variety of cell types including MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; NK CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS. They are formed as a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Interleukin-9: A cell surface receptor that specifically mediates the biological effects of INTERLEUKIN-9. The functional IL9 receptor signals through interaction of its cytoplasm domain with JANUS KINASES and requires the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT for activity.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR and the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this beta subunit and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Interleukin-18 Receptor alpha Subunit: A subunit of the interleukin-18 receptor that is responsible of extracellular binding of IL-18.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases: Forms of combined immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene for INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT. Both severe and non-severe subtypes of the disease have been identified.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type II: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Oncostatin M Receptor beta Subunit: An ONCOSTATIN M-specific receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the ONCOSTATIN M TYPE II RECEPTOR.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta: A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain two SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Mutations in the gene for protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 are associated with NOONAN SYNDROME.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor subunit. It is anchored to the cell surface via GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE and has specificity for binding to CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. It lacks signal transducing domains which are found on the other two subunits of the receptor.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6: A Src-homology domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase found in the CYTOSOL of hematopoietic cells. It plays a role in signal transduction by dephosphorylating signaling proteins that are activated or inactivated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.SH2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain SH2 type SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many of the proteins in this class are recruited to specific cellular targets such as a cell surface receptor complexes via their SH2 domain.Receptors, Interleukin-11: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-11. They consist of heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-11 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.STAT4 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.PhosphoproteinsInterleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-11 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-11. Multiple isoforms of this protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its MRNA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Cell SeparationCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Cytokine receptor. *see cytokine receptors. Killer-cell IG-like receptors. *KIR2DL1. *KIR2DL2 ... CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor (TCR). ... The CD8 co-receptor is predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, but can also be found on natural killer ... Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ...
Cytokine receptor. *see cytokine receptors. Killer-cell IG-like receptors. *KIR2DL1. *KIR2DL2 ... Paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHCI-binding receptor, is involved in the regulation of visual plasticity.[5] ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ... Co-receptors. *CD8 (with two glycoprotein chains CD8α and CD8β) ... plasma membrane-spanning and interacts with the CD8 co-receptor ...
cytokine production. • T cell receptor signaling pathway. • immune system process. • positive regulation of calcium ion ... signaling receptor activity. • protein kinase binding. • receptor binding. Cellular component. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. • ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • virus receptor activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • zinc ion binding. ... These co-receptors are chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. Following a structural change in another viral protein (gp41), HIV ...
Cytokine receptor. *see cytokine receptors. Killer-cell IG-like receptors. *KIR2DL1. *KIR2DL2 ... CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric ... Ernst L, van de Winkel J, Chiu I, Anderson C (1992). "Three genes for the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI ... Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch J (2006). "Fcgamma receptors: old friends and new family members". Immunity. 24 (1): 19-28. doi:10.1016/j ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ... This receptor is expressed by activated, but not by resting, T and B cells. TRAF2 and TRAF5 can interact with this receptor, ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.[1] They are protein ...
cytokine activity. • metal ion binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion binding. • identical protein binding. • TRAIL binding. ... TRAIL forms a homotrimer that binds three receptor molecules. Function[edit]. TRAIL binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ... and the low levels of erythropoietin receptors expressed on neuronal cells. ...
cytokine activity. • CD40 receptor binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • protein binding. ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Schönbeck U, Libby P (January 2001). "The CD40/CD154 receptor/ligand dyad". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 58 (1): 4-43 ... As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its surface, which helps increase the level of activation ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ... Mavrilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody[1] that inhibits human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ( ... "Mavrilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting GM-CSF receptor-α, in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, ...
interferon-gamma receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... positive regulation of NMDA glutamate receptor activity. • JAK-STAT cascade. • positive regulation of receptor biosynthetic ... By binding to D1 HS may compete with the receptor and prevent active receptor complexes from forming. ...
... those found embedded in white blood cells that respond to TNF by releasing other cytokines, and soluble TNF receptors that are ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... First, the developers isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene for soluble TNF receptor 2, which is a receptor that ... In addition, TNF receptors are found on the surface of virtually all nucleated cells (red blood cells, which are not nucleated ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ...
cytokine activity. • type I interferon receptor binding. • cytokine receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • innate immune response. • regulation of ... Flores I, Mariano TM, Pestka S (1991). "Human interferon omega (omega) binds to the alpha/beta receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 266 ( ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... a multikinase inhibitor that targets both Raf and VEGF and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase signaling". Mol. Cancer Ther. 7 (10): ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Additional cytokines: Cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1). *FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) ... 4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1 ...
... cytokines and cytokine receptors; recombinant DNA and gene regulation technology; gene therapy; nucleic acid therapeutics and ...
Pestka S, Krause CD, Walter MR (Dec 2004). "Interferons, interferon-like cytokines, and their receptors". Immunol Rev. 202: 8- ... Human interferon alpha-2 (IFNα2) is a cytokine belonging to the family of type I IFNs. IFNα2 is a protein secreted by cells ... The type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is composed of two subunits, IFNAR 1 and IFNAR 2, which are expressed by all body's cells. ... After binding to its receptor, type I IFNs activate multiple cellular factors that transduce the signal from the cell surface ...
Viroceptors mimic host receptors and thus divert signaling molecules from finding their targets. Cytokine-binding proteins bind ... Alcami, A (January 2003). "Viral mimicry of cytokines, chemokines and their receptors". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 3 (1): 36- ... to and sequester cytokines, occluding the binding surface through which they interact with receptors. The effect is to ... A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. Due to the ...
Klein TW, Newton C, Friedman H (1998). "Cannabinoid receptors and the cytokine network". Advances in experimental medicine and ... JWH-051 retains high affinity for the CB1 receptor, but is a much stronger agonist for CB2, with a Ki value of 14nM at CB2 vs ... Huffman JW (2000). "The search for selective ligands for the CB2 receptor". Current pharmaceutical design. 6 (13): 1323-37. doi ... 1997). "Evidence for the presence of CB2-like cannabinoid receptors on peripheral nerve terminals". European Journal of ...
Cytokine receptor-like factor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRLF3 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... cytokine receptor-like factor 3". "Clinical chemistry data for Crlf3". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Haematology data for ...
The cytokine receptors activate the JAK kinases. This then results in the phosphorylation of several signaling proteins located ... They are divided into two classes, receptor and non-receptor PTKs. By 2004, 58 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were known, ... platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem cell factor receptor, and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (Burstein ... The results of some newer research have also indicated that the aforementioned cytokine receptors function with members of the ...
Cytokine signaling[edit]. TF is related to a protein family known as the cytokine receptor class II family. The members of this ... cytokine receptor activity. • phospholipid binding. • serine-type endopeptidase activity. • protease binding. Cellular ... Tissue factor belongs to the cytokine receptor protein superfamily and consists of three domains:[10] ... receptor family are activated by cytokines. Cytokines are small proteins that can influence the behavior of white blood cells. ...
Many cytokines function by binding to and activating type I and type II cytokine receptors. These receptors in turn rely on the ... More specifically, Janus kinases phosphorylate activated cytokine receptors. These phosphorylated receptors in turn recruit ... Cytokines play key roles in controlling cell growth and the immune response. ... Hence drugs that inhibit the activity of these Janus kinases block cytokine signalling. ...
It is a member of the Janus kinase family and has been implicated in signaling by members of the type II cytokine receptor ... the GM-CSF receptor family (IL-3R, IL-5R and GM-CSF-R), the gp130 receptor family (e.g., IL-6R), and the single chain receptors ... suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) inhibits insulin signal transduction pathway through modulating insulin receptor ... "Tec tyrosine kinase links the cytokine receptors to PI-3 kinase probably through JAK". Oncogene. 14 (19): 2273-82. doi:10.1038/ ...
... such as cytokines, received from the T cell during differentiation.[6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen ... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma. Since B cell ... which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. Pieces of the antigen (which are now ...
Cytokine receptors belong to the family of receptors that span the membrane only once. For those types of receptors, ligand- ... Besides such monospecific receptors, shared haematopoietic cytokine receptors exist which recognize several cytokines ( ... receptor or the growth hormone (GH) receptor consists only of a single CBM. `Tall cytokine receptors such as gp130 or the ... Whereas interferons and IL-10 family cytokines signal through class II cytokine receptors, the haematopoietic cytokines use ...
Many cell functions are regulated by members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Signalling by these receptors depends upon ... Cytokine receptor signalling.. Ihle JN1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Childrens Research ... which couple ligand binding to tyrosine phosphorylation of signalling proteins recruited to the receptor complex. Among these ... a family of transcription factors that contribute to the diversity of cytokine responses. ...
... Marek Rola-Pleszczynski and Jana Stankova Immunology Division, Department of ... Whereas leukotrienes can trigger the synthesis and release of selected cytokines in distinct cell populations, many cytokines ... and the signaling events they trigger when they interact with their cognate receptors. A privileged interaction exists between ... these lipid mediators and another group of molecules essential for inflammation and immune modulation, namely, cytokines. ...
Klein T.W., Newton C., Friedman H. (1998) Cannabinoid Receptors and the Cytokine Network. In: Friedman H., Madden J.J., Klein T ... Pertussis Toxin Cytokine Network Pokeweed Mitogen Splenocyte Culture Pertussis Toxin Treatment These keywords were added by ... Schatz, A.R., Lee, M., Condie, R.B., Pulaski, J.T. and Kaminski, N.E., Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2: A characterization of ... Daaka, Y., Friedman, H. and Klein, T.W., Cannabinoid receptor proteins are increased in Jurkat, human T-cell line after mitogen ...
Soluble cytokine receptors. Blood, 87(3), 847-857. Accessed June 19, 2019. Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/ ...
Structure of growth-hormone receptor and the class I type of cytokine receptors: common structural features; cytokine-receptor ... Growth-hormone-receptor and cytokine-receptor-family signaling.. Moutoussamy S1, Kelly PA, Finidori J. ... Role of the Jak kinases in mediating specific functions of growth-hormone receptor and cytokine receptors. Role of signal ... Other pathways activated by cytokine receptors: the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway; insulin-receptor substrates 1 and ...
Spencer et al. present evidence that the cells use inactive cytokine receptors to sort and mobilize particular cytokines to the ... Thus, eosinophils appear to use the cytokine-binding receptor subunit to selectively mobilize IL-4 while keeping the receptor ... Cytokine receptor-mediated trafficking of preformed IL-4 in eosinophils identifies an innate immune mechanism of cytokine ... The IL-4 receptor subunit known as γc, which is required for receptor signaling, was not transported with the IL-4Rα chain. ...
The IL-2Rα structure lacks a classical cytokine receptor fold, and the docking mode with IL-2 is distinct from known cytokine ... It forms a complex with three cell surface receptors, IL-2Rα, IL-2Rβ, and IL-2Rγ, to form a complex that signals through ... The structure of interleukin-2 complexed with its alpha receptor. Science 308, 1477-1480 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
Cytokine receptors are receptors that bind cytokines. In recent years, the cytokine receptors have come to demand the attention ... TGF beta receptors Cytokine receptors may be both membrane-bound and soluble. Soluble cytokine receptors are extremely common ... Soluble cytokine receptors typically consist of the extracellular portions of membrane-bound receptors. . STAT protein Brooks, ... Type II cytokine receptors, whose members are receptors mainly for interferons. Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, which are ...
Common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (γc) cytokine family. Common cytokine receptor gamma-chain (γc) cytokine family. *Log in ... HOW TO POST IN THE CYTOKINE FORUMS:. 1. To make browsing and finding specific posts easier, messages in all forums are ...
... receptor GM-CSF receptor G-CSF receptor Growth hormone receptor Prolactin receptor Leptin receptor Oncostatin M receptor ... is shared between the following type I cytokine receptors: GM-CSF receptor IL-3 receptor IL-5 receptor. The gp130 receptor ([ ... Type I cytokine receptors include interleukin receptors, colony stimulating factor receptors and other cytokine receptors ... IL-2 receptor IL-4 receptor IL-7 receptor IL-9 receptor IL-13 receptor IL-15 receptor The common beta chain (CD131 or CDw131) ...
Inflammatory Cytokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array ... Inflammatory Cytokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array ... Inflammatory Cytokines and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Inflammatory Cytokines & Receptors RT² Profiler PCR Array ... These cytokines bind and activate their respective receptors to promote inflammatory responses.. QIAGEN provides a broad range ...
Collectively these studies emphasize the importance of cellular context in the response to cytokine/cytokine receptor ... Absence of cytokine receptor-dependent specificity in red blood cell differentiation in vivo. Mark A. Goldsmith, Aki Mikami, ... Chimeric Non-EPOR Cytokine Receptors Support Erythroid Development in Vivo.. To investigate the function of the constitutive ... Chimeric Non-EPOR Cytokine Receptors Support Erythroid Development of Primary Erythroid Progenitor Cells ex Vivo.. To determine ...
... Xiao-Lan Li,1 Chun-Feng Wu,2 and Gui- ... K. C. Duffin and G. G. Krueger, "Genetic variations in cytokines and cytokine receptors associated with psoriasis found by ...
Whether the combination of a relatively specific receptor/receptor interaction, but relatively nonspecific receptor/cytokine ... Despite only 10-20% sequence identity to other cytokine receptors, the IL-2Rβ and γc ectodomains of the IL-2 receptor have long ... Because the buried surface areas of IL-2Rβ and of γc that are involved in receptor/receptor and receptor/IL-2 contacts overlap ... receptor dimer in that a four-helix bundle cytokine is clamped between the elbow regions of two receptor subunits that are ...
DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb ... Dibutyltin disrupts glucocorticoid receptor function and impairs glucocorticoid-induced suppression of cytokine production PLoS ... Conclusions: DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may ... we investigated whether DBT could interfere with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. ...
... receptors cytokine include Non-invasive Imaging of the Innate Immune Response in a Zebrafish Larval Model of Streptococcus ... Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of ...
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , ... Cytokines can be grouped by structure into different families and their receptors can likewise be grouped. ... Cytokines are released by various cells in the body, usually in response to an activating stimulus, and they induce responses ... Cytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells ...
When are more receptor on the cell surface the affinity of the cytokine will be increase. Receptors has remarkable ... Is there a unique IL-12 receptor (i mean one receptor), or many IL-12 receptors that distributed on the cell surface? If there ... Is there a unique IL-12 receptor (i mean one receptor), or many IL-12 receptors that distributed on the cell surface? If there ... What do determine the High or Low affinity of the Receptor/cytokine binding? And does it play the crucial role for the fate of ...
Potent Agonists of a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Cytokine Receptor, c-Mpl. Authors. *. Dr. Anna Tarasova,. *CSIRO Materials Science ... Next article in issue: Impact of the Proline Residue on Ligand Binding of Neurotensin Receptor 2 (NTS2)-Selective Peptide- ... Next article in issue: Impact of the Proline Residue on Ligand Binding of Neurotensin Receptor 2 (NTS2)-Selective Peptide- ... Thrombopoietin, a class I hematopoietic cytokine, plays critical roles in regulating hematopoietic stem cell numbers and also ...
Cytokine receptor subunit, possibly playing a regulatory role in the immune system and during fetal development. May be ... "Cytokine-like factor-1, a novel soluble protein, shares homology with members of the cytokine type I receptor family.". Elson G ... "Cytokine-like factor-1, a novel soluble protein, shares homology with members of the cytokine type I receptor family.". Elson G ... "Cytokine-like factor-1, a novel soluble protein, shares homology with members of the cytokine type I receptor family.". Elson G ...
The chemokine receptor CCR9 is important for the homing of progenitors to the thymus. The cytokine receptor Flt3 regulates the ... A similar population was identified in the thymus using the cytokine receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3) (35, ... Finally, we demonstrate that a prethymic signal through the cytokine receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 was required ... Selective Thymus Settling Regulated by Cytokine and Chemokine Receptors. Benjamin A. Schwarz, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Ivan ...
Instructive roles for cytokine-receptor binding parameters in determining signaling and functional potency. Sci. Signal. 8, ... The EM structure of a type I interferon-receptor complex reveals a novel mechanism for cytokine signaling. J. Mol. Biol. 377, ... Determination of the 2-dimensional interaction rate constants of a cytokine receptor complex. Biophys. J. 90, 3345-3355 (2006). ... Receptor dimer stabilization by hierarchical plasma membrane microcompartments regulates cytokine signaling Message Subject. ( ...
Pages in category "IL17 family cytokine receptors". The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Category:IL17_family_cytokine_receptors" ...
... Trusted for superior ... The Mouse siGENOME Cytokine Receptor siRNA Library is a collection of siRNAs targeting distinct members of the cytokine ... An arrayed siRNA collection targeting mouse genes in the cytokine receptor superfamily. siGENOME siRNA is a cost-effective ... Lacking an intrinsic catalytic activity, cytokine receptors respond to ligand binding by first dimerizing and then activating ...
  • Subsequently the Jaks phosphorylate the STATs at a single tyrosine residue leading to the release of STAT dimers from the receptor and their translocation to the nucleus where they activate target genes. (biologists.org)
  • In line with their biological activities, dysregulation of haematopoietic cytokine signalling contributes significantly to acute and chronic inflammation, immune deficiencies and cancer progression. (biologists.org)
  • The subfamily of haematopoietic cytokines plays a central role in the regulation of haematopoiesis and the immune response ( Wells and de Vos, 1996 ). (biologists.org)
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