A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Drug treatment designed to further diminish the disease toward complete remission following INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY. It helps to consolidate the gains during induction chemotherapy and may be followed by MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that selectively bind to a specific receptor and trigger a response. They mimic the action of endogenous biochemical molecules. Their effect can be countered by antagonists (DRUG ANTAGONISM).
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.
Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Dioxolanes are specific chemical compounds characterized by a saturated six-membered ring containing two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms, often formed through the reaction between aldehydes or ketones and diols, and significant in pharmaceutical synthesis and organic chemistry.
Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.
Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.
An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/2270)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (2/2270)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (3/2270)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Differential expression and phosphorylation of CTCF, a c-myc transcriptional regulator, during differentiation of human myeloid cells. (4/2270)

CTCF is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Although CTCF has been characterized in some detail, there is very little information about the regulation of CTCF activity. Therefore we investigated CTCF expression and phosphorylation during induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. We found that: (i) both CTCF mRNA and protein are down-regulated during terminal differentiation in most cell lines tested; (ii) CTCF down-regulation is retarded and less pronounced than that of c-myc; (iii) CTCF protein is differentially phosphorylated and the phosphorylation profiles depend on the differentiation pathway. We concluded that CTCF expression and activity is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (5/2270)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Metabolism of the new liposomal anticancer drug N4-octadecyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in mice. (6/2270)

Metabolism and excretion of the new antitumor drug N4-octadecyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (NOAC) was investigated in mice. Mice were injected i.v. with tritium-labeled liposomal NOAC (4 micromol/mouse). Analysis of HPLC-purified extracts of liver homogenates by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed only the presence of unmetabolized drug. To study the excretion of the administered drug, mice were injected with tritium-labeled liposomal NOAC or as comparison with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C; 4 micromol/mouse) and housed up to 48 h in metabolic cages. Urine and feces were collected at different time points and the kinetics of excreted radioactivity were determined. After 48 h, 39% of the injected [5-3H]NOAC radioactivity was excreted in urine and 16% in feces, whereas ara-C radioactivity was only found in urine with 48% of the injected dose. Feces extracts and urine were purified by HPLC and radioactive fractions were further analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The radioactivity of feces extracts of NOAC-treated mice was composed of unmetabolized NOAC, hydroxylated NOAC (NOAC + OH), its sulfated derivative (NOAC + OSO3H), and unidentified metabolites, whereas in urine, the hydrophilic molecules ara-C and ara-U were found. During the period of 48 h only 2% of the injected NOAC was eliminated in its unmetabolized form, whereas 25% was identified as main metabolite ara-C. Urine collected during 48 h in ara-C-treated mice contained 33% of the injected dose as unmetabolized drug and 13% as the main metabolite ara-U. Thus, NOAC is metabolized by two major pathways, one leading to the hydrophilic metabolites ara-C and ara-U and the other to hydroxylated and sulfated NOAC.  (+info)

ESHAP as salvage therapy for refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Taiwan experience. (7/2270)

BACKGROUND: The ESHAP regimen, a combination of the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, methylprednisolone (solumedrol), high-dose cytarabine (ara-C) and cisplatin, has been shown to be active against refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in therapeutic trials. We were interested in determining whether this regimen would be effective and tolerable for Chinese patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkins lymphoma (23 intermediate-grade and nine high-grade) were enrolled in this study. Etoposide was administered at a dose of 40 mg/m2/day as a 1 h intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 4, solumedrol 500 mg/day was given as a 15 min intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 5, ara-C 2 g/m2 was given as a 2 h intravenous infusion on day 5 and cisplatin was given at a dose of 25 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion from day 1 to day 4. Clinical efficacy and toxicity were assessed on the basis of the WHO criteria. RESULTS: Ten patients (31.3%, 95% Cl 15.2-47.4%) attained complete remission (CR) and seven had partial remission (PR). The overall response rate was 53.1% (95% Cl 35.8-70.4%). In eight of the 10 CR patients, the remission lasted for more than 8 months. The remaining two patients had CR of 5 and 6 months. The median duration of CR was 12.2 months (range 5-22 months). Myelosuppression with subsequent infections was the major toxicity. Severe leukopenia (WBC < 1000/microliter) lasted for an average of 12 days and thrombocytopenia (< 25,000/microliter) 18 days. One patient (3.1%) died of neutropenia-associated sepsis within 4 weeks after treatment. Non-myeloid toxicities included alopecia in 66% (28% grade 2, 22% grade 3), stomatitis in 72% (25% grade 2, 28% grade 3, 13% grade 4), hepatotoxicity in 9% (3% grade 2), renal toxicity in 13% (6% grade 2, 3% grade 3) and infection in 56% (18% grade 2, 25% grade 3, 13% grade 4). The majority of the responders relapsed within 2 years after ESHAP treatment. Median survival for all patients was 8.6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ESHAP is an active and tolerable regimen in Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, but the duration of remission is brief and without significant impact on survival.  (+info)

Developing hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones as potential targets for environmental estrogens. (8/2270)

Environmental chemicals which mimic the actions of estrogen have the potential to affect any estrogen responsive tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate their potential to mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on developing primary rat hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurones maintained in a chemically defined medium. We now show that both E2 and octylphenol (OP), but not the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, enhanced the uptake of [3H]DA by the cultured cells, whereas they had no effect on the uptake of [14C]GABA. Although the sensitivity of responses may change with the age of the developing cultures, the dose response curves for E2 and OP were typically 'bell-shaped', with a rise in response followed by a decline to control levels with increasing concentrations. Effects were seen as low as 10(-14) M for E2 and 10(-11) M for OP. Responses to E2 (10(-12) M) and OP (10(-9) M) were reversed in the presence of the antiestrogen, ZM 182780 (10(-5) M). This study thus provides direct evidence, using a mechanistic rather than toxicological end-point, in support of the hypothesis that inappropriate exposure to environmental estrogens at critically sensitive stages of development, could potentially perturb the organisational activities of estrogen on selected neuronal populations in the CNS.  (+info)

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

Idarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Idarubicin is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection due to lowered white blood cell counts. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, so regular monitoring of cardiac function is necessary during treatment.

Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer. It works by intercalating with DNA and inhibiting topoisomerase II, which results in DNA damage and ultimately cell death.

The drug is administered intravenously and may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and damage to the heart muscle (cardiotoxicity) with long-term use. Regular monitoring of cardiac function is recommended during treatment with daunorubicin.

It's important to note that this medication should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences if not used correctly.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Consolidation chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that is given after the initial or primary treatment, called induction therapy, to consolidate or strengthen the response and increase the chance of a cure. It typically involves the use of one or more anticancer drugs to target any remaining cancer cells in the body following remission. This approach is often used in the treatment of acute leukemias, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where the goal is to eliminate residual disease and reduce the risk of relapse. The specific drugs, doses, and schedules used in consolidation chemotherapy may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Its medical definition can be found in various authoritative sources such as the Merck Manual or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Here's a brief version of the definition from MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine:

"Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer (e.g., breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. Mitoxantrone belongs to a class of drugs known as antitumor antibiotics."

Please note that this is a simplified definition meant for general information purposes and does not include all the details that might be present in a comprehensive medical definition. Always consult a healthcare professional or refer to authoritative resources for accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Arabinonucleosides are glycosylamines derived from arabinose, a monosaccharide (simple sugar) that is a component of certain complex carbohydrates. In an arabinonucleoside, the arabinose molecule is linked to a nitrogenous base, such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, or thymine, through a glycosidic bond. These types of compounds are not typically found in nature but can be synthesized in the laboratory for research purposes. They may have potential applications in the development of new drugs, particularly in the area of antiviral and anticancer therapy.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Thioguanine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antimetabolites. It is primarily used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other various types of cancer.

In medical terms, thioguanine is a purine analogue that gets metabolically converted into active thiopurine nucleotides, which then get incorporated into DNA and RNA, thereby interfering with the synthesis of genetic material in cancer cells. This interference leads to inhibition of cell division and growth, ultimately resulting in cell death (apoptosis) of the cancer cells.

It is important to note that thioguanine can also affect normal cells in the body, leading to various side effects. Therefore, it should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

Induction chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves the use of cytotoxic drugs to reduce the size of tumors prior to administering other forms of therapy, such as radiation therapy or surgery. The goal of induction chemotherapy is to eliminate as many cancer cells as possible and shrink the tumor to improve the chances of a successful outcome with subsequent treatments.

This approach is often used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and testicular cancer, among others. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

It's important to note that induction chemotherapy is a complex medical procedure that should be administered under the close supervision of an experienced oncologist. Patients undergoing this treatment may experience side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and hair loss, among others. However, these side effects can often be managed with supportive care and medications.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Meningeal carcinomatosis, also known as leptomeningeal metastasis or neoplastic meningitis, is a medical condition characterized by the spread of cancer cells to the meninges, which are the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.

In this condition, cancer cells from a primary tumor or metastatic cancer elsewhere in the body invade the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spread throughout the meningeal spaces, causing inflammation and damage to the surrounding tissues. This can result in various neurological symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, confusion, weakness, or paralysis, depending on the location of the cancer cells in the meninges.

Meningeal carcinomatosis is a serious and often life-threatening complication of advanced cancer, with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It can occur in various types of cancer, including lung, breast, melanoma, and hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial to improve the quality of life and prolong survival in affected patients.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Leukemic infiltration is the abnormal spread and accumulation of malignant white blood cells (leukemia cells) in various tissues and organs outside the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are normally produced. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces large numbers of abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly. These abnormal cells can sometimes spill into the bloodstream and infiltrate other organs, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Leukemic infiltration can cause damage to these organs and lead to various symptoms. The pattern of organ involvement and the severity of infiltration depend on the type and stage of leukemia.

Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) is a nucleotide that consists of a cytosine molecule attached to a ribose sugar molecule, which in turn is linked to a phosphate group. It is one of the four basic building blocks of RNA (ribonucleic acid) along with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), and uridine monophosphate (UMP). CMP plays a critical role in various biochemical reactions within the body, including protein synthesis and energy metabolism.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Carmustine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancer, including brain tumors, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It belongs to a class of drugs called alkylating agents, which work by damaging the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing.

Carmustine is available as an injectable solution that is administered intravenously (into a vein) or as implantable wafers that are placed directly into the brain during surgery. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts, among others. It may also increase the risk of certain infections and bleeding complications.

As with all chemotherapy drugs, carmustine can have serious and potentially life-threatening side effects, and it should only be administered under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. Patients receiving carmustine treatment should be closely monitored for signs of toxicity and other adverse reactions.

Asparaginase is a medication that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine, which is a building block of proteins. Some cancer cells are unable to produce their own asparagine and rely on obtaining it from the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of asparagine in the blood, asparaginase can help to slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells.

Asparaginase is usually given as an injection into a muscle (intramuscularly) or into a vein (intravenously). It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's medical history, the type and stage of cancer being treated, and how well the person tolerates the medication.

Like all medications, asparaginase can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and changes in liver function tests. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, pancreatitis, and blood clotting problems. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of asparaginase with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Drug agonism is a concept in pharmacology that refers to the ability of a drug to bind to and activate a specific receptor in the body, leading to a physiological response. When a drug agonist binds to its target receptor, it causes a conformational change in the receptor's structure, which activates a signaling pathway that ultimately leads to a biological response.

The strength of the interaction between the drug and the receptor is often described in terms of affinity and efficacy. Affinity refers to the ability of the drug to bind to the receptor, while efficacy refers to the drug's ability to activate the receptor and cause a response. A full agonist has both high affinity and high efficacy for its target receptor, meaning that it can fully activate the receptor and produce a maximal response.

Partial agonists, on the other hand, have lower efficacy than full agonists, meaning that they can only partially activate the receptor and produce a submaximal response. Antagonists, in contrast, bind to the receptor without activating it, thereby blocking the effects of both full and partial agonists.

Understanding drug agonism is important for developing drugs with desired therapeutic effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. By carefully selecting drugs that target specific receptors with known affinity and efficacy profiles, researchers can design more effective treatments for a wide range of medical conditions.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine and its analogs, which are important components in the intracellular metabolism of DNA precursors. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the hydroxyl group at the 5' carbon atom of deoxycytidine, forming deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP).

Deoxycytidine kinase is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and is also involved in the activation of many antiviral and anticancer drugs that are analogs of deoxycytidine. The activity of dCK is tightly regulated, and its expression levels can vary depending on the cell type and physiological conditions.

In addition to its role in nucleotide metabolism, dCK has been implicated in various biological processes, including DNA damage response, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Abnormalities in dCK activity or expression have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer and viral infections. Therefore, modulation of dCK activity has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (AML-M4) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia, which is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. In AML-M4, there is an overproduction of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts and monoblasts, which accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with normal blood cell production.

These abnormal cells can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the skin, lymph nodes, and organs. Symptoms of AML-M4 may include fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and shortness of breath. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

It is important to note that a diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia should be made by a qualified healthcare professional based on a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of the patient's medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic test results.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Arabinonucleotides are nucleotides that contain arabinose sugar instead of the more common ribose or deoxyribose. Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and at least one phosphate group. They serve as the monomeric units of nucleic acids, which are essential biopolymers involved in genetic storage, transmission, and expression.

Arabinonucleotides have arabinose, a five-carbon sugar with a slightly different structure than ribose or deoxyribose, as their pentose component. Arabinose is a monosaccharide that can be found in various plants and microorganisms but is not typically a part of nucleic acids in higher organisms.

Arabinonucleotides may have potential applications in biochemistry, molecular biology, and medicine; however, their use and significance are not as widespread or well-studied as those of the more common ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides.

Accelerated Phase Leukemia, Myeloid is a stage in the progression of certain myeloid malignancies such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) or Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). During this phase, there is an increase in the number of immature blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and/or blood compared to the chronic phase. However, it has not yet reached the level of blast proliferation seen in the blast crisis phase.

The accelerated phase is characterized by various laboratory and clinical features, including:
- A significant increase in the percentage of blasts (10-19%) in the peripheral blood or bone marrow
- An increase in the white blood cell count, typically over 50 x 10^9/L
- The presence of new cytogenetic abnormalities or an increasing number of existing chromosomal changes
- A decrease in platelet count and/or hemoglobin levels
- Increasing symptoms related to bone marrow failure, such as fatigue, infection, and bleeding

The accelerated phase often precedes the blast crisis phase, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Early detection and intervention in the accelerated phase may help improve treatment outcomes and delay progression to blast crisis.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms refer to a group of abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth can compress or disrupt the normal functioning of surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue.

Benign CNS neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause significant problems if they grow large enough to put pressure on vital structures within the brain or spinal cord. Malignant CNS neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. They may also spread to other parts of the CNS or, rarely, to other organs in the body.

CNS neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain or spinal cord, including nerve cells, glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), and supportive tissues such as blood vessels. The specific type of CNS neoplasm is often used to help guide treatment decisions and determine prognosis.

Symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis, vision or hearing changes, balance problems, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Amsacrine is a chemotherapeutic agent, which means it is a medication used to treat cancer. It is classified as an antineoplastic drug, and more specifically, as an intercalating agent and a topoisomerase II inhibitor. Amsacrine works by intercalating, or inserting itself, into the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents the DNA from replicating and ultimately leads to the death of the cancer cell. It is primarily used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other hematologic malignancies.

The chemical name for Amsacrine is 5-[3-amino-1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxybut-1-yloxy]-8-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. It has a molecular formula of C16H17ClNO5 and a molecular weight of 359.8 g/mol.

Amsacrine is typically administered intravenously, and its use is usually reserved for patients who have not responded to other forms of chemotherapy. It may be used in combination with other anticancer drugs as part of a treatment regimen. As with any chemotherapeutic agent, Amsacrine can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. It can also cause damage to the heart and other organs, so it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment.

It's worth noting that while Amsacrine can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer, it is not a cure-all, and its use must be carefully considered in the context of each individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate (Ara-C triphosphate) is a nucleotide analog that is formed from the conversion of arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) by deoxycytidine kinase in cells. It is an active metabolite of Ara-C, which is a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat various types of cancer, including leukemia and lymphoma.

Ara-C triphosphate works by getting incorporated into DNA during replication, causing the DNA synthesis process to stop, which leads to cell death. It has a higher affinity for DNA polymerase than normal nucleotides, allowing it to be preferentially incorporated into the DNA, leading to its anticancer effects.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL positive is a specific subtype of leukemia that originates in the bone marrow and involves the excessive production of mature granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene encodes for an abnormal protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The presence of this genetic abnormality is used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

Teniposide is a synthetic podophyllotoxin derivative, which is an antineoplastic agent. It works by interfering with the DNA synthesis and function of cancer cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Teniposide is primarily used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other malignancies in children. It is often administered through intravenous infusion and is typically used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

The medical definition of Teniposide can be stated as:

Teniposide, chemically known as (4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin 9-[4,6-O-(R)-benzylidene-α-L-glucopyranoside]), is a semi-synthetic podophyllotoxin derivative with antineoplastic activity. It inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, leading to the formation of DNA-topoisomerase II cleavable complexes, G2 arrest, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Teniposide is primarily used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other malignancies in children, often administered through intravenous infusion and typically used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is a type of blood disorder that is characterized by the presence of increased numbers of immature blood cells, or "blasts," in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. This condition is considered a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities in the production of blood cells in the bone marrow.

In refractory anemia with excess blasts, the bone marrow fails to produce sufficient numbers of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This results in anemia (low red blood cell count), neutropenia (low white blood cell count), and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). Additionally, there is an increased number of blasts in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, which can indicate the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a more aggressive form of blood cancer.

Refractory anemia with excess blasts is considered "refractory" because it does not respond well to treatment, including chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for this condition varies depending on the severity of the disease and other individual factors, but it is generally poor, with many patients progressing to AML within a few years.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Meningitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation can be caused by various infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or by non-infectious causes like autoimmune diseases, cancer, or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Bacterial meningitis is usually more severe and requires immediate medical attention, while viral meningitis is often less severe and may resolve on its own without specific treatment.

It's important to note that meningitis can be a serious and life-threatening condition, so if you suspect that you or someone else has symptoms of meningitis, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Melphalan is an antineoplastic agent, specifically an alkylating agent. It is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other types of cancer. The medical definition of Melphalan is:

A nitrogen mustard derivative that is used as an alkylating agent in the treatment of cancer, particularly multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. Melphalan works by forming covalent bonds with DNA, resulting in cross-linking of the double helix and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. This ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Melphalan is administered orally or intravenously, and its use is often accompanied by other anticancer therapies, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Common side effects of Melphalan include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Other potential side effects include hair loss, mucositis, and secondary malignancies.

It is important to note that Melphalan should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause serious adverse reactions if not administered correctly.

Podophyllotoxin is a pharmaceutical agent derived from the podophyllum plant. It is an antimitotic compound that inhibits microtubule assembly, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It is primarily used in topical form as a treatment for genital warts, caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Podophyllotoxin works by interfering with the growth of the wart cells, eventually causing them to die off.

It's important to note that podophyllotoxin is a potent cytotoxic agent and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. It should not be taken orally or applied to open wounds, and it should be kept out of reach of children.

Cladribine is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and multiple sclerosis. It is a type of drug called a purine nucleoside analog, which means it interferes with the production of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of cells. This can help to stop the growth and multiplication of abnormal cells in the body.

In cancer treatment, cladribine is used to treat hairy cell leukemia and certain types of lymphoma. In multiple sclerosis, it is used to reduce the frequency of relapses and slow down the progression of disability. Cladribine works by selectively targeting and depleting certain white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are thought to play a role in the immune response that damages the nervous system in multiple sclerosis.

Cladribine is usually given as an injection into a vein or under the skin, and it may be given on its own or in combination with other medications. Common side effects of cladribine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. It can also lower the body's ability to fight infections, so patients may need to take precautions to avoid infection while receiving treatment. Cladribine should be used with caution in people with a history of certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, and it should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. In chronic phase CML, the disease progresses slowly and may not cause any symptoms for a period of time. It is characterized by the overproduction of mature and immature white blood cells, called myeloid cells. These cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia, fatigue, easy bruising, and increased risk of infection. The distinguishing genetic feature of CML is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene produces an abnormal protein that contributes to the development of leukemia. The chronic phase of CML can last for several years and is typically treated with targeted therapy such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which target the BCR-ABL protein.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

A blast crisis is a severe and life-threatening complication that can occur in patients with certain types of blood cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is characterized by the rapid growth and accumulation of immature blood cells, known as blasts, in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

In a blast crisis, the blasts crowd out normal blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to a significant decrease in the production of healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This can result in symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, infection, easy bruising or bleeding, and an enlarged spleen.

Blast crisis is often treated with aggressive chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation to eliminate the abnormal blasts and restore normal blood cell production. The prognosis for patients in blast crisis can be poor, depending on the type of leukemia, the patient's age and overall health, and the response to treatment.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Dioxolanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms, one oxygen atom, and two adjacent oxygen or sulfur atoms. The general structure of dioxolane is C2O2S2 or C2O3. These compounds are often used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds due to their high reactivity and ability to act as protecting groups for carbonyl functionalities. Dioxolanes can also be found naturally in some foods and plants.

Polyradiculopathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots. It's a type of neurological disorder where there is damage or injury to the nerve roots, which are the beginning portions of nerves as they exit the spinal cord. This damage can result in various symptoms such as weakness, numbness, tingling, and pain in the affected areas of the body, depending on the specific nerves involved.

Polyradiculopathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, infection, inflammation, compression, or degenerative changes in the spine. Some common causes include spinal cord tumors, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Diagnosing polyradiculopathy typically involves a thorough neurological examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes nerve conduction studies or electromyography (EMG) to assess the function of the affected nerves. Treatment for polyradiculopathy depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Harringtonines are a group of alkaloids isolated from the plant *Cephalotaxus harringtonia* (also known as Platycladus orientalis), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. These compounds have been found to exhibit antitumor and anti-leukemic activities, and they are believed to work by inhibiting the formation of microtubules, which are critical for cell division.

Specifically, harringtonines bind to tubulin, a protein that makes up microtubules, and prevent it from forming stable structures. This leads to disruption of the mitotic spindle, which is necessary for chromosome separation during cell division. As a result, cells are unable to divide properly and undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Harringtonines have been studied in clinical trials as potential cancer treatments, but their use is limited due to their narrow therapeutic index and significant side effects, including neurotoxicity and myelosuppression. Further research is needed to develop more targeted and less toxic therapies based on these compounds.

Aclarubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Aclarubicin is often used to treat acute leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors.

Like other anthracyclines, aclarubicin can cause significant side effects, including damage to the heart muscle, suppression of bone marrow function, and hair loss. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and mouth sores. Aclarubicin is usually given by injection into a vein.

It's important to note that the use of aclarubicin should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its administration requires careful monitoring due to potential toxicities.

Actuarial analysis is a process used in the field of actuarial science to evaluate and manage risk, typically for financial or insurance purposes. It involves the use of statistical modeling, mathematical calculations, and data analysis to estimate the probability and potential financial impact of various events or outcomes.

In a medical context, actuarial analysis may be used to assess the risks and costs associated with different health conditions, treatments, or patient populations. For example, an actuary might use data on morbidity rates, mortality rates, and healthcare utilization patterns to estimate the expected costs of providing coverage to a group of patients with a particular medical condition.

Actuarial analysis can help healthcare organizations, insurers, and policymakers make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and risk management. It can also be used to develop predictive models that identify high-risk populations or forecast future trends in healthcare utilization and costs.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Cytogenetic analysis is a laboratory technique used to identify and study the structure and function of chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell that contain genetic material. This type of analysis involves examining the number, size, shape, and banding pattern of chromosomes in cells, typically during metaphase when they are at their most condensed state.

There are several methods used for cytogenetic analysis, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Karyotyping involves staining the chromosomes with a dye to visualize their banding patterns and then arranging them in pairs based on their size and shape. FISH uses fluorescent probes to label specific DNA sequences, allowing for the detection of genetic abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. CGH compares the DNA content of two samples to identify differences in copy number, which can be used to detect chromosomal imbalances.

Cytogenetic analysis is an important tool in medical genetics and is used for a variety of purposes, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the identification of genetic disorders.

Burkitt lymphoma is a type of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, an Irish surgeon who first described this form of cancer in African children in the 1950s.

Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by the rapid growth and spread of abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which can affect various organs and tissues, including the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

There are three main types of Burkitt lymphoma: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The endemic form is most common in equatorial Africa and is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The sporadic form occurs worldwide but is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all NHL cases in the United States. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is seen in individuals with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation.

Burkitt lymphoma typically presents as a rapidly growing mass, often involving the jaw, facial bones, or abdominal organs. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis to confirm the presence of characteristic chromosomal translocations involving the MYC oncogene.

Treatment for Burkitt lymphoma typically involves intensive chemotherapy regimens, often combined with targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The prognosis is generally good when treated aggressively and promptly, with a high cure rate in children and young adults. However, the prognosis may be poorer in older patients or those with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.

The meninges are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. They consist of three layers: the dura mater (the outermost, toughest layer), the arachnoid mater (middle layer), and the pia mater (the innermost, delicate layer). These membranes provide protection and support to the central nervous system, and contain blood vessels that supply nutrients and remove waste products. Inflammation or infection of the meninges is called meningitis, which can be a serious medical condition requiring prompt treatment.

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a type of growth factor that specifically stimulates the production and survival of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for fighting off infections. G-CSF works by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature granulocytes, primarily neutrophils, in the bone marrow.

Recombinant forms of G-CSF are used clinically as a medication to boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, those with congenital neutropenia, and those who have had a bone marrow transplant. By increasing the number of circulating neutrophils, G-CSF helps reduce the risk of severe infections during periods of intense immune suppression.

Examples of recombinant G-CSF medications include filgrastim (Neupogen), pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), and lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex).

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a aromatic hydrocarbon) attached to an amide functional group. The amide group can be bound to various substituents, leading to a variety of benzamide derivatives with different biological activities.

In a medical context, some benzamides have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions. For example, danzol (a benzamide derivative) is used as a hormonal therapy for endometriosis and breast cancer. Additionally, other benzamides such as sulpiride and amisulpride are used as antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

It's important to note that while some benzamides have therapeutic uses, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so they should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1), also known as SLC29A1, is a protein that functions as a membrane transport protein. It is responsible for the facilitated diffusion of nucleosides and some related drugs across the cell membrane. The term "equilibrative" refers to the fact that this transporter moves substrates down their concentration gradient, meaning it facilitates the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. ENT1 is widely expressed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, intestine, and brain, playing a crucial role in nucleoside homeostasis and the cellular uptake of nucleoside-analog drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

Core binding factors (CBFs) are a group of proteins that play critical roles in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, which are the cells responsible for the formation of blood and immune systems. The term "core binding factor" refers to the ability of these proteins to bind to specific DNA sequences, known as core binding sites, and regulate gene transcription.

The two main CBFs are:

1. Core Binding Factor Alpha (CBF-α): Also known as RUNX1 or AML1, this protein forms a complex with Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β) to regulate the expression of genes involved in hematopoiesis. Mutations in CBF-α have been associated with various types of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
2. Core Binding Factor Beta (CBF-β): Also known as PEBP2B, this protein partners with CBF-α to form the active transcription factor complex. CBF-β enhances the DNA binding affinity and stability of the CBF-α/CBF-β heterodimer.

In certain types of leukemia, chromosomal abnormalities can lead to the formation of fusion proteins involving CBF-α or CBF-β. These fusion proteins disrupt normal hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of cancer. Examples include the t(8;21) translocation that creates the AML1/ETO fusion protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the inv(16) inversion that forms the CBFB-MYH11 fusion protein in AML.

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes, which are immature white blood cells, in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells are produced due to a genetic mutation that involves the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) gene on chromosome 17, often as a result of a translocation with the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene on chromosome 15 [t(15;17)]. This genetic alteration disrupts the normal differentiation and maturation process of the promyelocytes, leading to their uncontrolled proliferation and impaired function.

APL typically presents with symptoms related to decreased blood cell production, such as anemia (fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath), thrombocytopenia (easy bruising, bleeding, or petechiae), and neutropenia (increased susceptibility to infections). Additionally, APL is often associated with a high risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a serious complication characterized by abnormal blood clotting and bleeding.

The treatment for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) therapy, which target the specific genetic alteration in APL cells. This approach has significantly improved the prognosis for patients with this disease, with many achieving long-term remission and even cures.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that affects the white matter of the brain. It's caused by the reactivation of the John Cunningham virus (JCV) in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or hematologic malignancies.

In PML, the JCV infects and destroys the oligodendrocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing myelin, the fatty substance that insulates and protects nerve fibers. This results in multiple areas of focal demyelination throughout the brain, leading to progressive neurological symptoms such as cognitive decline, motor weakness, vision loss, and speech difficulties.

PML is a medical emergency, and prompt diagnosis and treatment of the underlying immunodeficiency are crucial for improving outcomes. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for PML itself, but restoring immune function can help slow or stop the progression of the disease.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer of the lymphatic system. Specifically, MCL arises from abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that typically reside in the "mantle zone" of the lymph node. The malignant cells in MCL tend to have a characteristic genetic abnormality where the cyclin D1 gene is translocated to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus, resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1 protein. This leads to uncontrolled cell division and proliferation.

Mantle cell lymphoma often presents with advanced-stage disease, involving multiple lymph nodes, bone marrow, and sometimes extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and abdominal pain or discomfort.

Treatment for MCL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and sometimes targeted therapy or stem cell transplantation. However, the prognosis for MCL is generally less favorable compared to other types of NHL, with a median overall survival of around 5-7 years.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

Papilledema is a medical term that refers to swelling of the optic nerve head, also known as the disc, which is the point where the optic nerve enters the back of the eye (the retina). This swelling can be caused by increased pressure within the skull, such as from brain tumors, meningitis, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Papilledema is usually detected through a routine eye examination and may be accompanied by symptoms such as headaches, visual disturbances, and nausea. If left untreated, papilledema can lead to permanent vision loss.

Monoclonal murine-derived antibodies are a type of laboratory-produced antibody that is identical in structure, having been derived from a single clone of cells. These antibodies are created using mouse cells and are therefore composed entirely of mouse immune proteins. They are designed to bind specifically to a particular target protein or antigen, making them useful tools for research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications.

Monoclonal antibodies offer several advantages over polyclonal antibodies (which are derived from multiple clones of cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen). Monoclonal antibodies have a consistent and uniform structure, making them more reliable for research and diagnostic purposes. They also have higher specificity and affinity for their target antigens, allowing for more sensitive detection and measurement.

However, there are some limitations to using monoclonal murine-derived antibodies in therapeutic applications. Because they are composed entirely of mouse proteins, they can elicit an immune response in humans, leading to the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that can neutralize their effectiveness. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies that incorporate human protein sequences, reducing the risk of an immune response.

Azacitidine is a medication that is primarily used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a type of cancer where the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. It is also used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in some cases.

Azacitidine is a type of drug known as a hypomethylating agent, which means that it works by modifying the way that genes are expressed in cancer cells. Specifically, azacitidine inhibits the activity of an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase, which adds methyl groups to the DNA molecule and can silence the expression of certain genes. By inhibiting this enzyme, azacitidine can help to restore the normal function of genes that have been silenced in cancer cells.

Azacitidine is typically given as a series of subcutaneous (under the skin) or intravenous (into a vein) injections over a period of several days, followed by a rest period of several weeks before the next cycle of treatment. The specific dosage and schedule may vary depending on the individual patient's needs and response to treatment.

Like all medications, azacitidine can have side effects, which may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, fever, and decreased appetite. More serious side effects are possible, but relatively rare, and may include bone marrow suppression, infections, and liver damage. Patients receiving azacitidine should be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to manage any side effects that may occur.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Nucleoside transport proteins (NTTs) are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the facilitated diffusion of nucleosides and related deoxynucleosides across the cell membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleosides, which serve as precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis, as well as for the salvage of nucleotides in the cell.

There are two main types of NTTs: concentrative (or sodium-dependent) nucleoside transporters (CNTs) and equilibrative (or sodium-independent) nucleoside transporters (ENTs). CNTs mainly facilitate the uptake of nucleosides against a concentration gradient, using the energy derived from the sodium ion gradient. In contrast, ENTs mediate bidirectional transport, allowing for the equalization of intracellular and extracellular nucleoside concentrations.

Nucleoside transport proteins have been identified in various organisms, including humans, and are involved in numerous physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NTTs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer and viral infections, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a type I interferon, which is a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of viruses, parasites, and tumor cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. IFN-α has antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-proliferative effects.

IFN-α is produced naturally by various cell types, including leukocytes (white blood cells), fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, in response to viral or bacterial stimulation. It binds to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response. This results in the production of proteins that inhibit viral replication and promote the presentation of viral antigens to the immune system, enhancing its ability to recognize and eliminate infected cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IFN-α has been used as a therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including certain types of cancer, chronic hepatitis B and C, and multiple sclerosis. However, its use is often limited by side effects such as flu-like symptoms, depression, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Anthracyclines are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are derived from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. These drugs include daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin. They work by intercalating into DNA and inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II, which leads to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Anthracyclines are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast cancer, and sarcomas. However, they can also cause cardiotoxicity, which limits their long-term use.

Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that deals with the study of chromosomes and their structure, function, and abnormalities. It involves the examination of chromosome number and structure in the cells of an organism, usually through microscopic analysis of chromosomes prepared from cell cultures or tissue samples. Cytogenetic techniques can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities associated with genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases.

The process of cytogenetics typically involves staining the chromosomes to make them visible under a microscope, and then analyzing their number, size, shape, and banding pattern. Chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) can be detected through cytogenetic analysis.

Cytogenetics is an important tool in medical genetics and has many clinical applications, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and identification of genetic disorders. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), have improved the resolution and accuracy of chromosome analysis and expanded its clinical applications.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

"Drug evaluation" is a medical term that refers to the systematic process of assessing the pharmacological, therapeutic, and safety profile of a drug or medication. This process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the laboratory, clinical trials in human subjects, and post-marketing surveillance.

The goal of drug evaluation is to determine the efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage range of a drug, as well as any potential interactions with other medications or medical conditions. The evaluation process also includes an assessment of the drug's pharmacokinetics, or how it is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body.

The findings from drug evaluations are used to inform regulatory decisions about whether a drug should be approved for use in clinical practice, as well as to provide guidance to healthcare providers about how to use the drug safely and effectively.

Cranial irradiation is a medical treatment that involves the use of radiation therapy to target the brain. It is often used to treat various conditions affecting the brain, such as brain tumors, leukemia, and certain neurological disorders. The radiation is directed at the skull and can be focused on specific areas of the brain or delivered more broadly, depending on the nature and location of the condition being treated.

The goal of cranial irradiation may be to destroy cancer cells, reduce the size of tumors, prevent the spread of cancer, or provide symptomatic relief for patients with advanced disease. However, it is important to note that cranial irradiation can have side effects, including hair loss, fatigue, memory problems, and cognitive changes, among others. These side effects can vary in severity and duration depending on the individual patient and the specific treatment regimen.

ADAP drugs page on cytarabine BC Cancer network page on cytarabine Chembank entry "Cytarabine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. ... Cytarabine-5´-triphosphate is a substrate for SAMHD1. Furthermore, SAMHD1 has been shown to limit the efficacy of cytarabine ... Cytarabine is able to inhibit herpesvirus and vaccinia virus replication in cells during tissue culture. However, cytarabine ... Cytarabine is rapidly deaminated by cytidine deaminase in the serum into the inactive uracil derivative. Cytarabine-5´- ...
... has been shown to be a biomarker and influence arabinose C (ara-C; cytarabine) responsiveness. Viral protein x (Vpx) has ... February 2017). "SAMHD1 is a biomarker for cytarabine response and a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia" (PDF). ... February 2017). "Targeting SAMHD1 with the Vpx protein to improve cytarabine therapy for hematological malignancies". Nature ... been proposed to be potential therapy to improve cytarabine therapy for hematological malignancies. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ...
... high-dose methotrexate or cytarabine; or intrathecal chemotherapy). As the mortality rates of childhood cancers have plummeted ...
... cytarabine) - an antimetabolite; (T)hioguanine - another antimetabolite. Randomized Comparison of DAT Versus ADE as Induction ...
Palmar-plantar rash with cytarabine therapy". N. Engl. J. Med. 364 (3): e5. doi:10.1056/NEJMicm1006530. PMID 21247311. Baack BR ... Acral erythema is a common adverse reaction to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, particularly cabozantinib, cytarabine, doxorubicin ...
"Vyxeos (cytarabine and daunorubicin) FDA Approval History". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-11. Retrieved 2018 ... As a result, Jazz obtained the rights to breakthrough therapy Vyxeos (liposomal daunorubicin and cytarabine) for treatment of ...
Chemotherapeutic drugs such as Pemetrexed and Cytarabine. Zimelidine (SSRI that is no longer available) Azathioprine[citation ...
Cytarabine, Days 2 and 3 The side effects of the administration of the chemotherapeutic agents used in hyper-CVAD are complex, ... Course B consists of methotrexate and cytarabine. The protocol was originally developed to treat leukemia in young, fit ... Days 1-4 and 11-14 Cytarabine or Ara-C (Cytosar), an antimetabolite, Day 7 Mesna (Uromitexan), a compound used to reduce the ...
It is the biologically active form of cytarabine. Ara-CTP - Compound Summary, PubChem. v t e (Articles without EBI source, ...
"Potential mechanisms of resistance to cytarabine in AML patients". Leukemia Research. 26 (7): 621-9. doi:10.1016/S0145-2126(01) ...
The cytostatic cytarabine inhibits the antimycotic activity of flucytosine.[citation needed] Symptoms and their severities are ...
ADE regimen consists of three drugs: Ara-C (cytarabine) - an antimetabolite; Daunorubicin - an anthracycline antibiotic that is ...
It consists of chemotherapy, frequently consisting of cytarabine, daunorubicin, and idarubicin. It can also involve bone marrow ...
It consists of monoclonal antibody rituximab and high-dose antimetabolite cytarabine. High-dose Ara-C (HDAC) without rituximab ... Maxi-CHOP and High Dose Cytarabine) for Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-11. ...
... for cases of lymphomatous meningitis R-CHOP plus cytarabine is recommended; and for cases in which patients have altered ... clinical study to determine the feasibility and toxicity of the R-CHOP regimen plus intrathecal liposomal cytarabine and ...
NEH was first described in 1982 in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who had received cytarabine as chemotherapy. ... Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis: a distinctive rash associated with cytarabine therapy and acute leukemia. Flynn TC, Harrist ... These include: Bleomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, lomustine, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and ...
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June 2012). "Phase II trial of vorinostat with idarubicin and cytarabine for patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous ... Langholtz J, Haehle M (11 January 2012). "Zolinza, Idarubicin, Cytarabine Combination Yields High Response Rates In MDS ... has given encouraging results in a phase II trial for myelodysplastic syndromes in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine. ...
"Resistance Mechanism of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells Against Daunorubicin and Cytarabine: A Literature Review". Cureus. 14 (12 ...
The deoxynucleoside analogues include cytarabine, gemcitabine, decitabine, azacitidine, fludarabine, nelarabine, cladribine, ...
"Nordic Protocol (Maxi-CHOP and High Dose Cytarabine) for Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on ... high-dose cytarabine). In most other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (excluding some aggressive forms), standard-dose [R]-CHOP is ...
As of today, cytarabine is one of the greatest contributors towards anti-cancer therapies. The drug disables Deoxyribonucleic ... The discovery of these nucleosides also led to the development of cytarabine for clinical use in the treatment of leukemia and ... The treatment of leukemia through the use of Ara-C (cytarabine) is the first documented anticancer agent that has come about ... Gemcitabine, a fluorinated derivative of cytarabine, is used to treat pancreatic, breast, bladder, and non-small-cell lung ...
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High dose cytarabine, however, has been found to be highly toxic in infants with TMD; it is recommended that these dosages be ... The goal of low dose cytarabine in TMD is to reduce the load but not eradicate platelet precursors in tissues and/or ... There have been no large controlled studies published on treatment but several small studies report that low dose cytarabine, a ... A complex drug regimen that includes high dose cytarabine has shown good results in treating AMKL. Overall mortality during the ...
The study showed that pretreatment with decitabine followed by cytarabine promoted a higher number of complete remissions (70 ... Treatment consisted of continuous IV administration of decitabine, followed by 5 days of cytarabine immunotherapy. Patients ... followed by cytarabine and daunorubicin treatment. Patients were treated two weeks before the immunotherapy either with 1 hour ... Phase 2 study of epigenetic priming using decitabine followed by cytarabine as an induction regimen in older patients with ...
March 2003). "Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid ...
"Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia". The New ...
ADAP drugs page on cytarabine BC Cancer network page on cytarabine Chembank entry "Cytarabine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. ... Cytarabine-5´-triphosphate is a substrate for SAMHD1. Furthermore, SAMHD1 has been shown to limit the efficacy of cytarabine ... Cytarabine is able to inhibit herpesvirus and vaccinia virus replication in cells during tissue culture. However, cytarabine ... Cytarabine is rapidly deaminated by cytidine deaminase in the serum into the inactive uracil derivative. Cytarabine-5´- ...
Cytarabine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving cytarabine injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to cytarabine or any of the ... You should not become pregnant while you are receiving cytarabine injection. If you become pregnant while receiving cytarabine ... Cytarabine is also sometimes used to treat certain types of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (a type of cancer that begins in a type of ...
Cytarabine into the spinal fluid is treatment for a number of different cancer types. Find out about how you have it, possible ... Cytarabine into spinal fluid (intrathecal cytarabine). Cytarabine is a type of chemotherapy. It is also known as Ara C or ... How does cytarabine work?. Cytarabine is a type of chemotherapy drug called an antimetabolite.. It kills cancer cells by ... Home About cancer Treatment for cancer Cancer drugs A to Z list Cytarabine into spinal fluid (intrathecal cytarabine) ...
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221 A Comparison of 1 or 2 Courses of High Dose Cytarabine As Consolidation in Younger Patients with AML: First Results of the ...
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... (cytosine arabinoside) is an effective anti-cancer drug that can be used to treat blood cancers in dogs. ... Cytarabine for Dogs. Cytosine arabinoside, also known as cytarabine or ARA-C, is an antineoplastic, antimetabolic drug.2 ... Cytarabine or Ara-C is the generic name for cytosine arabinoside. It is available in the United States under the brand names:2 ... How Cytarabine for Dogs Works. Cytosine arabinoside blocks the formation and repair of DNA in cancer cells, which are needed ...
Cytarabine. Adding an intermediate dose cytarabine to imatinib for the upfront treatment of chronic phase CML proved feasible ... Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J ... High-dose imatinib versus high-dose imatinib in combination with intermediate-dose cytarabine in patients with first chronic ... Results of a prospective phase 2 study combining imatinib mesylate and cytarabine for the treatment of Philadelphia-positive ...
See Safety Info & Warning about not substituting with other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine-containing medicines. ... daunorubicin and cytarabine), a treatment for adults for two types of newly-diagnosed AML, t-AML and AML-MRC. ... Do not substitute VYXEOS for other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine-containing products. VYXEOS should not be given to patients ... VYXEOS has different dosage recommendations from other medications that contain daunorubicin and/or cytarabine. Do not ...
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A Dose Escalation Phase I/II Study of Clofarabine Plus Cytarabine With Growth Factor Priming in Patients Who Are ... Giving clofarabine and cytarabine together with G-CSF may kill more cancer cells.. PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying ... Phase II: Patients receive clofarabine at the MTD, cytarabine, and G-CSF as in phase I.. Quality of life is assessed at ... RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine and cytarabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer ...
Structural insights into mutagenicity of anticancer nucleoside analog cytarabine during replication by DNA polymerase η.. ... p,Cytarabine (AraC) is the mainstay chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whereas initial treatment with AraC is ... Home » Structural insights into mutagenicity of anticancer nucleoside analog cytarabine during replication by DNA polymerase η. ...
studied the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and activated lignite for the removal of cytarabine (CytR) and 5-FU in ...
Cytarabine Injection March 29, 2023. Dacarbazine Injection April 23, 2024. Dalbavancin Injection March 9, 2023. ...
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Phase I study of alvocidib plus cytarabine/mitoxantrone or cytarabine/daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia in Japan. Cancer ... Phase I study of alvocidib plus cytarabine/mitoxantrone or cytarabine/daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia in Japan. In: ... Dive into the research topics of Phase I study of alvocidib plus cytarabine/mitoxantrone or cytarabine/daunorubicin for acute ... Phase I study of alvocidib plus cytarabine/mitoxantrone or cytarabine/daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia in Japan. / ...
The combination of MEC [mitoxantrone (MIT), etoposide (VP16), and cytarabine (ARA-C)] is a commonly used regimen for relapsed ... and Cytarabine (MEC)-Based Combination Therapy in Refractory & Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients Guido Marcucci, ... and Cytarabine (MEC)-Based Combination Therapy in Refractory & Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients. Blood 2021; 138 ...
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High dose cytarabine with rituximab is not enough in first-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma with high proliferation: ... T1 - High dose cytarabine with rituximab is not enough in first-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma with high proliferation ... High dose cytarabine with rituximab is not enough in first-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma with high proliferation: ... High dose cytarabine with rituximab is not enough in first-line treatment of mantle cell lymphoma with high proliferation: ...
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  • Tretinoin, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin. (checkorphan.org)
  • WARNING: VYXEOS has different dosage recommendations from other medications that contain daunorubicin and/or cytarabine. (vyxeos.com)
  • Do not substitute VYXEOS for other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine-containing products. (vyxeos.com)
  • VYXEOS should not be given to patients who have a history of serious allergic reaction to daunorubicin, cytarabine, or any of its ingredients. (vyxeos.com)
  • In this multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, 3 + 3 phase I study, we investigated the safety and tolerability of alvocidib administered in combination with either cytarabine and mitoxantrone (ACM) for R/R AML or cytarabine/daunorubicin (A + 7 + 3) for newly diagnosed AML. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cytarabine, also known as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), is a chemotherapy medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside) is an effective anti-cancer drug that can be used to treat blood cancers in dogs. (dogcancer.com)
  • Cytosine arabinoside, also known as cytarabine or ARA-C, is an antineoplastic, antimetabolic drug. (dogcancer.com)
  • Cytarabine or Ara-C is the generic name for cytosine arabinoside. (dogcancer.com)
  • Cytarabine is mainly used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and in lymphomas, where it is the backbone of induction chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytarabine injection must be given under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytarabine is used alone or with other chemotherapy drugs to treat certain types of leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells), including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytarabine is also used alone or with other chemotherapy drugs to treat meningeal leukemia (cancer in the membrane that covers and protects the spinal cord and brain). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytarabine is a type of chemotherapy. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine and cytarabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (survivornet.com)
  • Cytarabine (AraC) is the mainstay chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (cornell.edu)
  • Randomized phase-III study of low-dose cytarabine and etoposide? (cdc.gov)
  • Cytarabine is in the antimetabolite and nucleoside analog families of medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural insights into mutagenicity of anticancer nucleoside analog cytarabine during replication by DNA polymerase η. (cornell.edu)
  • When used in protocols designated as high dose, cytarabine can cause cerebral and cerebellar dysfunction, ocular toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, severe GI ulceration and peripheral neuropathy (rare). (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the impact of high-dose cytarabine (ARA-C) (HDAC) dose modification, based on renal function, on the incidence of neurotoxicity (NT). (nih.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of clofarabine and to see how well it works when given together with cytarabine and G-CSF in treating patients with myelodysplastic syndrome s. (survivornet.com)
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine when administered with low-dose cytarabine and filgrastim (G-CSF) in patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes ( MDS ). (survivornet.com)
  • Phase I: Patients receive clofarabine IV over 1 hour and low-dose cytarabine subcutaneously (SC) on days 1-5. (survivornet.com)
  • A total of 10 patients were enrolled: six received ACM (at two dose levels of cytarabine and mitoxantrone) and four received A + 7 + 3. (elsevierpure.com)
  • E2F1 rs3213150 polymorphism influences cytarabine sensitivity and prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • You have an intrathecal injection of cytarabine the same way you have a lumbar puncture. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • For patients without CNS metastases, CNS prophylaxis (eg, with systemic and/or intrathecal methotrexate and/or cytarabine ) is essential. (msdmanuals.com)
  • DepoCyte ( cytarabine liposome injection) and DepoDur ( morphine sulfate extended-release liposome injection). (medscape.com)
  • Cytarabine comes as a powder to mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein), subcutaneously (under the skin), or intrathecally (into the fluid-filled space of the spinal canal) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to cytarabine or any of the ingredients in cytarabine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cytarabine is able to inhibit herpesvirus and vaccinia virus replication in cells during tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] One of the unique toxicities of cytarabine is cerebellar toxicity when given in high doses, which may lead to ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • and cytarabine from 1.40 mg per 1000 population per day in 2010 to 0.96 in 2013. (who.int)
  • Cytidine deaminase (CDA) and deoxycytidine monophosphate deaminase (DCTD), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), 5'-nucleotidase and human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) participate in the regulation of cellular nucleotide and nucleoside pools and also in the metabolism of therapeutically significant nucleoside and nucleotide analogs including cytarabine that is commonly used for the treatment of diverse hematological malignancies. (imtm.cz)
  • You might have cytarabine injected into the fluid around the spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF). (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Cytarabine is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not become pregnant while you are receiving cytarabine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some of the side effects listed are more likely to happen if you are having cytarabine as a drip or injection into a vein than if you are having it in the spinal fluid. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Generic CYTARABINE / Brand CYTOSAR-U 100 mg / mL Injection Vial is used to treat Blood Cancer / Leukemia. (911globalmeds.com)
  • Furthermore, SAMHD1 has been shown to limit the efficacy of cytarabine efficacy in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase II: Patients receive clofarabine at the MTD, cytarabine, and G-CSF as in phase I. (survivornet.com)
  • Results of the project presented will contribute to the understanding of differences in the response of particular patients to cytarabine and other drugs based on cytidine analogs. (imtm.cz)
  • public/reseaux de sante/hematolim/linformation des patients/gui en sous cutané est-elle douloureuse ?Quels sont les effets. (ficgs.com)
  • Cytarabine is rapidly deaminated by cytidine deaminase in the serum into the inactive uracil derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • ii)the analysis of the effect of the levels of cytidine deaminase activity in the cancer cells and blood plasma with respect to the course and the effectiveness of the treatment by cytarabine , and iii) the development of a new technology for the fast non-isotopic detection and quantification of DCTD activity in the cells and CDA activity in the cells and in solutions including the blood plasma. (imtm.cz)
  • Cytarabine is the first of a series of cancer drugs that altered the sugar component of nucleosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with many drugs used by veterinarians, in the United States, using cytarabine in dogs is considered off-label or extra-label use. (dogcancer.com)
  • Cytarabine is used in dogs for leukemia and lymphoma. (dogcancer.com)
  • Other medications may also interact with cytarabine, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, cytarabine is not very selective in this setting and causes bone marrow suppression and other severe side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytarabine may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the side effects of cytarabine into the spinal fluid? (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Cytarabine also possesses antiviral activity, and it has been used for the treatment of generalised herpesvirus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cytarabine treatment was only effective for herpesvirus infection in a murine model. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the impact of these metabolic pathways on the results of treatment with cytarabine is not well described, the studies focused on the detailed description of their roles are necessary. (imtm.cz)
  • Cytarabine is also used in the study of the nervous system to control the proliferation of glial cells in cultures, the amount of glial cells having an important impact on neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will tell you how often you will receive cytarabine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • citation needed] In mice, Ara-CTP (cytarabine-5'-triphosphate) blocks memory consolidation, but not short-term memory, of a context fear conditioning event. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is then monophosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase and eventually cytarabine-5´-triphosphate, which is the active metabolite being incorporated into DNA during DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once it has tricked its way into the cancer cell, it is changed into its active form, cytarabine triphosphate. (dogcancer.com)
  • One special trait of cytarabine is that it can cross the blood-brain barrier and access the central nervous system. (dogcancer.com)
  • You might have cytarabine into the spinal fluid if there are cancer cells there. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Giving clofarabine and cytarabine together with G-CSF may kill more cancer cells. (survivornet.com)