Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Dermoid Cyst: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Odontogenic Cysts: Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Radicular Cyst: Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Dentigerous Cyst: Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.United StatesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.ConnecticutMesenteric Cyst: A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tarlov Cysts: Perineurial cysts commonly found in the SACRAL REGION. They arise from the PERINEURIUM membrane within the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. The distinctive feature of the cysts is the presence of spinal nerve root fibers within the cyst wall, or the cyst cavity itself.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.IndiaNeoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Esophageal Cyst: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Urachal Cyst: Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Jaw Cysts: Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Milk, HumanMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Periodontal Cyst: An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Thyroglossal Cyst: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Nonodontogenic Cysts: Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Maxillary DiseasesReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Parovarian Cyst: A cyst (CYSTS) near the OVARY, derived from anomalies of the FALLOPIAN TUBES or the BROAD LIGAMENT. The paramesonephric type consists of ciliated cells similar to the oviduct epithelium. The mesonephric type consisted of an epithelium with minimally surface structures. They can be found on the thin oviduct (paratubal cysts) or near its fimbriated end (hydatid of Morgagni).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Odontogenic Cyst, Calcifying: A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Mandibular DiseasesPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
It is seen in women mostly over the age of 50 years. Metaplasia happens when there is an irritation to the breast (breast cyst ... Apocrine carcinoma is a very rare form of female breast cancer. The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%. Cytologically, the ... Apocrine glands are found primarily in the breast of lactating mammals (i.e. the mammary glands are apocrine glands). Secretion ... "A rare case of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: Cytopathological and immunohistopathological study." Journal of Cytology/ ...
1990). "Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease". ...
Primary amenorrhoea can be diagnosed in female children by age 14 if no secondary sex characteristics, such as enlarged breasts ... Increased levels of androgens, especially testosterone, can also lead to ovarian cysts. Some research among amenorrhoeic ... When a woman is experiencing amenorrhoea, an eating disorder, and osteoporosis together, this is called female athlete triad ... It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women ...
Commonly, they simply indicate the presence of tiny benign cysts, but can signify the presence of early breast cancer; for this ... They are caused by a number of reasons: Aging - the majority of diagnoses are made in women over 50 Benign causes Genetic - ... Breast Calcifications - Differential diagnosis and BIRADS (The Radiology Assistant). ...
... possibly from removing cysts from her lower back and right breast. The victim wore blue shorts, a sleevelesss shirt and a pair ... The woman also wore a partial denture on her upper set of teeth. The body of a woman between twenty-four and thirty-three years ... The female's body was eventually cremated. The extensively decomposed remains of a young female were found at the side of a ... The woman wore blue shorts, a red shirt and a pair of underwear, but no shoes. She had brown and gray short hair and an eleven- ...
If the bleb continues to block the flow of milk out of the breast it may develop into a blocked milk duct or even mastitis. A ... In some cased the bleb may be associated with an adjacent blocked sebaceous cyst. Its cause may be due to a blocked pore that ... nipple bleb is often treated by the woman herself since a warm saline soak and gentle washing may open the blister and cause it ... Areola Breast Breastfeeding Intimate part Inverted nipple Lactation Mammary gland Milk Association, Australian Breastfeeding (4 ...
In 119 women who subsequently underwent surgery, he correctly found breast cancer in 54 out of 58 cases. This represented a ... He was even able to detect an undiagnosed cancer in a breast that had been removed because of a large cyst. However, Salomon ... That year he published "A Roentgenologic Study of the Breast". X-ray imaging of the breast had first been investigated by ... By 1951 when the first students, 26 men and two women, arrived there were 15 faculty members. By the time the first class ...
... such as reducing the presence of breast cyst, fibrous tissue plaques and breast pain) in women with fibrocystic breast changes ... Venturi S (October 2001). "Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases?". Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). 10 (5): 379-82. doi: ... to the health service per pregnant woman and save £4476 per pregnant woman in societal costs. Following is a list of potential ... The recommended daily intake of iodine for adult women is 150-300 µg for maintenance of normal thyroid function; for men it is ...
Genetic XX females affected by total 17α-hydroxylase deficiency are born with normal female internal and external anatomy. At ... The ovaries may contain enlarged follicular cysts, and ovulation may not occur even after replacement of estrogen. Hypertension ... breasts and pubic hair) of puberty fail to occur. Gonadotropins are high and the uterus infantile in size. ... Most who are severely undervirilized, looking more female than male, are raised as females with surgical removal of the ...
Small ovarian cysts are common in healthy women. Some women have more follicles than usual (polycystic ovary syndrome), which ... Breast Cancer Res Treat. 100 (1): 59-63. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9220-1. PMID 16773440. Titus, S; Li, F; Stobezki, R; Akula, K; ... Ovaries in females are analogous to testes in males, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands. Ovaries of some kind ... Although most normal female vertebrates have two ovaries, this is not the case in all species. In most birds and in platypuses ...
Prolactin induced protein (called GCDFP-15 in this context) in breast cyst fluid or breast tissue serves as marker of both ... "Gross cystic disease fluid protein in nipple aspirates of breast fluid of Asian and non-Asian women". Cancer Epidemiol. ... 1998). "Differential antibody reactivity and CD4 binding of the mammary tumor marker protein GCDFP-15 from breast cyst and its ... PIP expression is necessary for viability and invasiveness of this subtype of breast cancer. In ER+ breast cancer, particularly ...
Women who took DES were shown to have a greater chance of having breast cancer. It is estimated that 5 to 10 million persons ... Sons of DES mothers have displayed side effects like genital abnormalities, non-cancerous Epididymal Cysts, and infertility. ... Daughters of DES Mothers are more than twice as likely to form breast cancer and are 2.4 times as likely to be infertile. ... "Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of breast cancer". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 15 (8): 1509-14 ...
Verghese BG, Ravikanth R (May 2012). "Breast abscess, an early indicator for diabetes mellitus in non-lactating women: a ... inflammation related to the rupture of ducts or cysts. It is controversial whether duct dilation occurs first and leads to ... young women (in their late teens and early 20s) and perimenopausal women. Women in the younger group mostly have inverted ... Nonpuerperal breast abscesses have a higher rate of recurrence compared to puerperal breast abscesses. There is a high ...
He may have been the first to practise hypnotism during surgery, allowing him to remove a cyst from a woman's breast without ...
The risk of developing ovarian cancer is less for women who have fewer menstrual cycles, no menstrual cycles, breast feeding, ... or paraovarian cyst. Ovaries that can be felt are also a sign of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. Other parts of a ... Japanese women develop clear-cell ovarian cancer more frequently than other groups of women. Clear-cell adenocarcinomas are ... They occur most frequently in women between 50 and 69 years of age, but can occur in women of any age, including young girls. ...
14% women on oral contraceptives are found to have polycystic ovaries. Ovarian cysts are also a common side effect of ... Barry JA, Azizia MM, Hardiman PJ (2014). "Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary ... ovarian cysts. These "cysts" are actually immature follicles not cysts. The follicles have developed from primordial follicles ... Like women without PCOS, women with PCOS that are ovulating may be infertile due to other causes, such as tubal blockages due ...
High-risk women who have not had prior breast cancer can benefit from a 37% (BRCA1 mutation) and 64% (BRCA2 mutation) reduction ... such as high-risk BRCA mutation carriers and women with endometriosis who also suffer from frequent ovarian cysts. ... Women who undergo RRSO are also at a lower risk for developing ovarian cancer and first occurrence breast cancer. Specifically ... Women younger than 45 who have had their ovaries removed face a mortality risk 170% higher than women who have retained their ...
... might be used to determine if there are any tumors or cysts present in the breasts themselves. If a tumor of the pituitary ... Consider treatment for women with amenorrhea. In addition, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning should be considered to ... In pregnant women, prolactinomas must be observed closely because the lesions may greatly increase in size. "What is ... Its prevalence was found to be 5% in a family planning clinic population, 9% in a population of women with adult-onset ...
... and male and female αERKO mice are infertile, βERKO males are fertile while females are subfertile, male and female double ... Both of the sisters had no breast development (i.e., Tanner stage I), illustrating how the ERα is absolutely required for ... Examination revealed markedly enlarged ovaries with multiple hemorrhagic cysts as the cause of the lower abdominal pain. ... The afflicted individuals were a 25-year-old female, a 21-year-old female, and an 18-year-old male. The family was ...
Women begin puberty with about 400,000 follicles, each with the potential to release an egg cell (ovum) at ovulation for ... Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. Ovarian function may be measured by ... for example in hematologic malignancies or breast cancer. For in vitro culture of follicles, there are various techniques to ... Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology. Each of them contains a single oocyte (immature ovum or ...
... it is important for women with a breast lump to receive appropriate evaluation. A breast cyst is a non-cancerous, fluid-filled ... Cysts are caused by the hormones that control the menstrual cycle and are rare in women older than 50. A sebaceous cyst is a ... Abscesses of the breast are most common in women who are breast-feeding. Adenomas are non-cancerous abnormal growths of the ... Treatments for breast lumps vary depending on the type of lump. Standard breast cysts and abscesses require drainage for ...
Breast reduction Breast binding Female genital mutilation Mastectomy Amazons Rebecca Tapscott (14 May 2012). "Understanding ... However, medical experts warn it might contribute toward breast cancer, cysts and depression, and perhaps interfere with ... Breast ironing, also known as breast flattening, is the pounding and massaging of a pubescent girl's breasts, using hard or ... The GIZ survey found that 39 percent of Cameroonian women opposed breast ironing, with 41 percent expressing support and 26 ...
Scintimammography is a type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have ... Examples of cysts and ductal carcinoma images recorded by BTI are shown in Figure 4. BTI has the potential to be used as a cost ... In medicine, breast imaging is the representation or reproduction of a breast's form. There are various methods of breast ... Lehman CD (2006). "Role of MRI in screening women at high risk for breast cancer". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 24 (5 ...
The augmented breast The woman with breast implants is able to breast-feed her infant; yet breast implant devices occasionally ... The size, form, and feel of the breasts was natural; post-procedure MRI examinations revealed no oil cysts or abnormality ( ... Structural fat-grafting was performed either to one breast or to both breasts of the 17 women; the age range of the women was ... to create a breast of natural form, look, and feel. The fat graft breast reconstructions for 33 women (47 breasts, 14 ...
... of women in the western world develop palpable breast cysts. There is preliminary evidence that women with breast cysts may be ... A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast. One breast can have one or more breast cysts. They are often described ... a breast cyst usually feels like a soft grape or a water-filled balloon, but sometimes a breast cyst feels firm. Breast cysts ... "Risk of breast cancer in women with palpable breast cysts: a prospective study. Edinburgh Breast Group". Lancet. 353 (9166): ...
Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... In a normal menstrual cycle, one egg is released from a dominant follicle - in essence, a cyst that bursts to release the egg. ... of women with PCOS.[61]Frank diabetes can be seen in 65-68% of women with this condition.[來源請求] Insulin resistance can be ... The pattern is not very sensitive; a ratio of 2:1 or higher was present in less than 50% of women with PCOS in one study.[65] ...
Physical examination revealed a non-tender swelling of size 6×8cm in the presternal location in between the two breasts. The ... A 58 year old woman presented for evaluation of a painless swelling anterior to lower half of sternum. ... This was a giant epidermal cyst, as epidermal cysts usually do not exceed 5cm in diameter. The patient underwent complete ... Giant epidermal cyst of chest wall: a case report. International Journal of Development Research ...
... but more on the hormonal aspect of breast cysts. Based on his three part series on gynecology, he describes fibrocystic breasts ... Wolfe focuses on four treatment principles for women to arrest development and even reverse breast lumps. First and foremost ... Yuen claims that "if you regulate ovarian function, the cyst[ic breasts] will disappear." In a very basic sense, he says, any ... Fibrocystic breast disease refers to the cobblestone lumps which can be present in the breast and which change in size, shape, ...
... affecting more than one-half of women at some point in their lives and was once known as fibrocystic breast disease. ... most often in premenopausal women. The condition is quite common, ... Fibrocystic breast changes cause noncancerous growths in the breasts, ... Treating Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Cyst Removal. If cysts are causing a lot of discomfort or pain or if they are large, women ...
Did you know that 9 in every 10 women want to get rid of cellulite? Indeed, 90% of the female population has this problem. You ... Small lumps or bumps that occur just under the skin of the genitalia, breast, abdomen, face, neck, or elsewhere on the body are ... get rid of sebaceous cyst , healthy living , live healthy , sebaceous cyst information , sebaceous cyst prevention methods , ... A sebaceous cyst is a closed sac under the skin filled with a cheese-like or oily material. Sebaceous cysts are commonly seen ...
I have had several bouts with breast cysts and just found one again. Im just wondering how long I should wait to see if it ... Cancer: Breast. 5. 05-05-2009 07:24 AM. advice about how to proceed: breast cyst kate2780. Womens Health. 4. 05-21-2006 10:57 ... Breast Cysts I have had several bouts with breast cysts and just found one again. Im just wondering how long I should wait to ... Womens Health. 6. 02-18-2005 12:56 PM. Severe Breast Pain and Water Retention!!! tigerlily6200. Womens Health. 2. 01-26-2005 ...
... commonly called breast cysts, occurs when there are fluid-filled lumps surrounded by a scar-like capsule of tissue in the ... Read the latest Breast Cysts articles, questions and answers in womens health ... Septated breast cyst identified in left breast. Is it breast cancer? By Anonymous on September 29, 2017 - 2:11pm ... This Breast Cysts page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser.. Toggle navigation ...
Cysts do not turn into breast cancer, and having cysts does not increase a womans risk of getting breast cancer. ... Breast cyst: what is it?. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac A cyst in the breast, which feels and looks like a lump, is actually a ... Cysts occur most often in women between the ages of 35 and 55, possibly because of changes in hormone levels. However, the ... exact cause of cysts is not yet known. ... A cyst is a fluid-filled sac. A cyst in the breast, which feels ...
A breast abscess is a closed pocket of tissue containing pus (a creamy, thick, pale yellow or yellow-green fluid). Abscesses a ... A breast mass is any group of breast cells that are clustered together more densely than the surrounding breast tissue. Masses ... Fibroadenomas are made up of both glandular and stromal (connective) breast tissue and usually occur in women between 20-30 ... Breast Abscess. A breast abscess is a closed pocket of tissue containing pus (a creamy, thick, pale yellow or yellow-green ...
Get FREE shipping offers and dollar off coupons with our price comparison for Renewing Female Balance PMS Breast Uterine ... Fibroids Ovarian Cysts Endometriosis More by Linda Rect - ISBN B01FJ0GQ0I. ... Renewing Female Balance: PMS, Breast & Uterine Fibroids, Ovarian Cysts, Endometriosis & More by Linda Rector-Page (1997-02-04) ... Renewing Female Balance: PMS, Breast & Uterine Fibroids, Ovarian Cysts, Endometriosis & More by Linda Rector-Page (1997-02-04) ...
Soreness in right breast for last couple of days (2 - Answered by a verified Doctor ... 42-year-old female with a history of breast cysts before period. ... 42-year-old female with a history of breast cysts before…. 42- ... year-old female with a history.... 42-year-old female with a history of breast cysts before period. Soreness in right breast ... IM NOT OVER WAIT BUT BY STUMACH IS . I FEEL A BIG LUMP MOSTLY ON MY LEFT SIDE UNDER MY BREAST AND GOING OVER MY RIB CAGE. I ...
Ultrasound Guided Cyst Aspiration. Breast cysts are a common abnormality which do not pose any significant risk of breast ... Ultrasound guided aspiration of a breast cyst is a common procedure performed at Womens & Breast Imaging to relieve symptoms ... Cysts can be significantly symptomatic depending on their size, position, or the fact that sometimes they can become inflamed ...
Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young womans menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast ... Cysts. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Cysts often get bigger and become sore and painful just ... Breast Conditions in Young Women. Breast changes. You may have many changes in your breasts as a teen and young adult. Some ... Women with lumpy breasts may have other benign breast conditions.. Breast lumpiness may make it harder to tell if you have ...
What is dangerous cyst? Drug treatment and laparoscopic removal of the cyst of the mammary glands ... Diagnosis of breast cyst. In order to diagnose an existing medium-sized breast cyst, a standard palpation is sometimes enough ... removal of breast cyst). Doctors sometimes encounter such a situation when the pathology associated with the breast cyst is not ... Causes of breast cyst. Hormonal failure in a womans body is not uncommon. At such a moment, the ovaries secrete above the ...
Realistic reproduction of a breast made from ultrasound materi ... Breast model with cysts , Ultrasound , The material of the ... Womens Health Education. *Advanced Life Support (ALS). *Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) ... Realistic reproduction of a breast made from ultrasound material with two cysts for realistic punctures and aspirations.. • ...
Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young womans menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast ... Cysts. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Cysts often get bigger and become sore and painful just ... Breast Conditions in Young Women. Breast changes. You may have many changes in your breasts as a teen and young adult. Some ... Women with lumpy breasts may have other benign breast conditions.. Breast lumpiness may make it harder to tell if you have ...
Ultrasound-Guided Breast Cyst Aspiration. Why is ultrasound-guided breast cyst aspiration done?. Breast cysts are fluid-filled ... Before your breast cyst aspiration * 7 days before your breast cyst aspiration, stop taking: *Vitamin E ... What is an ultrasound-guided breast cyst aspiration?. Ultrasound-guided breast cyst aspiration is done using imaging with sound ... A specially trained breast radiologist will perform your breast cyst aspiration. * Ultrasound images will be taken to precisely ...
... provides a range of free pdf files breast cancer fact sheet. This fact sheet provides information ... Breast Cysts. Read more 29 September 2016. Breast Cancer in Younger Women. Read more ... Your Breast Cancer Operation. This brochure will discuss you what will happen after your breast operation. ... Westmead Breast Cancer Institute and/or Western Sydney Local Health District and/or the State of NSW take no responsibility for ...
"People automatically assume breast cancer is exclusive to women, but men have breast tissues like women do," he told Global ... "Women get breast cancer, sure, but men? Alarmingly, it turns out the lifetime risk of a man being diagnosed with breast cancer ... WATCH: Here are some known risk factors for male breast cancer. A California woman is sharing her late husbands battle with ... "Now, a year later, on Mikes death anniversary, I can only hope other men and women are aware of how cruel breast cancer can be ...
... breast biopsies include:,/p, ,ul, ,li,Bruising (scarring is usually minimal),/li, ,li,Infection ,/li, ,li,Hematoma: pooli ... Cysts; sometimes also used to sample cells from masses with or without calcifications. 22 or 25 gauge needle; several (5-6) ... The side effects of breast biopsy will vary depending on the patient. Patients are encouraged to discuss the risks of breast ... May change the shape or appearance of the breast depending on the size and location of the lesion (breast abnormality) ...
Many women at high risk for breast or ovarian cancer are choosing to undergo surgery as a precautionary measure to decrease ... Q: Best method to treat fibroadenomata and cysts in both breasts. posted on 11/07/2018. ... Women having risk-reduction surgery Many women at high risk for breast or ovarian cancer are choosing to undergo surgery as a ... Many women at high risk for breast or ovarian cancer are choosing to undergo surgery as a precautionary measure to decrease ...
... she has 3 cysts on her breast on one front which is disapear almost after chemotheropy and 2 are ... ... Just to clarify, I am a female. (You can a learn a little about members/answerers by letting your cursor hover over their names ... Communities>Breast Cancer: Stage 3 & 4>my mother having 2 cysts in axila and one on front ... 12 Ways to Cut Your Breast Cancer Risk Breast cancer is not an inevitability. From what you eat and drink to how much you ...
FFP 176 , The Role of Iodine in Womens Health , Ovarian Cysts, Fibrocystic Breasts & Thyroid Disorders , Dr. Jorge Flechas. ... How is iodine related to breast, ovarian, and thyroid cancer?. *If iodine can reverse fibrocystic breast disease, then why ... Filed Under: Fertility Friday Podcast Tagged With: atherosclerosis, attention deficiency disorder, breast cancer, breast health ... In todays show, we talk about iodine, and the implications of iodine deficiency for thyroid health, breast health, fertility, ...
Ultrasound Breast Cyst Aspiration. *A procedure performed by placing an ultrasound probe over the site of a breast cyst and ... such as fibrocystic breasts or cysts, are often discovered as well. Breast changes are common throughout a womans life, but it ... Breast health services available through Womens Wellness Place. Screening Mammogram. *Images of the breasts that are used for ... Breast Self Exam Education. *For women receiving their first mammogram, instruction on proper techniques of breast self exams ...
Breast cysts: July 2, 2006 Ginseng Improves Mood in Postmenopausal Women December 6, 2000 ...
Female Genital System and the Breast flashcards from Ladyliza Lupiba ... A 17 year old female presents with a 10 cm left ovarian cyst and undergoes oophorectomy. On histopathology, the cyst is filled ... XIX - Female Genital System and the Breast Flashcards Preview Pathology (Topnotch) , XIX - Female Genital System and the Breast ... Multifocal, bilateral blue-brown cysts ("blue dome cysts") of the breast, measuring 1-5 cm diameter, filled with serous turbid ...
  • The benign masses may be free-moving within the breast and can appear and disappear suddenly. (facty.com)
  • In women who do feel the effects, signs and symptoms can be constant or cyclical (monthly) in nature. (facty.com)
  • As mentioned earlier, symptoms associated with fibrocystic breasts tend to be worst right before menstruation and disappear or lessen as soon as the period begins. (facty.com)
  • Researchers do not know what causes fibrocystic breast changes, but they believe fluctuating hormones, especially estrogen, during a woman's menstrual cycle play a significant role. (facty.com)
  • It's rare for postmenopausal women to have fibrocystic breast changes unless they are using hormone therapy. (facty.com)
  • If a cyst recurs after repeated fine-needle aspirations, surgery can remove it, though it is rare for a woman to require this method of treatment. (facty.com)
  • The condition is quite common, affecting more than one-half of women at some point in their lives. (facty.com)
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to treat the pain or discomfort associated with fibrocystic breast changes. (facty.com)
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