Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.
Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.
A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
Perineurial cysts commonly found in the SACRAL REGION. They arise from the PERINEURIUM membrane within the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. The distinctive feature of the cysts is the presence of spinal nerve root fibers within the cyst wall, or the cyst cavity itself.
A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.
A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
Maxillary diseases refer to various medical conditions primarily affecting the maxilla (upper jaw) bone, including inflammatory processes, tumors, cysts, or traumatic injuries, which may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or functional impairment.
A cyst (CYSTS) near the OVARY, derived from anomalies of the FALLOPIAN TUBES or the BROAD LIGAMENT. The paramesonephric type consists of ciliated cells similar to the oviduct epithelium. The mesonephric type consisted of an epithelium with minimally surface structures. They can be found on the thin oviduct (paratubal cysts) or near its fimbriated end (hydatid of Morgagni).
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)
'Mandibular diseases' refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or health of the mandible (lower jawbone), including but not limited to infections, tumors, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (1/1471)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

Cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a report of six cases. (2/1471)

Six patients with ankylosing spondylitis and features of a cauda equina syndrome are described. The myelographic findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of the disorder and its natural history. Present experience suggests that the cauda equina syndrome is a more common complication of ankylosing spondylitis than is usually thought.  (+info)

Cystic lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of Waldeyer's ring origin. (3/1471)

We analysed in a retrospective study the frequency of cystic lymph node (LN) metastases in neck dissection specimens of 123 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in the palatine tonsils (62 M/14 F), the base of the tongue (38 M/5 F) and the nasopharynx (2 M/2 F). Eighty-two per cent of patients had metastases (64 tonsillar SCC, 33 base of tongue SCC and all four nasopharynx SCC) in 368 LN of a total 2298 sampled LN. Thirty-nine per cent of patients had exclusively solid metastases and 37% of patients had exclusively cystic metastases. A total of 62 patients had some signs of cyst formation in one or more metastatically affected LN (27 with only histological evidence of cyst formation with luminal diameters < 5 mm, 35 with clinically detectable cyst with luminal diameter > 5 mm). Cystic metastases were more common in patients with SCC of the base of the tongue (P = 0.005), while solitary clinically evident cystic metastasis with lumina > 5 mm were found exclusively in tonsillar carcinoma (P = 0.024). In comparison with solid metastases, cyst formation was associated with N-categories (N2b and N3, P = 0.005) in SCC of the base of the tongue origin. No such association was observed for tonsillar SCC (P = 0.65). The primary mechanism of cyst formation was cystic degeneration.  (+info)

Laparoscopic management of benign solid and cystic lesions of the liver. (4/1471)

OBJECTIVE: The authors present their experience in the laparoscopic management of benign liver disease. The aim of the study is to analyze technical feasibility and evaluate immediate and long-term outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Indications for the laparoscopic management of varied abdominal conditions have evolved. Although the minimally invasive treatment of liver cysts has been reported, the laparoscopic approach to other liver lesions remains undefined. METHODS: Between September 1990 and October 1997, 43 patients underwent laparoscopic liver surgery. There were two groups of benign lesions: cysts (n = 31) and solid tumors (n = 12). Indications were solitary giant liver cysts (n = 16), polycystic liver disease (n = 9), hydatid cyst (n = 6), focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3), and adenoma (n = 9). Only solid tumors, hydatid cysts, and patients with polycystic disease and large dominant cysts located in anterior liver segments were included. All giant solitary liver cysts were considered for laparoscopy. Patients with cholangitis, cirrhosis, and significant cardiac disease were excluded. Data were collected prospectively. RESULTS: The procedures were completed laparoscopically in 40 patients. Median size was 4 cm for solid nodules and 14 cm for solitary liver cysts. Conversion occurred in three patients (7%), for bleeding (n = 2) and impingement of a solid tumor on the inferior vena cava (n = 1). The median operative time was 179 minutes. All solitary liver cysts were fenestrated in less than 1 hour. There were no deaths. Complications occurred in 6 cases (14.1%). Two hemorrhagic and two infectious complications were noted after management of hydatid cysts. There were no complications after resection of solid tumors. Three patients received transfusions (7%). The median length of stay was 4.7 days. Median follow-up was 30 months. There was no recurrence of solitary liver or hydatid cysts. One patient with polycystic disease had symptomatic recurrent cysts at 6 months requiring laparotomy. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic liver surgery can be accomplished safely in selected patients with small benign solid tumors located in the anterior liver segments and giant solitary cysts. The laparoscopic management of polycystic liver disease should be reserved for patients with a limited number of large, anteriorly located cysts. Hydatid disease is best treated through an open approach.  (+info)

Late consequences of acute ischemic injury to a solitary kidney. (5/1471)

The sequelae of acute ischemic injury to a solitary kidney were assessed in rats subjected to right nephrectomy and transient occlusion of the left renal artery; control rats underwent right nephrectomy alone. Incomplete recovery from ischemic injury at 2 wk (serum creatinine levels of 1.1 +/- 0.2 versus 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/dl, P < 0.05 for ischemia versus control) was followed by deterioration of renal function at 20 wk (serum creatinine levels of 1.7 +/- 0.4 versus 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl, P < 0.05 for ischemia versus control). Morphologic studies showed that impairment of function after ischemic injury was associated with widespread tubulointerstitial disease. Some tubule segments were atrophic and others exhibited cystic dilation, so that the tubular cell volume fraction was reduced (37 +/- 4 versus 53 +/- 2%, P < 0.05), while the tubular lumen and interstitial volume fractions were increased (31 +/- 4 versus 23 +/- 2% and 29 +/- 2 versus 20 +/- 1%, respectively, both P < 0.05). Many glomeruli retained open capillary loops but were no longer connected to normal tubule segments (63 +/- 8 versus 15 +/- 7% of glomeruli, P < 0.05). There was a strong inverse correlation between the prevalence of such glomeruli and the GFR at 20 wk after ischemia (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). Tubulointerstitial disease at that time was accompanied by proteinuria and widespread segmental glomerular tuft injury. The occurrence of similar processes in human patients could contribute to the loss of graft kidneys that suffer ischemic injury during transplantation.  (+info)

Histological characteristics of sternoclavicular beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis and clues for its histogenesis. (6/1471)

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis (A beta 2m) has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We describe the distribution and extent of A beta 2m deposition and macrophagic infiltration in cartilage, capsule, and synovium of sternoclavicular joints obtained postmortem from 54 patients after 3 to 244 (median 46) months of dialysis. Twenty-four nonuremic patients served as a control group. The diagnosis of amyloidosis (A) rested on a positive Congo Red staining (typical birefringence) and that of A beta 2m on positive immunostaining of the A deposits with a monoclonal anti-beta 2m antibody. The size of A deposits was measured. RESULTS: A beta 2m was detected in 32 (59%), and non-beta 2m amyloid (Anon beta 2m) was detected in an additional 8 (15%) of the 54 dialyzed patients. A beta 2m deposits were present in the cartilage of all A beta 2m (+) patients (100%). They were localized solely in the cartilage in 27% of the cases, either as a thin patchy layer or as a continuous thicker layer (identified as stage I). A beta 2m was additionally present in the capsule and/or synovium without macrophages in 27% of the cases (identified as stage II). The correlation between the size of cartilaginous deposits and dialysis duration (P = 0.02) as well as with the prevalence (P = 0.03) and size of capsular deposits (P = 0.02) suggests that stage II is a later stage of A deposition. Clusters of macrophages were detected around capsular and synovial amyloid deposits in 46% of the cases (identified as stage III). The longer duration of dialysis in those with stage III as well as the relationship between the size of the A beta 2m deposits and the prevalence of macrophagic infiltration suggests that stage III is the last stage of A beta 2m deposition. Marginal bone erosions were observed in 9 out of 12 patients with stage III deposits. Their size was correlated with that of cartilaginous deposits (P = 0.01). Among the 24 control patients, Anon beta 2m was detected in 12 patients (cartilage 100%, capsule 8%, synovium 30%). CONCLUSIONS: The earliest stage of A beta 2m deposition occurs in the cartilage. A beta 2m subsequently extends to capsule and synovium. These two first stages do not require macrophage infiltration. Macrophages are eventually recruited around larger synovial or capsular deposits in the final stage. Marginal bone erosions develop in this late stage.  (+info)

Multifocal meningioangiomatosis: a report of two cases. (7/1471)

We report the CT and MR findings in two patients with multifocal meningioangiomatosis, neither of whom had a family history or stigmata of neurofibromatosis. All lesions were located in the cortical and subcortical areas and had round dense calcifications with eccentric cysts. The masses were associated with surrounding edema and gliosis.  (+info)

Posterior fossa epithelial cyst: case report and review of the literature. (8/1471)

A 49-year old woman with progressive cranial nerve signs and hemiparesis was found at MR imaging and at surgery to have a cyst at the foramen magnum. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed an epithelial cyst of endodermal origin. MR findings were of an extraaxial mass, with short T1 and T2 times. Unless immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy are used in the final diagnosis of such cysts, all posterior fossa cysts lined by a single layer of epithelium should be described simply as epithelial cysts.  (+info)

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

Cyst fluid refers to the fluid accumulated within a cyst, which is a closed sac-like or capsular structure, typically filled with liquid or semi-solid material. Cysts can develop in various parts of the body for different reasons, and the composition of cyst fluid may vary depending on the type of cyst and its location.

In some cases, cyst fluid might contain proteins, sugars, hormones, or even cells from the surrounding tissue. Infected cysts may have pus-like fluid, while cancerous or precancerous cysts might contain abnormal cells or tumor markers. The analysis of cyst fluid can help medical professionals diagnose and manage various medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, genetic disorders, and cancers.

It is important to note that the term 'cyst fluid' generally refers to the liquid content within a cyst, but the specific composition and appearance of this fluid may vary significantly depending on the underlying cause and type of cyst.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

An epidermal cyst is a common benign skin condition characterized by the growth of a sac-like structure filled with keratin, a protein found in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). These cysts typically appear as round, firm bumps just under the surface of the skin, often on the face, neck, trunk, or scalp. They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

Epidermal cysts usually develop as a result of the accumulation of dead skin cells that become trapped within a hair follicle or a pilosebaceous unit (a structure that contains a hair follicle and an oil gland). The keratin produced by the skin cells then collects inside the sac, causing it to expand gradually.

These cysts are generally slow-growing, painless, and rarely cause any symptoms. However, they may become infected or inflamed, leading to redness, tenderness, pain, or pus formation. In such cases, medical attention might be necessary to drain the cyst or administer antibiotics to treat the infection.

Epidermal cysts can be removed surgically if they cause cosmetic concerns or become frequently infected. The procedure typically involves making an incision in the skin and removing the entire sac along with its contents to prevent recurrence.

A mediastinal cyst is a rare, abnormal fluid-filled sac located in the mediastinum, which is the central part of the chest cavity that separates the lungs and contains various organs such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and lymph nodes. Mediastinal cysts can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms depending on their size and location. Symptoms may include chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, or swallowing. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or pressure on surrounding structures.

A Synovial Cyst is a type of benign cyst that typically develops in the synovium, which is the membrane that lines and lubricates joint capsules. These cysts are filled with synovial fluid, which is the same lubricating fluid found inside joints. They usually form as a result of degenerative changes, trauma, or underlying joint diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Synovial cysts commonly occur in the spine (particularly in the facet joints), but they can also develop in other areas of the body, including the knees, hips, and hands. While synovial cysts are generally not harmful, they may cause discomfort or pain if they press on nearby nerves or restrict movement in the affected joint. Treatment options for synovial cysts range from conservative measures like physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

A bronchogenic cyst is a type of congenital cyst that develops from abnormal budding or development of the bronchial tree during fetal growth. These cysts are typically filled with mucus or fluid and can be found in the mediastinum (the area between the lungs) or within the lung tissue itself.

Bronchogenic cysts are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms if they become infected, rupture, or compress nearby structures such as airways or blood vessels. Symptoms may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and recurrent respiratory infections.

Diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is typically made through imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications.

A dermoid cyst is a type of benign (non-cancerous) growth that typically develops during embryonic development. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth, although it may not become apparent until later in life. Dermoid cysts are most commonly found in the skin or the ovaries of women, but they can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the spine or the brain.

Dermoid cysts form when cells that are destined to develop into skin and its associated structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands, become trapped during fetal development. These cells continue to grow and multiply, forming a sac-like structure that contains various types of tissue, including skin, fat, hair, and sometimes even teeth or bone.

Dermoid cysts are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms unless they become infected or rupture. In some cases, they may cause pain or discomfort if they press on nearby structures. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications and alleviate symptoms.

Odontogenic cysts are a type of cyst that originates from the dental tissues or odontogenic apparatus. They are typically found in the jawbones, and can be classified as developmental or inflammatory in origin. Developmental odontogenic cysts arise from remnants of the tooth-forming structures, while inflammatory odontogenic cysts result from an infection or injury to a tooth.

The most common types of odontogenic cysts include:

1. Periapical cyst - an inflammatory cyst that forms at the tip of the root of a dead or non-vital tooth.
2. Dentigerous cyst - a developmental cyst that surrounds the crown of an unerupted or impacted tooth.
3. Follicular cyst - a type of dentigerous cyst that forms around the crown of an unerupted wisdom tooth.
4. Odontogenic keratocyst - a developmental cyst that arises from the dental lamina and has a high recurrence rate.
5. Lateral periodontal cyst - a rare, developmental cyst that forms in the periodontal ligament of a vital tooth.

Odontogenic cysts can cause various symptoms such as swelling, pain, or numbness in the affected area. They may also displace or resorb adjacent teeth. Diagnosis is typically made through radiographic imaging and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy. Treatment options include surgical excision, marsupialization (a procedure that creates an opening between the cyst and oral cavity), or enucleation (removal of the cyst lining).

A radicular cyst is a type of dental cyst that forms around the root of a tooth, usually as a result of chronic infection or inflammation. It is also known as a periapical cyst. The cyst develops from the accumulation of fluid and cells in the periodontal ligament, which is the tissue that connects the tooth to the jawbone.

Radicular cysts are often caused by untreated dental caries or trauma to the tooth that allows bacteria to enter the pulp chamber of the tooth and cause an infection. Over time, the infection can spread to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of a cyst. Symptoms of a radicular cyst may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. Treatment typically involves removing the affected tooth and the cyst through a surgical procedure.

A dentigerous cyst is a type of odontogenic cyst that forms around the crown of an unerupted tooth. It is typically slow-growing and often asymptomatic, but it can cause displacement or resorption of adjacent teeth if it becomes large enough. Dentigerous cysts are more common in permanent teeth than primary teeth, and they are more likely to occur in the mandible (lower jaw) than the maxilla (upper jaw). They are usually diagnosed through radiographic examination and can be treated by surgical removal of the cyst along with the affected tooth. If left untreated, dentigerous cysts can continue to grow and may eventually develop into a tumor or cancer.

A Mesenteric Cyst is a rare, benign abdominal mass that forms within the mesentery, which is the fold of membrane that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall and contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. These cysts can vary in size from a few centimeters to several inches in diameter. They are typically asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, or a palpable mass, depending on their size and location. The exact cause of mesenteric cysts is not well understood, but they may be congenital or acquired due to trauma, inflammation, or surgery. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst.

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that typically involves the metaphysis of long bones in children and adolescents. It is characterized by blood-filled spaces or cysts separated by fibrous septa containing osteoclast-type giant cells, spindle cells, and capillary vessels.

ABCs can also arise in other locations such as the vertebral column, pelvis, and skull. They may cause bone pain, swelling, or pathologic fractures. The exact cause of ABC is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a reactive process to a primary bone lesion or trauma.

Treatment options for ABC include curettage and bone grafting, intralesional injection of corticosteroids or bone marrow aspirate, and adjuvant therapy with phenol or liquid nitrogen. In some cases, radiation therapy may be used, but it is generally avoided due to the risk of secondary malignancies. Recurrence rates after treatment range from 10-30%.

Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts or sacral nerve root sheath cysts, are fluid-filled sacs that develop on the outside of the spinal nerve roots, most commonly found in the lower spine (sacrum). These cysts typically form at the point where the nerves exit the spinal canal and enter the surrounding tissue. They are usually benign but can cause various symptoms depending on their size and location.

Tarlov cysts contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The exact cause of Tarlov cysts remains unclear, but they may result from trauma, degenerative changes, or congenital factors. Some individuals with Tarlov cysts may not experience any symptoms, while others might have pain, tingling, numbness, or weakness in the lower back, legs, or feet. In rare cases, Tarlov cysts can lead to more severe complications such as nerve compression or spinal cord injury. Treatment options for Tarlov cysts include observation, pain management, and surgical intervention in select cases.

A Popliteal cyst, also known as Baker's cyst, is a fluid-filled sac that develops behind the knee, in the popliteal fossa. It forms when synovial fluid from the knee joint extends through a tear in the joint capsule, creating a visible bulge. The cyst may cause discomfort, swelling, or pain, especially when fully extended or flexed. In some cases, it can rupture and cause further complications, such as increased pain and inflammation in the calf region. Treatment options for Popliteal cysts include physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and, in severe cases, surgical intervention to repair the underlying joint issue and remove the cyst.

An esophageal cyst is a rare, abnormal growth that forms in the wall of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These cysts are typically filled with fluid and can vary in size. They are usually congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development.

Esophageal cysts are typically asymptomatic and may not cause any problems until they become large enough to compress nearby structures, such as the trachea or other parts of the digestive system. In some cases, esophageal cysts may cause difficulty swallowing, coughing, or breathing.

Diagnosis of an esophageal cyst is typically made through imaging tests, such as a CT scan or MRI, which can help to visualize the cyst and determine its size and location. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst, which is typically performed using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopy or thoracoscopy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you have any concerns about your health, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider.

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. There are several species of Echinococcus that can cause disease in humans, but the most common ones are Echinococcus granulosus (causing cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (causing alveolar echinococcosis).

Humans typically become infected with echinococcosis by accidentally ingesting eggs of the tapeworm, which are shed in the feces of infected animals such as dogs, foxes, and wolves. The eggs hatch in the small intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs in the body, where they form cysts or hydatids.

The symptoms of echinococcosis depend on the location and size of the cysts. Cystic echinococcosis often affects the liver and lungs, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, cough, and shortness of breath. Alveolar echinococcosis typically involves the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Treatment of echinococcosis may involve surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or both. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with dogs and other animals that may be infected with Echinococcus, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

A urachal cyst is a rare type of abdominal wall defect that results from the persistent embryonic remnant of the urachus, which is a canal-like structure that connects the bladder to the umbilicus (belly button) during fetal development. This canal normally obliterates and becomes a fibrous cord known as the median umbilical ligament after birth. However, if it fails to do so, it can result in the formation of various urachal anomalies, including a urachal cyst.

A urachal cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms along any part of the urachus, usually located between the bladder and the umbilicus. These cysts are typically asymptomatic but can become infected or inflamed, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, tenderness, fever, and a palpable mass in the lower abdomen. In some cases, urachal cysts may also cause urinary tract infections or bladder irritation. Diagnosis is usually made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment typically involves surgical excision of the cyst to prevent complications.

A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms within the breast tissue. It is a common, benign (non-cancerous) condition and can affect people of any age, but it is more commonly found in women between the ages of 35 and 50. Breast cysts can vary in size and may be asymptomatic or cause discomfort or pain, especially just before menstruation.

Breast cysts are usually diagnosed through a physical examination, breast ultrasound, or mammography. In some cases, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be performed to drain the fluid from the cyst and confirm the diagnosis. If the cyst is small, causes no symptoms, and appears benign on imaging studies, then further treatment may not be necessary. However, if the cyst is large, painful, or has concerning features on imaging studies, then additional diagnostic tests or drainage procedures may be recommended.

It's important to note that while breast cysts are generally harmless, they can sometimes mimic the symptoms of breast cancer. Therefore, any new or unusual changes in the breast should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

A jaw cyst is a pathological cavity filled with fluid or semi-fluid material, which forms within the jaw bones. They are typically classified as odontogenic (developing from tooth-forming tissues) or non-odontogenic (developing from other tissues). The most common types of odontogenic jaw cysts include dentigerous cysts (formed around the crown of an unerupted tooth) and follicular cysts (formed from the inflammation of a developing tooth's tissue). Non-odontogenic cysts, such as nasopalatine duct cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors, can also occur in the jaw bones. Jaw cysts may cause symptoms like swelling, pain, or displacement of teeth, but some may not present any symptoms until they grow large enough to be detected on a radiographic examination. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst and, if necessary, reconstruction of the affected bone.

Giardia is a genus of microscopic parasitic flagellates that cause giardiasis, a type of diarrheal disease. The most common species to infect humans is Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis). These microscopic parasites are found worldwide, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.

Giardia exists in two forms: the trophozoite, which is the actively feeding form that multiplies in the small intestine, and the cyst, which is the infective stage that is passed in feces and can survive outside the body for long periods under appropriate conditions. Infection occurs when a person ingests contaminated water or food, or comes into direct contact with an infected person's feces.

Once inside the body, the cysts transform into trophozoites, which attach to the lining of the small intestine and disrupt the normal function of the digestive system, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, dehydration, and weight loss. In some cases, giardiasis can cause long-term health problems, particularly in children, including malnutrition and developmental delays.

Preventing the spread of Giardia involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing diapers, avoiding contaminated water sources, and practicing safe food handling and preparation. In cases where infection occurs, medication is usually effective in treating the illness.

Echinococcosis, hepatic is a type of parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The infection typically occurs when a person accidentally ingests microscopic eggs of the tapeworm, which can be present in contaminated food, water, or soil.

Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the liver. In the liver, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which are fluid-filled sacs that can grow slowly over several years, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.

Hepatic echinococcosis is a serious condition that can lead to complications such as cyst rupture, infection, or organ damage if left untreated. Treatment options include surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or a combination of both. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

A periodontal cyst, also known as a radicular cyst or dental cyst, is a type of odontogenic cyst that forms from the tissue of the periodontium, which surrounds and supports the teeth. It typically develops at the apex (tip) of a dead or non-vital tooth root and is filled with fluid. The cyst can grow slowly and painlessly, often going unnoticed until it becomes quite large or causes symptoms such as swelling, tenderness, or tooth mobility.

Periodontal cysts are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine dental x-rays. If left untreated, they can eventually lead to the destruction of surrounding bone and tissue, potentially causing teeth to become loose or even fall out. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst along with the affected tooth, followed by careful monitoring to ensure that the cyst does not recur.

Cystic kidney diseases are a group of genetic disorders that cause fluid-filled sacs called cysts to form in the kidneys. These cysts can vary in size and can grow over time, which can lead to damage in the kidneys and affect their function. There are two main types of cystic kidney diseases: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).

ADPKD is the most common type and is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in both kidneys. It is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but it can also occur in children. The cysts can cause high blood pressure, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and eventually kidney failure.

ARPKD is a rare, inherited disorder that affects both the kidneys and liver. It is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidneys and abnormalities in the bile ducts of the liver. ARPKD is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and can cause serious complications such as respiratory distress, kidney failure, and liver fibrosis.

Other types of cystic kidney diseases include nephronophthisis, medullary cystic kidney disease, and glomerulocystic kidney disease. These conditions are also inherited and can cause kidney damage and kidney failure.

Treatment for cystic kidney diseases typically involves managing symptoms such as high blood pressure, pain, and infections. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove large cysts or to treat complications such as kidney stones. For individuals with advanced kidney disease, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

A Thyroglossal cyst is defined as a congenital abnormality, specifically a developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland. It is a cystic mass that forms along the path of the thyroglossal duct, which is a tube-like structure that extends from the tongue to the developing thyroid gland in the neck during embryonic development.

The thyroglossal duct typically disappears before birth, but if it persists, it can result in the formation of a cyst. Thyroglossal cysts are usually midline and located either at or above the level of the hyoid bone in the neck. They may become symptomatic if they become infected or inflamed, leading to pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.

Treatment for thyroglossal cyst typically involves surgical removal through a procedure called a Sistrunk operation, which involves removing the cyst as well as a portion of the hyoid bone and the central part of the thyroglossal duct to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Nonodontogenic cysts are a type of cyst that occur in the oral and maxillofacial region, but they do not originate from tooth-forming tissues. These cysts can develop in various locations within the jaws, including the bone or soft tissues. They are typically classified into several categories based on their origin, such as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic.

Examples of nonodontogenic cysts include:

1. Nasopalatine duct cyst - This is the most common type of nonodontogenic cyst and arises from remnants of the nasopalatine duct, which is a structure present during embryonic development. It typically appears in the anterior region of the maxilla (upper jaw).
2. Nasolabial cyst - This rare cyst develops near the nasolabial fold, between the nose and the upper lip. Its origin is unclear but may be related to embryonic remnants or developmental abnormalities.
3. Median mandibular cyst - Also known as a median mental cyst, this rare cyst forms in the midline of the mandible (lower jaw) and may originate from remnants of the dental lamina or other developmental structures.
4. Lateral periodontal cyst - This inflammatory cyst arises from the periodontal ligament, which supports the teeth within their sockets. It is usually found near the roots of lower molars and premolars.
5. Glandular odontogenic cyst - This developmental cyst originates from remnants of minor salivary glands or epithelial rests in the jawbone. It can appear as a unilocular (single-chambered) or multilocular (multi-chambered) cyst and may have a more aggressive behavior than other nonodontogenic cysts.
6. Dentigerous cyst - Although technically classified as an odontogenic cyst, the dentigerous cyst is sometimes considered a borderline case because it arises from the crowns of unerupted teeth rather than their roots. It can grow quite large and may cause significant bone resorption.

Nonodontogenic cysts are less common than odontogenic cysts, but they still require proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as tooth displacement, jaw deformation, or infection. Treatment options for nonodontogenic cysts depend on their size, location, and histological features and may include enucleation (complete removal), marsupialization (creating a communication between the cyst and oral cavity to allow for gradual reduction), or more extensive surgical procedures. Regular follow-up appointments with your dentist or oral surgeon are essential to monitor healing and ensure that the cyst does not recur.

'Echinococcus granulosus' is a species of tapeworm that causes hydatid disease or echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The adult worms are small, typically less than 1 cm in length, and live in the intestines of their definitive hosts, which are usually dogs or other canids.

The life cycle of 'Echinococcus granulosus' involves the shedding of eggs in the feces of the definitive host, which are then ingested by an intermediate host, such as a sheep or a human. Once inside the intermediate host, the eggs hatch and release larvae that migrate to various organs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and may cause significant damage to the affected organ.

Humans can become accidentally infected with 'Echinococcus granulosus' by ingesting contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected dogs. The treatment of hydatid disease typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by anti-parasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. Prevention measures include proper hygiene and sanitation practices, as well as regular deworming of dogs and other definitive hosts.

Maxillary diseases refer to conditions that affect the maxilla, which is the upper bone of the jaw. This bone plays an essential role in functions such as biting, chewing, and speaking, and also forms the upper part of the oral cavity, houses the upper teeth, and supports the nose and the eyes.

Maxillary diseases can be caused by various factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, or systemic conditions. Some common maxillary diseases include:

1. Maxillary sinusitis: Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the maxilla, can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and headaches.
2. Periodontal disease: Infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums and the alveolar bone (which is part of the maxilla), can lead to tooth loss and other complications.
3. Maxillary fractures: Trauma to the face can result in fractures of the maxilla, which can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing or speaking.
4. Maxillary cysts and tumors: Abnormal growths in the maxilla can be benign or malignant and may require surgical intervention.
5. Oral cancer: Cancerous lesions in the oral cavity, including the maxilla, can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing or speaking.

Treatment for maxillary diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many maxillary diseases.

A parovarian cyst is a type of fluid-filled sac that develops in the vicinity of the ovary, often found attached to or adjoined with the fallopian tube or the ovary itself. These cysts are typically benign (noncancerous) and can vary in size, from being quite small to becoming large enough to cause discomfort or other symptoms.

Parovarian cysts are thought to arise from remnants of embryonic tissues known as Wolffian or Müllerian ducts, which contribute to the development of the reproductive system during fetal growth. These cysts can be found in individuals with ovaries, including both cisgender women and transgender men who have not had their ovaries removed.

While parovarian cysts are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during routine pelvic examinations or imaging studies, they may cause symptoms if they grow significantly in size. These symptoms can include:

1. Pelvic pain or discomfort
2. Bloating or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen
3. Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia)
4. Abnormal menstrual bleeding or irregular periods
5. Difficulty with bowel movements or urination, depending on the cyst's size and location

In cases where parovarian cysts become large, cause persistent symptoms, or demonstrate concerning features (such as rapid growth or signs of malignancy), surgical intervention may be required to remove the cyst. This can often be accomplished through minimally invasive techniques like laparoscopy. However, in some instances, a more extensive open surgery might be necessary.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you suspect or have been diagnosed with a parovarian cyst, as they will provide guidance and determine the most appropriate course of action based on your individual circumstances.

Pulmonary echinococcosis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. The infection occurs when the eggs of the tapeworm, which are passed in the feces of an infected animal (usually a dog or fox), are ingested by another host (usually a human). Once inside the body, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate to various organs, including the lungs. In the lungs, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by medication to prevent recurrence.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

An Odontogenic Cyst, Calcifying is a specific type of cyst that originates from the dental tissues. It's also known as a calcifying odontogenic cyst or Gorlin cyst. This cyst is characterized by the presence of calcified structures within its lining.

The calcifications can appear as flecks or more complex structures, such as teeth-like formations. The lining of this cyst often contains ghost cells, which are the remains of epithelial cells that have undergone calcification.

These cysts are typically slow-growing and asymptomatic, although they can sometimes cause swelling or pain if they become large enough to compress adjacent tissues. They are most commonly found in the jaw bones, particularly the mandible.

While the exact cause of calcifying odontogenic cysts is not fully understood, they are thought to arise from developmental abnormalities in the tissues that form teeth. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst.

Mandibular diseases refer to conditions that affect the mandible, or lower jawbone. These diseases can be classified as congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing after birth). They can also be categorized based on the tissues involved, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Some examples of mandibular diseases include:

1. Mandibular fractures: These are breaks in the lower jawbone that can result from trauma or injury.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone and surrounding tissues, which can affect the mandible.
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, causing pain and limited movement.
4. Mandibular tumors: These are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and can develop in any of the tissues of the mandible.
5. Osteonecrosis: This is a condition where the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply, which can affect the mandible.
6. Cleft lip and palate: This is a congenital deformity that affects the development of the face and mouth, including the lower jawbone.
7. Mandibular hypoplasia: This is a condition where the lower jawbone does not develop properly, leading to a small or recessed chin.
8. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the growth and development of the mandible, such as condylar hyperplasia or hemifacial microsomia.

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of multiple cysts in the kidneys. These cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can vary in size and can multiply, leading to enlarged kidneys. The increased size and number of cysts can eventually result in reduced kidney function, high blood pressure, and potentially kidney failure.

ADPKD is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning it only requires one copy of the altered gene (from either the mother or father) to have the disease. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene. The two genes most commonly associated with ADPKD are PKD1 and PKD2, located on chromosomes 16 and 4, respectively.

Symptoms can vary widely among individuals with ADPKD, but they often include high blood pressure, back or side pain, headaches, increased abdominal size due to enlarged kidneys, blood in the urine, and kidney failure. Other complications may include cysts in the liver, pancreas, and/or brain (berries aneurysms).

Early diagnosis and management of ADPKD can help slow down disease progression and improve quality of life. Treatment typically includes controlling high blood pressure, managing pain, monitoring kidney function, and addressing complications as they arise. In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary if kidney failure occurs.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

'Echinococcus' is a genus of tapeworms that can cause serious infections known as echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The most common species that infect humans are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis.

Echinococcus granulosus typically causes cystic echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, which affects the liver, lungs, or other organs. The tapeworm's eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals, such as dogs or sheep, and can be ingested by humans, leading to the development of cysts in various organs.

Echinococcus multilocularis typically causes alveolar echinococcosis, a more severe and invasive form of the disease that affects the liver and can spread to other organs. This species has a complex life cycle involving small mammals as intermediate hosts and canids (such as foxes or dogs) as definitive hosts.

Human infections with Echinococcus are rare but can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. Preventive measures include proper hygiene, avoiding contact with infected animals, and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

"Giardia lamblia," also known as "Giardia duodenalis" or "Giardia intestinalis," is a species of microscopic parasitic protozoan that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine of various vertebrates, including humans. It is the most common cause of human giardiasis, a diarrheal disease. The trophozoite (feeding form) of Giardia lamblia has a distinctive tear-drop shape and possesses flagella for locomotion. It attaches to the intestinal epithelium, disrupting the normal function of the small intestine and leading to various gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and dehydration. Giardia lamblia is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water.

A branchioma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from remnants of the branchial apparatus, which are structures that form in the embryo during fetal development and give rise to parts of the head and neck. Branchiomas are also known as branchial cleft cysts or branchial apparatus remnants.

Branchioma typically occurs in the neck region and can cause a variety of symptoms, such as a painless lump, difficulty swallowing, or breathing problems if the tumor is large enough to compress the airway. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

Giardiasis is a digestive infection caused by the microscopic parasite Giardia intestinalis, also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis. The parasite is found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.

The infection typically occurs after ingesting contaminated water, food, or surfaces that have been exposed to fecal matter containing the cyst form of the parasite. Once inside the body, the cysts transform into trophozoites, which attach to the lining of the small intestine and cause symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, dehydration, and greasy stools that may float due to excess fat.

In some cases, giardiasis can lead to lactose intolerance and malabsorption of nutrients, resulting in weight loss and vitamin deficiencies. The infection is usually diagnosed through a stool sample test and treated with antibiotics such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated water and food, and washing hands regularly.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Iris diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the iris, which is the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. Some common iris diseases include:

1. Iritis: This is an inflammation of the iris and the adjacent tissues in the eye. It can cause pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and blurred vision.
2. Aniridia: A congenital condition characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the iris. This can lead to decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and an increased risk of glaucoma.
3. Iris cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the iris. They are usually benign but can cause vision problems if they grow too large or interfere with the function of the eye.
4. Iris melanoma: A rare type of eye cancer that develops in the pigmented cells of the iris. It can cause symptoms such as blurred vision, floaters, and changes in the appearance of the iris.
5. Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE): A group of rare eye conditions that affect the cornea and the iris. They are characterized by the growth of abnormal tissue on the back surface of the cornea and can lead to vision loss.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of iris diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve your vision.

Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a type of ion channel that play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including sensory perception, cellular signaling, and regulation of intracellular calcium levels. TRPP cation channels, also known as TRPP subfamily or polycystin channels, are a specific subgroup within the TRP channel family.

TRPP channels consist of two members: TRPP1 (also known as PKD1 or polycystin-1) and TRPP2 (also known as PKD2 or polycystin-2). These channels form heterodimers, meaning they are composed of two different subunits that come together to create a functional channel.

TRPP channels are primarily located in the primary cilium, a hair-like structure protruding from the cell surface, and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an intracellular organelle involved in protein folding and calcium storage. They function as mechano- and chemosensors, responding to various stimuli such as mechanical forces, changes in temperature, pH, or chemical ligands.

TRPP channels are particularly important in the context of renal physiology and pathophysiology. Mutations in TRPP1 and TRPP2 have been linked to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, leading to progressive loss of renal function.

In summary, TRPP cation channels are a subfamily of TRP channels formed by the heterodimerization of TRPP1 and TRPP2 subunits. They play essential roles in sensory perception, cellular signaling, and calcium homeostasis, with particular significance in renal physiology and pathophysiology.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

The arachnoid is one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is located between the dura mater (the outermost layer) and the pia mater (the innermost layer). The arachnoid is a thin, delicate membrane that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which provides protection and nutrition to the central nervous system.

The arachnoid has a spider-web like appearance, hence its name, and it is composed of several layers of collagen fibers and elastic tissue. It is highly vascularized, meaning that it contains many blood vessels, and it plays an important role in regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

In some cases, the arachnoid can become inflamed or irritated, leading to a condition called arachnoiditis. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, muscle weakness, and sensory changes, and it may require medical treatment to manage.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

Fibrocystic breast disease, also known as fibrocystic change or chronic cystic mastitis, is not actually a disease but a condition that affects many women at some point in their lives. It is characterized by the formation of benign (non-cancerous) lumps or cysts in the breasts, often accompanied by breast pain, tenderness, and swelling.

The condition is caused by hormonal fluctuations that affect the breast tissue, making it more prone to developing fibrous tissue and fluid-filled sacs called cysts. Fibrocystic breast changes are usually harmless and do not increase the risk of breast cancer. However, in some cases, they can make it harder to detect early signs of breast cancer through mammography or self-examination.

The symptoms of fibrocystic breast change may vary from woman to woman and can range from mild to severe. They tend to be more noticeable just before a woman's menstrual period and may improve after menopause. Treatment options for fibrocystic breast changes include pain relievers, hormonal medications, and lifestyle modifications such as reducing caffeine intake and wearing a well-supportive bra. In some cases, draining or removing the cysts may be necessary to alleviate symptoms.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

The third ventricle is a narrow, fluid-filled cavity in the brain that is located between the thalamus and hypothalamus. It is one of the four ventricles in the ventricular system of the brain, which produces and circulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the brain and spinal cord.

The third ventricle is shaped like a slit and communicates with the lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramen (also known as the foramen of Monro), and with the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct (also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius).

The third ventricle contains choroid plexus tissue, which produces CSF. The fluid flows from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle, then through the cerebral aqueduct and into the fourth ventricle, where it can circulate around the brainstem and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream.

Abnormalities in the third ventricle, such as enlargement or obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct, can lead to hydrocephalus, a condition characterized by an accumulation of CSF in the brain.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

An oocyst is a thick-walled, environmentally resistant spore-like structure produced by some protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, during their life cycle. These oocysts can survive for long periods in the environment and can infect a host when ingested, leading to infection and disease. The term "oocyst" is specific to certain groups of protozoan parasites and should not be confused with other types of spores produced by fungi or bacteria.

Nematoda is a phylum of pseudocoelomate, unsegmented worms with a round or filiform body shape. They are commonly known as roundworms or threadworms. Nematodes are among the most diverse and numerous animals on earth, with estimates of over 1 million species, of which only about 25,000 have been described.

Nematodes are found in a wide range of habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Some nematode species are free-living, while others are parasitic, infecting a variety of hosts, including plants, animals, and humans. Parasitic nematodes can cause significant disease and economic losses in agriculture, livestock production, and human health.

The medical importance of nematodes lies primarily in their role as parasites that infect humans and animals. Some common examples of medically important nematodes include:

* Ascaris lumbricoides (human roundworm)
* Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
* Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms)
* Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm or threadworm)
* Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa (filarial nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis, respectively)

Nematode infections can cause a range of clinical symptoms, depending on the species and the location of the parasite in the body. Common symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anemia, skin rashes, and lymphatic swelling. In some cases, nematode infections can lead to serious complications or even death if left untreated.

Medical management of nematode infections typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are medications that kill or expel parasitic worms from the body. The choice of drug depends on the species of nematode and the severity of the infection. In some cases, preventive measures such as improved sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the risk of nematode infections.

A craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor that develops near the pituitary gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch, an embryonic structure involved in the development of the pituitary gland.

Craniopharyngiomas are typically slow-growing and benign (non-cancerous), but they can still cause significant health problems due to their location. They can compress nearby structures such as the optic nerves, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland, leading to symptoms like vision loss, hormonal imbalances, and cognitive impairment.

Treatment for craniopharyngiomas usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy in some cases. Regular follow-up with a healthcare team is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

Other cysts can be Bartholin's cysts, Gartner's duct cysts, mucous inclusions, epithelial inclusion cysts, embryonic cysts and ... An epithelial inclusion cyst is also referred to as epidermal inclusion cyst or squamous inclusion cyst. This type of cyst ... An epidermoid cyst is one type of vaginal cyst. Inclusion cysts are small and located on the posterior, lower end of the vagina ... Vaginal cysts are uncommon benign cysts that develop in the vaginal wall. The type of epithelial tissue lining a cyst is used ...
... (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical excision of the cyst with the formation of a roux-en-Y anastomosis ... "choledochal cyst" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Liu YB, Wang JW, Devkota KR, et al. (2007). "Congenital choledochal cysts in ... There is an increased risk of cancer in the wall of the cyst.[citation needed] In older individuals, choledochal cysts are more ...
... or calcareous dinocysts are dinoflagellate cysts produced by a group of peridinoid ... Dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments from the west coast of Sweden. Bot. Mar. 43, 69-79. Vink, A., 2004. Calcareous ... Dinoflagellate cyst production at a coastal Mediterranean site. J. Plankton Res. 20, 2291-2312. Persson, A., Godhe, A., Karlson ... Fossil calcareous dinoflagellate cysts. In: Riding, R. (Ed.), Calcareous Algae and Stromatolites. Springer, Berlin, pp. 267-286 ...
Dale, B. (1978). Acritarchous cysts of Peridinium faeorense Paulsen: implications for dinoflagellate systematics. Palynology, 2 ...
... are abnormal fluid filled sacs which occur inside the nasal sinuses of horses. The cysts are lined with ... Surgical removal of the cyst has a good prognosis for the horse. The most common sign of a nasal cyst is facial swelling, with ... There is no known breed or sex predisposition for nasal cysts. Ethmoid hematoma Rush, Bonnie R. (2019). "Sinus cysts". The ... If the cyst is located in the caudal maxillary sinus, it may cause the eyeball on the affected side to bulge out of the orbit, ...
Nasolabial cyst (nasoalveolar cyst) Epidermoid cyst of the skin Dermoid cyst Thyroglossal duct cyst Branchial cleft cyst ( ... Oral lymphoepithelial cyst Globulomaxillary cyst Median palatal cyst Median mandibular cyst Cysts rarely cause any symptoms, ... Periapical cysts (also called radicular cysts) are by far the most common cyst occurring in the jaws. Jaw cysts affect around ... The order of the jaw cysts from most common to least common is; radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, residual cysts and ...
Mucous cyst of the oral mucosa Nasolabial cyst Thyroglossal cyst Vocal fold cyst Fibrous cyst (breast cyst) Pulmonary cyst (air ... Baker's cyst or popliteal cyst (behind the knee joint) Mucoid cyst (ganglion cysts of the digits) Stafne static bone cyst (an ... Enteric duplication cyst Choroid plexus cyst Colloid cyst Pineal gland cyst (in the pineal gland in the brain) Glial cyst ... Sebaceous cyst - sac below skin Trichilemmal cyst - same as a pilar cyst, a familial cyst of the scalp Odontogenic cyst ...
The presence of frontal and temporal subcortical cysts is the main factor when diagnosing a patient with this disease. In the ... GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts v t e (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of ... Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC, or Van der Knaap disease) is a form of hereditary CNS ... "OMIM MEGALENCEPHALIC LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY WITH SUBCORTICAL CYSTS 1; MLC1". Retrieved 2022-03-24. van der Knaap, M ...
... (RCAD), also known as MODY 5 or HNF1B-MODY, is a form of maturity onset diabetes of the young ... In some cases, renal cysts may be detected in utero. Kidney disease may develop before or after hyperglycemia, and a ... Renal effects begin with structural alterations (small kidneys, renal cysts, anomalies of the renal pelvis and calices), but a ... Hyperuricaemia and early onset gout have occurred.[citation needed] Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome is caused by mutations in ...
... of Thyroglossal cyst cases. Cutaneous columnar cyst Branchial cleft cyst Cystic hygroma Preauricular sinus and cyst Ranula ... A thyroglossal cyst is a fibrous cyst that forms from a persistent thyroglossal duct. Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an ... A thyroglossal cyst can develop anywhere along a thyroglossal duct, though cysts within the tongue or in the floor of the mouth ... Thyroglossal cysts develop at birth. Many diagnostic procedures may be used to establish the degree of the cyst. Thyroglossal ...
Paradental cysts constitute a family of inflammatory odontogenic cyst, that typically appear in relation to crown or root of ... Cyst Odontogenic cyst Leandro Bezerra Borges; Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Fabrício Bitu Sousa; Ana ... it called simply paradental cyst, but the unique cyst that developed in the buccal bifurcation region of the mandibular first ... When the cyst is developed in the distal region of partially erupted third molar or in other locations in the dentition, ...
Nabothian cysts are also known as nabothian follicles, mucinous retention cysts, or epithelial inclusion cysts. They are named ... A nabothian cyst (or nabothian follicle) is a mucus-filled cyst on the surface of the cervix. They are most often caused when ... Nabothian cysts appear most often as firm bumps on the cervix's surface. A woman may notice the cyst when inserting a diaphragm ... The size of the cyst may vary from a few millimetres to 4 cm in diameter. If a cyst has an unusual appearance, a colposcopy ...
... s may refer to: Cactodera, a genus that includes the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti Globodera, or potato ... a genus of nematodes in the family Heteroderidae This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cyst ... cyst nematode, a genus of roundworms that live on the roots of the plant family Solanaceae Heterodera, ...
Verrucous cysts are a cutaneous condition that resemble epidermoid cysts except that the lining demonstrates papillomatosis.: ... and cysts, All stub articles, Epidermal nevi, neoplasm, cyst stubs). ...
... as seen on abdominal ultrasound Renal cyst as seen on abdominal ultrasound Renal cyst as seen on abdominal ... These alternatives are broadly to ignore the cyst, schedule follow-up or perform a surgical excision of it. When a cyst shows ... The Bosniak classification categorizes renal cysts into five groups. Benign simple cyst with thin wall without septa, ... Renal ultrasonography of a simple renal cyst with posterior enhancement. Advanced polycystic kidney disease with multiple cysts ...
... may refer to: Dentigerous cyst Follicular cyst of ovary This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ... the title Follicular cyst. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
Tarlov cysts are defined as cysts formed within the nerve-root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion. The etiology of these cysts ... The cysts may be found anterior to the sacral area and have been known to extend into the abdominal cavity. These cysts, though ... However, these cysts most commonly arise at the S2 or S3 junction of the dorsal nerve root ganglion. The cysts are often ... Cysts with diameters of 1 cm or larger are more likely to be symptomatic; although cysts of any size may be symptomatic ...
Most ovarian cysts are related to ovulation, being either follicular cysts or corpus luteum cysts. Other types include cysts ... Functional cysts form as a normal part of the menstrual cycle. There are several types of functional cysts: Follicular cyst, ... Functional cysts and hemorrhagic ovarian cysts usually resolve spontaneously. However, the bigger an ovarian cyst is, the less ... Ovarian Cyst Rupture at eMedicine "Ovarian cysts". 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "Ovarian Cysts Causes, ...
A Tornwaldt cyst also spelt as Thornwaldt or Thornwald cyst is a benign cyst located in the upper posterior nasopharynx. It can ... "Tornwaldt cyst , Radiology Reference Article ,". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 2019-10-02. Wikimedia Commons has media ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Commons category link is on Wikidata, Cysts, Human throat) ...
Cyst on right wrist Cyst on dorsum of right foot Cyst on a finger Small cyst on right index finger small cyst on thumb lanced ... The average size of these cysts is 2.0 cm, but excised cysts of more than 5 cm have been reported. The size of the cyst may ... The term "Bible cyst" (or "Bible bump") is derived from an urban legend or historical effort to hit the cyst with a Bible. ... Rarely, intraosseous ganglion cysts occur, sometimes in combination with a cyst in the overlying soft tissue. Rare cases of ...
A breast cyst is a cyst, a fluid-filled sac, within the breast. One breast can have one or more cysts. They are often described ... The cysts form as a result of the growth of the milk glands. While some large cysts feel like lumps, most cysts cannot be ... That is, cysts will usually resolve on their own after the fluid is drained. Otherwise, if the lump is not a cyst, the fluid ... Cysts can also be confused with infections that form on the nipple or the areola. A common cyst look-alike is a localised ...
A trichilemmal cyst (or pilar cyst) is a common cyst that forms from a hair follicle, most often on the scalp, and is smooth, ... Very rarely, trichilemmal cysts can become cancerous. Trichilemmal cysts may be classified as sebaceous cysts, although ... pilar cyst)?". Medscape. Updated: Jun 11, 2020, Laumann, Anne Elizabeth (13 September 2017). "Trichilemmal Cyst (Pilar Cyst)". ... As the pilar cyst wall is the thickest and most durable of the many varieties of cysts, it can be grabbed with forceps and ...
It is a cyst which occurs in the remnants between the umbilicus and bladder. This is a type of cyst occurring in a persistent ... urachus cyst "Urachal cyst -". "Urachus". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Archived from the original on 2009-03-08. " ... Urachal cysts are usually silent clinically until infection, calculi or adenocarcinoma develop. Lower abdominal pain Pain on ... "Urachal cyst". USA National Institutes of Health. Hassan, Shadwa; Koshy, June; Sidlow, Richard; Leader, Hadassa; Horowitz, Mark ...
The cyst is tamponaded to allow for the cyst contents to escape the bone. Over time, the cyst decreases in size and bone ... Commonly known as a dental cyst, the periapical cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It may develop rapidly from a ... Periapical cysts exist in two structurally distinct classes: Periapical true cysts - cysts containing cavities entirely ... Initially, the cyst swells to a round hard protrusion, but later on the body resorbs some of the cyst wall, leaving a softer ...
The rarest iris cyst is the parasitic cyst, which can develop with the presence of a parasite. At last secondary cysts can be ... Pupillary cysts, also central cysts, are located from the pupillary margin to the iris root, midzonal cysts are located from ... Free-floating cysts can occur in the anterior and vitreous chamber and are usually dislodged epithelium cysts. Cysts of the ... The surgical approach depends on where the cyst is located, how big the cyst is and the number of cysts. There are many options ...
Differential diagnosis of this cyst are branchial cleft cyst, Rathke cleft cyst, neurenteric cyst, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ... The commonest cyst arising from lateral wall is the nasopharyngeal branchial cyst, whereas the mucus retention cysts are the ... Sometimes nasopharyngeal cyst may directly refer to Tornwaldt cyst. It arises from the midline and lies deep to the ... The main difference lies in that nasopharyngeal branchial cyst is congenital whereas the Tornwaldt's cyst is acquired. These ...
... infundibular cyst) Pilar cysts (also termed trichelemmal cysts, isthmus-catagen cysts) Both of the above types of cysts contain ... A completely removed cyst will not recur, though if the patient has a predisposition to cyst formation, further cysts may ... A sebaceous cyst is a term commonly used to refer to either: Epidermoid cysts (also termed epidermal cysts, ... If the cyst is small, it may be lanced, instead. The person performing the surgery will squeeze out the contents of the cyst, ...
Congenital cysts of the larynx with incidence of about 1.8 in 100,000 newborns. Laryngeal cysts form 4% of all laryngeal tumors ... Laryngeal cysts are cysts involving the larynx or more frequently supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. ... However, a new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic ... Vocal Fold Cysts Treatment & Management at eMedicine Myssiorek, D; Persky, M (June 1989). "Laser endoscopic treatment of ...
The fluid in the cyst is sometimes clear creating a pale-coloured cyst although often they are blue. An eruption cyst (eruption ... The epithelial lining of eruption cyst is similar to that of the dentigerous cyst (non-keratinized stratified squamous ... so the eruption cyst is considered a superficial dentigerous cyst. The fibrous capsule shows inflammatory cells possibly as a ... An eruption cyst, or eruption hematoma, is a bluish swelling that occurs on the soft tissue over an erupting tooth. It is ...
... symptoms have been associated with four variables: cyst size, cyst imaging characteristics, ventricular size, and ... Colloid cysts can be diagnosed by symptoms presented. Additional testing is required and the colloid cyst symptoms can resemble ... The interior of the cyst is removed followed by the cyst wall. The electric current is then used to kill the remaining pieces ... A colloid cyst is a non-malignant tumor in the brain. It consists of a gelatinous material contained within a membrane of ...
Other cysts can be Bartholins cysts, Gartners duct cysts, mucous inclusions, epithelial inclusion cysts, embryonic cysts and ... An epithelial inclusion cyst is also referred to as epidermal inclusion cyst or squamous inclusion cyst. This type of cyst ... An epidermoid cyst is one type of vaginal cyst. Inclusion cysts are small and located on the posterior, lower end of the vagina ... Vaginal cysts are uncommon benign cysts that develop in the vaginal wall. The type of epithelial tissue lining a cyst is used ...
A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the lining of the vagina. ... A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled ... A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs ... If the cyst is located under the bladder or urethra, x-rays may be needed to see if the cyst extends into these organs. ... However, Bartholin cysts can become infected, swollen and painful. Some women with vaginal cysts may have discomfort during sex ...
This type of ovarian cyst can be tricky to diagnose -- and treat. Heres how it can be done. ... If the tissue gets to your ovaries, a cyst (lump) forms. Thats an endometrioid cyst, also known as an endometrioma. It is one ... Sometimes, the doctor may be able to drain the fluid in a cyst. In other cases, you may need to get the whole cyst taken out. ... Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports: "Clinical Management of Ovarian Endometriotic Cyst (Chocolate Cyst): Diagnosis, ...
Posts about cysts written by What Doctors Dont Tell You ... Its a disease where cysts grow in the kidneys, with symptoms ... After a mammogram eight years ago, she developed an enlarged cyst. She has now started to feel different sensations in her ...
The cysts grow slowly, and a cyst is rarely diagnosed during childhood or adolescence unless the brain is affected. CE is a ... Morbidity is usually secondary to free rupture of the echinococcal cyst (with or without anaphylaxis), infection of the cyst, ... encoded search term (Hydatid Cysts) and Hydatid Cysts What to Read Next on Medscape ... Chen X, Cen C, Xie H, Zhou L, Wen H, Zheng S. The comparison of 2 new promising weapons for the treatment of hydatid cyst ...
The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has ... This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to ... Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. ... been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through ...
... but cysts are usually harmless. Find out what to do if you think you have one. - Breast Cysts - Breast Cancer at BellaOnline ... Aspirations can be performed on this type of cysts as well.. All Cysts Should Be Checked by Your Medical Provider. If cysts ... Types of Breast Cysts. Cysts are one of the most common kinds of lumps we might find and are usually harmless. Cysts are fluid- ... Treatment of Breast Cysts. Your doctor will probably try to aspirate the cyst. Aspiration is a simple procedure, somewhat like ...
Learn more about endometriosis and ruptured cysts, symptoms, causes, and more. ... to endometriosis cysts on the ovaries as chocolate cysts due to the color of the blood in them. The cysts contain menstrual ... Endometriosis can cause cysts on the ovaries, which in some cases, can rupture. A ruptured cyst may be harmless, but in some ... What does it feel like when a cyst ruptures?. People may feel a sudden, sharp pain in their lower abdomen or back when a cyst ...
They are often congenital, or present at birth (primary arachnoid cysts). ... Arachnoid cysts are the most common type of brain cyst. ... Arachnoid cysts are the most common type of brain cyst. They ... Arachnoid Cyst Diagnosis. CT or MRI scans will help the surgeon see the location and characteristics of an arachnoid cyst, then ... Arachnoid Cyst Treatment. Arachnoid cysts - even large ones - that do not cause symptoms or put pressure on the brain or spinal ...
... operative and postoperative radiological examinations and operative notes of 31 patients with spinal arachnoid cyst operated on ... All patients were managed surgically: extradural arachnoid cysts were managed by excision and intradural arachnoid cysts were ... Spinal arachnoid cyst J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Sep;18(9):1189-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2010.11.023. Epub 2011 Jul 2. ... operative and postoperative radiological examinations and operative notes of 31 patients with spinal arachnoid cyst operated on ...
... and metastatic disease can mimic cysts. Thorough investigation of any breast mass is essential to clarify its nature. ... Benign cysts are one of the most common mass-occupying lesions of the breast and are often investigated with triple diagnostic ... This case demonstrates that not all cyst-like breast lesions are benign, and morphologic examination of cyst content by ... Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Benign Breast Cysts. Marius Lund-Iversen. ,1Olav Inge Håskjold. ,2Hiep Phuc Dong. ,1and ...
Faster growth rates of pancreatic cysts in the presence of diabetes are important because they represent a potential mark for ... Patients with diabetes had larger cyst sizes (2.23 cm versus 2.76 cm), as well as a higher annual cyst growth rate (1.90 cm ... retrospective analysis suggest that individuals with diabetes and pancreatic cysts have larger cyst sizes at diagnosis, and a ... "That is going to miss a lot of folks who didnt get imaging for whatever reason (and so dont have a cyst identified), but it ...
Ultrasonographic appearance of echinococcal cysts is seen in the image below. ... called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus) that may cause illness in intermediate ... CE3b cyst in the right lobe of the liver. The cyst is predominantly solid with a few daughter cysts ... Ultrasound scan of a CE3b subcutaneous cyst located in the lumbar area. The cyst was the subcutaneous extension of a cyst ...
Greater than 90% occur on the scalp, where trichilemmal cysts are the most common cutaneous cyst. ... Trichilemmal or pilar cysts are common intradermal or subcutaneous cysts, occurring in 5-10% of the population. ... encoded search term (Trichilemmal Cyst (Pilar Cyst)) and Trichilemmal Cyst (Pilar Cyst) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Trichilemmal Cyst (Pilar Cyst) Medication. Updated: Jun 11, 2020 * Author: Anne Elizabeth Laumann, MBChB, MRCP(UK), FAAD; Chief ...
Treatments and Tools for Brain cysts. Find Brain cysts information, treatments for Brain cysts and Brain cysts symptoms. ... MedHelps Brain cysts Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... i ve been diagnosed with a brain cyst about 5 weeks ago. but for the last 2 weeks i ve been... ...
... liver cysts can cause pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen. ... Can liver cysts cause stomach pain?. Answer From Michael F. ... The cause of simple liver cysts isnt known. They may be the result of a malformation present at birth. Rarely, liver cysts may ... Simple liver cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver. Usually, they cause no signs or symptoms and need no treatment. ... Most liver cysts can be detected on ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans. When needed, treatment may include ...
Cvsts can grow back or you may develop new cysts. If you think a cyst has returned or a new cyst has formed, please have it ... Breast Cysts - Symptoms Cysts can present as lumps on the breast or they can sometimes be found by chance when you have a ... Breast Cysts - Causes and Risk Factors The exact cause of breast cysts is unknown but it is likely related to the hormonal ... Breast Cysts - What it is Breast cysts occur when fluid-filled sacs develop in the breast. They develop naturally as the breast ...
... of women will have a Bartholins cyst at some point in their lifetime. ... Many of the cysts are small, have no symptoms and dont require treatment, Schaffir says. But, if the cyst is growing, causing ... The cyst burst while Mia was in the hospital, and she was told that there was only a 3% chance she would get one again. Two ... A Bartholins cyst forms when the glands become obstructed and cause fluid to back up into the gland, the Mayo Clinic says. If ...
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that usually dissolve after ovulation and can cause pain, but most often go away on their ... Types of ovarian cysts. There are several types of ovarian cysts, including:. *functional cysts (follicular cyst or corpus ... Ovarian Cysts , Symptoms & Causes. What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?. Ovarian cysts may have no specific symptoms. Depend ... Ovarian Cysts , Diagnosis & Treatments. How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?. The first step in treating your daughter is forming ...
The cyst may develop a sinus or drainage pathway to the surface of the skin. Sometimes, a branchial cyst can become infected. ... A branchial cyst is a congenital remnant from embryologic development that appears on the side of the neck. ... A branchial cyst, also called branchial cleft cyst, is a cavity that is present at birth on one side of the neck. The cyst may ... Cysts may produce symptoms and signs depending on their location. Treatment of a cyst depends upon what caused the cyst in the ...
The big difference between the two is that fibroids develop in the lining of the uterus and cysts form in or on the ovaries. ... Fibroids and cysts are both common, particularly before menopause. ... Cyst symptoms. Cysts tend to vary in size, but they are usually half an inch to 4 inches or larger and can cause:. *a sharp or ... Ovarian cysts are more common before menopause than after, but as long as you have ovaries, you can develop an ovarian cyst. ...
Ganglion Cyst Treatments. Treatment for ganglion cysts varies because not all cysts require treatment. The cysts that are not ... If the cyst keeps returning, surgery may be recommended to remove the cyst via a surgical procedure known as Ganglion Cyst ... Ganglion Cysts. A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled sack that is thought to result from weakness of the joint capsule, ligaments ... The cysts may go away over time on their own. Painful cysts can be drained with a needle and injected with a steroid medication ...
Ganglion cysts are fluid-filled lumps that often form near joints. They are treated with medications, splints or possibly ... Ganglion cysts are not cancer.. What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with ganglion cysts?. While some ganglion cysts may ... Where do ganglion cysts appear?. Ganglion cysts usually appear at specific joints. Using the joint near the cyst may increase ... Surgeons treat ganglia by removing the entire cyst. A cyst often includes a stalklike structure (root) attached to the cyst. ...
While the cyst is not serious, it can become infected and may need to be treated if problems develop. When a pilonidal cyst ... Pilonidal cyst. Swedish Medical Center Seattle website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL). Accessed August 18, ... Pilonidal sinus and cysts. Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL). ... A pilonidal cyst may be congenital or acquired. If congenital, it probably began as a defect that existed at birth. Sometime ...
Pilonidal Cyst 54Pilonidal cyst on 16 year old girl 8Pilonidal cyst/Hidradenitis Suppurativa 296Pilonidal cyst/ sinus 9 ... 112Pilonidal cyst and fistula tunnels for 16 years.. 2Pilonidal cyst 2Pilonidal cyst 90. ... Pilonidal cyst. My name is john i am suffering from a stubbond pilondial cyst or sinus . i am very much confuse about which one ... 1 . my main suffering is from a pilondial cyst. over the years i had this cyst on my tail bone but i didnt know what it was ...
... Forum. Silicea is discussed. 1 reply to 2013-12-11. ... Pilonidal Cyst 54Pilonidal cyst on 16 year old girl 8Pilonidal cyst/Hidradenitis Suppurativa 296Pilonidal cyst/ sinus 9 ... 112Pilonidal cyst and fistula tunnels for 16 years.. 2Pilonidal cyst 2Pilonidal cyst 90. ... Pilonidal cyst 1Pilonidal Cyst Flare up every other month 5Pilonidal Cyst (Almost healed but need little bit of your respected ...
... expression intensity of neuroendocrine markers decreases compared to normal ovarian tissue and other benign ovarian cysts. ... Comparison of immunohistochemical characteristics of endometriomas with non-endometriotic benign ovarian cysts Eur Rev Med ... Macrophage deposition was higher in cyst samples with endometrioma and in normal ovarian tissue when compared to serous ... NSE and SYN when compared to endometrioma and non-endometriotic benign ovarian cyst. PGP9.5 staining was higher in normal ...
... Important Note: This article was written prior to 2010 and is now outdated. ... To the best of my knowledge there are only two ways to get rid of a cyst; one is it must be removed surgically the other method ... I tried it on my cyst and much to my surprise and pleasure, it shrank after about five rounds. I used the long method, ... These never really bothered me until my present MD commented on the cyst on my neck. Some time after his comments I noticed the ...
Learn about MSKs program for people with pancreatic cysts that need to be watched carefully over time for signs of cancer. ... Pancreatic cyst surveillance is treated much like an annual colonoscopy screening. Your team will regularly test the cyst to ... MSK experts recommend surveillance when the risk of the operation to remove the cyst is greater than the chance that the cyst ... We may also recommend ongoing surveillance for people whove had surgery to remove a type of cyst that can return over time ...
Rare case of multilocular thymic cysts (MTCs) with follicular hyperplasia. Preoperative diagnosis challenging. Learn more about ... Multilocular Thymic Cysts with Follicular Hyperplasia: Report of a Case () Yoshinobu Ichiki, Yuichiro Kajiwara, Takayuki ... A. J. Cohen, L. Thompson, F. H. Edwards and R. F. Bellamy, "Primary Cysts and Tumors of the Mediastinum," The Annals of ... Y. W. Choi, H. P. McAdams, S. C. Jeon, et al., "Idiopathic Multilocular Thymic Cyst: CT Features with Clinical and Histologic ...
  • Routine exams to check the size of the cyst and look for any changes may be the only treatment needed. (
  • The treatment depends on the size of the cyst, how painful it is, if it's infected and your age. (
  • None of my scans have ever mentioned the size of the cyst. (
  • The management of ovarian cysts depends on a number of factors, including age of the woman, size of the cyst, type of cyst as determined by ultrasound (simple or complex), level of CA-125 and the presence or not of symptoms. (
  • Treatment depends on the size of the cyst, if it's inflamed, or infected. (
  • This type of cyst comprises 23% of all vaginal cysts and is the second most common. (
  • Histological assessment is needed to determine the specific type of cyst. (
  • Physical exam is essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. (
  • Usually this type of cyst will go away on it's own within one to three months. (
  • This type of cyst can grow up to almost four inches and may twist the ovary, causing pain or bleeding. (
  • The good news is that this type of cyst will typically go away on its own after a week or two. (
  • Vaginal cysts are uncommon benign cysts that develop in the vaginal wall. (
  • Also known as benign cystic teratomas, these cysts vary in appearance and come from cells present from birth. (
  • Arachnoid cysts are benign, congenital malformations of the arachnoid with a predilection for the temporal fossa. (
  • While they can certainly be painful, ovarian cysts are fairly common, often benign and will not usually lead to infertility. (
  • An otherwise healthy 31yo woman presented with a known history of benign splenic cyst of unknown etiology since 2007. (
  • In cases of benign splenic cysts, the cysts can be safely drained intraoperatively to facilitate complete cystic resection. (
  • Simple kidney cysts are fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, that can form in one or both of your kidneys . (
  • Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs that form in the kidneys. (
  • Tarlov cysts (also known as meningeal cysts or perineural cysts) are fluid-filled sacs that are usually found at the bottom of the spine (the sacrum). (
  • Cysts (Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3) are defined as epithelium-lined sacs, and in the heart, they are typically located within the atrium or near the interatrial septum. (
  • Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form on one or both ovaries due to ovulation . (
  • Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs in or on an ovary. (
  • Cysts are solid or fluid-filled sacs. (
  • Functional Cysts - Each month, prior to ovulation, a woman's ovaries will develop the eggs destined for release inside small fluid-filled sacs called functional cysts. (
  • Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs formed in the ovary, according to Office on Women's Health from the US government. (
  • Ganglions are small sacs (cysts) filled with clear, jellylike fluid. (
  • These sacs, or cysts, crowd out healthy tissue, leading over time to reduced kidney function and, in some instances, complete kidney failure. (
  • These scans often also find cysts in the ovaries. (
  • Most cysts are functional and form from the follicles in the ovaries. (
  • A person with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has enlarged ovaries with multiple follicular cysts. (
  • The study suggests that women with simple cysts are no more likely than women with normal ovaries to have ovarian cancer. (
  • An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac-like structure that forms from one of the ovaries. (
  • [ 8 ] to include the entities of synovial and ganglion cysts of the spinal facet joints. (
  • Synovial and ganglion cysts are both relatively small lesions (mean diameter 1 cm) that are either attached or adjacent to spinal facet joints. (
  • A case of multifocal and recurrent ganglion cysts is described. (
  • Histopathological examination of one lesion showed anastomosing fibro-connective tissue surrounded by a wall of smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue, findings that were consistent with ganglion cyst. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a smooth, fluid-filled swelling that typically appears as a lump on your wrist. (
  • What is a ganglion cyst? (
  • Ganglion cysts are filled with synovial fluid, a jelly-like liquid that surrounds and protects your joints or tendons. (
  • A ganglion cyst occurs when synovial fluid leaks out and forms a liquid-filled sac under your skin. (
  • Ganglion cysts most often affect the wrist but you can also get them on your fingers, ankles or feet. (
  • Ganglion cysts can occasionally cause joint pain or stiffness but most don't need treating. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a lump in the hand or wrist that is not uncommon. (
  • Treatment for ganglion cysts depends on the location of the cyst and your personal situation. (
  • Learn more about ganglion cysts and find a hand surgeon at . (
  • A ganglion is a small sac (cyst) filled with clear, jellylike fluid that often appears as a bump on the hands and wrists, but it can also develop on feet, ankles, knees, or shoulders. (
  • Bartholin cyst or abscess forms when fluid or pus builds up and forms a lump in one of the Bartholin glands. (
  • An infected cyst is referred to as an abscess . (
  • A pilonidal cyst or sinus is an abscess (localized collection of pus) or a chronically draining sinus (canal or passage leading to an abscess) located in the opening between the buttocks muscles. (
  • The cyst may be a simple abscess or may be draining from sinus tracts that need to be closed. (
  • If infection sets in (doctors call this an abscess ), you'll likely have extreme pain at the site of the cyst. (
  • If the Bartholin's cyst is causing problems -- or if it's turned into an abscess -- you'll need to see your doctor. (
  • Keep in mind that a Bartholin's cyst or abscess may come back and need treatment again. (
  • A cyst can contain pus if infected but is quite different from something like an abscess or a boil . (
  • In case of complication (fissuring or infection) the cyst mimics an abscess or a soft-tissue tumour [3]. (
  • Surgery and/or drainage is performed to remove the cyst. (
  • In some cases, surgery is needed to drain and remove the cyst. (
  • Some people choose to remove the cyst because they do not like how it looks. (
  • After the infection is cleared, a day surgery procedure to remove the cyst is performed. (
  • Treatment is often surgery to remove the cyst. (
  • When cysts are treated complications are few. (
  • In most cases, there are no complications from the cysts themselves. (
  • What are the symptoms and complications of simple kidney cysts? (
  • You can't prevent a Bartholin's cyst from developing, but you can help avoid developing complications. (
  • It also explores complications and other conditions related to ruptured ovarian cysts. (
  • When these cysts burst but do not cause complications, doctors may recommend observation through a series of ultrasounds and prescribe pain medications. (
  • However, your child may not need to get rid of the cyst if they do not experience complications, such as repeated infection or major swelling. (
  • What are possible complications of a dermoid cyst in a child? (
  • Most simple ovarian cysts do not produce symptoms unless they have associated complications. (
  • Are there any complications associated with ovarian cysts? (
  • Keeping your cyst and the area around it clean will help prevent complications. (
  • Elsebaie SB, El-Sebae MM, Esmat ME, Nasr MM, Kamel MM. Modified endocystectomy versus pericystectomy in echinococcus granulosus liver cysts: a randomized controlled study, and the role of specific anti-hydatid IgG4 in detection of early recurrence. (
  • Liver cysts: A cause of stomach pain? (
  • Simple liver cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver. (
  • Most liver cysts can be detected on ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans. (
  • The cause of simple liver cysts isn't known. (
  • Before the widespread availability of abdominal imaging techniques, including ultrasonography and CT, liver cysts were diagnosed only when they grew to an enormous size and became apparent as an abdominal mass or as an incidental finding during laparotomy. (
  • PCLD is confirmed by means of ultrasonography or CT (see the image below), with multiple liver cysts identified at the time initial of evaluation. (
  • Simple kidney cysts are usually round or oval in shape. (
  • Simple kidney cysts are usually harmless. (
  • Simple kidney cysts don't enlarge the kidneys, replace their normal structure, or cause reduced kidney function like cysts do in people with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) . (
  • Do simple kidney cysts have another name? (
  • In one large study, about 1 in 10 people had simple kidney cysts. (
  • In people age 50 and older, nearly 1 in 5 people had simple kidney cysts. (
  • Who is more likely to develop simple kidney cysts? (
  • Simple kidney cysts are more common in older people, and men are more likely to develop simple kidney cysts than women. (
  • 2 In one study, men were twice as likely to have simple kidney cysts. (
  • As people age, simple kidney cysts tend to grow bigger and grow in number. (
  • However, simple kidney cysts usually don't cause symptoms or additional health problems. (
  • Health care professionals can treat simple kidney cysts that cause symptoms or other health problems. (
  • Experts don't fully understand the cause of simple kidney cysts, but they're more common as people age. (
  • How do health care professionals diagnose simple kidney cysts? (
  • Simple kidney cysts usually don't cause symptoms, so health care professionals often find simple kidney cysts when they are performing an imaging test for another reason. (
  • An abdominal ultrasound can find simple kidney cysts by creating images of your kidneys. (
  • Kidney cysts are round pouches of fluid that form in the kidneys and are typically less than 1 inch in diameter. (
  • Simple kidney cysts are often detected during an imaging test (e.g. ultrasound, CT, MRI) being done for another condition, because they rarely cause pain or other symptoms. (
  • It is not clear what causes simple kidney cysts, although the risk of having one increases with age. (
  • Simple kidney cysts in children are rare. (
  • Kidney cysts can also be caused by a genetic mutation . (
  • Large kidney cysts are associated with ADPKD. (
  • In further studies, the scientists gave fluorescently labeled glucose to mice with PKD and could see that kidney cysts in the animals also took up glucose. (
  • these are not functional cysts (as there is no ovulation) but may be simple in structure. (
  • Functional cysts arise from either the follicle or the corpus luteum (depending on the stage in the menstrual cycle at which they occur). (
  • Functional cysts can also occur if the corpus luteum persists after ovulation beyond its normal 2-week phase. (
  • Functional cysts may be stimulated by excessive amounts of the female hormones FSH and hCG. (
  • These and other agents may be used to induce ovulation in infertility patients, who thus have an increased risk of developing functional cysts. (
  • In contrast, combined oral contraceptive (OC) pills reduce the likelihood of developing functional cysts because they suppress ovulation. (
  • Women with simple ovarian cysts detected by ultrasound did not develop ovarian cancer at elevated rates over the next three years. (
  • A radiologist reviewed the ultrasound scans and recorded the size and characteristics of all ovarian cysts larger than one centimeter. (
  • By extrapolating their results to the full group of 72,000 women who underwent ultrasound, the team estimated that about 23% of the 72,000 women younger than 50 and 13% of those over 50 had a simple ovarian cyst. (
  • Doctors will also use ultrasound to check the quality of the cysts and whether they have ruptured. (
  • Ovarian cysts are usually diagnosed by chance, either during a regular pelvic examination or as an unexpected finding during an ultrasound examination of the pelvis. (
  • An ultrasound examination can determine if the mass is a cyst, and if so, whether it has a simple structure (usually a functional cyst) or a more complex one (more likely to be an ovarian tumour). (
  • If ultrasound identifies that the cyst is simple, a wait-and-see plan ('expectant management') may be appropriate, because many simple ovarian cysts resolve spontaneously. (
  • We suspected hepatic cyst infection and placed an ultrasound-guided drainage tube, by which we obtained ≈100 mL of purulent liquid. (
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan appearance of large hepatic cyst. (
  • A health problem that involves ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (
  • I have a cyst on my left ovary, that has been there since last year. (
  • Yes, my scans in december were clear for my kidneys but the cyst on my ovary was still there. (
  • I have a cyst on my ovary the size of an apple," Hailey captioned the photo. (
  • Because of concerns about ovarian cancer, these cysts may be followed with repeated imaging over many years. (
  • Among those with a simple cyst, however, only a single woman developed ovarian cancer during the study period. (
  • The researchers estimated that 9 to 11 out of every 1,000 women younger than 50 with a complex cyst or solid mass would develop ovarian cancer over the next 3 years. (
  • In contrast, fewer than 1 out of 1,000 women in both age groups with only a simple ovarian cyst would develop ovarian cancer. (
  • Following these cysts with additional imaging does not lead to the detection of ovarian cancer. (
  • But because of concerns about ovarian cancer, doctors may monitor a cyst with imaging over many years. (
  • However, the development of certain types cysts have been linked to some cancers, so it's best to see your doctor if you're experiencing the symptoms of ovarian cysts. (
  • What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? (
  • You can't prevent a Bartholin's cyst. (
  • Vaginal cysts can also be congenital and associated with urinary system anomalies The most common type of vaginal cyst are Müllerian cysts. (
  • Alkadhi H, Crelier GR, Imhof HG, Kollias SS (2003) Somatomotor functional MRI in a large congenital arachnoid cyst. (
  • A dermoid cyst is present from birth (congenital). (
  • Consequently, "congenital cyst" is the preferred terminology. (
  • Congenital cysts are typically lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium that may be ciliated. (
  • Parathyroid Gland - Cyst, Congenital in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (
  • Congenital uterine wall cysts arising from paramesonephric (Müllerian) and mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts are typically incidental findings in most species. (
  • The type of epithelial tissue lining a cyst is used to classify these growths. (
  • Growths that originate from the urethra and other tissue can present as cysts of the vagina. (
  • This cyst originates from epithelium tissue that has been 'trapped' from surgery, episiotomy, or other trauma. (
  • A Gartner's duct cyst develops from a small tissue remnant of the mesonephric duct. (
  • This cyst has a lining of epithelial tissue that varies from squamous to mucin-secreting transitional epithelium. (
  • Other structures that resemble vaginal cysts are connective tissue tumors, hematocolpos, and hymenal atresia. (
  • A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. (
  • Where there was previously fatty tissue, there may now be scar tissue or a cyst, which appears as a lump. (
  • Inflammatory cells are present in the tissue around the cyst (arrow). (
  • Cysts should be differentiated from cystic, ectopic thyroid or thymic tissue in the heart. (
  • A diagnosis of "Cyst' should be used when the tissue of origin cannot be definitively identified. (
  • The result is a non-functioning kidney full of cysts and scar tissue. (
  • Surgically removing all the extra cells and tissue left in the thyroglossal duct makes it less likely that the cyst will come back. (
  • This cyst originates from tissue that surrounds a tooth before it erupts into the mouth. (
  • A dermoid cyst is a collection of tissue under the skin. (
  • Your child may need imaging tests to find out if the cyst is connected to other tissue in the head and neck. (
  • If you're over 40, they may do a biopsy (take a sample of tissue from the cyst) to rule out vulvar cancer . (
  • Cysts are abnormal growths enclosed in various tissues of our body and separate from surrounding tissue. (
  • The cysts appeared to be developmental anomalies arising from paramesonephric tissue based on positive PAX8 and ER-α and/or PR staining. (
  • Patients are typically asymptomatic and the cyst presents as a slow growing soft tissue tumour [2]. (
  • The PKD cysts arise and grow as the kidney tissue works to retain most of the fluids that constantly pass through them. (
  • If parts of the duct remain, they may collect fluid and develop into a vaginal wall cyst later in life. (
  • Shock or trauma of the spine, or exertion, can cause spinal fluid in the cysts to build up. (
  • A Bartholin's cyst is a fluid-filled swelling on one of the Bartholin's glands. (
  • The main cause of a cyst is the backup of fluid that occurs when the ducts become blocked. (
  • Sitting in a warm bath a few times per day or applying a moist, warm compress can encourage the fluid to drain from the cyst. (
  • If the cyst is large and causes symptoms, they can make a small slit to allow the fluid to drain. (
  • The tube allows the fluid in the cyst to drain and helps the duct stay open. (
  • It involves making small, permanent slits or openings, which help the fluid drain and prevent the cysts from forming. (
  • While cysts are commonly a simple sack of fluid, they can have multiple chambers, like a bag of grapes. (
  • Cyst fluid can be sent for CA 19-9 testing at the time of surgery as a marker for cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma. (
  • Corpus Luteum - Similar to follicular cysts, these cysts form if a sac that has released its egg does not dissolve, allowing fluid to build up inside of it. (
  • Your doctor may want to culture the cyst fluid to see if an antibiotic is needed. (
  • Another treatment option that can also be performed in the doctor's office or the emergency department of a hospital is done by making a small cut into the cyst to drain out the fluid. (
  • Using a needle to remove fluid from the cyst. (
  • If the cyst gets infected, bursts, or begins draining fluid, clean and bandage the area and visit your doctor. (
  • A Bartholin's Cyst occurs when the Bartholin's Gland, which is responsible for lubricating the vagina, becomes blocked leading to a build-up of fluid. (
  • Single cysts were unilocular, fluid-filled, and occurred throughout the uterus. (
  • A cyst is a sac filled with fluid. (
  • We profiled 16 different glycoforms of proteins captured by 72 different antibodies in cyst fluid from mucinous and nonmucinous cysts (n = 22), and we then tested a three-marker panel in 22 addition samples and 22 blinded samples. (
  • Using this one-two approach at the lab bench, the researchers modeled in just a few weeks different aspects of the fluid-filled cysts that form in polycystic kidney disease (PKD ), a common cause of kidney failure. (
  • They also found out why: the cysts were absorbing glucose and taking in water from the fluid passing over them, causing the cysts to expand. (
  • However, Bartholin cysts can become infected, swollen and painful. (
  • If the cyst is painful, you can take over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce pain and discomfort. (
  • The cysts can vary in size or even disappear completely, and they may or may not be painful. (
  • The problem is a sebaceous cyst on my head that became so painful I >took matters into my own hands 2 days ago with an Exacto knife. (
  • An infected cyst can be very painful and cumbersome and runs the risk of breaking open-thus spilling its contents for all the world to see. (
  • Just want to help anyone suffering from chronic painful cysts. (
  • The simple kidney cyst is different from the cysts that develop when a person has polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a genetic disease. (
  • Cysts may be the result of a developmental malformation, possibly of thyroglossal duct origin. (
  • How is a thyroglossal duct cyst diagnosed in children? (
  • Based on these images, the doctor can diagnose the thyroglossal duct cyst. (
  • A thyroglossal duct cyst usually does not go away on its own. (
  • How is a thyroglossal duct cyst treated in a child? (
  • Thyroglossal duct cysts will not go away without treatment. (
  • The Pediatric Surgery team at MGfC will work with you and your child to decide which type of treatment your child needs, based on how often and how severely their thyroglossal duct cyst gets infected. (
  • Only about 10 out of every 100 thyroglossal duct cysts come back after the Sistrunk procedure. (
  • Can thyroglossal duct cysts cause cancer in children? (
  • It is rare for thyroglossal duct cysts to cause cancer in children. (
  • Only 1 out every 100 thyroglossal duct cysts become cancerous . (
  • Distinguishing between a thyroglossal and an ultimobranchial origin for parathyroid cysts is somewhat equivocal since either may have a ciliated cell lining. (
  • Juxtafacet cysts are lesions that are associated with spinal facet joints. (
  • Conservative therapy for symptomatic lesions is often unsuccessful, although there are reports of spontaneous resolution of these cysts as well as the symptoms associated with them. (
  • Radiologically, most arachnoid cysts appear to be expansive lesions, and functional imaging has shown that arachnoid cysts may cause a reorganization of cortical functions. (
  • Jaw tumors and cysts are relatively rare growths or lesions that develop in the jawbone or the soft tissues in the mouth and face. (
  • While cysts can occur anywhere in your skin, it's also possible to develop other types of lesions. (
  • This video shows the location of a former surgically created cyst gastrotomy for pancreatic pseudocyst. (
  • In this video Dr. Beth Schrope, Assistant Professor of Surgery at Columbia, discusses pancreatic cysts, the dangers of pancreatic cysts, how these cysts are related to pancreatic cancer, and how doctors track them. (
  • Specific glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin accurately distinguish mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. (
  • The results show that MUC5AC and endorepellin glycoforms may be highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for the differentiation of mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. (
  • If they suspect a ruptured ovarian cyst, doctors will usually first check if a person is pre-or postmenopausal to determine whether the cyst is pregnancy-related. (
  • In patients who are jaundiced with hydatid disease, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) should be performed to determine whether the cyst has ruptured into the bile duct. (
  • Mar. 28, 2019 The soybean cyst nematode, one of the crop's most destructive pests, isn't like most of its wormy relatives. (
  • Your field could look like this, yet you could lose 30 percent of your yield to soybean cyst nematode. (
  • Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating and yield limiting pest of soybean in the U.S. including Missouri. (
  • A recent three-year study done in the United States estimated that soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) caused annual losses of $1.286 billion (128.6 million bushels). (
  • Stunted, yellow soybean plants (foreground) are a sign of infection by soybean cyst nematode. (
  • Numerous studies have been conducted in Missouri and other states on the effects of minimum tillage on soybean cyst nematode. (
  • About two out of 10 women can expect to get a Bartholin's gland cyst at some point. (
  • Your doctor might recommend this option if others haven't worked or you keep getting Bartholin's cysts and abscesses. (
  • However, fat necrosis and oil cysts are not cancerous. (
  • If the cyst is complex, your doctor may repeat the imaging test a few months later to be sure it is not growing and becoming cancerous. (
  • Rarely, ovarian cysts can become cancerous. (
  • Simple cysts are unlikely to become malignant (cancerous). (
  • Problematic ovarian cysts are generally treated via surgical removal as they can be potentially cancerous. (
  • Biopsies or minor surgeries to remove the cysts or drain them are typically simple to perform and resolve the issue. (
  • Your doctor can typically diagnose a Bartholin's cyst after evaluating your medical history and performing a pelvic exam. (
  • Although this cyst is typically slow growing, it can still be destructive to the jaw and teeth if left untreated over a long period of time. (
  • Many times, jaw cysts and tumors do not have symptoms and are typically discovered on routine screening X-rays done for other reasons. (
  • The lesion usually has a high signal intensity on T2 and low intensity on T1 typically with daughter cysts. (
  • Thymic cysts are typically lined by cuboidal to squamous epithelial cells (Figure 2, arrow), which may be ciliated and contain variable amounts of homogeneous eosinophilic material (Figure 2, arrowhead). (
  • Kapan S, Turhan AN, Kalayci MU, Alis H, Aygun E. Albendazole is not effective for primary treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts. (
  • Hepatic cysts. (
  • The clinician has a number of options for imaging the liver in patients with hepatic cysts. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine scanning, and hepatic angiography have a limited role in the evaluation of hepatic cysts. (
  • A practical problem in the evaluation of a patient with a cystic hepatic lesion is differentiating cystic neoplasms from simple cysts. (
  • We report a novel case of hepatic cyst infection with bacteremia caused by H. cinaedi in an immunocompetent woman in Japan. (
  • Although various manifestations of H. cinaedi infection have been described, to our knowledge, no cases of hepatic cyst infection have been reported. (
  • Enhanced CT on day 5 revealed enlargement of the hepatic cyst from 63 mm to 69 mm in diameter. (
  • A nonenhanced CT scan indicated that the hepatic cyst had collapsed from drainage on day 17. (
  • Hydatid cysts can be identified by the presence of daughter cysts within a thick-walled main cavity (see the image below). (
  • note daughter cysts in interior. (
  • In our case, while US showed a pseudo-tumoural lesion and MRI showed an impotent lesion enhancement and abscesses, the presence of some small daughter cysts led to a diagnosis of hydatid cyst. (
  • US is the most useful mean of diagnosis, showing the pathognomonic signs of the hydatid cysts: echogenic hydatid sand ("snowflake sign"), unilocular cysts with daughter cysts ("honeycomb sign") and cysts with a detached floating laminated membrane ("waterlily sign") [1,5]. (
  • If the cyst is complicated, it is very important to search for daughter cysts, especially in fat suppressed T2 weighted images [4]. (
  • In some instances, an infection can lead to the growth of a cyst. (
  • If the cyst is infected, your doctor may need to take a sample of vaginal secretions to determine whether a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is present. (
  • Any infection in the cyst will be treated before surgery to make surgery safer for your child. (
  • You should see your doctor for any bikini line cyst that is bothering you, as well as if the bump is showing signs of an infection. (
  • Are Bartholin gland cysts caused by an infection? (
  • But safer sex measures like using condoms may help prevent an infection or cyst formation. (
  • The thought of popping a little 'ol zit or blackhead might seem appealing…but just don't do it with sebaceous cysts- unless done by & only by professionals due to its high chances of infection. (
  • Well, you'll probably be okay (scalps are resistant to infection, though not perfectly), but the worst problem is that you may get recurrance of the cyst if you haven't gotten all of the sac out. (
  • Pericystic enhancement can be seen and is often moderate [5] but in our case the enhancement was weak and diffuse because of the infection of the cyst. (
  • Leukoencephalopathy can lead to abnormal muscle tensing (spasticity), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), cysts in the brain (subcortical cysts), abnormal muscle tone (dystonia), swallowing difficulties, mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, speech difficulties, seizures, and difficulties walking. (
  • Some infected cysts, called Bartholin gland abscesses (say this: ab-sess-es), are caused by sexually transmitted germs. (
  • What distinguishes cysts from abscesses is the presence of pus. (
  • Other types of cysts and tumors. (
  • The two most common types of cysts that may form underneath the skin include sebaceous (pilar) and epidermoid cysts . (
  • Jaw tumors and cysts - sometimes referred to as odontogenic or nonodontogenic, depending on their origin - can vary greatly in size and severity. (
  • Treatment options for jaw tumors and cysts vary, depending on the type of growth or lesion you have, the stage of growth, and your symptoms. (
  • Odontogenic jaw tumors and cysts originate from cells and tissues that are involved in normal tooth development. (
  • Cite this: Diagnosis and Management of Juxtafacet Cysts - Medscape - Mar 01, 2006. (
  • CT scans can show cysts and tumors in the kidneys. (
  • Enlarged kidneys with tiny cysts are associated with ARPDK. (
  • It is possible that children with large kidneys and/or large cysts will have more episodes of blood in the urine if they play contact sports, such as football . (
  • Dermatologists are not only adequate surgeons when it comes to sebacious cysts, but will no doubt be a good deal better at removing them and giving a small scar with no recurance, than somebody who's used to chopping out prostates or kidneys for a living. (
  • But cysts can form in many parts of your body, such as your kidneys or liver. (
  • However, the cysts don't develop from fluids that the kidneys outwardly secrete, as long thought. (
  • Although scientists had known that kidneys absorb glucose, they'd never connected this process to the formation of cysts in PKD. (
  • In 1950, Vosschulte and Börger [ 26 ] first described spinal synovial cysts as entities that cause symptoms by compressing nerves. (
  • Most vaginal cysts usually do not cause symptoms. (
  • If the cyst does cause symptoms, seek treatment. (
  • Some cysts are so small they don't even cause symptoms, and it's sometimes possible to treat them at home. (
  • A ruptured ovarian cyst often does not cause symptoms. (
  • Most ovarian cysts are small and don't cause symptoms. (
  • Vaginal cysts are often discovered during a routine pelvic exam or pap smear. (
  • Skin cysts may multiply in number, particularly in the genital area. (
  • Some skin cysts - especially those that are small in size - may eventually go away on their own without treatment. (
  • What are skin cysts? (
  • How do doctors treat skin cysts? (
  • Vaginal inclusion cysts can appear as small bumps and can develop during childbirth, or after surgery. (
  • Some women even undergo surgery for these simple cysts to determine whether they contain cancer. (
  • The Sistrunk procedure is a type of surgery that removes the root of the cyst in the hyoid bone in the throat. (
  • Mouth, jaw and face (oral and maxillofacial) surgeons can treat your jaw tumor or cyst usually by surgery, or in some cases, by medical therapy or a combination of surgery and medical therapy. (
  • You may need surgery if you have pain, are past menopause, or if the cyst does not go away. (
  • The most common treatment is surgery to cut out the cyst. (
  • Some women even undergo surgery to determine whether a cyst contains cancer. (
  • If you had them since your September surgery AND they were clear, then most likely it's the cyst that's causeing these issues. (
  • However, messing around with cysts could actually make them worse and even if it does shrink there is no guarantee (other than surgery) that it won't return later. (
  • The healthcare assistant was relieved to be told the 1.5cm lump was a cyst and surgery was not required. (
  • Surgery was performed to remove the mass because the cyst was infected and there was a risk of spread of the disease. (
  • Since you can't usually feel the Bartholin's glands, you may not realize you have a small cyst if you don't have symptoms. (
  • In some cases, a small cyst can just be watched over time to see if it grows. (
  • Your dermatologist may choose excision to cut the lining of the entire cyst wall and remove the contents. (
  • If other methods don't work - this one involves getting rid of the entire cyst rather than just draining off its content. (
  • The most common type, called a simple cyst, isn't usually harmful. (
  • Ochieng'-Mitula PJ, Burt MD. The effects of ivermectin on the hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus after direct injection at laparotomy. (
  • Chen X, Cen C, Xie H, Zhou L, Wen H, Zheng S. The comparison of 2 new promising weapons for the treatment of hydatid cyst disease: PAIR and laparoscopic therapy. (
  • We report here a case of forearm hydatid cyst with an unusual presentation. (
  • Rim sign and multicystic appearance are typical features of hydatid cyst [3,6]. (
  • hemorrhagic colloid cyst" with "acute obstruc- tive hydrocephalus. (
  • tive hydrocephalus" due to "colloid cyst" as the cause of death. (
  • Sudden and unexpected death in childhood due to a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. (
  • A vaginal cyst can develop on the surface of the vaginal epithelium or in deeper layers. (
  • The prevalence of vaginal cysts is uncertain since many go unreported but it is estimated that 1 out of 200 women have a vaginal cyst. (
  • An epidermoid cyst is one type of vaginal cyst. (
  • A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the lining of the vagina. (
  • How do you get a sebaceous cyst? (
  • A sebaceous cyst is essentially a bump that develops beneath the surface of your skin. (
  • Usually occur around puberty age, during menstruation cycle and can lead to increased oil production in the skin - leading consequently to bigger sebaceous cyst formation. (
  • How Can You Avoid Getting A Sebaceous Cyst? (
  • Cleveland Clinic: "Bartholin Cyst. (
  • Other cysts can be Bartholin's cysts, Gartner's duct cysts, mucous inclusions, epithelial inclusion cysts, embryonic cysts and urothelial cysts. (
  • Inclusion cysts are small and located on the posterior, lower end of the vagina. (
  • Vaginal inclusion cysts are the most common. (
  • Follicular cysts develop when ovulation does not occur, and the follicle continues to grow. (
  • The team estimated that about 23% of the women younger than 50 and 13% of those over 50 had simple cysts. (
  • None of the cysts in the women younger than 50 were later diagnosed as cancer. (
  • This article will look at how fat necrosis can affect the breast, what oil cysts are, and what to do if these conditions occur. (
  • Most ovarian cysts are natural and occur as part of a person's menstrual cycle. (
  • Most often these cysts will occur around wisdom teeth that are not fully erupted, but they can also involve other teeth. (
  • They are most common in pre-menopausal women, in whom ovarian cysts occur in 30% of those with regular periods and 50% of those with irregular periods. (
  • Formation of cysts may occur more commonly in 2-year-old female rats than in age-matched males. (
  • When needed, treatment may include drainage or removal of the cyst. (
  • Symptomatic splenic cysts, particularly those refractory to drainage, have traditionally been surgically managed via splenectomy. (
  • While most cysts are harmless, the bumps that appear along your bikini line may become a bigger issue if you try to squeeze or pop them. (
  • If cysts continue to reoccur and other methods of treatment aren't working, your doctor can surgically remove the gland. (
  • Treatment continues after the surgical removal by scheduled followups with the medical provider who looks for changes in the cyst. (
  • Cysts often remain small and do not need treatment. (
  • Bartholin cysts can sometimes recur and need ongoing treatment. (
  • Percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). (
  • If you are diagnosed with a simple kidney cyst, you usually don't need further testing or treatment. (
  • A Bartholin's cyst may not require treatment if it's small and doesn't cause any symptoms. (
  • Caldarelli M, DiRocco C (1996) Surgical options in the treatment of interhemispheric arachnoid cysts. (
  • This cyst is also referred to as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor because of its tumorlike tendency to recur after surgical treatment. (
  • If you are diagnosed with or suspected of having a jaw tumor or cyst, your primary care provider can refer you to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment. (
  • Bartholin gland cysts hardly ever come back after treatment. (
  • If you get a Bartholin gland cyst, tell your doctor right away so you can get early and effective treatment. (
  • If you're under 40 and your cyst isn't causing problems, you probably won't need treatment. (
  • For studies that include in utero exposure, developmental alterations potentially related to treatment could influence the ultimate presence and appearance of parathyroid cysts. (
  • Sebaceous cysts can sometimes be reduced in size with heat treatment. (
  • Bartholin's Cysts can often be treated at home, however, some may require surgical treatment. (
  • Note that the treatment of Bartholin's Cyst may not be performed at every location listed below. (
  • When I was told by the hospital that I had a cyst and didn't require further treatment, I felt reassured and relieved. (
  • For routine studies, cysts should be diagnosed only when indicative of a treatment- related change. (
  • A cyst is a lesion that contains liquid or semisolid material. (
  • Cysts associated with another lesion (e.g., secondary to thymic atrophy) should not be diagnosed separately, but should be described in the pathology narrative. (
  • Vaginal cysts can mimic other structures that protrude from the vagina such as a rectocele and cystocele. (
  • Gartner duct cysts develop on the side walls of the vagina. (
  • Endometriosis may appear as small cysts in the vagina. (
  • These are not really cysts, but can look and feel like cystic masses in the vagina. (
  • If the cyst is large, it can make one side of your labia majora (the large folds of skin on the outside of your vagina ) hang lower than the other. (
  • The most common type is the squamous inclusion cyst. (
  • A squamous inclusion cyst can rarely be found in a newborn. (
  • An epithelial inclusion cyst is also referred to as epidermal inclusion cyst or squamous inclusion cyst. (
  • Thymic cyst is lined by cuboidal to squamous epithelium (arrow) and contains homogeneous eosinophilic material (arrowhead). (
  • The cyst is lined by flattened epithelium. (
  • Microscopically, all cysts had a well-developed smooth muscle wall, lined by flattened to cuboidal, sometimes ciliated, epithelium that stained intensely positive for cytokeratin 18 and paired box protein 8 (PAX8). (
  • This survey indicates that arachnoid cysts may affect cognition and also that they do so in a reversible manner, as the patients' cognitive impairment seems to improve after surgical decompression of the cyst. (
  • A mum-of-three almost died of breast cancer after her symptoms were dismissed as a harmless cyst. (