Cysteinyldopa: Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.ThiazinesCyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor: An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 Protein: A costimulatory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 RECEPTOR. It is closely-related to CD274 antigen; however, its expression is restricted to DENDRITIC CELLS and activated MACROPHAGES.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidExtracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Magnolia: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. The germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones costunolide, parthenolide, and costunolide diepoxide have been isolated from the leaves. Bark contains honokiol and magnolol. Parts are an ingredient of Banxia Houpo Tang.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Potassium Permanganate: Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.SculptureHistory, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.PaintingsAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Hypopigmentation: A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Pigmentation DisordersAlbinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Homovanillic AcidReceptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Serum levels of S-100 protein and 5-S-cysteinyldopa as markers of melanoma progression. (1/26)

Serum S-100 protein is widely used as a marker of melanoma and since 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5-S-CD) is a precursor of melanin its serum and urinary levels can reflect melanoma progression. In this study we examined the concentration changes of serum S-100 protein and 5-S-CD in 252 melanoma patients of different clinical stages. Serum samples were taken from 252 melanoma patients at 860 times, from June 1996 to July 1998. The serum S-100 protein was measured by the immunoluminometric assay, levels of 5-S-CD was determined by HPLC. The value of S-100 protein in patients with primary melanoma (0.11m mg/l) and in patients without symptoms (0.15 m mg/l) ranged around the normal level (0.01 0.12 m mg/l). There was a significant difference between the values of patients with or without symptoms. There was a similarly significant difference between the S-100 values of clinical Stage I (0.11 mg/l) and Stage III (2.91 mg/l) as well as between those of clinical Stage II (0.47 mg/l) and Stage III (2.91 mg/l), respectively. Analyzing the values of patients with symptoms we observed significant difference between the S-100 protein values of patients with primary tumor and those with solitary or multiple distant metastases. In case of 5-S-CD significant difference was found between clinical Stage I and III as well as clinical Stage II and III. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the mean marker values of patients with primary tumor, lymph node, lung metastasis and clinical stage III.  (+info)

New regulatory mechanisms in the biosynthesis of pheomelanins: rearrangement vs. redox exchange reaction routes of a transient 2H-1, 4-benzothiazine-o-quinonimine intermediate. (2/26)

Pheomelanins, the typical epidermal pigments of red haired, Celtic-type Caucasians, arise from oxidative cyclization of cysteinyldopas, mainly the 5-S-isomer CD, via 1,4-benzothiazines. However, the mechanism and the relative yields of formation of these intermediates have remained poorly defined. We have now examined the course of the oxidation of CD at physiological pHs, under different reaction conditions. Surprisingly, a consumption of CD far exceeding the stoichiometry of the oxidant was observed at low oxidant-to-substrate ratios, low temperatures and high substrate concentrations. The yields of the 3,4-dihydro-1,4-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid DHBCA vs. the non-carboxylated analogue DHB in the oxidation mixture, after NaBH4 reduction, were also found to depend markedly on the reaction conditions. Based on these and other results, a reaction scheme is proposed involving a transient o-quinonimine generated by oxidative cyclization of CD to which three different paths are offered, namely redox exchange with CD to give DHBCA (path A) or intramolecular rearrangement with (path B) or without (path C) decarboxylation, leading to the benzothiazine BTZ and the 3-carboxy analogue BTZCA, respectively. The relative operation of path A vs. path C was assessed by deuterium labeling experiments. These findings point to new mechanisms of regulation of the initial steps of pheomelanogenesis, bearing significant implications on the structure of the final pigment.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood. (3/26)

BACKGROUND: Tyrosinase is an enzyme unique to pigment-forming cells. Methods using this transcript for detection of melanoma cells in blood have given divergent results. Quantitative analytical procedures are therefore needed to study the analytical performance of the methods. METHODS: Mononucleated cells were isolated by Percoll centrifugation. RNA was isolated by each of three methods: Ultraspec(TM)-II RNA isolation system, FastRNA(TM) GREEN Kit, and QIAamp RNA Blood Mini Kit. cDNA was synthesized using random hexamer primers. A tyrosinase-specific product of 207 bp was amplified by PCR. As an internal standard (and competitor) we used a 207-bp cDNA with a base sequence identical to the tyrosinase target except for a 20-bp probe-binding region. The PCR products were identified by 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-labeled probes specific for tyrosinase (5'DNP-GGGGAGCCTTGGGGTTCTGG-3') and internal standard (5'DNP-CGGAGCCCCGAAACCACATC-3') and quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: The calibration curves were linear and had a broad dynamic measuring range. A detection limit (2 SD above zero) of 48 transcripts/mL of blood was obtained from a low control. The analytical imprecision was 50% and 48% at concentrations of 1775 and 17 929 transcripts/mL (n = 12 and 14, respectively). With the cell line SK-Mel 28 added to blood and RNA extracted with the Ultraspec, Fast RNA, and QIAamp RNA methods, we found (mean +/- SD) 1716+/-1341, 2670+/-3174, and 24 320+/-5332 transcripts/mL of blood. Corresponding values were 527+/-497, 2497+/-1033, 14 930+/-1927 transcripts/mL of blood when the cell line JKM86-4 was added. One high-risk patient was followed by repeated analysis of tyrosinase transcripts in blood. The melanoma marker 5-S-cysteinyldopa in serum and urine was within reference values, but tyrosinase mRNA was slightly increased (120-168 transcripts/mL of blood). The tyrosinase mRNA increased to 1860 transcripts/mL concomitant with the increase in 5-S-cysteinyldopa; later a spleen metastasis was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained with different RNA extraction methods illustrate the importance of quantitative methods for validation of methods. The use of QIAamp RNA improved the extraction efficiency considerably. Data from a case study suggest the assay is suitable in the follow-up of patients with high risk of developing metastases.  (+info)

Production of cysteinyl-dopamine during intravenous dopamine therapy. (4/26)

BACKGROUND: Oxidized dopamine rapidly forms thiol-conjugates with --SH groups on cysteine, glutathione, and proteins. We used cysteinyl-dopamine production as an index of thioester production during intravenous dopamine treatment of critically ill patients. METHODS: Cysteinyl-dopamine and catecholamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The production of cysteinyl-dopamine by purified human neutrophils was measured using dopamine (1 micromol/L) and cysteine (1 mmol/L) concentrations similar to those found during dopamine treatment. To examine the impact of endotoxic shock on cysteinyl-dopamine production, anesthetized rats were given dopamine (12 to 15 microg/kg/min intravenously) with or without endotoxin (50 mg/kg intravenously). RESULTS: In vitro, neutrophils converted 26% of dopamine to cysteinyl-dopamine (30 min at 37 degrees C). Activating neutrophils with zymogen increased dopamine consumption from 26 to 68%, but only 36% appeared as cysteinyl-dopamine. The remainder may have been oxidized to other cysteinyl derivatives. Endotoxin increased cysteinyl-dopamine in rat plasma from 2.5 nmol/L (range <0.2 to 11) to 9.7 nmol/L (range <0.3 to 31, P = 0.1). After four hours, with or without endotoxin, cysteinyl-dopamine was <0.3 nmol/L in cerebrospinal fluid. In the plasma of eight patients receiving dopamine (6 to 20 microg/kg/min for 1 to 3 days), dopamine was 0.5 to 9.9 micromol/L, and cysteinyl-dopamine was 48 to 1660 nmol/L. Cysteinyl-dopamine was 4.3 to 22.6% of dopamine and correlated with leukocyte count (r(2) = 0.388, P = 0.099). CONCLUSIONS: A significant fraction of exogenously administered dopamine reacts with -SH groups of cysteine and probably also with -SH groups on peptides and proteins. During brief dopamine treatment of endotoxic shock in rats, neither dopamine nor cysteinyl-dopamine crossed the blood-brain barrier.  (+info)

Metal ions as potential regulatory factors in the biosynthesis of red hair pigments: a new benzothiazole intermediate in the iron or copper assisted oxidation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa. (5/26)

In the presence of iron or copper ions, the course of the oxidation in air of 5-S-cysteinyldopa (1), the main biosynthetic precursor of pheomelanins and trichochromes, was markedly changed affording two main products. One of these was identified as the oxobenzothiazine 8, previously obtained under nonphysiologically relevant conditions, while the other was characterized as the novel hydroxybenzothiazole 9. Besides 8 and 9, carboxylated and noncarboxylated benzothiazine products were obtained by persulfate oxidation of 1 in the presence of iron or copper ions. The ratio of formation yields of carboxylated/noncarboxylated benzothiazines, determined after reduction of the mixture, was lower than that of the control reaction run in the absence of metal ions, and much lower than that of the oxidation carried out in the presence of zinc ions, in agreement with a recent report. Notably, 8 and 9 were formed in variable yields under different oxidation conditions including tyrosinase/O(2), peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide, and the hydrogen peroxide/or (9E,11Z,13S)-13-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid/Fe(III) systems. Mechanistic routes to 8 and 9 were proposed based on the results of experiments involving in situ generation of labile benzothiazine intermediates. Overall, these results allow to formulate an improved biosynthetic scheme in which metal ions act as critical regulatory factors determining pheomelanin vs. trichochromes formation.  (+info)

Comparison of prognostic significance of serum 5-S-Cysteinyldopa, LDH and S-100B protein in Stage III-IV malignant melanoma. (6/26)

5-S-cysteinyldopa is a precursor of pheomelanin. S-100B protein is a low molecular weight, acidic, calcium binding, cytoplasmatic protein. LDH was defined as the most important serum parameter in disseminated melanoma. The aim of the present study was to compare the prognostic values of serum 5-S-Cysteinyldopa, S-100B and LDH concentrations in Stage III-IV melanoma patients. Serum samples were taken from 179 Stage III-IV melanoma patients at diagnosis. Serum 5-S-CD concentrations were determined by HPLC, S-100B protein by immunoluminometric assay while LDH by UV kinetic method. The mean/median concentrations of LDH, S-100B protein and 5-S-CD in Stage III patients ranged around the normal level. In Stage IV, the markers ranked as S100B = 5-S-CD > LDH for sensitivity, S-100B > LDH > 5-S-CD for specificity and LDH = S100B = 5-S-CD for positive predictive value, respectively. Furthermore, mean marker concentrations of patients with progressive disease differed significantly from nonprogresssive cases (when staging categories have been disregarded). Survival analysis indicated, that the initially elevated LDH and S-100B level in Stage IV disease predicts comparably short survival. Results of our study suggest that these serum marker values correlate well with Stages and disease progression. In Stage IV melanoma, the markers had appropriate sensitivity, high specificity as well as important positive predictive value. Among the studied serum markers S-100B protein and LDH proved to be similarly reliable in respect to the clinical outcome.  (+info)

Neurocutaneous melanosis associated with malignant leptomeningeal melanoma in an adult: clinical significance of 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the cerebrospinal fluid---case report. (7/26)

A 35-year-old male presented with a variant of neurocutaneous melanosis with leptomeningeal malignant melanoma. He had three pigmented nevi from birth. He suffered diplopia followed by headache. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed hydrocephalus and a small linear hyperintense lesion in the right frontal cortex. Several parts of the cortical sulci and the brain surface were slightly enhanced by gadolinium. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was performed and extensive pigmented leptomeninges were recognized. Open biopsy established the diagnosis of leptomeningeal malignant melanoma. Combined chemoimmunotherapy was repeated every other month with monitoring of the 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5-S-CD) level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The 5-S-CD level decreased after each treatment, but the basal level steadily increased prior to the next treatment. Two years after the onset, he showed paraplegia caused by an extramedullary mass at the T-6 level. MR imaging showed that melanoma had involved the entire subarachnoid space including the whole spine. He underwent emergent removal of the spinal tumor and showed transient marked improvement. Further intensive chemotherapy was given. However, he died 31 months after the onset of massive proliferation of intracranial leptomeningeal melanoma. Measurement of CSF 5-S-CD levels is valuable for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and for monitoring the progression of melanoma.  (+info)

Dopamine-derived dopaminochrome promotes H(2)O(2) release at mitochondrial complex I: stimulation by rotenone, control by Ca(2+), and relevance to Parkinson disease. (8/26)

Inhibitors of Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, such as rotenone, promote Parkinson disease-like symptoms and signs of oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) oxidation products may be implicated in such a process. We show here that the o-quinone dopaminochrome (DACHR), a relatively stable DA oxidation product, promotes concentration (0.1-0.2 mum)- and respiration-dependent generation of H(2)O(2) at Complex I in brain mitochondria, with further stimulation by low concentrations of rotenone (5-30 nm). The rotenone effect required that contaminating Ca(2+) (8-10 mum) was not removed. DACHR apparently extracts an electron from the constitutively autoxidizable site in Complex I, producing a semiquinone, which then transfers an electron to O(2), generating O(2)(.) and then H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial removal of H(2)O(2) monoamine, formed by either oxidase activity or DACHR, was performed largely by glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were negatively regulated by low intramitochondrial Ca(2+) levels. Thus, the H(2)O(2) formed accumulated in the medium if contaminating Ca(2+) was present; in the absence of Ca(2+), H(2)O(2) was completely removed if it originated from monoamine oxidase, but was less completely removed if it originated from DACHR. We propose that the primary action of rotenone is to promote extracellular O(2)(.) release via activation of NADPH oxidase in the microglia. In turn, O(2)(.) oxidizes DA to DACHR extracellularly. (The reaction is favored by the lack of GSH, which would otherwise preferably produce GSH adducts of dopaminoquinone.) Once formed, DACHR (which is resistant to GSH) enters neurons to activate the rotenone-stimulated redox cycle described.  (+info)

Following the discovery of cysteinyldopas as the early intermediates in the biogenesis of pheomelanins, the typical red hair pigments, the reactivity of the biosynthetic precursors under biomimetic conditions was extensively investigated. As a result, the early stages of pheomelanogenesis were envisaged as involving oxidative cyclization of cysteinyldopas, mainly the 5-S-isomer, to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) intermediates which undergo oxidative polymerization leading eventually to the pigments. In the last decade, several aspects of the chemistry and biosynthesis of pheomelanins were re-examined. In particular, (i) transient BTZ intermediates were identified by pulse radiolytic techniques and NMR analysis; (ii) the effect of reaction conditions and additives on the rearrangement vs. redox exchange reaction paths of such intermediates were investigated in detail; (iii) the mechanism of the oxidative polymerization of BTZs was characterized by the first isolation of oligomer species, and (iv) the ...
Tapetum lucidum: …have a reflective layer, the tapetum lucidum, behind the retina, which increases the amount of light for night vision, while haplorrhines have no tapetum but, instead, an area of enhanced vision, the fovea. This difference is consistent, even though not all strepsirrhines are nocturnal or all haplorrhines diurnal. Finally, the…
The epithelium or retina in many animals (including dogs, cats, and deer) have a special reflective layer called the tapetum lucidum. It acts almost like a mirror at the back of their eyes and enables the animal to see in dimmer light than it would otherwise be able to.. Consisting of a compound called guanine, the tapetum lucidum reflects light outward and thereby allows a second chance for its absorption by visual pigments at very low light intensities. The visual pigments present in the eyes of these animals produce the non-red eyeshines often seen from nocturnal animals.. Humans, of course, do not have a tapetum lucidum layer in their retinas - therefore, the reflection off the retina shows the red color from blood vessels. As I clearly stated above.. Interestingly, dogs and other animals that have complete heterochromia iridum (or bi-colored eyes) usually give off flash reflections of different colors, too. Humans with heterochromia (such us Kate Bosworth, Christopher Walken, and Mila ...
Malignant melanoma is a very high degree of malignancy, also known as malignant melanoma, most of the primary in the skin, also originated in the eyes, nose, etc., early transfer may occur, more common metastatic sites of lung and brain. Once the diagnosis of extensive tumor resection as soon as possible, and comprehensive measures to assist the immune treatment. Melanoma (melanmoa), also known as malignant melanoma, is a highly malignant melanoma can produce, mostly found in adults over 30 years old, occurred in the skin are sufficient to meet the bottom and more common around the vulva and anus, you can start is the malignant, but usually comes from the junction of malignant moles. Where the pigment mole deepened, the volume increases, the growth speed up or ulceration, inflammation and bleeding is often a symbol of malignant transformation. The tumor may also occur in the mucous membranes and internal organs. Melanoma showed a diversity of organizational structure, tumor cells showed nests, ...
Pennwoods Equine Joint Plus horse joint supplement helps greatly reduce joint inflammation and pain. Powder supplement with probiotic base helps ensure ingredients have maximum absorption. Each oz provides a palatable blend of 5,000 mg glucosamine, 1,500 mg MSM, 1,000 mg New Zealand green shell mussel, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 113 mg devils claw, 750 m
However, do not miss Abbass masterpieces such as Sup Tulang Sambal Kicap, Mee Udang, Mee Ketam, Lamb Kuzi Berempah, Gulai Daging Kerisik Pucuk Pisang, Sambal Perut Terung Asam, Kambing Masak Kacang Pool, Udang Masak Peria Putih, Sayur Lontong (dry), Pulut Kuning with Sambal Ikan Bilis, Burung Puyuh Berempah and Kepah Goreng Lada Hijau.. You would be surprised to find that the restaurant has chose to maintain its Teppanyaki Corner and Cold on Ice section, as these are their hot-selling items on a daily basis. You will find a display of fresh oysters, green shell mussels, flower crabs and tiger prawns among others in these sections.. Another interesting feature is the World of Briyani - Abbass familys favourite. I totally enjoyed the Briyani with Burung Puyuh though the Briyani Kepala Ikan was also tempting and I had it with Kari Kepala Ikan (Fish Head Curry), which was a total indulgence as the aroma of the spices used was truly captivating. But, the friendly chef mentioned that the Briyani ...
The more I read my path report the most questions I have, so here is the complete report: Cooment:Lateral and deep edges are positive for neoplasm. The histologicdifferetial diagnosis may include a compound dysplastic melanocytic nevus with severe atypia, however, an early melanoma (0.4 mm in depth) cannot be excluded in these sections. Re excision is suggested in order to perform additional histologic analysis and ensure the prolifieration has been removed moved from the patient.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Arnaud Carpentier, Abeba Tesfaye, Virginia Chu, Ila Nimgaonkar, Fang Zhang, Seung Bum Lee, Snorri S Thorgeirsson, Stephen M Feinstone, T Jake Liang].
The posterior segment is the back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all structures behind it: the vitreous humor, retina, choroid, and optic nerve. On the anterior side of the lens is the aqueous humour which is bounded on all sides by the lens, ciliary body, suspensory ligaments, and by the cornea. It lets light through without refraction, helps maintain the shape of the eye and suspends the delicate lens. In some animals, the retina contains a reflective layer (the tapetum lucidum) which increases the amount of light each photosensitive cell perceives, allowing the animal to see better under low light conditions." [Wikipedia:Posterior_segment_of_eyeball ...
This sequel volume picks up Global Intentions 2 With 25 additional high-resolution, highly-detailed animated globes to choose from, you have even more choice when thinking of a unique way to represent the world in your productions -- from a pin-cushion sphere to an opaque glass crystal ball, from the world on a textured golf ball to a glittering green shell comprised of the earths land masses. The world isnt flat so why represent it with the same old boring static globe image when you can evoke a feeling or match an edgy style with one of the animated 3D globes from this volume ...
Glyco Flex 2 Feline is a nutritional joint supplement for cats throughout their lives. It is excellent for all aging breeds that are predisposed problems. It is made from pure freeze-dried Perna canaliculus (Green-Lipped Mussel from New Zealand).
Learn more about Diagnosis of Melanoma at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Symptoms of Melanoma at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Melanoma at Grand Strand Medical Center DefiniciónCausasFactores de riesgoSíntomasDiagnósticoTratamientoPrevenció...
Learn more about Melanoma at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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The safety of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and/or endovascular therapy for patients using the novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) for atrial fibrillation remains unclear. We report a patient who was treated by both rt-PA and end
1. Murray, E.G.D., R.A. Webb, and M.B.R. Swann. 1926. A disease of rabbits characterized by large mononuclear leucocytosis caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus Bacterium monocytogenes. J. Path. Bact.; 29:407-0439.. 2. Monk, J.D., R.S. Clavero, L.R. Beuchat, M.P. Doyle and R.E. Brackett. 1994. Irradiation inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in low- and high-fat, frozen and refrigerated ground beef. J. Food Prot.; 57:969-974.. 3. Wehr, H.M. 1987. Listeria monocytogenes - a current dilemma special report. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem.; 70:769-772.. 4. Bremer, P.J., and C.M. Osborne. 1995. Thermal-death times of Listeria monocytogenes in green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus) prepared for hot smoking. J. Food Prot.; 58:604-608.. 5. Grau, F.H., and P.B. Vanderlinde. 1992. Occurrence, numbers, and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on some vacuum-packaged processed meats. J. Food Prot.; 55:4-7.. 6. Patel, J.R., C.A. Hwang, L.R. Beuchat, M.P. Doyle, and R.E. Brackett. ...
1) Lentiginous hyperplasia. 2) Random cytological atypia. 3) Stromal response.. 4) Architectural atypia. Lentiginous and nested hyperplasia noted in dysplastic naevus is characterized by proliferation of melanocytes singly and in groups along the basal layer. Junctional nest disarray refers to uneven distribution and pattern of junctional component. The rete ridges of the epidermis show hyperplasia and fusion of adjacent retes. The narrow elongated spindle shaped melanocytes run horizontally between the rete- ridges forming part of a bridge ...
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Biology-online is a completely free and open Biology dictionary with over 60,000 biology terms. It uses the wiki concept, so that anyone can make a contribution.
Article A novel and quick method to avoid H|sub|2|/sub|O|sub|2|/sub| interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na|sub|2|/sub|SO|sub|3|/sub| reduction and O|sub|2|/sub| oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD...
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A modified particle is disclosed wherein a particle has an attached group having the formula: wherein Ar represents an aromatic group; R 1 represents a bond, an arylene group, an alkylene group, wherein R 4 is an alkyl or alkylene group or an aryl or arylene group; R 2 and R 3 , which can be the same or different, represent hydrogen, an alkyl group, an aryl group, -OR 5 , -NHR 5 , -NR 5 R 5 , or -SR 5 , wherein R 5 , which is the same or different, represents an alkyl group or an aryl group; and SFR represents a stable free radical. Also disclosed is a modified particle or aggregate having attached a group having the formula: wherein CoupA represents a Si-containing group, a Ti-containing group, or a Zr-containing group; R 8 and R 9 , which can be the same or different, represent hydrogen, an alkyl group, an aryl group, -OR 10 , -NHR 10 , -NR 10 R 10 , or -SR 10 , wherein R 10 represents an
Shark eyes are similar to the eyes of other vertebrates, including similar lenses, corneas and retinas, though their eyesight is well adapted to the marine environment with the help of a tissue called tapetum lucidum. This means that sharks can contract and dilate their pupils, like humans, something no teleost fish can do. This tissue is behind theretina and reflects light back to it, thereby increasing visibility in the dark waters. The effectiveness of the tissue varies, with some sharks having stronger nocturnal adaptations. Sharks have eyelids, but they do not blink because the surrounding water cleans their eyes. To protect their eyes some species have nictitating membranes. This membrane covers the eyes while hunting and when the shark is being attacked. However, some species, including the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), do not have this membrane, but instead roll their eyes backwards to protect them when striking prey. The importance of sight in shark hunting behavior is ...
Any of the ocular structures may be pretentious, including some findings that arise in ocular structures not present in the considerate eye, such as tapetum lucidum in dogs and the harderian gland in rodents [69, 70]. It cannot be stressed adequate that a aware presurgical appraisal of refractory epi- lepsy patients, that excludes resective surgical options with a higher likeliness of taking freedom, and proposes VNS with detailed esteem to expense and risks weighted against possible improvements in seizures and je sais quoi of life is of para- mount importance. Anesthetic disc: 1 g/10 cm2 for leastwise 1 h [url=http://www.craigak.com/plan/specification17/form19/]buy kytril 1mg without a prescription[/url] treatment plan goals. It is mentation that the catch is due to fecal material impacted into the more narrow appendix, notwithstanding that other causes such as ingested transpacific bodies may exist. J Biol Chem 280:12201В-12211 Magdesian MH, Giordano R, Ulrich H, Juliano MA, Juliano L, ...
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Koto, T; Sugisaki, K; Sato, K; Shiomi, D; Toyota, K; Itoh, K; Wasserman, E; Lahti, PM; and Takui, T, "High-Spin Nitrene Fine-Structure ESR Spectroscopy in Frozen Rigid Glasses: Exact Analytical Expressions for the Canonical Peaks and A D-Tensor Gradient Method for Line Broadening" (2010). APPLIED MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 445 ...
Causes of Melanoma can depend on each individual situation. Learn about causes of Melanoma and find symptoms, diagnosis, and many types of smart treatments for Melanoma at FoundHealth.
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James Rebhorn, the tall, lanky character actor who appeared in dozens of movies and television shows, including the Showtime political thriller Homeland, has died of melanoma at the age of 65, his agent confirmed on Monday.
Merck Announces Presentation of Interim Data from Study Evaluating Lambrolizumab, an Investigational Anti-PD-1 Antibody, in Patients with Advanced Melanoma at ASCO 2013 -Merck Expands
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Neurocutaneous melanosis is a congenital disorder characterized by the presence of congenital melanocytic nevi on the skin and melanocytic tumors in the leptomeninges of the central nervous system. These lesions may occur in the amygdala, cerebellum, cerebrum, pons, and spinal cord of patients. Although typically asymptomatic, malignancy occurs in the form of leptomeningeal melanoma in over half of patients. Regardless of the presence of malignancy, patients with symptomatic neurocutaneous melanosis generally have a poor prognosis with few treatment options. The pathogenesis of neurocutaneous melanosis is believed to be related to the abnormal postzygotic development of melanoblasts and mutations of the NRAS gene. Neurocutaneous melanosis was first described in 1861 by Rokitansky. It was first named by Van Bongaert in 1948. Premortem detection is difficult without the use of MRI. This, combined with the asymptomatic nature of most cases, led to the early belief that all cases were fatal. ...
Animal reflectors or mirrors are important to the survival of many kinds of animal, and, in some cases, have been mimicked by engineers developing photonic crystals. Examples are the scales of silvery fish, and the tapetum lucidum that causes the eyeshine of dogs and cats. All these reflectors work by interference of light in multilayer structures with dimensions less than a wavelength, so can be classed as photonic crystals. Other animal photonic crystals have evolved to reflect narrow spectra, producing animal coloration. The scales of silvery fish, by reflecting light from the flank make detection by a predator difficult because the reflected light is similar to the incident light in the absence of the prey (Fig. 1). The eyes of some bivalve mollusks, such as the scallop (Pecten) use a concave mirror, the argentea, at the back of the eye, to create an image on the retina. The deep-sea ostracod Gigantocypris has eyes with parabolic reflectors. The compound eyes of long-bodied decapod ...
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Learn more about Symptoms of Melanoma at Memorial Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis ...
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Jan Chapin, a social worker who enjoyed the arts and sports, died March 14 from metastatic melanoma at her Cockeysville home. She was 65.
378 In agreement with other studies assuming a greater contribution of the charged drug forms to membrane interaction, this disadvantage is offset by numerous advantages. Drug called propranolol 0. McLean IW, Foster WD, Zimmerman LE, Gamel JW Modifications dr ug Callenderвs classification of uveal melanoma at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
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(A) Mice were screened for the TCR-α and Igμ genotypes by PCR on tail DNA. In screening of Cα locus, the wild-type locus and the disrupted locus represen
Initially, the name neuromelanin was chosen because of its similarity in appearance to cutaneous melanin. However, recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and metal analysis studies indicate that chemically neuromelanin is indeed a genuine melanin because it has a stable free radical structure and avidly chelates metals. The ability of neuromelanin to interact with several inorganic and organic compounds, including metal ions and lipids, complicates studies of the structure of this pigment. Degradation analyses using potassium permanganate and hydriodic acid hydrolysis showed that neuromelanin has properties of both pheomelanins and eumelanins. Elemental analyses of neuromelanin revealed a high sulphur content (2.5 2.8%), with a molar C/H ratio lower than that of synthetic melanins, thus indicating the presence of aliphatic groups and benzothiazine rings. Infrared spectroscopy of neuromelanin revealed the presence of aliphatic groups and a low intensity aromatic component, whereas in ...
Character actor James Rebhorn died at his New Jersey home on Friday from Melanoma at the age of 65. He was best known for playing Claire Danes father on the Showtime drama Homeland.
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Cosmo Skin is the countrys prime Whitening supplement its formula inhibits the tyrosinase activity. Tyrosinase is a component of melanin responsible for skin darkening. Once it been inhibited. It will synthesize light pigmented melanin called Phaeomelanin, instead of synthesizing Eumelanin or the dark pigmented melanin. ...
Blond hair may have Practically any proportion of pheomelanin and eumelanin, but has only tiny amounts of both equally. Additional pheomelanin results in a more golden or strawberry blond color, and more eumelanin generates an ash or sandy blond color. Numerous small children born with blond hair build darker hair because they age, with virtually all natural blonds developing a hair color of the dark blond hue by the time they achieve Center age. Pregnancy hormones hasten this process ...
Blond hair can have almost any proportion of pheomelanin and eumelanin, but has only modest quantities of both. Additional pheomelanin creates a more golden or strawberry blond color, and much more eumelanin makes an ash or sandy blond color. Many small children born with blond hair acquire darker hair because they age, with many purely natural blonds developing a hair color of the darkish blond hue by the time they get to Center age. Pregnancy hormones hasten this process ...
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The agouti gene regulates the differential production of eumelanin (black or brown) and phaeomelanin (yellow) pigment granules by melanocytes in the hair follicles of mice. The original nonagouti (a) allele, which confers a predominantly black coat color, has been shown to revert to two other more dominant agouti alleles, black-and-tan (a(t)) and white-bellied agouti (Aw), with an exceptionally high frequency. The a(t) and Aw alleles confer phenotypes in which the pigmentation is not uniformly distributed over the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the animal; in both cases the ventral surface of the animal is markedly lighter than the dorsal surface due to an increase in phaeomelanin production. To understand the unusually high reversion rate of a to a(t) or Aw, and to decipher the molecular events associated with the different pigmentation patterns associated with these three agouti alleles, we have characterized a, a(t) and Aw at the molecular level. Here, we report that insertions of 11, 6,
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Once perceived as a disease primarily affecting middle-aged and older adults, melanoma is rising meteorically in the young. A recent study of young people from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) in Buffalo, NY, found that melanoma incidence in children, adolescents and young adults has shot up by more than 250 percent since 1973, with the steepest climb in those between ages 15 and 39.. "In our clinical practice, we had been seeing a lot of younger folks in their 20s and 30s with melanoma, and we wanted to bring about awareness of this issue," said Nikhil Khushalani, MD, senior author of the study and section chief for soft tissue and melanoma at Roswell.. Females had the highest melanoma rates; from 2001 to 2011, in fact, they received more than 65 percent of all the melanoma diagnoses among the children and young people studied. Many experts link this trend to their far greater use of tanning beds. "We know the use of tanning beds plays a big role, but we also need to look at other ...
Lynda had a mole removed from her back at her local doctors surgery in Kingaroy, Queensland. The biopsy tested positive for malignant melanoma. Following further surgery, Lynda went about her business as a working mum.. Two years on, the melanoma had spread through her body, only becoming evident when tumours on her spine ruptured leaving her paralysed from the waist down.. Lyndas life was turned upside down within a few hours of experiencing the back pain, a paraplegic with less than 3 months to live. Immobilised in a hospital bed acquired from a family friend, with the support of her family, including mother Gabrielle, Lynda endured advanced melanoma at the family home for more than 16 months, inspiring an entire community with her indefatigable spirit.. A beautiful soul, forever selfless, Lynda touched the hearts of literally thousands of people prior to and throughout her illness. Lyndas legacy has now become the work of the foundation, saving lives.. ...
JEOL , JEOL UK , JEOL Resonance ESR ,. The JEOL Student Lecture Competition was started at the ESR Group Meeting at Lancaster University in 1997. In subsequent years the lectures have gained huge popularity and prestige. There are three or more 20 minute lecture slots allocated for these lectures at the Annual International Meeting and the winner is chosen by the Committee.. ...
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Western blot of selected proteins whose genes are differentially expressed in DCs.A, B. Human primary DCs were exposed to solar-simulated UV radiation as in Fig
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Neurocutaneous melanosis or neurocutaneous melanocytosis is a rare sporadic congenital disorder characterized by the presence of giant and/or multiple satellite congenital melanocytic nevi in the skin and benign melanocytic pigmentation of the leptomeninges. These two defining features were recognized more than a century ago. A third characteristic feature is proliferative nodules arising from giant nevi. The etiology is unknown, but neurocutaneous melanosis is considered a developmental disorder of melanocyte precursors from neural crest. The distinctive unique distribution of the congenital giant nevi that gives a garment appearance is also an expression of the neural crest. The neurological manifestations often appear in infancy.The special association of neurocutaneous melanosis with Dandy-Walker malformation complex may be explained by a common pathogenesis. Mortality in infancy and childhood is high. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
Arifin, Zainal, Rahma Puspitasari, and Nobuyuki Miyazaki. 2012. "Heavy Metal Contamination in Indonesian Coastal Marine Ecosystems: A Historical Perspective." Coastal Marine Science 38 (1): 227-33. ASTM. 2006. "Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests Starting with Embryos of Four Species of Saltwater Bivalve Molluscs." In Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2006. Section Eleven : Water and Environmental Technology. Volume 11.06 Biological Effects and Environmental Fate; Biotechnology, 58-78. Bat, Levent, and Dave Raffaelli. 1998. "Sediment Toxicity Testing: A Bioassay Approach Using the Amphipod Corophium Volutator and the Polychaete Arenicola Marina." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 226 (2): 217-39. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00249-9. Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya, Areerat Jaksakul, Pornthip Puncharoen, and Monthip Sriratana Tabucanon. 2002. "Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Green Mussels (Perna Viridis) from the Coastal Area of Thailand." ...
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Dopamine functions as a mood-enhancing neurotransmitter which is released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. Dopamine is vital for the proper function of the central nervous system.. Mercury transforms dopamine into a toxic compound called dopaminochrome, which lowers dopamine and causes neurodeneration.This leads to the development of neurological symptoms. It can even lead to developing neurological disorders, like Parkinsons disease, Schizophrenia and ADHD.. The lowering of dopamine concentration in brain tissue can cause depression, fatigue, the inability to handle stress, finish tasks or focus and causes mood swings, procrastination, muscle atrophy and restless legs syndrome. Dopamine also regulates motor control, sex drive, immune function, fat gain and loss, muscle gain, bone density, energy levels and the ability to sleep soundly.. L-dopa is an amino acid produced in the body derived from food sources and is a remarkable precursor for the production of ...
Malignant melanoma is a cancer form with particularly poor response to conventional chemotherapy, but where novel immunotherapies hold great promise. We have two ongoing projects focusing on this disease: In one project, we study the clonal evolution of metastatic spread in advanced melanoma patients and assess how different metastases within the same patients are. In a second project we analyse the genetic causes behind the disease in families were individuals have a very high risk of developing melanoma at an early age.. Key publications: Birkeland, E., Zhang, S., Poduval, D., Geisler, J., Nakken, S., Vodak, D., Meza-Zepeda, L.A., Hovig, E., Myklebost, O., Knappskog, S., Lønning P.E. (2018) Patterns of genomic evolution in advanced melanoma. Nature Communications. Provisionally accepted. ...
Neurocutaneous disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions (mainly) affecting the skin [with pigmentary abnormalities and/or cutaneous tumours] and the central and peripheral nervous systems [with congenital abnormalities and/or tumours]. Other-than-skin and nervous system involvement is frequently encountered mostly affecting eye, bone, heart/vessels, lung, kidney and gut. The spectrum of n...
Research suggests that regular visits with a dermatologist result in detection of nodular melanoma at an earlier, more survivable stage. Access this infographic to learn more.
Eye Plaque Results: Treatment of Choroidal Melanoma. In a (2009) publication*, Dr. Finger created a table summarizing the results of the largest major clinical studies of radiation for choroidal melanoma at approximately 5 years follow up.. Chart: Comparison of Results after Plaque Radiation Therapy. (Click to Enlarge and View the Full Chart). ...
October 7 - 22, 2017: a week to celebrate coding in Europe, encouraging citizens to learn more about technology, and connecting communities and organizations who can help you learn coding.
Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital syndrome consisting of benign or malignant melanotic tumors of the central nervous system with large or numerous cutaneous melanocytic nevi. The Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa with high insertion of the tentorium, hypoplasia or aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. These each two conditions are rare, but NCM associated with DWC is even more rare. Most patients of NCM with DWC present neurological symptoms early in life such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and malignant transformation of the melanocytes. We report a 14-year-old male patient who was finally diagnosed as NCM in association with DWC with extensive intracerebral and spinal cord involvement. ...
Figure 2. Photomicrograph of cutaneous sample showing proliferation of pigmented melanotic cells along the hair follicle. HE stain ×400.Figure 2 Photographie au microscope optique (×400) dun prélèvement cutané montrant la prolifération des mélanocytes le long du follicule pilleux. ...
Large pigmented nevi, usually on the trunk, buttocks, or perineum. CNS function may be normal at birth, but MRI examination is necessary to exclude brain or spinal cord involvement. If the CNS is involved, thickening and pigmentation of the meninges with focal accumulation of melanotic cells or brainstem lesions is observed. Progressive pigmentation and thickening of the meninges lead to cerebral deterioration, increased intracranial pressure, mental retardation, seizures, hydrocephalus, cranial nerve palsies, and spinal cord compression. ...
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Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a leading hereditary cause of blindness in pedigree dogs as is its counterpart retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans. PRA shows genetic heterogeneity, as does RP, with several distinct forms already recognized and several more remaining to be investigated. The retina is a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball. The vertebrate retina contains photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) that respond to light. The cones mediate high-resolution vision and colour vision. The rods mediate lower-resolution, black-and-white, night vision. The degeneration of the retina results in loss of vision, often leading to blindness. One can distinguish between late onset forms of PRA and early onset (whelp-age) dysplastic changes. The clinical and ophthalmologic signs of both forms are similar. Affected dogs suffer from bilateral Mydriasis, the reflection of the Tapetum lucidum is increased and the retinal vascular network appears atrophic. Currently, there is no
Full Title A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Multicenter Study of Intravenous PI3K Inhibitor Copanlisib in Combination with Standard Immunochemotherapy versus Standard Immunochemotherapy in Patients with Relapsed Indolent Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (iNHL) - CHRONOS-4 Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare treatment with copanlisib plus standard immunochemotherapy with immunochemotherapy alone in patients with slow-growing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that has come back despite prior therapy.
... may also be involved in other reactions as well, such as oxidizing L-DOPA to form 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPA or ...
... cysteinyldopa MeSH D12.125.072.050.685.400.500 --- levodopa MeSH D12.125.072.050.685.400.600 --- methyldopa MeSH D12.125. ... cysteinyldopa MeSH D12.125.072.050.875.130.500 --- levodopa MeSH D12.125.072.050.875.130.600 --- methyldopa MeSH D12.125. ... cysteinyldopa MeSH D12.125.166.230.369 --- cystine MeSH D12.125.166.230.700 --- selenocysteine MeSH D12.125.166.388 --- ...
... cysteinyldopa MeSH D02.092.311.200.480 --- levodopa MeSH D02.092.311.200.538 --- methyldopa MeSH D02.092.311.200.538.200 --- ... cysteinyldopa MeSH D02.886.030.230.369 --- cystine MeSH D02.886.030.230.700 --- selenocysteine MeSH D02.886.030.388 --- ...
5-S-cysteinyldopa → benzothiazine intermediate → pheomelanin Dopaquinone + cysteine → 2-S-cysteinyldopa → benzothiazine ...
Excessive cysteinyldopa in plasma and urine has been linked to malignant melanoma. Cysteinyldopa is found in large amounts in ... Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing ...
15:52:36 (4, 3, 4) (EDIT) User:Beetstra (contribs, talk) edited Cysteinyldopa (diff, hist). Changed: 'SMILES' ('C1=C(C=C(C(=C1O ... 15:52:36 (4, 3, 4) (EDIT) User:Beetstra (contribs, talk) edited Cysteinyldopa (diff, hist). Changed: 'InChI' ('' -, '1/ ... 15:52:36 (2, 3, 4) (EDIT) User:Beetstra (contribs, talk) edited Cysteinyldopa (diff, hist). Changed: 'InChIKey' ('' -, ' ... 15:52:36 (4, 3, 4) (EDIT) User:Beetstra (contribs, talk) edited Cysteinyldopa (diff, hist). Changed: 'ChemSpiderID' ('' -, ' ...
Excessive cysteinyldopa in plasma and urine has been linked to malignant melanoma. Cysteinyldopa is found in large amounts in ... Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing ...
... cysteinyldopa markedly increased. By the addition of enzyme-inhibitor, formation of protein-bound 5-,I,S,/I,-cysteinyldopa in ... Effects of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity in Wheat Flour on Protein-Bound 5-S-Cysteinyldopa Formation in Gluten * * TAKASAKI ... Glutens prepared with whole wheat or short bran contain higher levels of protein-bound 5-,I,S,/I,-cysteinyldopa than those ... PPO activity in wheat flour was related with formation amounts of protein-bound 5-,I,S,/I,-cysteinyldopa in gluten. Heat ...
Counterions influence reactivity of metal ions with cysteinyldopa model compounds.s profile, publications, research topics, ... Counterions influence reactivity of metal ions with cysteinyldopa model compounds. Journal Article ... are model compounds of cysteinyldopa that retain its metal-binding functionalities but cannot polymerize due to the presence of ...
S-cysteinyldopa (CD) was directly analyzed by spectroscopic and chemical methodologies in comparison with pheomelanins isolated ...
... and the rearrangement of 5-S-cysteinyldopa o-quinoneimine to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) and its 3-carboxylic acid (BTZCA). In ... Keywords: eumelanin; pheomelanin; melanins; 5,6-dihydroxyindoles; 5-S-cysteinyldopa; benzothiazines; dopachrome; melanocortin-1 ... S-cysteinyldopa o-quinoneimine to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) and its 3-carboxylic acid (BTZCA). In eumelanins, the DHICA-to-DHI ... antioxidant; pro-oxidant eumelanin; pheomelanin; melanins; 5,6-dihydroxyindoles; 5-S-cysteinyldopa; benzothiazines; dopachrome ...
Cysteinyldopa. Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the ... Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing ...
Cysteinyldopa. Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the ... Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing ...
Serum concentration of 5-S-cysteinyldopa in pediatric patients with giant pigmented nevi. ...
2-S-cysteinyl-DOPA (CHEBI:84296) has functional parent L-dopa (CHEBI:15765). 3-O-methyldopa (CHEBI:82913) has functional parent ...
α-glutamyl transpepsidase converts glutathionedopa into cysteinyldopa,. the glutathione system (reductase-peroxidase) which ... sulfur and has a structure which is a polymer of cysteinyldopa. ...
Dopaquinone + cysteine → 5-S-cysteinyldopa → benzothiazine intermediate → pheomelanin. Dopaquinone + cysteine → 2-S- ... cysteinyldopa → benzothiazine intermediate → pheomelanin. Alternatively, dopaquinone can be converted to leucodopachrome and ...
Improved method for analysis of cysteinyldopa in human serum2004In: Scand J Clin Lab Invest, ISSN 0036-5513, Vol. 64, no 6, 559 ...
Photochemistry of melanin precursors: dopa, 5-S-cysteinyldopa and 2,5-S,S-dicysteinyldopa. Photochem Photobiol, vol. 44(6), ...
The serum level of the tumor marker 5-S-cysteinyldopa was elevated aberrantly. Although treatment with dacarbazine and ...
Identification of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Biopsies from Patients with Dysplastic ... Identification of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Biopsies from Patients with Dysplastic ... Identification of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Biopsies from Patients with Dysplastic ... Identification of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Biopsies from Patients with Dysplastic ...
Tyrosine hydroxylase may also be involved in other reactions as well, such as oxidizing L-DOPA to form 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPA or ...
Clinical significance of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa in the cerebrospinal fluid. - case report-.2003. *. Author(s). Shinno K, Nagahiro S ... Clinical significance of 5-S-Cysteinyldopa in the cerebrospinal fluid. -case report-.2003. *. Author(s). Shinno K ...
In a first series of human melanomas transplanted to athymic mice low concentrations of 5-S-cysteinyldopa were detected in only ... When these probes were utilized in a second series of melanomas transplanted to athymic mice, 5-S-cysteinyldopa could easily be ... Microdialysis of 5-S-cysteinyldopa from interstitial fluid in cutaneous human melanoma transplanted to athymic mice1991In: ... A steady-state level of the dialysate 5-S-cysteinyldopa concentration was reached after 45 min. ...
Microdialysis of 5‐S‐cysteinyldopa from interstitial fluid in cutaneous human melanoma transplanted to athymic mice. Melanoma ...
In one case the effect of L-dopa treatment on 5-S-cysteinyldopa and the melanoma was studied. Gastric emptying and its effects ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Microdialysis of 5-S-cysteinyldopa from interstitial fluid in cutaneous human ... Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Effects on interstitial glutathione, cysteine and 5-S-cysteinyldopa of buthionine ... A model with human melanoma xenografts transplanted to athymic mice has been adopted for in vivo studies of 5-S-cysteinyldopa ( ...
"Counterions influence reactivity of metal ions with cysteinyldopa model compounds." Inorg Chem 47.3 (February 4, 2008): 1087- ... "Synthesis and characterization of copper(II) complexes of cysteinyldopa and benzothiazine model ligands related to pheomelanin ...
Pheomelanin particles generally derived from the aminoacid 5-S-cysteinyldopa ( R.A.Nicolaus 1965) . Light brown, or reddish , ... Pheochromes red or yellow crystallisable, low molecular weight, compounds derived from 5-S-Cysteinyldopa ( Cysdopa ) and ... The precursor of pheomelanins and pheochromes is the new aminoacid 5-S-Cysteinyldopa and related isomers .( R.A.Nicolaus 1968 ...
Ultrafast energy transfer from bound tetra(4-N,N,N,N-trimethylanilinium)porphyrin to synthetic dopa and cysteinyldopa melanins ...
They generate starting from several precursors like DOPA (Torquati 1913), cysteinyldopa (Nicolaus 1964), tryptophan (Hopkins ...
Insulin inhibits tyrosinase activity and 5-S-cysteinyldopa formation in human melanoma cells ...
  • These variations are primarily governed by the extent of decarboxylation at critical branching points of the eumelanin and pheomelanin pathways, namely the rearrangement of dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), and the rearrangement of 5- S -cysteinyldopa o -quinoneimine to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) and its 3-carboxylic acid (BTZCA). (mdpi.com)
  • However, contents of pheomelanin and its precursor, 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5-S-CD) of cultured media in p/p melanocytes were not increased as compared with P/P melanocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Synthesis and characterization of copper(II) complexes of cysteinyldopa and benzothiazine model ligands related to pheomelanin. (duke.edu)
  • Counterions influence reactivity of metal ions with cysteinyldopa model compounds. (duke.edu)
  • Cydo (3-[(2-amino-ethyl)sulfanyl]-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzene-1,2-diol) and CarboxyCydo (2-amino-3-(4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxyphenylsulfanyl)-propionic acid) are model compounds of cysteinyldopa that retain its metal-binding functionalities but cannot polymerize due to the presence of blocking tert-butyl groups. (duke.edu)
  • iii) the mechanism of the oxidative polymerization of BTZs was characterized by the first isolation of oligomer species, and (iv) the pigment eventually resulting from oxidation of 5- S -cysteinyldopa (CD) was directly analyzed by spectroscopic and chemical methodologies in comparison with pheomelanins isolated from human hair. (wiley.com)
  • Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells. (wikipedia.org)