Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Sinorhizobium fredii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is a fast-growing and soybean-nodulating innoculant.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Thymol: A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Listeria: A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.Amaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.3-Mercaptopropionic Acid: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

Purification and characterization of serine acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli partially truncated at the C-terminal region. (1/159)

Incubation of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli at 25 degrees C in the absence of protease inhibitors yielded a truncated SAT. The truncated SAT was much less sensitive to feedback inhibition than the wild-type SAT. Analyses of the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences found that the truncated SAT designated as SAT delta C20 was a resultant form of the wild-type SAT cleaved between Ser 253 and Met 254, deleting 20 amino acid residues from the C-terminus. Based on these findings, we constructed a plasmid containing an altered cysE gene encoding the truncated SAT. SAT delta C20 was produced using the cells of E. coli JM70 transformed with the plasmid and purified to be homogeneous on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Properties of the purified SAT delta C20 were investigated in comparison with those of the wild-type SAT and Met-256-Ile mutant SAT, which was isolated by Denk and Bock but not purified (J. Gen. Microbiol., 133, 515-525 (1987)). SAT delta C20 was composed of four identical subunits like the wild-type SAT and Met-256-Ile mutant SAT. Specific activity, optimum pH for reaction, thermal stability, and stability to reagents for SAT delta C20 were similar those for the wild-type SAT and Met-256-Ile mutant SAT. However, SAT delta C20 did not form a complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-A (OASS-A), a counterpart of the cysteine synthetase and did not reduce OASS activity in contrast to the wild-type SAT and Met-256-Ile mutant SAT.  (+info)

Pathways of assimilative sulfur metabolism in Pseudomonas putida. (2/159)

Cysteine and methionine biosynthesis was studied in Pseudomonas putida S-313 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Both these organisms used direct sulfhydrylation of O-succinylhomoserine for the synthesis of methionine but also contained substantial levels of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (cysteine synthase) activity. The enzymes of the transsulfuration pathway (cystathionine gamma-synthase and cystathionine beta-lyase) were expressed at low levels in both pseudomonads but were strongly upregulated during growth with cysteine as the sole sulfur source. In P. aeruginosa, the reverse transsulfuration pathway between homocysteine and cysteine, with cystathionine as the intermediate, allows P. aeruginosa to grow rapidly with methionine as the sole sulfur source. P. putida S-313 also grew well with methionine as the sulfur source, but no cystathionine gamma-lyase, the key enzyme of the reverse transsulfuration pathway, was found in this species. In the absence of the reverse transsulfuration pathway, P. putida desulfurized methionine by the conversion of methionine to methanethiol, catalyzed by methionine gamma-lyase, which was upregulated under these conditions. A transposon mutant of P. putida that was defective in the alkanesulfonatase locus (ssuD) was unable to grow with either methanesulfonate or methionine as the sulfur source. We therefore propose that in P. putida methionine is converted to methanethiol and then oxidized to methanesulfonate. The sulfonate is then desulfonated by alkanesulfonatase to release sulfite for reassimilation into cysteine.  (+info)

Cysteine biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Molecular cloning and regulation of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase. (3/159)

A cDNA, Cys1ACr, encoding an isoform of O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase has been isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a PCR-based approach. The inclusion of dimethylsulfoxide in the PCR reaction has been demonstrated to be essential for the correct amplification of C. reinhardtii templates with complex secondary structures caused by a high G + C content. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited highest similarity with plant O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoforms, indicating that the C. reinhardtii enzyme was structurally more similar to higher plant O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase than to the corresponding prokaryotic enzymes. The N-terminal extension present in Cys1ACr showed several characteristics of an organellar transit peptide, with a length typical for C. reinhardtii. Southern blot analysis suggested that the C. reinhardtii genome may contain a single copy of the organellar O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase gene. O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase activity was strongly induced by sulfur-deficient conditions (up to sevenfold the level observed in a sulfur-repleted cell culture) and required the presence of a nitrogen source. Northern blot analysis showed a different pattern of regulation of Cys1ACr to that observed at the activity level. To obtain an increase of transcript abundance a longer period of sulfur limitation was required, reaching a maximum level of approximately threefold Cys1ACr mRNA when compared with the level of a sulfate-grown culture.  (+info)

O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase from Methanosarcina thermophila. (4/159)

Cysteine is the major source of fixed sulfur for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in organisms of the Bacteria and Eucarya domains. Though pathways for cysteine biosynthesis have been established for both of these domains, it is unknown how the Archaea fix sulfur or synthesize cysteine. None of the four archaeal genomes sequenced to date contain open reading frames with identities to either O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase (OASS) or homocysteine synthase, the only sulfur-fixing enzymes known in nature. We report the purification and characterization of OASS from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila, a moderately thermophilic methanoarchaeon. The purified OASS contained pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and catalyzed the formation of L-cysteine and acetate from O-acetyl-L-serine and sulfide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence has high sequence similarity with other known OASS enzymes from the Eucarya and Bacteria domains. The purified OASS had a specific activity of 129 micromol of cysteine/min/mg, with a K(m) of 500 +/- 80 microM for sulfide, and exhibited positive cooperativity and substrate inhibition with O-acetyl-L-serine. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single band at 36 kDa, and native gel filtration chromatography indicated a molecular mass of 93 kDa, suggesting that the purified OASS is either a homodimer or a homotrimer. The optimum temperature for activity was between 40 and 60 degrees C, consistent with the optimum growth temperature for M. thermophila. The results of this study provide the first evidence for a sulfur-fixing enzyme in the Archaea domain. The results also provide the first biochemical evidence for an enzyme with the potential for involvement in cysteine biosynthesis in the Archaea.  (+info)

Cysteine biosynthesis pathway in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri encoded by acquired bacterial genes? (5/159)

The pathway of cysteine biosynthesis in archaea is still unexplored. Complementation of a cysteine auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain NK3 led to the isolation of the Methanosarcina barkeri cysK gene [encoding O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase-A], which displays great similarity to bacterial cysK genes. Adjacent to cysK is an open reading frame orthologous to bacterial cysE (serine transacetylase) genes. These two genes could account for cysteine biosynthesis in this archaeon. Analysis of recent genome data revealed the presence of bacteria-like cysM genes [encoding O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase-B] in Pyrococcus spp., Sulfolobus solfataricus, and Thermoplasma acidophilum. However, no orthologs for these genes can be found in Methanococcus jannaschii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, implying the existence of unrecognizable genes for the same function or a different cysteine biosynthesis pathway.  (+info)

Regulation of sulfate assimilation by nitrogen in Arabidopsis. (6/159)

Using Arabidopsis, we analyzed the effect of omission of a nitrogen source and of the addition of different nitrogen-containing compounds on the extractable activity and the enzyme and mRNA accumulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR). During 72 h without a nitrogen source, the APR activity decreased to 70% and 50% of controls in leaves and roots, respectively, while cysteine (Cys) and glutathione contents were not affected. Northern and western analysis revealed that the decrease of APR activity was correlated with decreased mRNA and enzyme levels. The reduced APR activity in roots could be fully restored within 24 h by the addition of 4 mM each of NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), or glutamine (Gln), or 1 mM O-acetylserine (OAS). (35)SO(4)(2-) feeding showed that after addition of NH(4)(+), Gln, or OAS to nitrogen-starved plants, incorporation of (35)S into proteins significantly increased in roots; however, glutathione and Cys labeling was higher only with Gln and OAS or with OAS alone, respectively. OAS strongly increased mRNA levels of all three APR isoforms in roots and also those of sulfite reductase, Cys synthase, and serine acetyltransferase. Our data demonstrate that sulfate reduction is regulated by nitrogen nutrition at the transcriptional level and that OAS plays a major role in this regulation.  (+info)

beta-Cyanoalanine synthase is a mitochondrial cysteine synthase-like protein in spinach and Arabidopsis. (7/159)

beta-Cyano-alanine synthase (CAS; EC 4.4.1.9) plays an important role in cyanide metabolism in plants. Although the enzymatic activity of beta-cyano-Ala synthase has been detected in a variety of plants, no cDNA or gene has been identified so far. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial cysteine synthase (CS; EC 4.2.99. 8) isoform, Bsas3, could actually be identical to CAS in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and Arabidopsis. An Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database was searched for putative Bsas3 homologs and four new CS-like isoforms, ARAth;Bsas1;1, ARAth;Bsas3;1, ARAth;Bsas4;1, and ARAth;Bsas4;2, were identified in the process. ARAth;Bsas3;1 protein was homologous to the mitochondrial SPIol;Bsas3;1 isoform from spinach, whereas ARAth;Bsas4;1 and ARAth;Bsas4;2 proteins defined a new class within the CS-like proteins family. In contrast to spinach SPIol;Bsas1;1 and SPIol;Bsas2;1 recombinant proteins, spinach SPIol;Bsas3;1 and Arabidopsis ARAth;Bsas3;1 recombinant proteins exhibited preferred substrate specificities for the CAS reaction rather than for the CS reaction, which identified these Bsas3 isoforms as CAS. Immunoblot studies supported this conclusion. This is the first report of the identification of CAS synthase-encoding cDNAs in a living organism. A new nomenclature for CS-like proteins in plants is also proposed.  (+info)

Cysteine synthase (O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase) substrate specificities classify the mitochondrial isoform as a cyanoalanine synthase. (8/159)

A cyanoalanine synthase and two isoforms (A, cytosolic and B, chloroplastic) of cysteine synthase (O:-acetylserine (thiol) lyase) were isolated from spinach. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the cyanoalanine synthase gave 100% homology for the determined 12 residues with a published sequence for the mitochondrial cysteine synthase isoform. All three enzymes catalysed both the cysteine synthesis and cyanoalanine synthesis reactions, although with different efficiencies. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed for all three enzymes when substrate saturation experiments were performed varying O:-acetylserine, chloroalanine and cysteine. Negative co-operative kinetics were observed for cysteine synthases A and B when substrate saturation experiments were performed varying sulphide and cyanide, compared with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics observed for cyanoalanine synthase. The exception was negative co-operativity observed towards sulphide for cyanoalanine synthase with O:-acetylserine as co-substrate. The optimum sulphide concentration was dependent on the alanyl co-substrate used. The amino acid sequence similarity places these three enzymes in the same gene family, and whilst the close kinetic similarities support this, they also indicate distinct roles for the isoforms.  (+info)

Cysteine synthase C1; Acts as a major beta-cyanoalanine synthase. The cyanoalanine synthesis reaction is more efficient than the cysteine synthase activity. Probably unable to interact with SAT and to form the decameric Cys synthase complex (CSC) and is therefore not an enzymatically true OASTL protein. Probably involved in the detoxification of cyanide that arises from ethylene biosynthesis. Maintains a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development (368 aa ...
1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
The cysB gene of Klebsiella aerogenes has been cloned, sequenced and shown to complement the cysteine auxotrophic phenotype of Escherichia coli cysB mutants. The K. aerogenes cysB gene is predicted to encode a protein of 324 amino acid residues that shares approx. 95% sequence similarity with the Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli CysB proteins. Gel-retardation assays demonstrate that the purified protein binds to DNA fragments containing either the K. aerogenes cysb promoter or the S. typhimurium cysJIH promoter. Acetylserine enhances CysB binding to the cysJIH promoter fragment while diminishing its binding to the cysB promoter fragment. Fluorescence-emission-spectroscopy measurements suggest strongly that N-acetylserine binds to CysB apoprotein but that O-acetylserine does not, and support the notion that N-acetylserine is the physiological inducer of cysteine biosynthesis.. ...
Residues 187-311 are 76% similar to a (CYSTEINE SYNTHASE O-ACETYLSERINE LYASE SULFHYDRYLASE) protein domain (PD001075) which is seen in Q9CKD0_PASMU ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Catalyzes the conversion of O-acetylserine to cysteine. Also acts as a sensor of cysteine availability in the signal transduction pathway modulating CymR activity. When cysteine is present, the pool of O-acetylserine (OAS) is low, which leads to the formation of a CymR-CysK complex and transcriptional repression of the CymR regulon occurs. In the absence of cysteine, the OAS pool is high and the CymR-CysK complex is mostly dissociated, leading to a faster dissociation of CymR from its DNA targets and the lifting of CymR-dependent repression ...
ITC analysis of the interaction between substrate, OAS (O-acetylserine) and OASS. Data is plotted as heat signal (μJ/sec) versus time (min) in the upper panel
Grundy FJ, Henkin TM (1998) The S box regulon: a new global transcription termination control system for methionine and cysteine biosynthesis genes in gram-positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol 30:737-49.[PMID:10094622 ...
Grundy FJ, Henkin TM (1998) The S box regulon: a new global transcription termination control system for methionine and cysteine biosynthesis genes in gram-positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol 30:737-49.[PMID:10094622 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two pathways for cysteine biosynthesis in Leishmania major. AU - Williams, Roderick A. M.. AU - Westrop, Gareth D.. AU - Coombs, Graham H.. PY - 2009/6/15. Y1 - 2009/6/15. N2 - Genome mining and biochemical analyses have shown that Leishmania major possesses two pathways for cysteine synthesis - the de novo biosynthesis pathway comprising SAT (serine acetyltransferase) and CS (cysteine synthase) and the RTS (reverse trans-sulfuration) pathway comprising CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) and CGL (cystathionine gamma-lyase). The LmjCS (L. major CS) is similar to the type A CSs of bacteria and catalyses the synthesis of cysteine using O-acetylserine and Sulfide with K(m)s of 17.5 and 0.13 mm respectively. LmjCS can use sulfide provided by the action of MST (mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase) oil 3-MP (3-mercaptopyruvate). LmJCS forms a bi-enzyme complex with Leishmania SAT (and Arabidopsis SAT), with residues LYs(222), His(226) and Lys(227) of LmjCS being involved in the complex ...
O-acetylhomoserine O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase; involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis; immunogenic; Hog1p; biofilm; Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein abundance is affected by URA3 expression in the CAI-4 strain background; alkaline upregulated; Gcn4p-regulatedProtein described as aspartate aminotransferase; soluble protein in hyphae; alkaline upregulated; amphotericin B repressed Malic enzyme, mitochondrial protein; transcription regulated by Mig1p and Tup1p; shows colony morphology-related gene Predicted ORF from Assembly 19; Gcn4p-regulated Large subunit of heterodimeric alpha-aminoadipate reductase; enzyme of lysine biosynthesis; contains predicted binding sites for AMP and alpha-aminoadipate; feedback inhibited by lysine or Putative NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase; fungal-specific (no human or murine homolog); transcription is regulated by Nrg1p, Mig1p, Tup1p, and Gcn4pSimilar to an aldose 1-epimerase-related protein; antigenic during murine systemic ...
Autor: Krueger, S. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009; Keywords: non-aqueous fractionation|br/|organelles|br/|regulation|br/|subcellular|br/|sulphur metabolism|br/|acetylserine thiol lyase|br/|synthase protein complex|br/|amino-acids|br/|gene family|br/|spinach leaves|br/|potato-tubers|br/|higher-plants|br/|salmonella-typhimurium|br/|sulfate assimilation|br/|hydrogen-sulfide; Titel: Analysis of cytosolic and plastidic serine acetyltransferase mutants and subcellular metabolite distributions suggests interplay of the cellular compartments for cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Although inflammation and protease/antiprotease imbalance have been postulated to be critical in cigarette smokeCinduced (CS-induced) emphysema, oxidative stress has been suspected to play an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. transcription factor which, upon activation in response to oxidative or electrophilic stress, detaches from its cytosolic inhibitor, Keap1, translocates to the nucleus, and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of target genes, leading to their transcriptional induction (13). Though little is known about Nrf2-regulated genes in the lungs, the recognized members of this group include several critical antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Cglutamyl cysteine synthase (-GCS), and several members of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family (13). We have postulated that Nrf2 is a critical transcription factor that determines susceptibility to lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and alveolar cell apoptosis caused ...
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Cysteine occupies a central position in plant metabolism due to its biochemical functions. Arabidopsis thaliana cells contain different O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of cysteine. Because they are localized in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria, this results in multiple subcellular cysteine pools. Much progress has been made on the most abundant OASTL enzymes; however, information on the less abundant OASTL-like proteins has been scarce. To unequivocally establish the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by the minor cytosolic OASTL isoform CS-LIKE (AT5G28030), we expressed this enzyme in bacteria and characterized the purified recombinant protein. Our results demonstrate that CS-LIKE catalyzes the desulfuration of L-cysteine to sulfide plus ammonia and pyruvate. Thus, CS-LIKE is a novel L-cysteine desulfhydrase (EC 4.4.1.1), and we propose to designate it DES1. The impact and functionality of DES1 in cysteine metabolism was revealed by the phenotype of the T-DNA
South America Forum: Side Trip to SAN ANTONIO de ARECO & Estancia EL Ombu We made internet reservations for 2 nights at PARADORES DRAGHI (triple ...
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O-phospho-L-serine---tRNA ligase ( EC 6.1.1.27 , O-phosphoseryl-tRNA ligase, non-canonical O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase, SepRS) is an enzyme with systematic name O-phospho-L-serine:tRNACys ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction : In organisms like Archaeoglobus fulgidus , this enzyme ligates O-phosphoserine to tRNACys. References Fukunaga, R.; Yokoyama, S. (2007).
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L-Cysteine is a crystalline free-form amino acid that is active in many body processes. L-Cysteine works in the liver to protect the body from harmful substance
L-cysteine Hydrochloride Review, Benefits, Side Effects and Uses. Anhydrous and Monohydrate formulas for solubility plus dosages and how to take.
No, I have not got an HHO generator installed yet, but of course I am interested in the possibility of doing so and I am going to buy one, I am planning to buy one or I am considering buying one ...
A 0·5 kb fragment of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using primers based on consensus sequences of cysteine synthase isozyme A from bacteria. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PCR product resembled not only cysteine synthase sequences from prokaryotes and eukaryotes but also eukaryotic cystathionine β-synthase sequences. Probing an Str. venezuelae genomic library with the PCR product located a hybridizing colony from which pJV207 was isolated. Sequencing and analysis of the Str. venezuelae DNA insert in pJV207 detected two ORFs. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 matched both cysteine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase sequences in GenBank, but its size favoured assignment as a cystathionine β-synthase. ORF2 in the pJV207 insert was unrelated in function to ORF1; in its sequence the deduced product resembled acetyl-CoA transferases, but disruption of the ORF did not cause a detectable phenotypic change. Disruption of ORF1 failed to elicit cysteine
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NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water soluble and said to be more bioavailable than L-Cysteine. NAC may be the most cost effective way to boost Glutathione levels in the body. Jo Mars NAC is 100% pure U.S.P. g
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Autor: Riemenschneider, A. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2005; Keywords: arabidopsis thaliana|br/|cysteine|br/|desulfhydrase|br/|h2s|br/|o-acetyl-l-serine|br/|acetylserine thiol lyase|br/|arabidopsis-thaliana|br/|brassica-oleracea|br/|atmospheric h2s|br/|sulfur source|br/|protein|br/|plants|br/|mitochondrial|br/|sulfide|br/|biosynthesis; Titel: Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism
The 5′-triphosphorylated, 2′-5′-linked oligoadenylate polyribonucleotides (2-5As) are central to the interferon-induced antiviral 2-5A system. The 2-5As bind and activate the RNase L, an endoRNase degrading viral and cellular RNA leading to inhibition of viral replication. The 2-5A system is tightly controlled by synthesis and degradation of 2-5As. Whereas synthesis is mediated by the 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase family of enzymes, degradation seems to be orchestrated by multiple enzyme nucleases including phosphodiesterase 12, the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 and the A-kinase anchoring protein 7. Here we present assay tools for identification and characterization of the enzymes regulating cellular 2-5A levels. A procedure is described for the production of 2′-5′ oligoadenylates, which are then used as substrates for development and demonstration of enzyme assays measuring synthetase and nuclease activities, respectively. The synthetase assays produce only a single
Genotype networks, innovation, and robustness in sulfur metabolism - Quantitative Biology > Molecular Networks. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
2) 4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate. For diagram, click here or here or here for mechanism click here.. Other name(s): PSAT; phosphoserine aminotransferase; 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase; hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase; L-phosphoserine aminotransferase; phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase; phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase; phosphoserine aminotransferase; 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; SerC; PdxC; 3PHP transaminase. Systematic name: O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. This enzyme catalyses the second step in the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli [2,3]. It also catalyses the third step in the biosynthesis of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5-phosphate in Escherichia coli (using Reaction 2 above) [3]. In Escherichia coli, pyridoxal 5-phosphate is synthesized de novo by a pathway that involves EC ...
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L-Cysteine HCl Anhydrous is an amino acid with wide application. In food industry, L-Cysteine HCl Anhydrous is a promotor for bread fermentation. It also
[80 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global L- Cysteine Market Data Survey Report 2025 report by HeyReport. Summary Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is an a-...
The main benefits of cysteine include the prevention of cancer growths in some of the bodys tissues, the treatment of poisoning...
Inorganic sulfate is taken up through plant roots and, via cysteine biosynthesis, incorporated as organic sulfur. Our investigations focus on fundamental questions about cysteine (cys) and methionine (met) biosynthesis and on the possibility of engineering crop plants enriched in these sulfur-containing amino acids. Methionine is essential for non-ruminant mammals (including man) and uptake of cysteine reduces the methionine requirement. We have used transgenic strategies to generate many plant lines affected in cysteine and methionine biosynthesis, and subjected them to detailed molecular and biochemical analyses. Recently, we embarked on a course to study sulfur metabolism in a holistic way, rather than focusing on single pathways as such. By applying functional genomic tools like transcript, metabolite, and protein profiling in our analysis of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) and of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we are heading for a better understanding of the sulfur metabolism ...
NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water.... View full details ...
BACKGROUND: Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-quinoline-carboxylic acid) is a selective herbicide widely used to control annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds. Echinochloa phyllopogon (Stapf) Koss. is the most noxious grass weed in California rice fields and has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides with different modes of action. A quinclorac-resistant (R) E. phyllopogon biotype found in a Sacramento Valley rice field where quinclorac has never been applied was investigated. RESULTS: Resistant to susceptible (S) GR50 (herbicide rate for 50% growth reduction) ratios ranged from 6 to 17. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion (200 mg L-1) caused R plants to become as quinclorac susceptible as S plants. Quinclorac rapidly (6 HAT) stimulated ethylene formation in S plants, but only marginally in R plants. Malathion pretreatment did not reduce ethylene formation by quinclorac-treated S and R plants. Activity of β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS) in tissue extracts was 2-3-fold greater in R than in S ...
Advanced temperature modulation techniques now allow for the elimination of fever as well as controlled hypothermia. However, as demonstrated in this study, shivering is frequently encountered (64%), and the severity of shivering as measured by the BSAS is strongly associated with graded increases in systemic metabolism. The application of therapeutic normothermia or hypothermia has not been shown to improve outcome after cerebrovascular injury, and the metabolic consequences of shivering may prove to be a limiting step in demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic temperature modulation. A scale that can simply and reliably detect and quantify shivering can be used as an end point for antishivering interventions and may play an important role in minimizing the day-to-day complications of cerebrovascular patients undergoing therapeutic temperature modulation in the intensive care unit.. Previous reports have considered shivering to be a binary event;8-10 however, the metabolic impact of shivering ...
Robinson, T., Wint, W., Conchedda, G., Cinardi, G., Boeckel, T. Van, Macleod, M., Bett, B., Grace, D. and Gilbert, M. 2015. The global livestock sector: Trends, drivers and implications for society, health and the environment. Presented at the Annual Conference of the British Society of Animal Science (BSAS), Chester, UK, 14-15 April 2015. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI ...
CAS NO:28798-28-9; Chemical name:S-(acetamidomethyl)-L-cysteine monohydrochloride ; physical and chemical property of 28798-28-9, S-(acetamidomethyl)-L-cysteine monohydrochloride is provided by ChemNet.com
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Cysteine synthase, for example, catalyzes the formation of acetic acids and cysteine from O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen ... elegans aging is modulated by hydrogen sulfide and the sulfhydrylase/cysteine synthase cysl-2". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e80135. doi: ... Selenocysteine synthase, which was first added to the classification system in 1999, converts seryl-tRNA(Sec UCA) into ... An example of a prominent glycosyltransferase is lactose synthase which is a dimer possessing two protein subunits. Its primary ...
"Difference between uracilylalanine synthases and cysteine synthases in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry 26: 2699-2704. ... "Enzymatic-synthesis of the neuroexcitatory amino-acid quisqualic by cysteine synthase". Phytochemistry 25: 2759-2763. ...
Another example is the possibility of using the promiscuous activities of cysteine synthase (cysM) towards nucleophiles to ... promiscuity can be decreased as was the case of γ-humulene synthase (a sesquiterpene synthase) from Abies grandis that is known ... Maier TH (April 2003). "Semisynthetic production of unnatural L-alpha-amino acids by metabolic engineering of the cysteine- ... Similar in reaction to tRNA synthases, the first subunit of tyrocidine synthetase (tyrA) from Bacillus brevis adenylates a ...
... is derived from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and 3- ...
"The molecular neighborhood of subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase probed by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and ... ATP synthase protein 8 is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Subunit 8 differs in sequence between Metazoa, plants and ... The ATP synthase protein 8 of human and other mammals is encoded in the mitochondrial genome by the MT-ATP8 gene. When the ...
transfer of a cysteine synthase from a bacterium into phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera allowing the detoxification of ...
... a putative cysteine synthase and sul, a putative dihydropteroate synthase. In Listeria monocytogenes four additional copies of ...
It is synthesized by the addition and oxidation of cysteine to histidine by 5-histidylcysteine sulfoxide synthase, followed by ...
ACV synthase). This allows for the binding of the substrate ACV to the deprotonated thiol group of the cysteine residue. This ... Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) is a non-heme iron-dependent enzyme belonging to the oxidoreductase family. This enzyme ... An intramolecular hydrogen transfer takes place from C-3 of the cysteine residue, taking the iron back to the +II state. A ... The active sites of most isopenicillin N synthases contain an iron ion. This enzyme is also called isopenicillin N synthetase. ...
"Dibromopropanone cross-linking of the phosphopantetheine and active-site cysteine thiols of the animal fatty acid synthase can ... Fatty Acid Synthase: RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month. *3D electron microscopy structures of fatty acid synthase from the EM Data ... The evolutionary history of fatty acid synthases are very much intertwined with that of polyketide synthases (PKS). Polyketide ... FASN, fatty acid synthase, Fasn, A630082H08Rik, FAS, OA-519, SDR27X1, Fatty acid synthase. ...
"Mechanisms of mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase and the key roles played by cysteines and histidine of the heme ... 2006). "Mutations of the mitochondrial holocytochrome c-type synthase in X-linked dominant microphthalmia with linear skin ... "Mutations of the mitochondrial holocytochrome c-type synthase in X-linked dominant microphthalmia with linear skin defects ... "Conserved residues of the human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase mediate interactions with heme". Biochemistry. 53 (32 ...
... encoded cysteine synthase and the metZ or metY -encoded homocysteine synthase, respectively). Two transsulfurylation pathways ... Cystathionine γ-synthase (metB) which joins an activated homoserine ether (acetyl or succinyl) with cysteine to form ... with homocysteine to form cystathionine Not Cystathionine β-synthase which is a PLP enzyme type II cysteine biosynthesis from ... In Klebsiella pneumoniae the cystathionine β-synthase is encoded by mtcB, while the γ-lyase is encoded by mtcC. Humans are ...
... and pyridoxal phosphate utilizing enzymes such as cysteine synthase. Upon nucleotide hydrolysis the loop does not significantly ... The conserved sequence of this motif is C-x(5)-R-[ST], where C and R denote cysteine and arginine residues respectively. The A- ... These include ATP synthase (α and β subunits), myosin, transducin, helicases, kinases, AAA proteins, G-proteins, RecA, protein ... and beta-subunits of ATP synthase, myosin, kinases and other ATP-requiring enzymes and a common nucleotide binding fold". EMBO ...
Small amounts of biosynthetic enzymes L-cysteine synthase and acetyltransferase were detected in L. jordanis and L. pneumophila ...
These include inhibitors of oxidosqualene cyclase and squalene synthase, cysteine protease inhibitors, dermaseptins collected ... Urbina JA, Concepcion JL, Rangel S, Visbal G, Lira R (2002). "Squalene synthase as a chemotherapeutic target in Trypanosoma ... Engel JC, Doyle PS, Hsieh I, McKerrow JH (August 1998). "Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Cure an Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi ...
Two methionine synthases are known, one cobalamin (vitamin B12) dependent and one independent. The pathway utilising cysteine ... Homocysteine can be converted to cysteine. (5) Cystathionine-β-synthase (a PLP-dependent enzyme) combines homocysteine and ... Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids. Excluding the few exceptions ... This is in contrast to cysteine residues, where the thiol group has a catalytic role in many proteins. The thioether does ...
Mammals biosynthesize the amino acid cysteine via homocysteine. Cystathionine β-synthase catalyses the condensation of ... Homocysteine can be recycled into methionine or converted into cysteine with the aid of certain B-vitamins. A high level of ... It is a homologue of the amino acid cysteine, differing by an additional methylene bridge (-CH2-). It is biosynthesized from ... More detail on these enzymes can be found in the article for methionine synthase. Homocysteine can cyclize to give homocysteine ...
"Solvent-Accessible Cysteines in Human Cystathionine β-Synthase: Crucial Role of Cysteine 431 inS-Adenosyl-l-methionine Binding ... An example of such a conformational disease is ALAD porphyria, which results from a mutation of porphobilinogen synthase that ... The one protein that is established to function as a morpheein is porphobilinogen synthase, though there are suggestions ... An inhibitor of porphobilinogen synthase with this mechanism of action has been documented. The morpheein model of allosteric ...
Cystathionine beta-synthase then combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine. The enzyme ... L-Cysteine is also used as a processing aid for baking. In the field of personal care, cysteine is used for permanent wave ... N-Acetyl-L-cysteine is a derivative of cysteine wherein an acetyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom. This compound is sold ... Again, the cysteine is used for breaking up the disulfide bonds in the hair's keratin. Cysteine is a very popular target for ...
The N-terminal domain is a cysteine, histidine-dependent aminohydrolase amidase. Structurally the synthetase and amidase ... Targeting trypanothione synthase could be a novel way of preventing and curing these diseases through disruption of the ... Evidence for this regulation is that the residues which allow the synthase domain to block the amidase active site are highly ... The main function of trypanothione synthase is to use the free energy generated from ATP hydrolysis to conjugate glutathione ...
"Difference between uracilylalanine synthases and cysteine synthases in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry. 26 (10): 2699-2704. doi: ... In enzymology, a cysteine synthase (EC 2.5.1.47) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction O3-acetyl-L-serine + ... cysteine synthetase, S-sulfocysteine synthase, 3-O-acetyl-L-serine:hydrogen-sulfide, and 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase. ... "Enzymatic-synthesis of the neuroexcitatory amino-acid quisqualic by cysteine synthase". Phytochemistry. 25 (12): 2759-2763. doi ...
The characteristic reaction of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III is malonyl-ACP + acetyl-CoA => acetoacyl-ACP + CO2 + CoA. Cysteine, ... the two most common 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I and synthase II. 3-Ketoacyl-ACP synthase I (E.C. 2.3.1.41) is involved in the ... The dominant enzyme in the KS1 family is 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (KAS III), also known as 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase III and β- ... Chalcone synthase (E.C. 2.3.1.74), also known as naringenin-chalcone synthase, is responsible for the reaction: 3 malonyl-CoA ...
"Difference between uracilylalanine synthases and cysteine synthases in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry. 26 (10): 2699-2704. doi: ... In enzymology, an uracilylalanine synthase (EC 2.5.1.53) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction O3-acetyl-L-serine ... Ahmmad MAS; Maskall CS; Brown EG (1984). "Partial-purification and properties of willardiine and synthase activity from Pisum ... Other names in common use include O3-acetyl-L-serine acetate-lyase (adding uracil), isowillardiine synthase, willardiine ...
The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a ... Alp, Nicholas; Channon (2003). "Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by tetrahydrobiopterin in vascular disease". ... "Hydrogen sulfide cytoprotective signaling is endothelial nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide dependent". PNAS. 111 (Early ... accumulation occurs due to increased electron transport uncoupling at the active site of endothelial nitric oxide synthase ( ...
The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ... Phagocytes are armed with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as a single ... SAM is then converted to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by the enzyme ACC synthase (ACS). The activity of ACS ...
... but whose formation requires novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase and lachrymatory factor synthase enzymes differing from those found ... For example, P. alliacea contains S-phenylmethyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (petiveriins A and B) and S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteines ... Musah RA, He Q, Kubec R, Jadhav A (2009). "Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first ... He Q, Kubec R, Jadhav AP, Musah RA (2011). "First insights into the mode of action of a "lachrymatory factor synthase"-- ...
... inserted a truncated version of the ACC synthase gene into the tomato that interfered with the endogenous ACC synthase.[8] ... Tomatoes resistant to a root knot nematode have been created by inserting a cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene from taro.[26] A ... When geraniol synthase from lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum) was expressed in tomato fruits under a fruit-specific promoter, 60% ... Plant physiologist Athanasios Theologis with tomatoes that contain the bioengineered ACC synthase gene ...
... cysteine desulfurase]-S-sulfanyl-L-cysteine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + [molybdopterin-synthase sulfur-carrier ... molybdopterin synthase sulfurylase) is an enzyme with systematic name persulfurated L-cysteine desulfurase:(molybdopterin- ... Molybdopterin synthase sulfurtransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... Leimkuhler, S.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (2001). "A sulfurtransferase is required in the transfer of cysteine sulfur in the in vitro ...
"Difference between uracilylalanine synthases and cysteine synthases in Pisum sativum". Phytochemistry. 26 (10): 2699-2704. doi: ... In enzymology, a cysteine synthase (EC 2.5.1.47) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction O3-acetyl-L-serine + ... cysteine synthetase, S-sulfocysteine synthase, 3-O-acetyl-L-serine:hydrogen-sulfide, and 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase. ... "Enzymatic-synthesis of the neuroexcitatory amino-acid quisqualic by cysteine synthase". Phytochemistry. 25 (12): 2759-2763. doi ...
Cysteine synthesis is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) in the cytosol, ... Mitochondrial cysteine synthase complex regulates O-acetylserine biosynthesis in plants. *Wirtz M ... The presence of cysteine resulted in reduced OAS export in mitochondria of oastl-C mutants but not in WT mitochondria. This is ... Cysteine synthesis is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) in the cytosol, ...
Also acts as a sensor of cysteine availability in the signal transduction pathway modulating CymR activity. When cysteine is ... In the absence of cysteine, the OAS pool is high and the CymR-CysK complex is mostly dissociated, leading to a faster ... Catalyzes the conversion of O-acetylserine to cysteine. ... Belongs to the cysteine synthase/cystathionine beta-synthase ... Probable cysteine synthase (ytkP), Cysteine synthase (cysK). This subpathway is part of the pathway L-cysteine biosynthesis, ...
L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity, pyridoxal phosphate binding, cysteine biosynthetic process from serine ... Cysteine synthase (cysK). This subpathway is part of the pathway L-cysteine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid ... Belongs to the cysteine synthase/cystathionine beta-synthase family.Curated. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of ... Cysteine synthaseAdd BLAST. 316. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ...
Modulation of cysteine biosynthesis in chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco overexpressing cysteine synthase. O-Acetylserine( ... Wirtz, M., Berkowitz, O., Droux, M., and Hell, R. (2001). The cysteine synthase complex from plants. Mitochondrial serine ... Noji, M., and Saito, K. (2002). Molecular and biochemical analysis of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase towards ... Wirtz, M., and Hell, R. (2006). Functional analysis of the cysteine synthase protein complex from plants: Structural, ...
l-cysteine desulfhydrase Cysteine synthase Hydrogen sulfide Cadmium Glutathione Jie Shen, Ye Su, Can Zhou and Feng Zhang are ... A putative rice l-cysteine desulfhydrase encodes a true l-cysteine synthase that regulates plant cadmium tolerance. ... Beta-cyanoalanine synthase is a mitochondrial cysteine synthase-like protein in spinach and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 123:1163 ... Three Arabidopsis genes encoding proteins with differential activities for cysteine synthase and beta-cyanoalanine synthase. ...
Recombinant Protein and Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, ... Shop Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase ELISA Kit, ... Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase. Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase ELISA Kit. ... Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase Recombinant. Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase ...
Cysteine synthase. gi/16802269. 191. Metabolic processes. 38. ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. gi/16804506. 187 ... Other authors found that proteins like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and cysteine synthase were induced in ... cysteine synthase, ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit, transcription elongation factor GreA, hypothetical protein ...
Cysteine synthases CYSL-1 and CYSL-2 mediate C. elegans heritable adaptation to P. vranovensis infection Caenorhabditis elegans ... a process mediated by the cysteine synthases CYSL-1 and CYSL-2. ...
Role of cysteine residues in pseudouridine synthases of different families.. Biochemistry 38 13106-11 1999 ... Pseudouridine synthase TruD, which has a natural circular permutation in the catalytic domain, as well as an insertion of a ... Pseudouridine synthases catalyse the isomerisation of uridine to pseudouridine (Psi) in a variety of RNA molecules, and may ... Pseudouridine synthase RsuA (ribosomal small subunit) and RluC/RluD (ribosomal large subunits), both of which contain an ...
Cystathionine beta-SynthaseCysteine • Cytoplasm • Cytosol • Data Interpretation, Statistical • Developmental Biology • Diet ... Leduc, D; Escartin, F; Nijhout, HF; Reed, MC; Liebl, U; Skouloubris, S; Myllykallio, H, Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase ... Thymidylate Synthase • Time Factors • Tissue Extracts • Transaminases • Transcription Factors • Transcription, Genetic • ...
Role of a cysteine synthase in Staphylococcus aureus.. Lithgow JK, Hayhurst EJ, Cohen G, Aharonowitz Y, Foster SJ. ...
File:Cysteine biosynthesis.svg Cysteine metabolism. Cystathionine beta synthase catalyzes the upper reaction and cystathionine ... The lack of CBS in these tissues implies that these tissues are unable to synthesize cysteine and that cysteine must be ... Cystathionine-β-synthase, also known as CBS, is an enzyme (EC 4.2.1.22) that in humans is encoded by the CBS gene. It catalyzes ... Methylcysteine synthase was assigned the EC number EC 4.2.1.23 in 1961. A side-reaction of CBS caused this. The EC number EC ...
The N-terminal region of phytochelatin synthase contains the active site, as well as four highly conserved cysteine residues ... Chelation of cadmium ions by phytochelatin synthase: role of the cysteine-rich C-terminal.. null 24 277-81 2008 ... The C-terminal region is rich in cysteines, and may act as a metal sensor, whereby the Cys residues bind cadmium ions to bring ... This entry represents plant phytochelatin synthases (also known as glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase; EC:2.3.2.15 ...
cysM; cysteine synthase B (O-acetylserine sulfhydrolase B) [KO:K12339] [EC:2.5.1.47] ...
cysteine synthase [KO:K01738] [EC:2.5.1.47]. EUBELI_00752 cysteine synthase [KO:K01738] [EC:2.5.1.47] ...
Mitochondrial cysteine synthase complex regulates O-acetylserine biosynthesis in plants.. Wirtz M, Beard KF, Lee CP, Boltz A, ...
Cysteine synthase, for example, catalyzes the formation of acetic acids and cysteine from O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen ... elegans aging is modulated by hydrogen sulfide and the sulfhydrylase/cysteine synthase cysl-2". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e80135. doi: ... Selenocysteine synthase, which was first added to the classification system in 1999, converts seryl-tRNA(Sec UCA) into ... An example of a prominent glycosyltransferase is lactose synthase which is a dimer possessing two protein subunits. Its primary ...
EC 2.5.1.46 deoxyhypusine synthase. EC 2.5.1.47 cysteine synthase. EC 2.5.1.48 cystathionine γ-synthase. EC 2.5.1.49 O- ... Accepted name: cysteine synthase. Reaction: O-acetyl-L-serine + hydrogen sulfide = L-cysteine + acetate. For diagram of ... O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; (S)-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; GGGP synthase; (S)-GGGP synthase; ... EC 2.5.1.21 squalene synthase. EC 2.5.1.22 spermine synthase. EC 2.5.1.23 sym-norspermidine synthase. EC 2.5.1.24 discadenine ...
Sulfur assimilation in soybean: molecular cloning and characterization of O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (cysteine synthase) ... enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
Faponle, A. S., Seebeck, F. P., and de Visser, S. P. (2017). Sulfoxide synthase versus cysteine dioxygenase reactivity in a ... of molecular hydrogen to the catalytically active Ni-atom as well as the associated proton transfer to nearby terminal cysteine ...
A novel cysteine persulfide synthase potentially contributing to electrophile detoxification (2018) * Functional analysis of ... A novel cysteine persulfide synthase potentially contributing to electrophile detoxification (2018) * Functional analysis of ...
cysteine synthase. Biosynthesis of antibiotics. -. 01130. -. 1.1.3.46. 4-hydroxymandelate oxidase. Biosynthesis of antibiotics ...
bifunctional cysteine synthase/O-acetylhomoserine aminocarboxypropyltransferase MET17. Organism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( ...
A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous ... A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous ... Noji, M., Saito, M., Nakamura, M., Aono, M., Saji, H., and Saito, K. (2001). Cysteine synthase overexpression in tobacco ... A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous ...
  • Biosynthetic pathways of several cofactors have been proposed accordingly as encouraging antibiotic targets such as the pantothenate kinase involving in coenzyme A biosynthesis, the lumazine synthase (LS) of riboflavin biosynthesis, and the NMN/NaMN adenylytranferase (NMNAT), NAD synthetase (NADS), NAD kinase (NADK) involving in the NAD (P) biosynthesis pathway [ 1 - 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Pseudouridine synthase RsuA (ribosomal small subunit) and RluC/RluD (ribosomal large subunits), both of which contain an additional N-terminal alpha-L RNA-binding motif. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Two subunits within the transmembrane domain of the ATP synthase-the c -ring and subunit a -energize the production of 90% of cellular ATP by transducing an electrochemical gradient of H + or Na + into rotational motion. (rupress.org)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed that 1 and 1d significantly improve the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant genes g-Glutamylcysteine Ligase Catalytic Subunit ( GCLC ) and heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ) and their corresponding proteins (γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) and HO-1) in PC12 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • To elucidate the role of intracellular redox status on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidant stress, heterozygous cystathionine β-synthase-deficient (CBS −/+ ) and wild-type (CBS +/+ ) mice were treated with the cysteine donor l -2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Because Ca 2+ is an important second messenger for cell migration, we hypothesized that NO also inhibits cell migration through redox regulation of SERCA activity via cysteine-674. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- In cells overexpressing SERCA, the cyclic GMP-independent, redox regulation of SERCA cysteine-674 is required for the inhibition of cell migration by both exogenous and endogenously generated NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • Due to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. (hmdb.ca)
  • Pseudouridine synthases catalyse the isomerisation of uridine to pseudouridine (Psi) in a variety of RNA molecules, and may function as RNA chaperones. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are four distinct families of pseudouridine synthases that share no global sequence similarity, but which do share the same fold of their catalytic domain(s) and uracil-binding site and are descended from a common molecular ancestor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The catalytic domain consists of two subdomains, each of which has an alpha+beta structure that has some similarity to the ferredoxin-like fold (note: some pseudouridine synthases contain additional domains). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the instant invention, rho GTPase function inhibitors are found to upregulate endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • As a result, rho GTPase function inhibitors are useful in treating or preventing conditions that result from the abnormally low expression and/or activity of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase. (google.ca)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount is sufficient to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity above normal baseline levels. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein the subject has a condition comprising an abnormally low level of endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity which is chemically induced. (google.ca)
  • 12. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering at least one different rho GTPase function inhibitor in an amount effective to increase endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in said tissue of the subject. (google.ca)
  • 13. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering an endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase substrate. (google.ca)
  • 14. The method of claims 1 - 9 , further comprising co-administering a non-rho GTPase function inhibitor agent that increases endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase activity. (google.ca)
  • We report here isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase from spinach(Spinacia oleracea L.). Internal peptide sequences were obtained from V8 protease-digested fragments of purified CSase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Purification and Characterization of 2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose Synthase Derived from Bacillus circulans. (go.jp)
  • Sen S, Banerjee R: A pathogenic linked mutation in the catalytic core of human cystathionine beta-synthase disrupts allosteric regulation and allows kinetic characterization of a full-length dimer. (hmdb.ca)
  • Blau, N.: Purification and characterization of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase from human pituitary gland. (springer.com)
  • Blau, N.: Expression and characterization of recombinant human and rat liver 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase. (springer.com)
  • Curtius, H.C.: Purification and characterization of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase from salmon liver. (springer.com)
  • Yim, J.J.: Purification and characterization of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase from Drosophila melanogaster. (springer.com)
  • This is in agreement with the stronger in vitro feedback inhibition of free SAT by cysteine compared with CSC-bound SAT and explains the high OAS export rate of WT mitochondria in the presence of cysteine. (mendeley.com)
  • CO increases bile flow via inhibition of cysteine beta synthase(CBS) activity( 1 , 2 ). (hackyourgut.com)
  • Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid (Wikipedia). (hmdb.ca)
  • Cysteine is unique amongst the twenty natural amino acids as it contains a thiol group. (hmdb.ca)
  • The cysteine thiol group is also a nucleophile and can undergo addition and substitution reactions. (hmdb.ca)
  • This reaction is reversible since the reduction of this disulphide bond regenerates two cysteine molecules. (hmdb.ca)
  • Atsumi and Liao (2008) "Directed Evolution of Methanococcus jannaschii Citramalate Synthase for Biosynthesis of 1-Propanol and 1-Butanol by Escherichia coli" Appl and Environ Microbiol 74: 7802-7808. (patentgenius.com)
  • In summary, this study is a stepping stone toward establishing the mechanism of the ATP synthase at the atomic level. (rupress.org)
  • Bacher, A.: Biosynthesis of biopterin studies on the mechanism of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropteridine synthase. (springer.com)
  • By using a model of VSMC migration in culture, our previous study showed that exposure to HG oxidized the most reactive cysteine in SERCA, preventing NO-induced S -glutathiolation [ 1 ], thereby interfering with the mechanism that normally inhibits migration [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structural basis for tRNA recognition and pseudouridine formation by pseudouridine synthase I. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2. The recombinant host cell of claim 1, wherein the purified nucleic acid segment encodes the Pasteurella multocida chondroitin synthase of SEQ ID NO:2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 8 wherein, in the step of providing a purified nucleic acid segment encoding an enzymatically active Pasteurella chondroitin synthase, the purified nucleic acid segment encodes the Pasteurella multocida chondroitin synthase of SEQ ID NO:2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To better understand the impact of this regulation on cellular activity, cell model systems were devised in which SERCA is mutated at cysteine-674 to serine, thus lacking the reactive thiol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we use quantitative molecular-modeling methods to derive a structure of the a - c complex that is not only objectively consistent with the cryo-EM data, but also with correlated mutation analyses of both subunits and with prior cross-linking and cysteine accessibility measurements. (rupress.org)