Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Salivary Cystatins: A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Cathepsin H: An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.Cystatin M: A cystatin subtype that has a diverse tissue distribution, target specificity, and functions as an endogenous inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases.Cystatin A: A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Ficain: A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC 3.4.22.3.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Lipocalin 1: A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.ArchivesSpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Glue Proteins, Drosophila: Glycosylated proteins which are part of the salivary glue that Drosophila larvae secrete as a means of fixing themselves to an external substrate for the duration of the pre-pupal and pupal period.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome: An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive: A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Beloniformes: An order of fish in the group SMEGMAMORPHA, comprising adrianichthyids, medakas (ORYZIAS), needlefishes, halfbeaks, and flying fishes.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.

Cathepsin B immunohistochemical staining in tumor and endothelial cells is a new prognostic factor for survival in patients with brain tumors. (1/642)

The cysteine endopeptidase, cathepsin (Cat) B, and its endogenous inhibitor, stefin A, were found relevant for cancer progression of many neoplasms, including human brain tumors. Histological sections of 100 primary brain tumors, 27 benign and 73 malignant, were stained immunohistochemically for Cat B and stefin A. The immunohistochemical staining of Cat B in tumor cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages was scored separately from 0-12. The score in tumor and endothelial cells was significantly higher in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors (P<0.000). A significant correlation between immunostaining of Cat B (scored together for tumor and endothelial cells) and clinical parameters, such as duration of symptoms, Karnofsky score, psycho-organic symptoms, and histological score was demonstrated. Univariate survival analysis indicated that total Cat B score above 8 was a significant predictor for shorter overall survival (P = 0.003). In glioblastoma multiforme, intense Cat B staining of endothelial cells was a significant predictor for shorter survival (P = 0.003). Stefin A immunostaining was weak and detected only in a few benign and some malignant tumors, suggesting that this inhibitor alone is not sufficient in balancing proteolytic activity of Cat B. We conclude that specific immunostaining of Cat B in tumor and endothelial cells can be used to predict the risk of death in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Intracellular accumulation of the amyloidogenic L68Q variant of human cystatin C in NIH/3T3 cells. (2/642)

AIM: To study the cellular transport of L68Q cystatin C, the cystatin variant causing amyloidosis and brain haemorrhage in patients suffering from hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA). METHODS: Expression vectors for wild-type and L68Q cystatin C were constructed and used to transfect mouse NIH/3T3 cells. Stable cell clones were isolated after cotransfection with pSV2neo. Clones expressing human wild-type and L68Q cystatin C were compared with respect to secreted cystatin C by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for intracellular cystatin C by western blotting and immunofluorescence cytochemistry. Colocalisation studies in cells were performed by double staining with antibodies against human cystatin C and marker proteins for lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, or the endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluated by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Concentrations of human cystatin C secreted from transfected NIH/3T3 cells were similar to those secreted from human cells in culture. In general, clones expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C secreted slightly lower amounts of the protein than clones expressing wild-type human cystatin C. Both immunofluorescence cytochemistry and western blotting experiments showed an increased accumulation of cystatin C in cells expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C compared with cells expressing the gene for the wild-type protein. The intracellularly accumulating L68Q cystatin C was insoluble and located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSIONS: The cellular transport of human cystatin C is impeded by the pathogenic amino acid substitution Leu68-->Gln. The resulting intracellular accumulation and increased localised concentration of L68Q cystatin C might be an important event in the molecular pathophysiology of amyloid formation and brain haemorrhage in patients with HCCAA.  (+info)

Hydrophobic sequences can substitute for the wild-type N-terminal sequence of cystatin A (stefin A) in tight binding to cysteine proteinases selection of high-affinity N-terminal region variants by phage display. (3/642)

A phage-display library of the cysteine-proteinase inhibitor, cystatin A, was constructed in which variants with the four N-terminal amino acids randomly mutated were expressed on the surface of filamenteous phage. Screening of this library for binding to papain gave predominantly variants with a glycine residue in position 4. This finding is in agreement with previous conclusions that glycine in this position is essential for tight binding of cystatin A to cysteine proteinases by allowing optimal interaction of the N-terminal region of the inhibitor with the enzyme. In contrast, the first three residues of the variants obtained by the screening were more variable. Two variants were identified with similar affinities for papain as the wild-type inhibitor, but with these residues, Val-Phe-Thr- or Ile-Leu-Leu, differing appreciably from those of the wild-type, Met-Ile-Pro. Other sequences of the N-terminal region, presumably mainly hydrophobic, can thus substitute for the wild-type sequence and contribute similar energy to the inhibitor-proteinase interaction. The two variants binding tightly to papain differed in their affinity for cathepsin B, demonstrating that cystatin variants with increased selectivity for a particular target cysteine proteinase can be obtained by phage-display technology.  (+info)

Structure, alternative splicing and chromosomal localization of the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic gene. (4/642)

The cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors consists of three major families, including the stefins, cystatins and kininogens. However, the recent identification of several genes that possess sequence similarity with the cystatins but have different gene or protein structures indicates that several new cystatin families or subgroups of families might exist. We previously identified the cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (Cres) gene, which is related to the family 2 cystatins but exhibits highly tissue-specific expression in the reproductive tract. In the studies presented here, an analysis of gene structure as well as chromosomal mapping studies suggest that the Cres gene might represent a new subgroup within the family 2 cystatins. Although the Cres gene possesses an additional exon encoding 5' untranslated sequences, its coding exons are similar in size to the three coding exons of the cystatin family 2 genes, and the Cres exon/intron splice junctions occur in identical locations as in the cystatin C gene. Furthermore, chromosomal mapping studies show that the Cres gene co-segregates with the cystatin C gene on mouse chromosome 2. Similar to the cystatin family 2 proteins, the Cres protein possesses the type A and B disulphide loops that are necessary for cystatin folding. Interestingly, Cres protein also possesses half of a type C disulphide loop. Although probably related to the cystatin genes, the Cres gene is distinct in that its promoter contains consensus motifs typical of regulated genes. Finally, reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR studies and the identification of new Cres cDNA clones indicate that the Cres mRNA is alternatively spliced, resulting in two Cres mRNAs that might be involved in the regulation of Cres function.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of CRES (Cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic) protein in the acrosomes of mouse spermatozoa. (5/642)

The CRES (cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic) protein is a member of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors and exhibits highly restricted expression in the reproductive tract. We have previously shown that CRES protein is present in elongating spermatids in the testis and is synthesized and secreted by the proximal caput epididymal epithelium. The presence of CRES protein in developing germ cells and in the luminal fluid surrounding maturing spermatozoa prompted us to examine whether CRES protein is associated with spermatozoa. In the studies presented, indirect immunofluorescence, immunogold electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that CRES protein is localized in sperm acrosomes and is released during the acrosome reaction. Interestingly, while the 19- and 14-kDa CRES proteins were present in testicular and proximal caput epididymal spermatozoa, the 14-kDa CRES protein was the predominant form present in mid-caput to cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Furthermore, following the ionophore-induced acrosome reaction, CRES protein localization was similar to that of proacrosin/acrosin in that it was detected in the soluble fraction as well as associated with the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. The presence of CRES protein in the sperm acrosome, a site of high hydrolytic and proteolytic activity, suggests that CRES may play a role in the regulation of intraacrosomal protein processing or may be involved in fertilization.  (+info)

The affinity and kinetics of inhibition of cysteine proteinases by intact recombinant bovine cystatin C. (6/642)

Recent studies have shown that the bovine cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, is synthesized as a preprotein containing a 118-residue mature protein. However, the forms of the inhibitor isolated previously from bovine tissues had shorter N-terminal regions than expected from these results, and also lower affinity for proteinases than human cystatin C. In this work, we report the properties of recombinant, full-length bovine cystatin C having a complete N-terminal region. The general characteristics of this form of the inhibitor, as reflected by the isoelectric point, the far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrum, the thermal stability and the changes of tryptophan fluorescence on interaction with papain, resembled those of human cystatin C. The affinity and kinetics of inhibition of papain and cathepsins B, H and L by the bovine inhibitor were also comparable with those of the human inhibitor, although certain differences were apparent. Notably, the affinity of bovine cystatin C for cathepsin H was somewhat weaker than that of human cystatin C, and bovine cystatin C bound to cathepsin L with about a four-fold higher association rate constant than the human inhibitor. This rate constant is comparable with the highest values reported previously for cystatin-cysteine proteinase reactions. The full-length, recombinant bovine cystatin C bound appreciably more tightly to proteinases than the shorter form characterized previously. Digestion of the recombinant inhibitor with neutrophil elastase resulted in forms with truncated N-terminal regions and appreciably decreased affinity for papain, consistent with the forms of bovine cystatin C isolated previously having arisen by proteolytic cleavage of a mature, full-length inhibitor.  (+info)

Inhibition of mammalian legumain by some cystatins is due to a novel second reactive site. (7/642)

We have investigated the inhibition of the recently identified family C13 cysteine peptidase, pig legumain, by human cystatin C. The cystatin was seen to inhibit enzyme activity by stoichiometric 1:1 binding in competition with substrate. The Ki value for the interaction was 0.20 nM, i.e. cystatin C had an affinity for legumain similar to that for the papain-like family C1 cysteine peptidase, cathepsin B. However, cystatin C variants with alterations in the N-terminal region and the "second hairpin loop" that rendered the cystatin inactive against cathepsin B, still inhibited legumain with Ki values 0.2-0.3 nM. Complexes between cystatin C and papain inhibited legumain activity against benzoyl-Asn-NHPhNO2 as efficiently as did cystatin C alone. Conversely, cystatin C inhibited papain activity against benzoyl-Arg-NHPhNO2 whether or not the cystatin had been incubated with legumain, strongly indicating that the cystatin inhibited the two enzymes with non-overlapping sites. A ternary complex between legumain, cystatin C, and papain was demonstrated by gel filtration supported by immunoblotting. Screening of a panel of cystatin superfamily members showed that type 1 inhibitors (cystatins A and B) and low Mr kininogen (type 3) did not inhibit pig legumain. Of human type 2 cystatins, cystatin D was non-inhibitory, whereas cystatin E/M and cystatin F displayed strong (Ki 0.0016 nM) and relatively weak (Ki 10 nM) affinity for legumain, respectively. Sequence alignments and molecular modeling led to the suggestion that a loop located on the opposite side to the papain-binding surface, between the alpha-helix and the first strand of the main beta-pleated sheet of the cystatin structure, could be involved in legumain binding. This was corroborated by analysis of a cystatin C variant with substitution of the Asn39 residue in this loop (N39K-cystatin C); this variant showed a slight reduction in affinity for cathepsin B (Ki 1.5 nM) but >>5,000-fold lower affinity for legumain (Ki >>1,000 nM) than wild-type cystatin C.  (+info)

Cathepsin L is capable of truncating cystatin C of 11 N-terminal amino acids. (8/642)

Cystatin C with the 11 N-terminal amino acids truncated shows a much lower affinity for cysteine proteinases than the intact inhibitor. Such truncation of cystatin C is recorded after action of glycyl endopeptidase and cathepsin L. Incubation of cystatin C with papain, cathepsin B or cathepsin H led to no changes in the cystatin C molecule. Isoelectric focusing of the cathepsin L and cystatin C mixture showed the formation of two new bands. One of them appeared whether E-64 or PMSF was added or not, evidently representing a cystatin C/cathepsin L complex. The other band is the truncated cystatin C molecule. N-terminal sequencing after separation by HPLC showed that cystatin C is cleaved by cathepsin L at the Gly11-Gly12 bond. The action of cathepsin L on cystatin C may be explained by the cleavage of the scissile bond in an inappropriate complex.  (+info)

*Cystatin

Type 1 cystatins are also known as Stefins (after the Stefan Institute where they were first discovered ) The Type 2 cystatins ... Cystatins show similarity to fetuins, kininogens, histidine-rich glycoproteins and cystatin-related proteins. Cystatins mainly ... The cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors which share a sequence homology and a common tertiary structure of ... Cystatins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ...

*CST6 (gene)

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Barka T, Asbell PA, van der Noen H, Prasad A (1991). "Cystatins in human tear fluid". Curr. Eye Res. 10 (1): 25-34. doi:10.3109 ... "Cystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins". J Biol Chem. 272 ...

*CST4

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Cystatin-S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST4 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... Determination of cystatins, albumin, amylase and IgA". J. Periodont. Res. 31 (1): 57-65. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1996.tb00464.x ... Dickinson DP, Zhao Y, Thiesse M, Siciliano MJ (1995). "Direct mapping of seven genes encoding human type 2 cystatins to a ...

*Cystatin B

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and ... "Entrez Gene: CSTB cystatin B (stefin B)". Pavlova, Alona; Björk Ingemar (Sep 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B ... Järvinen M, Rinne A, Hopsu-Havu VK (1988). "Human cystatins in normal and diseased tissues--a review". Acta Histochem. 82 (1): ... Turk V, Bode W (1991). "The cystatins: protein inhibitors of cysteine proteinases". FEBS Lett. 285 (2): 213-9. doi:10.1016/0014 ...

*Cathepsin D

... cystatins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 765-72. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(88)90206-9. PMID ...

*Affimer

doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80090-p. Turk V. & W. Bode (1991). "The cystatins: protein inhibitors of cysteine proteinases". FEBS ... Derived from the cysteine protease inhibitor family of cystatins, which function in nature as cysteine protease inhibitors, ... Turk V.; Stoka V.; Turk D. (2008). "Cystatins: Biochemical and structural properties, and medical relevance". Front. Biosci. 1 ... is closely related to that of oryzacystatin-I but different from those of animal cystatins". FEBS Lett. 278: 87-90. ...

*Cystatin A

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins, and ... "Entrez Gene: CSTA cystatin A (stefin A)". Pavlova, Alona; Björk Ingemar (Sep 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B ... Järvinen M, Rinne A, Hopsu-Havu VK (1988). "Human cystatins in normal and diseased tissues--a review". Acta Histochem. 82 (1): ... Davies ME, Barrett AJ (1984). "Immunolocalization of human cystatins in neutrophils and lymphocytes". Histochemistry. 80 (4): ...

*Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein

Similarity to the disulfide bridge structures of cystatins and kininogens". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (24): 14121-8. PMID 2760061. ...

*Cystatin C

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Like other type 2 cystatins, it has two disulfide bonds. Around 50% of the molecules carry a hydroxylated proline. Cystatin C ...

*CST1

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Dickinson DP, Zhao Y, Thiesse M, Siciliano MJ (1995). "Direct mapping of seven genes encoding human type 2 cystatins to a ... Isemura S, Saitoh E, Sanada K, Minakata K (1992). "Identification of full-sized forms of salivary (S-type) cystatins (cystatin ... Takahashi M, Honda Y, Ogawa K, Barka T (1993). "Immunofluorescence localization of cystatins in human lacrimal gland and in the ...

*STATH

Johnsson M, Richardson CF, Bergey EJ, Levine MJ, Nancollas GH (1992). "The effects of human salivary cystatins and statherin on ... Sabatini LM, Warner TF, Saitoh E, Azen EA (1990). "Tissue distribution of RNAs for cystatins, histatins, statherin, and proline ...

*Cathepsin B

Pavlova A, Björk I (September 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B into the N-terminal region or second binding ... Sloane BF (April 1990). "Cathepsin B and cystatins: evidence for a role in cancer progression". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 1 ( ...

*Cotesia congregata

These will inhibit the breakdown of the proteins in group 3. Cystatins are not a gene product previously found in viruses to ...

*Stingray

The toxins that have been confirmed to be within the venom are cystatins, peroxiredoxin, and galectin.[34] Galectin induces ... cell death in its victims and cystatins inhibit defense enzymes. In humans, these toxins lead to increased blood flow in the ...

*Wound licking

The enzymes lysozyme and peroxidase, defensins, cystatins and an antibody, IgA, are all antibacterial. Thrombospondin and some ...

*Synthetic antibody

The Affimer protein scaffold is derived from the cysteine protease inhibitor family of cystatins. Within the protein scaffold ...

*CST5

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Dickinson DP, Zhao Y, Thiesse M, Siciliano MJ (1995). "Direct mapping of seven genes encoding human type 2 cystatins to a ...

*CST8 (gene)

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a protein similar to type 2 cystatins. The protein exhibits highly ... Dickinson DP, Zhao Y, Thiesse M, Siciliano MJ (1995). "Direct mapping of seven genes encoding human type 2 cystatins to a ...

*TIG1

... relationship to cystatins and the tumor suppressor TIG1." Structure 13(2), 309-317, 2005. Cho et al.: "Hypermethylation of CpG ...

*Aptamer

It is a protein of low molecular weight, 12-14 kDa, derived from the cysteine protease inhibitor family of cystatins. The ...

*CST7 (gene)

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ...

*Tương

... (Vietnamese: [tɨəŋ]) is the name applied to a variety of condiments a kind of fermented bean paste made from soybean and commonly used in Vietnamese cuisine. Originally, the term tương refers to a salty paste made from fermented soybeans, which is popular in vegetarian meals, particularly those prepared and eaten by Vietnamese Buddhist monks. It is also the most typical dipping sauce for summer rolls (gỏi cuốn). The paste, which is generally dark brown in color, is produced by adding the fungus Aspergillus oryzae to roasted soybeans, which are then allowed to naturally ferment in a jar with water until it develops an umami flavor. Other ingredients, such as glutinous rice or maize powder, salt, or water, may also be used. Tương is similar to the Chinese yellow soybean paste, though the latter is generally saltier and thicker in texture. Tương may range in consistency from a thick paste to a thin liquid. Some varieties, such as that prepared in Central Vietnam, are watery, ...

*Soy sauce

... (醬油) is considered almost as old as soy paste-a type of fermented paste (Jiang, 醬) obtained from soybeans-which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui (馬王堆).[6][5] There are several precursors of soy sauce that are associated products with soy paste. Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang (清醬) that had appeared in AD 40 and was listed in Simin Yueling (四民月令).[7] Others are Jiangqing (醬清), Chizhi (豉汁) and Chiqing (豉清) which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu (齊民要術) in AD 540.[7] By the time of the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD), the term soy sauce (醬油) had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment,[7] which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong (山家清供)[9] and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu (浦江吳氏中饋錄)[10] during the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD). Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was originally

*Tofurky

The Tofurky roast is found in health food grocery stores; however, availability is limited in some areas. Inside the box, it comes in the form of a small but dense roast, wrapped tightly in a disposable casing, and is something of a rounded loaf in shape. It comes stuffed with mushrooms, herbs, and wild rice. Though the roast can be purchased separately, it is also offered as part of a meal with cranberry-apple-potato dumplings, gravy, and "wishstix"[4] made from Tofurky Jurky, a meatless jerky product. The Whole Foods store chain is a major seller of Tofurky products. Tofurky is a popular meat alternative[5] amongst many vegetarians, who avoid turkey for ethical and/or personal reasons. The product is free from turkey and other meat products. ...

*Okara (food)

While relatively flavourless when eaten on its own, it can be used in stews such as the Korean biji-jjigae or in porridges.[6] It's used as an addition to baked goods such as breads, cookies and muffins, and can create a crumbly texture in these foods.[4]:168 In Japan it is used in a side dish called unohana which consists of okara cooked with soy sauce, mirin, sliced carrots, burdock root and shiitake mushrooms.[7] Okara can be used to make tempeh, by fermenting with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus.[4]:168 using a tempeh starter,[8] It can make press cake tempeh using ingredients such as brown rice, bulgur wheat, soybeans and other legume and grain combinations. [9] Okara is also eaten as red oncom by the Sundanese people on Java in Indonesia after fermentation by Neurospora.[10] Okara is eaten in the Shandong cuisine of eastern China by steaming a wet mixture of okara that has been formed into blocks of zha doufu (also known as xiao doufu or cai doufu).[11]:172 The product is sometimes used as ...
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The cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors which share a sequence homology and a common tertiary structure of an alpha helix lying on top of an anti-parallel beta sheet. The family is subdivided as described below. Cystatins show similarity to fetuins, kininogens, histidine-rich glycoproteins and cystatin-related proteins. Cystatins mainly inhibit peptidase enzymes (another term for proteases) belonging to peptidase families C1 (papain family) and C13 (legumain family). They are known to mis-fold to form amyloid deposits and are implicated in several diseases.[citation needed] The cystatin family includes: The Type 1 cystatins, which are intracellular and are present in the cytosol of many cell types, but can also appear in body fluids at significant concentrations. They are single-chain polypeptides of about 100 residues, which have neither disulfide bonds nor carbohydrate side-chains. Type 1 cystatins are also known as Stefins (after the Stefan Institute where they were first ...
Absence of the protease inhibitor cystatin C in inflammatory cells results in larger plaque area in plaque regression of apoE-deficient mice ...
Cystatin-SN is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST1 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a cysteine proteinase inhibitor found in saliva, tears, urine, and seminal fluid. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170373 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CST1 cystatin SN". The MEROPS online database for ...
The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. The specific role in these fluids is unclear but antibacterial and antiviral activity is present, consistent with a protective function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
article{b6a0ecd9-da63-4a19-b309-0a87b322a637, abstract = {A polymorphism in the coding region of the human cystatin D gene has been detected by direct sequencing of amplified DNA from different individuals. The variation, resulting from a T/C transition in exon 1 of the gene, causes an amino acid variation, Cys/Arg, at the protein level. An allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization assay was developed and used to demonstrate this polymorphism in the population. The deduced frequencies were 0.55 and 0.45 for the Cys and Arg variant-encoding alleles, respectively.}, author = {Balbin, Milagros and Freije, José P and Abrahamson, Magnus and Velasco, Gloria and Grubb, Anders and Lopez-Otin, Carlos}, issn = {1432-1203}, language = {eng}, number = {6}, pages = {668--669}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Human Genetics}, title = {A sequence variation in the human cystatin D gene resulting in an amino acid (Cys/Arg) polymorphism at the protein level}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00202491}, ...
Glycyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, characterized by specificity for cleavage C-terminal to glycyl residues only and by resistance to inhibition by members of the cystatin family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Glycyl endopeptidase has been crystallized from high salt with a substrate-like inhibitor covalently bound to the catalytic Cys 25. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement with the structure of papain and refined at 2.1 A to an R factor of 0.196 (Rfree = 0.258) with good geometry. The structure of the S1 substrate binding site of glycyl endopeptidase differs from that of papain by the substitution of glycines at residues 23 and 65 in papain, with glutamic acid and arginine, respectively, in glycyl endopeptidase. The side chains of these residues form a barrier across the binding pocket, effectively excluding substrate residues with large side chains from the S1 subsite. The constriction of this subsite in glycyl endopeptidase explains ...
Alignment of cystatin superfamily domain.The domain was aligned using ClustalW and adjusted manually. (A) The three parts of the papain binding domain (G, QXVXG
Cysteine proteases (CPs) are responsible for many biochemical processes occurring in living organisms and they have been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases that involve abnormal protein turnover. The activity of CPs is regulated among others by their specific inhibitors: cystatins. The main aim of this review is to discuss the structure-activity relationships of cysteine proteases and cystatins, as well as of some synthetic inhibitors of cysteine proteases structurally based on the binding fragments of cystatins ...
IFN-γ is so far the only cytokine able to induce by its own the synthesis of iNOS and the release of NO from MPM. However, it has been shown recently that IFN-γ-induced TNF-α is a prerequisite for in vitro production of NO released by MPM [2,4]. In addition to TNF-α, many other cytokines and bacterial products including transforming growth factor β, IL-10, TNF-α/β, GM-CSF and LPS [5-8,13,16,22,25] can also trigger NO production by acting in synergistic pairs on IFN-γ-activated MPM. We recently demonstrated that representative members of the cystatin superfamily, and particularly CC, can stimulate the release of NO from IFN-γ-activated MPM by stimulating the iNOS/NO system [12]. The results reported here show that CC stimulates the synthesis of TNF-α and IL-10 and upregulates the NO production by IFN-γ-activated MPM. The early iNOS induction by IFN-γ, followed by a CC stimulation, leads to maximal production of NO by MPM. This suggests that CC acts as an amplifier, but only if the ...
Secreted phosphoprotein 24 (spp24) is a member of the cystatin superfamily, which was first identified in cattle as a minor component of cortical bone and subsequently has been identified as a component of the fetuin-mineral complex. We have localized the human SPP2 gene, which encodes spp24 to chromosome 2q37.1, determined its structure and mapped the start of transcription in liver. There is no CAAT or TATA box in the promoter region but potential transcription factor (TF)-binding sites have been identified. The gene comprises eight exons spread over a region of approximately 27 kb with the cystatin-like region of spp24 encoded by four exons, rather than the three-exon structure typical of the genes encoding the archetypal cystatins. A rare single amino acid polymorphism (p.S38F) has been identified within the mature protein and its significance has been assessed by comparing the sequence of human spp24 with that of eight other species ...
... In order to be able to write the value 100 to /proc/acpi/video/.../brightness, we have to allocate 5 bytes: 4 characters will be written (1, 0, 0 plus null byte), and 1 byte should be buffer for a terminating NULL character. http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=9278 Signed-off-by: Danny Baumann ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Acked-by: Zhang Rui ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: Len Brown ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/acpi/video.c , 2 +- 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/acpi/video.c b/drivers/acpi/video.c index dce0a6e..44a0d9b 100644 --- a/drivers/acpi/video.c +++ b/drivers/acpi/video.c @@ -897,7 +897,7 @@ acpi_video_device_write_brightness(struct file *file, { struct seq_file *m = file-,private_data; struct acpi_video_device *dev = m-,private; - char str[4] = { 0 }; + char str[5] = { 0 }; unsigned int level = 0; int i; - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line unsubscribe ...
1N9J: Three-dimensional domain swapping in the folded and molten-globule states of cystatins, an amyloid-forming structural superfamily
We are going to change ARM virt ACPI DSDT table, which will cause make check to fail, so temporarily add related golden masters to ignore list. Signed-off-by: Heyi Guo ,[email protected], Reviewed-by: Michael S. Tsirkin ,[email protected], --- Cc: Peter Maydell ,[email protected], Cc: Michael S. Tsirkin ,[email protected], Cc: Igor Mammedov ,[email protected], Cc: Shannon Zhao ,[email protected], Cc: [email protected] Cc: [email protected] --- tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h , 3 +++ 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+) diff --git a/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h b/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h index dfb8523c8b..32a401ae35 100644 --- a/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h +++ b/tests/qtest/bios-tables-test-allowed-diff.h @@ -1 +1,4 @@ /* List of comma-separated changed AML files to ignore */ +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT, +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT.memhp, +tests/data/acpi/virt/DSDT.numamem, -- 2.19.1 ...
Introduction: Plasma cystatin C is independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). The effect of genetic variability on cystatin C concentrations and outcome is unclear.. Methods: Plasma cystatin C concentrations were measured in blood, obtained within 24 hours of admission, in 16279 ACS patients from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes trial. 9978 patients were genome-wide genotyped with up to 2.5 million SNPs. The first occurrence of CV death or myocardial infarction (MI) within one year was evaluated by multivariable (clinical variables and biomarkers) Cox regression analysis and c-statistics both overall (all ACS) and in NSTE-ACS.. Results: We observed SNP association with cystatin C levels (up to p=7.82 x 10-16). The most significant SNP (rs6048952) was adjacent the CST3 gene with additive effect on cystatin C concentrations: 0.85mg/L, 0.80mg/L and 0.73mg/L for the A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes respectively. Multivariable ...
Background: The L68Q variant of cystatin C is highly amyloidogenic forming aggregates in individuals with HCCAA. Results: Spermatozoa from mice expressing human L68Q cystatin C exhibit fertility defects and increased levels of amyloid. Conclusion: L68Q epididymal fluid containing cystatin C amyloid is harmful for sperm function. Significance: Amyloid in the reproductive tract may contribute to male factor infertility. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, ...
4) Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.. Address for correspondence: O.N. Poteryaeva, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Novosibirsk, Russia.. Summary: Cystatin C is the best known extracellular endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitor and has been studied as a possible index of tumor growth and as a marker of the effectiveness of antitumor therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate cystatin C concentrations in murine tumor tissues (compared with other organs not directly involved with tumor development, such as the liver and spleen) during treatment with several antitumor drugs (Ukrain and/or cyclophosphane). Cystatin C concentrations in murine tissues and biological fluids was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay The cystatin C ELISA test is a sandwich immunoassay, which uses immobilized rabbit antihuman cystatin C Pab and mouse antihuman cystatin C Mab-HRP (monoclonal antibodies, conjugated with horseradish ...
Amyloid beta deposition in the brain is the hallmark of Alzheimers disease. Co-deposition of other amyloidogenic proteins like transthyretin, human cystatin C have been found in the plaques along with A beta. Revealing the details of the interaction between these proteins with A beta peptide in vitro is able to provide insight into finding new therapies for the disease ...
References for Abcams Human Cystatin C ELISA Kit (ab119589). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
We found that higher cystatin C concentrations showed a greater association with severe CMB pathology especially in patients of the highest quartile. One standard deviation increase in the log-transformation of cystatin C levels also showed a closer relationship with severe CMBs. The estimated GFR and microalbumin/creatinine ratio failed to show a significant association with the number of CMBs. Moreover, the association was sustained in patients with deep or infratentorial CMBs but not among those with strictly lobar CMBs. In addition, the correlation between the CMB grades and cystatin C in patients with lacunar stroke showed a stronger association than that in patients with non lacunar stroke. Cystatin C was the most powerful indicator for CMBs among the three renal markers. Our results corroborate previous studies showing that renal dysfunction is independently associated with CMBs [8, 29]. Furthermore, we showed that cystatin C may reflect the severity of CMBs in a dose dependent manner ...
Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor: Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor (BCPI) from the hemolymph of Bombyx mori; alpha and beta are two forms differing only in three amino acid residues at N terminal; amino acid sequence in first source
Renal dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between the glomerular filtration marker cystatin C and other cardiovascular risk markers and morbidity in elderly males. Cystatin C was measured in a group of 77-year-old males (n=792) and compared cystatin C with other known risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Cystatin C values were significantly increased in individuals with diabetes (p=0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (p,0.0001). There were significant correlations between cystatin C values and body mass index, HbA1c, insulin, triglycerides and hsCRP.. ...
The median cystatin C value was 0.83 mg/L. Increasing quartiles of cystatin C were strongly associated with death and MI (6.9%, 7.1%, 9.5%, and 16.2%). The fully adjusted hazard ratios per standard deviation of cystatin C in the non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE)-ACS and STE-ACS populations were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.20) (n = 8,053) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.97-1.17) (n = 5,278), respectively. However, the overall C-statistics for the different renal function measurements were minimally different, ranging from 0.6923 (cystatin C) to 0.6941 (CKD-EPI). Neither cystatin C nor other creatinine-based equations increased the area under the curve compared to a model that did not include a renal marker. The benefit of ticagrelor tended to be greater with higher levels of cystatin C.. ...
BACKGROUND: Human cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor produced by all nucleated cells in the body and the protein is present in all body fluids. The concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considerably higher than in plasma. Cystatin C levels seem to influence the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) and low levels in the brain are associated with an increased risk for AD. The aim of this study was to develop a high throughput assay for the quantification of cystatin C in CSF. METHODS: Antigen excess, imprecision, interference, linearity, recovery, sample stability and reference values were evaluated on Architect ci8200 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). RESULTS: The assay had an antigen-excess limit at 23 mg/L and was linear over the range of 0.84 to 8.33 mg/L. Results , 8.33 mg/L were automatically rerun in a higher dilution. Within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.71, 1.10 and 0.79%, between day CV was 1.71, 0.39 and 1.45%, between-run CV was 0.58, 0.66 and ...
The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and kininogens. This gene encodes a stefin that functions as an intracellular thiol protease inhibitor. The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein is thought to play a role in protecting against the proteases leaking from lysosomes. Evidence indicates that mutations in this gene are responsible for the primary defects in patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (EPM1). One type of mutation responsible for EPM1 is the expansion in the promoter region of this gene of a CCCCGCCCCGCG repeat from 2-3 copies to 30-78 copies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
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en] Abstract Cystatin C is a low-molecular-weight protein which has been proposed as a marker of renal function that could replace creatinine. Indeed, the concentration of cystatin C is mainly determined by glomerular filtration and is particularly of interest in clinical settings where the relationship between creatinine production and muscle mass impairs the clinical performance of creatinine. Since the last decade, numerous studies have evaluated its potential use in measuring renal function in various populations. More recently, other potential developments for its clinical use have emerged. This review summarises current knowledge about the physiology of cystatin C and about its use as a renal marker, either alone or in equations developed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. This paper also reviews recent data about the other applications of cystatin C, particularly in cardiology, oncology and clinical pharmacology. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46:1664-86 ...
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) manifestation and serum cystatin C level for delayed graft function (DGF). METHODS: The conventional MRI, SWI and serum cystatin C of 27 cases with DGF in nephrotransplantation center in Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University from September 2014 and August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.By contrasting conventional MRI images of transplanted kidney in DGF, the imaging manifestations of benign tumors such as cysts and angiomyolipomas were excluded on SWI images, and then making the renal cortex as the reference, if the abnormal signal lesions were found in the transplanted kidney, the location and signal intensity would be analyzed ...
Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 5386 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a cluster-sampled national cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Cystatin C and creatinine were measured simultaneously using standardised assays. Using generalised additive models, we modelled the distributions of creatinine and cystatin C per year of age from four distributional parameters: location, dispersion, skewness, kurtosis. Among participants with CKD stage 3a, we estimated the predicted probability of cystatin C eGFR ,60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (confirmed CKD) as a function of age. ...
Cystatin B antibody for detecting human Cystatin B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Cystatin S gene maps to rat Chromosome 3, to which D1mgh18 is re-assigned from Chromosome 1. AU - Duran Alonso, M. Beatriz. AU - Shiels, Paul. AU - McCallion, Andrew S. AU - Bennett, Neil K.. AU - Payne, Anthony P.. AU - Szpirer, Josiane. AU - Szpirer, Claude. AU - Brodie, Martin J.. AU - Davies, R. Wayne. AU - Sutcliffe, Roger G.. PY - 1997/12. Y1 - 1997/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 9383294. AN - SCOPUS:0031543282. VL - 8. SP - 946. EP - 947. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 12. ER - ...
Molecular Mechanism of Plant Resistance: Wheat Fungal interaction Interaction between Triticum aestivum/Karnal bunt Growth stage dependent immunity Expression pattern of Cystatin gene. Agricoltura, orticoltura, selvicoltura, pesca, alimentazione LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (30.09.2011) - ISBN-13: 978-3-8465-1150-3 ...
ACPI 3.0 includes UUID-labelled vendor-defined resources (section 6.4.3.2), so move the code that supports this from arch/ia64 into ACPI proper. Len, Tony, this touches both acpi and ia64. Probably easiest if Tony acks it and Len decides whether to apply it. HP owns all the copyrights on the code being moved, and we agree that the code being moved into the ACPI CA may be used under either the GPL or the BSD-style license used by the ACPI CA. (There should be something in Documentation/acpi about how to contribute to the ACPI CA. Its a royal pain in the rear :-)). Signed-off-by: Bjorn Helgaas ,[email protected], ===== arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 1.5 vs edited ===== Index: work-vga2/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c =================================================================== --- work-vga2.orig/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 2005-09-14 09:28:07.000000000 -0600 +++ work-vga2/arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c 2005-09-15 14:52:33.000000000 -0600 @@ -1,105 +1,45 @@ /* - * arch/ia64/kernel/acpi-ext.c + * ...
Adam Shardlow and colleagues investigate whether using cystatin C in addition to serum creatinine can improve diagnosis and risk prediction for progression of CKD among patients in primary care, and estimate the costs of additional testing and monitoring.
Adam Shardlow and colleagues investigate whether using cystatin C in addition to serum creatinine can improve diagnosis and risk prediction for progression of CKD among patients in primary care, and estimate the costs of additional testing and monitoring.
Cystatin C protein (recombinant) can be used as antigen in immuno-based applications. It can also be used to formulate calibrators and controls. Size: 1 mg.
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Comparison of estimated GFR equations based on serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine in patients with coronary artery disease Yusuf à etin Doðaner1, à mit ... ...
Reaktivität: Human, Affe, Maus and more. 76 verschiedene CST4 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Old Synopsis: hw.acpi.thermal.tz0.temperature shows strange value New Synopsis: [acpi] hw.acpi.thermal.tz0.temperature shows strange value Responsible-Changed-From-To: freebsd-bugs-,freebsd-acpi Responsible-Changed-By: linimon Responsible-Changed-When: Fri Jan 20 09:00:34 UTC 2012 Responsible-Changed-Why: Over to maintainer(s). http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr.cgi?pr=164329 ...
Background. High activity of cysteine proteases such as legumain and the cathepsins have been shown to facilitate growth and invasion of a variety of tumor types. In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis. Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied.. Methods. A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used. Cystatin E/M and C were analyzed in cell media by immunoblotting and ELISA. Legumain, cathepsin B and L were analyzed in cell lysates by immunoblotting and their enzymatic activities were analyzed by peptide substrates. Two melanoma cell lines lacking detectable secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with a cystatin E/M expression plasmid (pCST6), and migration and invasiveness were studied by a Matrigel invasion assay.. Results. Cystatin E/M was ...
FRIDAY, Sept. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Serum cystatin C level is an excellent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhotic ascites, according to a study published online Sept. 14 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.. Yeon Seok Seo, M.D., Ph.D., from the Korea University College of Medicine in Seoul, South Korea, and colleagues prospectively enrolled 350 patients with cirrhotic ascites (mean age, 55.4 years; 76.3 percent male) from 15 hospitals (September 2009 through March 2013). The authors sought to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of serum cystatin C level in patients with cirrhotic ascites.. The researchers found that serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were 0.9 and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. International normalized ratio (INR) and serum bilirubin, sodium, and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of mortality, in multivariate analyses, while INR and serum sodium and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of the development of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome ...
Apoptose er programmert celledød for å fjerne uønskede celler og er en felles egenskap for alle flercellede organismer. Caspase-3 er involvert i intracellulære signalkaskader ved apoptose. En ubalanse i regulering av apoptose kan føre til kreftutvikling. Apoptose spiller en viktig rolle i flere andre sykdommer som immunologisk, iskemiske, og nevrodegenerative sykdommer. For å undersøke betydningen av proteasen legumain og proteaseinhibitoren cystatin E/M for caspase-3 aktivitet, ble det brukt HEK293 (normale kontroll celler), M38L (overutrykker legumain) og M4C (overutrykker cystatin E/M) celler. Cellene ble stimulert med dødsstimulerende stoffer som staurosporin og Leu-Leu-OMe. Staurosporin er kjent for å være en kinasehemmer. Leu-Leu-OMe øker lysosomal membranpermeabilitet. Proteaser som er involvert i apoptose vil dermed frigjøres fra lysosomer til cytosol. Legumain som befinner seg i lysosomene, kan frigjøres til cytosol og dermed påvirke aktiviteten av caspase-3 eller andre ...
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The precursor protein in cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys) is cystatin C, which is a cysteine protease inhibitor that contains a point mutation. This condition is clinically termed HCHWA, Icelandic type. ... more
Keywords: Phytocystatin; cysteine proteinase inhibitor; gel-filtration chromatography. Basharat Yousuf. Department of Postharvest Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Paper Title: A novel approach for quality maintenance and shelf life extension of fresh-cut Kajari melon: Effect of treatments with honey and soy protein isolate. ABSTRACT: Effect of treatments with different concentrations of honey (0 mL/L of water, 50 mL/L of water, 100 mL/L of water, 150 mL/L of water) followed by coating with soy protein isolate (50 g/L of water) on fresh-cut Kajari melons was investigated. Effect of honey separately without soy protein isolate coating was also investigated. The treatments were given prior to packing the samples in polypropylene trays and stored at 4 C for sensory and overall shelf life studies. A total of eight combinations of samples with three replicates each were analyzed for various quality attributes throughout the storage life. Highest weight loss ...
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SpecificityC TerminusStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 13-residue peptide matching a sequence from the C Terminus of Human CSTB See Accession Number s NP_000091 1 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0 02% NaNH3 pH7
Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
We compared participants with HF who survived with those who died during follow-up. To evaluate measures of renal function as predictors of mortality, cystatin-C and creatinine were evaluated as continuous variables per standard deviation. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for all the aforementioned characteristics as candidate predictors. Covariates whose entry into the model changed the coefficient of cystatin-C by 5% were retained and included in the final models for cystatin-C, creatinine, and estimated GFR. The adjustment variables were age, gender, body mass index, previous stroke, cancer, hypertension, anemia, and lipid-lowering medications. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ,140 mm Hg, and anemia was defined as hemoglobin ,12 g/dl for men and ,13 g/dl for women. We also evaluated models that included both cystatin-C and creatinine. We did not evaluate estimated GFR as a continuous variable because of the implications of modeling ...
Compare cystatin A (stefin A) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Shop Stefin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Stefin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Badari Pulavarty ,[email protected], wrote: , , Andi, , , I noticed these on my AMD64 box earlier. Just a warning or anything , to be concerned about ? What happened with this one? Looks like a bug in the vesafb code. Do we know if it is fixed in 2.6.13-rc4? (Badari is on leave - could one of the fbdev developers please help out?) Thanks. , Thanks, , Badari , , NET: Registered protocol family 16 , PCI: Using configuration type 1 , mtrr: v2.0 (20020519) , ACPI: Subsystem revision 20050309 , ACPI: Interpreter enabled , ACPI: Using IOAPIC for interrupt routing , ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI0] (0000:00) , PCI: Probing PCI hardware (bus 00) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] (IRQs 3 *5 10 11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKB] (IRQs 3 5 *10 11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] (IRQs 3 5 10 *11) , ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKD] (IRQs 3 5 10 *11) , ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI1] (0000:08) , PCI: Probing PCI hardware (bus 08) , SCSI subsystem initialized , PCI: Using ACPI for IRQ routing , PCI: If a device ...
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (cC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that may influence immune response. Our aim was to test the effect of a high concentration of cC, characteristic for uremic patients, on neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis and respiratory burst, as well as the cC secretion from PMNs stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. MATERIAL/METHODS: PMNs from 35 healthy volunteers aged 27-61 years were cultured in presence of cC, IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. The percentage of apoptotic cells based on DNA depletion, Fas, FasL and caspase -3 expression were assessed ...
CST3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 141 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 15.6kDa.
Read the tci E/M Coding Alert newsletter article titled: Reader Question: Think Before Coding E/M with Every Surgery - subscription required
Potravin sk koncern Unilever m e i nad le sv j margar n v esku zn m jako Flora pro.activ propagovat tvrzen m o jeho nez vadnosti. V ter tak rozhodl odvolac soud v Hamburku. Letit spor v ak nen u konce. Spot ebitelsk organizace Foodwatch chce spor e it u Evropsk komise.
Papain is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Papain is available on the Drugs.com website.
آيا می شود نسبت به 17 دی بی تفاوت بود؟www.shokoohmirzadegi.com شکوه ميرزادگی. در مورد هفده دی و بزرگداشت آن سال هاست که بين مردمان ما اختلاف نظر وجود دارد. اين اختلاف نظرها تقريباً ، از پس جنگ دوم جهانی و رفتن رضاشاه از ايران تا کنون وجود داشته است. البته، در دوران محمد رضا شاه، هميشه هفده دی از سوی دولت به عنوان روز زن در ايران به رسميت شناخته می شد اما، چه در زمان محمد رضاشاه و چه پس از آن، واکنش تقريبا همه ی آن ها که با حکومت سلطنت مخالف بوده اند واکنشی منفی بوده است؛به صورت های مختلف. گروهی گفته اند که رضا شاه «کشف حجاب» را به زور و جبر بر زن ها ايران تحميل کرده است، ...
多种适用的CST11ELISA试剂盒,如等。在antibodies-online.cn对比CST11ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
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WK 2,5 - 3 D SL. 56.503.8355.0. 50. WK 2,5 - 3 D SL-NGN. 56.503.8455.0. 50. WK 2,5 - 3 D SL-PGN. 56.503.8555.0. 50. 6 mm / 79 mm / 69 mm. 7 mm. E M D .. ...
BACKGROUND: Serum cystatin C (sCysC) is used as biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on renal function in dogs are unclear. Some renal variables have been evaluated in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), but not sCysC. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was the validation ... read more of a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) for measuring canine sCysC, and to assess renal function in dogs with DM or HAC. METHODS: A PENIA was analytically validated for canine sCysC by determining imprecision and linearity. In a longitudinal 6-month study, renal function of 14 DM dogs was assessed, using serum creatinine, GFR, urinary protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio, urinary markers, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and sCysC, and compared to 17 healthy dogs at baseline. Furthermore, sCysC was measured at initial presentation and during a 12-month follow-up in 22 HAC dogs. RESULTS: The sCysC intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients were , ...
A partial cystatin cDNA from rainbow trout was generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with two degenerate primers. The partial cystatin PCR product was 168 bp and used to screen trout liver λgt 11 cDNA library. Four positive clones were isolated and designated as cstl, cst2, cst3 and cst4. Only cst2 contained the full-length cystatin cDNA which was 674 bp and included 5 untranslated region and the polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA in the 3 region. Translation of the cDNA contains 132 amino acid residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with those of family II cystatin indicated that the 21 amino acids at N-terminal end is a signal peptide that leads to cystatin secretion, and the 111 amino acids are mature cystatin. Four cysteine residues in the cystatin may form two disulfide bonds for the secondary structure. Cst2 was subcloned into pGEM-3z for Northern and Southern blot experiments. Northern blot indicated that trout cystatin mRNA is about 750 bp. Cystatin ...
The information concerning non-invasive, easily obtainable, and accurate biomarkers for diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN) is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cystatin C (CysC) and complement component 1q (C1q) for LN. A case-control study that included 905 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN (group SLE), 334 patients with active lupus nephritis (group LNA), 255 patients with inactive lupus nephritis (group LNI), and 497 healthy individuals (group HC) was performed in Mianyang Central Hospital from March 2017 to December 2018. The serum levels of CysC, C1q, urea (Urea), and creatinine (Creat) were measured, and 2 estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRCysC and eGFRCreat) were calculated by equations which were based on serum CysC established by our group and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), respectively. ANOVA analysis or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparing the differences among the groups, and
The present minireview of the place of cystatin C in clinical medicine emphasizes, and discuss the evidence, that cystatin C-based GFR-estimating equations do not require the use of vague terms like race and sex, that cystatin C-based GFR-esti mating equations are useful for both children and adults, including the elderly, that the best GFR-estimation requires simultaneous use of both cystatin C- and creatinine-based equations, that cystatin C-based GFR-estimating equations are superior to creatinine-based equations in predicting end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular manifestations, hospitalisation and death, and, finally that cystatin C is required to diagnose the new syndrome "Shrunken Pore Syndrome" with its high mortality and morbidity, even in the absence of reduced GFR ...
Nearly 1 in 10 Americans have diabetes, and the number keeps growing. Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with 44% of all cases of kidney failure the result of diabetes. By the time patients are in kidney failure, called end-stage renal disease, they require dialysis or transplantation.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: E/M Nature of Presenting Problem, E/M Minimal Problem, E/M Self Limited or Minor Problem, E/M Low Severity Problem, E/M Moderate Severity Problem, E/M High Severity Problem.
This seems to be a problem on a number of Fujitsu Siemens Amilo models and also on other distros, so its not Ubuntu specific. At least M3438G (which I have) M4438, 7440G, M1439G and probably more[1]. It was discussed on the kernel bugzilla[2] but was finally rejected as not an ACPI bug. However, several of these models also carry a Linux-based media system called PowerCinema InstantOn, which has a working fan that adjusts after temperature. The company has a lot of source code available un...
the constitute families differ by insertion into and circular permutation of the common catalytic core made of one alpha-helix and 3-strands of beta- ...
Monoclonal Antibody to Cystatin-C -Maine Biotechnology Services, Anti-Cystatin C available in bulk or samples 207-797-5454 or [email protected]
I have providers that do there out coding but what I am looking to find out is: A patient is having blood work the dx. code needs to be matched with t
when figuring out the History part of a ER level how do you know the difference between level 2 and 3 when both are Expanded Problem Focused (EPF)??
Na primeira aula do curso, conversaremos sobre as bases éticas em pesquisa e publicações. Também abordaremos a detecção de erros honestos e má conduta em artigos. Encerraremos a aula com a retratação de artigos publicados. Minicurso Seja um pesquisador re...
en] Blood Chemical Analysis/methods ; Creatinine/blood ; Cystatin C ; Cystatins/blood ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology ; Humans ; Immunoassay ; Kidney Function ...
Mortality from hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type : the impact of sex, parental transmission and year of birth ...
P. falciparum falcipain-2 has received a great amount of attention as a target for therapeutic interventions against malaria, due to its relevant functional role [29]. This work identifies and characterizes bovipain-2, the B. bovis ortholog of falcipain-2. The biological significance of this protein is underscored by the observation that B. bovis growth can be inhibited using cysteine-proteinase inhibitors [24].. Based on their sequences, falcipain-2 and bovipain-2 are classifiable as cysteine peptidases belonging to Clan CA, subfamily C1A. This peptidase subfamily is characterized by the presence of four catalytic Q, C, H, and A residues present in three separate, well conserved regions of the primary sequence that corresponds to the mature protease, which are known as the eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases cysteine, histidine, and asparagine active site regions (Figure 2). In the final tertiary conformation of the protein, the catalytic amino acids are brought together and constitute the ...
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the value of cystatin C(CysC)in early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acute kidney injury(AKI)in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods Serum levels of CysC and creatinine(SCr)were detected in 825 patients with liver cirrhosis,and the dynamic changes observed.Employing Child-Pugh grading of liver cirrhosis,the incidence of cirrhosis at different levels was analyzed.The relation ship between CysC,SCr and their abnormal rates,association of liver cirrhosis complicated with AKI with its prognosis was analyzed. Results The levels of CysC in the patients gradually elevated and the detection rate of abnormal CysC markedly increased along with heightened of Child-Pugh grading,the indifferences among each grade was significant(F=292.21,q=7.12-19.36,P,0.01;χ~2=24.96,P,0.01).The level of CysC was also elevated along with increased damage of liver function(F=345.56;q=12.48,16.35;P,0.01).The detection rate of abnormal SCr in grade C was higher than that in grades A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological Variation of Creatinine, Cystatin C, and eGFR over 24 Hours. AU - Hilderink, Judith M.. AU - van der Linden, Noreen. AU - Kimenai, Dorien M.. AU - Litjens, Elisabeth J. R.. AU - Klinkenberg, Lieke J. J.. AU - Aref, Breshna M.. AU - Aziz, Fahra. AU - Kooman, Jeroen P.. AU - Rennenberg, Roger J. M. W.. AU - Bekers, Otto. AU - Koopmans, Richard P.. AU - Meex, Steven J. R.. PY - 2018/5. Y1 - 2018/5. KW - GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE. KW - CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE. KW - CARDIAC TROPONIN-T. KW - COOKED-MEAT MEAL. KW - SERUM CREATININE. KW - CLINICAL-CHEMISTRY. KW - CRITICAL-APPRAISAL. KW - INDIVIDUALS. KW - VARIABILITY. KW - ANALYTES. U2 - 10.1373/clinchem.2017.282517. DO - 10.1373/clinchem.2017.282517. M3 - Article. VL - 64. SP - 851. EP - 860. JO - Clinical Chemistry. JF - Clinical Chemistry. SN - 0009-9147. IS - 5. ER - ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zaccaria Ricci, Rosa Luciano, Isabella Favia, Cristiana Garisto, Maurizio Muraca, Stefano Morelli, Luca Di Chiara, Paola Cogo, Sergio Picardo].
특화 정밀상담(신장), Calcium (24hrs urine), Magnesium (24hrs Urine), Phosphorus (24hrs Urine), Uric acid (24hrs urine), Protein (24hr urine), Creatinine (24hrs urine), urine creatinine, Creatinine Clearance (24hrs Ccr), Microalbumin (24hrs urine), urine microalbumin, Urine Electrolyte Panel(24hrs urine), Serum cystatin C, Dysmorphic RBC, U/A (Stick + Microscopy) Panel, 소변암세포검사, Citrate(24hrs urine)(외주), Oxalate(24hrs urine)(외주), Abd (Kidney) CT - ...
특화 정밀상담(신장), Calcium (24hrs urine), Magnesium (24hrs Urine), Phosphorus (24hrs Urine), Uric acid (24hrs urine), Protein (24hr urine), Creatinine (24hrs urine), urine creatinine, Creatinine Clearance (24hrs Ccr), Microalbumin (24hrs urine), urine microalbumin, Urine Electrolyte Panel(24hrs urine), Serum cystatin C, Dysmorphic RBC, U/A (Stick + Microscopy) Panel, 소변암세포검사, Citrate(24hrs urine)(외주), Oxalate(24hrs urine)(외주), Abd (Kidney) CT - ...
All reagents should be stored refrigerated (2-8°C). Return all reagents to 2-8°C promptly after use. Unopened reagents can be used for one year from the date of manufacture, as indicated by the expiration date on the package and bottle labels. Opened reagents can be used for one month if stored at 2-8°C ...
Borisov, N.M.; Terekhanova, N.V.; Aliper, A.M.; Venkova, L.S.; Smirnov, P.Yu.; Roumiantsev, S.; Korzinkin, M.B.; Zhavoronkov, A.A.; Buzdin, A.A., 2014: Signaling pathway activation profiles make better markers of cancer than expression of individual genes
H3.3 nucleosome splitting events are better markers for active transcription than H3.3 nucleosome occupancy.(A) Split H3.3 nucleosomes were enriched in the top
After adjustments for glomerular filtration rate (GFR), levels of creatinine, cystatin C, and ß trace protein each remained directly associated with kidney failure but differed in their associations with mortality, according to a newly published study (J Am Soc Nephrol 2011 doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011070663). The findings add to the body of knowledge about how these markers contribute prognostic information beyond that reflected in GFR.
The fields of GU Oncology and Urology are rapidly advancing. Sign up today for articles, videos, conference highlights and abstracts from peer-review publications by disease and condition delivered to your inbox and read on the go.. Subscribe. ...
Re: [PATCH] Input: goodix - Try to reset the controller if the i2c-test fails 2020-03-11 19:10 ` [PATCH] Hans de Goede @ 2020-03-24 18:52 ` Dmitry Torokhov 0 siblings, 0 replies; 3+ messages in thread From: Dmitry Torokhov @ 2020-03-24 18:52 UTC (permalink / raw) To: Hans de Goede; +Cc: Bastien Nocera, Dmitry Mastykin, linux-input On Wed, Mar 11, 2020 at 08:10:13PM +0100, Hans de Goede wrote: , On some ACPI/x86 devices (where we use one of the ACPI IRQ pin access , methods) the firmware is buggy, it does not properly reset the controller , at boot, and we cannot communicate with it. , , Normally on ACPI/x86 devices we do not want to reset the controller at , probe time since in some cases this causes the controller to loose its , configuration and this is loaded into it by the systems firmware. , So on these systems we leave the reset_controller_at_probe flag unset, , even though we have a access to both the IRQ and reset pins and thus , could reset it. , , In the case of the buggy firmware ...
Neto M E Holdings principal business strategies are developing and innovating recent products, acquiring additional brands, and entering additional areas in orde ...
View Notes - HCR 220 Week 5 Assigning Evaluation and Management (EM) Codes from HCR 220 at University of Phoenix. Assignment: Assigning Evaluation and Management (E/M) Codes Josh Gorban HCR
The paper gives an outline of the ICT-KM Program and M&E approach; it describes the M&E strategies used; gives an overview of the results; and identifies 5 generic challenges that program and project managers can face regarding M&E. The paper offers suggestions, based on experiences within the ICT-KM Program, for meeting these challenges ...
V dci m li doposud n kolik teori o tom, co ovliv uje velikost plodu v d loze a n slednou porodn v hu. Nov studie na jednovaje n ch dvoj atech proveden l ka i z Bostonsk d tsk nemocnice v ak ukazuje, e by se p ina m la hledat jinde - v mate sk m l ku.
The following experiment in e-mail publishing contains: Spirov, A.V. (1996). Self-assemblage of gene nets in evolution via recruiting of new netters. Bull. Can. Soc. Theor. Biol. plus a commentary I wrote. Thought some of you might be interested in continuing this dialogue. -Dick Gordon ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Fri, 19 Jul 1996 12:29:52 +0600 From: Denis Thieffry ,denis at cifn.unam.mx, To: cstb at scotia.dfo.ca Subject: CSTB Bulletin - Spring 96 Issue Dear colleague, The new issue of the CSTB Bulletin is now available on the web. You will find a link to it in the CSTB Home page, at the url: http://biome.bio.ns.ca/science/cstb/cstb.html We are including below the contents of this 96Spring issue, along the editorial and the abstract of a long and rich paper by Alexander SPIROV. Best regards, Denis Thieffry (CSTB Bulletin Editor) ***************************************************** CSTB BULLETIN SPRING 96 - CONTENTS ***************************************************** ...
mg/g, and at different stages of CKD (G1/G2, A1/A2). In this study, the authors identified serum cystatin C and urine IgG, transferrin, and NGAL as the best indicators of glomerular damage, whereas urine NGAL, KIM-1, or uromodulin could be indicators of tubular damage. The urinary markers are associated with increase of albuminuria, while both serum and urine NGAL were significantly associated with eGFR decline. Although these findings still need to be confirmed in a large number of patients, these data indicates that combination of biomarkers in serum and urine could be useful for the clinical management of diabetic patients.. Cardiovascular and heart damage is the most frequent consequence of CKD. Serum levels of sST2 (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2), a novel biomarker of fibrosis and cardiac remodeling in heart failure patients, are independent of eGFR and age. Previous studies described that the BCN Bio-HF score, an algorithm derived from a real-life cohort, based on soluble ST2 in ...
The combined creatinine-cystatin C equation performed better than equations based on either of these markers alone and may be useful as a confirmatory test for chronic kidney disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.).
Background. An altered renal function is an essential component of the patho-physiology of pre-eclampsia. The plasma levels of low molecular mass proteins, e. g. beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C, are increased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The plasma levels of cystatin C and beta-2-microglobulin are further increased in preeclampsia, and the cystatin C level has been reported to be a reliable marker for the disease. The aim of this investigation was to study the plasma levels of beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C in pre-eclampsia, and to determine the diagnostic performance of these proteins compared to that of urate and creatinine. Methods. A case-control study of 57 women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, and 218 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the third trimester. Women in the catchment area of Lund, Sweden, were included during an 18-month period from October 2003 to April 2005. Venous blood samples were drawn ...
in American Journal of Kidney Diseases (2013), 61(2), 279-284. Background: The utility of serum cystatin C (SCysC) as a filtration marker in kidney transplantation is uncertain. We took advantage of the recent validation of a reference calibrator for SCysC and of ... [more ▼]. Background: The utility of serum cystatin C (SCysC) as a filtration marker in kidney transplantation is uncertain. We took advantage of the recent validation of a reference calibrator for SCysC and of newly developed CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equations (2012) expressed for use with standardized SCysC level to reassess the performance of SCysC as a filtration marker in kidney transplant recipients. Study Design: Study of diagnostic test accuracy. Setting & Participants: 670 kidney transplant recipients from 3 centers undergoing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements from December 2006 to November 2012. Index Test: Estimated GFR (eGFR) using the 2012 SCysC-based and serum creatinine ...
Complexes of gold( I) have long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis although the precise biological targets of gold are not well understood. One intriguing therapeutic target of Au( I) is the cathepsin family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Here, we present the inhibition of cathepsin B by a known Au( I)-based drug and a series of derivatives. The complexes investigated were reversible, competitive inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 250 mu M, depending on the substituents around the Au( I). ...

Confident assignment of intact mass tags to human salivary Cystatins using top-down Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance...Confident assignment of intact mass tags to human salivary Cystatins using top-down Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance...

Cystatins S, S1, S2, SA and SN were cleaved of a N-terminal 20 amino-acid signal peptide, and Cystatin C a 26-residue peptide, ... Cystatins SA and SN have a signal peptide consisting of the first twenty amino acids while that of Cystatin C consists of the ... Levels of salivary cystatins in periodontally healthy and diseased older adults. Arch. Oral. Biol. 1992;37:355-361. [PubMed] ... The mature forms of Cystatin SA and SN contain 121 amino acids while Cystatin C has 120 amino acids (Table 1). Cystatins SA, SN ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2873128/?lang=en-ca

Cystatin E/M/CST6 Research Products: Novus BiologicalsCystatin E/M/CST6 Research Products: Novus Biologicals

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/common-name/cystatin-e-m-cst6

The cystatins: Protein inhibitors... preview & related info | MendeleyThe cystatins: Protein inhibitors... preview & related info | Mendeley

All three inhibitory families, the stefins, the cystatins and the kininogens, are members of the same superfamily. Recently ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/cystatins-protein-inhibitors-cysteine-proteinases/

Cystatins, cysteine peptidase inhibitors, as regulators of immune cell cytotoxicityCystatins, cysteine peptidase inhibitors, as regulators of immune cell cytotoxicity

Cystatins comprise a superfamily of evolutionarily related proteins, present in all living organisms, from protozoa to mammals ... Cystatins are probably involved in the regulation of all these processes; importantly, cystatin F has a crucial role in the ... The role of cystatins and cysteine cathepsins in the immune response is presented, with emphasis on their role in the ... Cystatins, cysteine peptidase inhibitors, as regulators of immune cell cytotoxicity. Mateja Prunk ; Jožef Stefan Institute, ...
more infohttps://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=261718

Cystatins in Immune System [Abstract]Cystatins in Immune System [Abstract]

Here, we review the current knowledge on type I (stefins A and B) and type II cystatins (cystatins C, F and E/M) in pathologies ... Cystatins possessing inhibitory function are members of three families, family I (stefins), family II (cystatins) and family ... Cystatins in Immune System Špela Magister1, Janko Kos1,2 ✉ 1. Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Biotechnology, Ljubljana, ... On the other hand, expression of other type II cystatins is more specific. Cystatin F is an endo/lysosome targeted protease ...
more infohttp://www.jcancer.org/v04p0045

Cystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins. | Sigma-AldrichCystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins. | Sigma-Aldrich

Cystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins.. [J Ni, M ... identity with sequences for the Family 2 cystatins C, D, S, SN, and SA; 0.5% of clones sequenced) indicates a protective role ... including four cysteine residues and motifs of importance for the inhibitory activity of Family 2 cystatins like cystatin C. ... is thus a functional cysteine proteinase inhibitor despite relatively low amino acid sequence similarities with human cystatins ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/9099741

Characterization of the role of single domain soybean cystatins in regulating drought responses in soybeanCharacterization of the role of single domain soybean cystatins in regulating drought responses in soybean

... ... The effects of drought on the modulation of (and interplay between cystatins) cysteine protease (caspase-like) activity and ... This study was aimed at the characterization of two single domain soybean cystatins, namely, Glyma14g04250 and Glyma20g08800 ...
more infohttp://etd.uwc.ac.za/xmlui/handle/11394/5316

Cystatin-SCystatin-S

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P01036

The cysteine protease inhibition by cystatins. The results - Middle School Scales & EtudesThe cysteine protease inhibition by cystatins. The results - Middle School Scales & Etudes

by cells, in the form of specific protease inhibitors (Arai et al., 2002). In this role, cystatins are known as. specific and ... 2011). Plant cystatins. (phytocystatins) are assumed to regulate endogenous cysteine protease. activities in response to biotic ... cysteine protease inhibition by cystatins. The results have shown that the. inhibitor binds in a one-step process that is ... The possible affinities interaction of cystatins in the control of SiCP. activity during sesame seed germination is discussed. ...
more infohttps://johnnyfavourit.com/the-cysteine-protease-inhibition-by-cystatins-the-results/

Frontiers | Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-Related Cystatin Genes in the Genome of Soybean (Glycine max) | Plant...Frontiers | Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-Related Cystatin Genes in the Genome of Soybean (Glycine max) | Plant...

Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes ... Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis ... Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upreg... ... Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean ... and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.01595/full

Agronomy  | Free Full-Text | The Cysteine Protease-Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development |...Agronomy | Free Full-Text | The Cysteine Protease-Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development |...

In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/3/3/550/notes

Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Prolonged Neurosurgical Operations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Prolonged Neurosurgical Operations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

Cystatins. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03486184

Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General DiseasesSalivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

Cystatins. The levels of cystatins, natural inhibitors of phagocytic proteases, decrease in sulcular fluid and saliva during ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/9179632/

Cystatin - WikipediaCystatin - Wikipedia

Type 1 cystatins are also known as Stefins (after the Stefan Institute where they were first discovered ) The Type 2 cystatins ... Cystatins show similarity to fetuins, kininogens, histidine-rich glycoproteins and cystatin-related proteins. Cystatins mainly ... The cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors which share a sequence homology and a common tertiary structure of ... Cystatins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the public ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystatin

Chicken cystatin stimulates nitric oxide release from interferon-γ-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages via cytokine...Chicken cystatin stimulates nitric oxide release from interferon-γ-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages via cytokine...

Cystatins are natural tight-binding, reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. We have shown that cystatins also stimulate ... cystatins and kininogens) whose members are present in various body fluids [11]. All the cystatins that we have tested to date ... Verdot, L., Lalmanach, G., Vercruysse, V., Hartman, S., Lucius, R., Hoebeke, J., Gauthier, F. & Vray, B. (1996) Cystatins up- ... Henskens, Y.M.C., Veerman, E.C.I. & Nieuw Amerongen, A.V. (1996). Cystatins in health and disease. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00964.x/full

Cathepsin D - WikipediaCathepsin D - Wikipedia

... cystatins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 765-72. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(88)90206-9. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_D

Frontiers | Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis-A Pilot Study |...Frontiers | Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis-A Pilot Study |...

Determination of cystatins, albumin, amylase and IgA. J. Periodontal Res. 31, 57-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1996.tb00464.x ... Cystatins SN and S were first identified in saliva, and have been identified in other secreted fluids. Their production in ... Reduced cystatins (S, SN, SA) levels were previously reported in WS samples obtained from CP patients when compared to healthy ... Abrahamson, M., Alvarez-Fernandez, M., and Nathanson, C. M. (2003). Cystatins. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 70, 179-199. doi: 10.1042/ ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2015.00092/full

Immunomodulatory and Antibacterial Effects of Cystatin 9 against Francisella tularensis | SpringerLinkImmunomodulatory and Antibacterial Effects of Cystatin 9 against Francisella tularensis | SpringerLink

Cystatins are naturally occurring proteins, however, decreased levels of cystatins and increased activity of cysteine proteases ... 2006) The role of cystatins in cells of the immune system. FEBS Letters. 580:6295-301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 1992) Cystatins-inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 4:307-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Vray B, Hartmann S, Hoebeke J. (2002) Immunomodulatory properties of cystatins. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59:1503-12.CrossRefPubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.2119%2Fmolmed.2013.00081

Identification of multiple male reproductive tract-specific proteins that regulate sperm migration through the oviduct in mice ...Identification of multiple male reproductive tract-specific proteins that regulate sperm migration through the oviduct in mice ...

The cystatins: Protein inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. FEBS Lett. 285, 213-219 (1991).. ... A new subgroup of the family 2 cystatins. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 200, 1-8 (2003).. ... a reproductive tissue specific subgroup of the type 2 cystatins. Evol. Dev. 12, 329-342 (2010).. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/116/37/18498

Frontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicineFrontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicine

Cystatins and cancer. James L. Cox. [Frontiers In Bioscience, Landmark, 14, 463-474, January 1, 2009] [Abstract][Full text][PDF ... Epigenetic regulation of cystatins in cancer. Ashley G. Rivenbark, William B. Coleman. [Frontiers In Bioscience, Landmark, 14, ... Type 3 cystatins; fetuins, kininogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Chunsik Lee, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Christian Sollner, ...
more infohttps://www.bioscience.org/landmark/14l/2009

Fetuin | SpringerLinkFetuin | SpringerLink

Fetuin and the Cystatins Katarzyna M. Dziegielewska, William M. Brown. Pages 43-74 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-662-21898-3

CST6 (gene) - WikipediaCST6 (gene) - Wikipedia

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... Barka T, Asbell PA, van der Noen H, Prasad A (1991). "Cystatins in human tear fluid". Curr. Eye Res. 10 (1): 25-34. doi:10.3109 ... "Cystatin E is a novel human cysteine proteinase inhibitor with structural resemblance to family 2 cystatins". J Biol Chem. 272 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CST6_(gene)

CST3 Gene - GeneCards | CYTC Protein | CYTC AntibodyCST3 Gene - GeneCards | CYTC Protein | CYTC Antibody

There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ... There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CST3

Plus itPlus it

1991) The cystatins: protein inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. FEBS Lett 285:213-219. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80804-C pmid: ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/38/23/5399

Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical ManagementSalivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

Cystatins. VEGh. There is a wide inter-individual variation of salivary fluid rates. Values of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min are considered ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v12p0811.htm
  • Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • One is the presence of a N-terminal alpha-helix, present only in plant cystatins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cystatins have not been commonly overexpressed in its cognate plant species to test their pesticide capacity. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, those studies have revealed that enzymes with a blocked active centre could still bind cystatins, albeit with lower affinity (Bode et al. (johnnyfavourit.com)
  • The findings point to a new relationship between cystatins, cytokines, inflammation and the immune response. (wiley.com)
  • This study was aimed at the characterization of two single domain soybean cystatins, namely, Glyma14g04250 and Glyma20g08800 which could potentially be overexpressed in transgenic soybean plants in an attempt to alleviate the effects of drought stress. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Although the biological roles of most cystatins have not yet been fully characterized, there are some data to suggest that exogenous restoration of selected cystatins can reestablish vital immunomodulatory capabilities to the host and, thereby, may exert therapeutic effects. (springer.com)
  • Despite their structural homology and similar mode of inhibition, cystatins display quite different enzyme affinities (Abrahamson, 1994). (johnnyfavourit.com)
  • The effects of drought on the modulation of (and interplay between cystatins) cysteine protease (caspase-like) activity and programmed cell death (PCD) were also investigated. (uwc.ac.za)
  • The possible affinities interaction of cystatins in the control of SiCP activity during sesame seed germination is discussed. (johnnyfavourit.com)
  • Therefore, although caution should be taken to discard potential deleterious pleiotropic effects, cystatins may be used as transgenes with impact on agricultural crops by conferring enhanced levels of resistance to phytophagous pests. (mdpi.com)