Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.Cystatin A: A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.Salivary Cystatins: A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.CreatinineCysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Cathepsin H: An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome: An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive: A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Oncorhynchus keta: An anadromous species of SALMON found in the streams of the Pacific coast from Sacramento north, and also common in Japan. It is used frequently in genetic and other medical research.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cathepsin C: A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.Ichthyosis, Lamellar: A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.Ficain: A sulfhydryl proteinase with cysteine at the active site from ficus latex. Preferential cleavage is at tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. EC 3.4.22.3.Ananas: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE known for the edible fruit that is the source of BROMELAINS.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Chymopapain: A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from papaya latex. Preferential cleavage at glutamic and aspartic acid residues. EC 3.4.22.6.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

Cathepsin B immunohistochemical staining in tumor and endothelial cells is a new prognostic factor for survival in patients with brain tumors. (1/41)

The cysteine endopeptidase, cathepsin (Cat) B, and its endogenous inhibitor, stefin A, were found relevant for cancer progression of many neoplasms, including human brain tumors. Histological sections of 100 primary brain tumors, 27 benign and 73 malignant, were stained immunohistochemically for Cat B and stefin A. The immunohistochemical staining of Cat B in tumor cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages was scored separately from 0-12. The score in tumor and endothelial cells was significantly higher in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors (P<0.000). A significant correlation between immunostaining of Cat B (scored together for tumor and endothelial cells) and clinical parameters, such as duration of symptoms, Karnofsky score, psycho-organic symptoms, and histological score was demonstrated. Univariate survival analysis indicated that total Cat B score above 8 was a significant predictor for shorter overall survival (P = 0.003). In glioblastoma multiforme, intense Cat B staining of endothelial cells was a significant predictor for shorter survival (P = 0.003). Stefin A immunostaining was weak and detected only in a few benign and some malignant tumors, suggesting that this inhibitor alone is not sufficient in balancing proteolytic activity of Cat B. We conclude that specific immunostaining of Cat B in tumor and endothelial cells can be used to predict the risk of death in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Cysteine proteinase inhibitors stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C in sera from patients with colorectal cancer: relation to prognosis. (2/41)

The levels of cysteine proteinase inhibitors stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C were determined using ELISAs in sera obtained preoperatively from 345 patients with colorectal cancer and in control sera from 125 healthy blood donors. The levels of stefin A and cystatin C were found to be moderately increased in patient sera (1.4-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively; P < 0.0001), whereas the level of stefin B remained statistically unchanged when compared with controls. The medians were 4.3 ng/ml versus 3.2 ng/ml for stefin A, 1.2 ng/ml versus 1.7 ng/ml for stefin B, and 679 ng/ml versus 425 ng/ml for cystatin C. In patient sera, a weak correlation of cystatin C with age (r = 0.34; P < 0.001) and gender (P = 0.01) was found. Stefin A and cystatin C levels were independent of Dukes' stage, whereas stefin B correlated significantly with Dukes' stage, its level being the highest in stage D (P < 0.007). Stefin B and cystatin C correlated with survival, whereas stefin A was not a significant prognostic factor in this study. Using medians as cutoff values, patients with high levels of stefin B and patients with high levels of cystatin C exhibited a significantly higher risk of death than those with low levels of inhibitors (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.2; P = 0.002 for stefin B; hazard ratio = 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8; P = 0.04 for cystatin C). Our results reveal a correlation between high levels of extracellular cysteine proteinase inhibitors and short survival in patients with colorectal cancer, and the data thus support previous studies suggesting a contributing role of protease inhibitors in the progression of cancer.  (+info)

Prognostic significance of cysteine proteinases cathepsins B and L and their endogenous inhibitors stefins A and B in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (3/41)

Cysteine proteinases cathepsins (Cats) B and L and their endogenous inhibitors stefins (Stefs) A and B are implicated in the processes of local and metastatic tumor spread. They were identified as potential prognosticators in various malignant diseases, particularly in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of Cats B and L and Stefs A and B in the tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples collected from 49 patients (the present group) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), using quantitative immunosorbent assays (ELISA; KRKA d.d., Novo mesto, Slovenia). Their clinical significance was compared with that from a previous study (the reference group, 45 patients; Budihna et al., Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler, 377: 385-390, 1996). The follow-up of patients from the latter report was updated for this purpose. In the present group, significantly higher concentrations of Cat B (P < 0.0001), Cat L (P < 0.0001) and Stef A (P = 0.006) were found in tumors compared with concentrations in their normal tissue counterparts. Cat concentrations in normal laryngeal tissue were significantly/marginally elevated compared with nonlaryngeal tissue (Cat B, P = 0.02; Cat L, P = 0.06). The tumor concentration of Cat L was found to correlate with pT classification (P = 0.005) and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.05), whereas the concentrations of Stefs A and B correlated with pN classification (P = 0.007 and P = 0.03, respectively) and tumor-node-metastasis stage of the disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between low and high Cat B or Cat L groups, regarding either disease-free survival or disease-specific survival, using a minimum P approach to determine cutoff concentrations. The risk of disease recurrence and SCCHN-related death was significantly higher in patients with low Stef A (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0005, respectively) and Stef B (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0007, respectively) tumors, compared with those with high-Stef A and Stef B tumors. These results remained significant even after Ps were adjusted for a possible bias in the estimated effect on survival. The survival analysis in the reference group also confirmed these findings (Stef A: P = 0.0009 and P = 0.002, respectively; Stef B: P = 0.03 and P = 0.009, respectively). To avoid any possible bias arising from the differences between the laboratories that performed the biochemical analysis, the concentrations of both Stefs in the present group and in the reference group were standardized and coupled together to form a uniform group. In univariate survival analysis, standardized values of Stef A and Stef B correlated inversely with the rate of relapse (P = 0.0000) and mortality rate (P = 0.0000). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the standardized value of Stef A is the strongest independent prognostic factor for both disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. These findings show the specific role of Cats B and L and Stefs A and B in the invasive behavior of SCCHN. Furthermore, Stef A proved to be a reliable prognosticator of the risk of relapse and death in patients with this type of cancer.  (+info)

Prediction of pelvic lymph node metastasis by the ratio of cathepsin B to stefin A in patients with prostate carcinoma. (4/41)

BACKGROUND: Pathologic grade and/or histologic score, extraprostatic extension indicated by invasion of the prostatic capsule, margin, and/or seminal vesicles by prostate cancer cells, serum total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, complexed PSA levels and/or their ratios, regional pelvic lymph node metastases, and clinical staging have been used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of prostate carcinoma (PC) patients. The Gleason grading system is also used to grade/score a patient's stage of disease, with lower to higher scores indicating progression of PC. However, Gleason's system cannot be used to distinguish biologically aggressive PCs within a single Gleason score. Our objective was to identify subpopulations (or clones) of aggressive prostate cancers within an individual Gleason score by utilizing biological molecule(s) that also facilitate cancer cell invasion to prostatic stroma and metastasis to the lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were collected from 97 patients with PC and from 8 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. These patients had not been treated with hormonal and/or chemotherapeutic agents before undergoing a prostatectomy at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Formalin-fixed, paraffin or paraplast-embedded prostate tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for pathologic diagnosis and adjacent sections were stained for for immunohistochemical study. We also collected data on age, race, extraprostatic extension, margin status, seminal vesicle, and lymph node invasion by cancer cells, clinical stage at prostatectomy, and mortality/survival data, including the available presurgery and postsurgery serum total PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations in patients. Immunohistochemical localization of mouse or rabbit anti-cathepsin B (CB) antibody IgG and mouse antihuman stefin (cystatin) A IgG was quantified using a computer-based image analysis system equipped with Metamorph software. RESULTS: CB and stefin A identified aggressive and less aggressive clones of PCs within an individual Gleason score. Tumors with a Gleason Score of 6 that are similar histologically and morphologically were heterogeneous with respect to the ratios of CB to stefin A (CB > stefin A, CB = stefin A, and CB < stefin A). We also found a significant positive association (P = 0.0066) between ratios of CB and stefin A (CB > stefin A) and the incidence of pelvic lymph node metastases, but not with ratios of CB less than stefin A and/or ratios of CB equal to stefin A. Patients with Gleason 7 PCs had a higher incidence of positive lymph nodes than those with Gleason Score 6 tumors. Our data indicated that mortality rates increased in patients when the ratios of CB were greater than stefin A. CONCLUSIONS: PC within an individual Gleason score is a heterogeneous tumor that contains clones or subpopulations of aggressive and less aggressive tumors that can be defined by the ratios of CB to stefin A. PC with an aggressive clone can be identified when the ratio of CB is greater than that of stefin A. Less aggressive clones are identified when the ratio of CB is less than that of stefin A or when the ratio of CB is equal to that of stefin A. The ratios of CB to stefin A can be used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of patients with PC. This is the first report to identify phenotypes of aggressive and less aggressive PCs within a Gleason score.  (+info)

Aod1 controlling day 3 thymectomy-induced autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis in mice encompasses two linked quantitative trait loci with opposing allelic effects on disease susceptibility. (5/41)

Day 3 thymectomy (D3Tx) leads to a paucity of CD4(+)CD25(+) suppressor T cells, a loss of peripheral tolerance, and the development of organ-specific autoimmune disease in adult mice. Importantly, D3Tx does not lead to autoimmune disease in all mouse strains, indicating that this process is genetically controlled. Previously, we reported linkage of D3Tx-induced autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis (AOD) and its intermediate phenotypes, antiovarian autoantibody responsiveness, oophoritis, and atrophy, to five quantitative trait loci (QTL), designated Aod1 through Aod5. We also showed interaction between these QTL and H2 as well as Gasa2, a QTL controlling susceptibility to D3Tx-induced autoimmune gastritis. To physically map Aod1, interval-specific bidirectional recombinant congenic strains of mice were generated and studied for susceptibility to D3Tx-induced AOD. Congenic mapping studies revealed that Aod1 controls susceptibility to oophoritis and comprises two linked QTL with opposing allelic effects. Aod1a resides between D16Mit211 (23.3 cM) and D16Mit51 (66.75 cM) on chromosome 16. Aod1b maps proximal of Aod1a between D16Mit89 (20.9 cM) and D16Mit211 (23.3 cM) and includes the candidate genes stefin A1, A2, and A3 (Stfa1-Stfa3), inhibitors of cathepsin S, a cysteine protease required for autoantigen presentation, and the development of autoimmune disease of the salivary and lacrimal glands following D3Tx. cDNA sequencing revealed the existence of structural polymorphisms for both Stfa1 and Stfa2. Given the roles of cathepsins in Ag processing and presentation, Stfa1 and Stfa2 alleles have the potential to control susceptibility to autoimmune disease at the level of both CD4(+)CD25(+) suppressor and CD4(+)CD25(-) effector T cells.  (+info)

Expression of sea anemone equistatin in potato. Effects of plant proteases on heterologous protein production. (6/41)

Plants are increasingly used as production platforms of various heterologous proteins, but rapid protein turnover can seriously limit the steady-state expression level. Little is known about specific plant proteases involved in this process. In an attempt to obtain potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Desiree) plants resistant to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) larvae, the protease inhibitor equistatin was expressed under the control of strong, light-inducible and constitutive promoters and was targeted to the secretory pathway with and without endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. All constructs yielded similar stepwise protein degradation patterns, which considerably reduced the amount of active inhibitor in planta and resulted in insufficient levels for resistance against Colorado potato beetle larvae. Affinity purification of the degradation products and N-terminal sequencing allowed the identification of the amino acid P(1)-positions (asparagine [Asn]-13, lysine-56, Asn-82, and arginine-151) that were cleaved in planta. The proteases involved in the equistatin degradation were characterized with synthetic substrates and inhibitors. Kininogen domain 3 completely inhibited equistatin degradation in vitro. The results indicate that arginine/lysine-specific and legumain-type Asn-specific cysteine proteases seriously impede the functional accumulation of recombinant equistatin in planta. General strategies to improve the resistance to proteases of heterologous proteins in plants are proposed.  (+info)

Calorimetric measurements of thermal denaturation of stefins A and B. Comparison to predicted thermodynamics of stefin-B unfolding. (7/41)

Thermal denaturation of two homologous proteins, low-M(r) cysteine-proteinase inhibitors stefins A and B, has been investigated by microcalorimetry. Calorimetric enthalpies, as well as the temperatures at maximum heat capacity, were determined as a function of pH for each protein. Transitions were found reversible at all pH values examined (5.0, 6.5, 8.1) for the thermally more stable stefin A, in contrast to stefin B. Stefin B shows a sharp irreversible transition around 65 degrees C at pH 6.5 and 8.1, probably due to unfolding of a dimeric state followed by oligomerisation. At pH 5.0, both proteins exhibit a reversible transition with temperatures of half-denaturation at 50.2 degrees C and 90.8 degrees C for stefins B and A, respectively. The calorimetric enthalpies, which equal the van't Hoff enthalpies to within 10%, are 293 kJ/mol and 490 kJ/mol for stefins B and A, respectively. Using the predictive method of Ooi and Oobatake (1991) [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 88, 2859] the thermodynamic functions of unfolding were calculated for stefin B, whose three-dimensional structure has been determined. The calculated enthalpy, heat-capacity change on unfolding and the temperature of half denaturation compare well to the microcalorimetric data.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical staining of cathepsins B, L and stefin A in human hypophysis and pituitary adenomas. (8/41)

BACKGROUND: New biological markers are needed for diagnosis of atypical pituitary adenoma. The study aimed to evaluate cathepsins B and L and inhibitor stefin A in relation to their aggressive progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 19 adenomas and 10 normal hypophyses. Adenomas were divided according to their histological features and according to their functional activity, e.g. hormones secretion. Immunohistochemical labelling was scored for cathepsins and stefin A. RESULTS: High immunohistochemical scores for cathepsins B and L were more frequent in atypical pituitary adenoma. Higher cathepsin B scores were also observed in functional compared with non-functional tumours, independently of their histology. Stefin A labelling was observed in 90% of normal hypophyses, but only in 10% of adenomas: CONCLUSION: The levels of cathepsins B and L antigens are significantly higher in histologically atypical adenomas. Cathepsin B is also a marker of functional activity of the neoplastic glands. Therefore, we propose that this enzyme is evaluated as a diagnostic marker for tumour progression in non-functional adenomas, to distinguish atypical from benign tumours.  (+info)

*Cystatin

... cystatin C, a marker of kidney function), CST4, CST5, CST6, CST7, CST8, CST9, CST11, CSTA (cystatin A), CSTB (cystatin B)[ ... Chicken cystatin quickly passed the membrane of MCF-10A neo T cells and inhibited cathepsin B when it was acylated with fatty ... Cystatin: a protein that flips out! QUite Interesting PDB Structure article at PDBe Lee C, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Sollner C, Jahnen ... These are cystatin-like proteins found in a range of organisms: plant phytocystatins, fetuin in mammals, insect cystatins, and ...

*Cystatin A

Cystatin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTA gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... 1995). "Solution structure of a human cystatin A variant, cystatin A2-98 M65L, by NMR spectroscopy. A possible role of the ... Estrada, S; Nycander M; Hill N J; Craven C J; Waltho J P; Björk I (May 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A ... "Entrez Gene: CSTA cystatin A (stefin A)". Pavlova, Alona; Björk Ingemar (Sep 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B ...

*Cystatin C

... levels have been reported to be higher in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. The role of cystatin C in multiple ... The cystatin locus on the short arm of chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. The ... Cystatin C levels are less dependent on age, sex, race and muscle mass compared to creatinine. Cystatin C measurements alone ... Cystatin C is a non-glycosylated, basic protein (isoelectric point at pH 9.3). The crystal structure of cystatin C is ...

*Cystatin B

Cystatin-B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTB gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... "Entrez Gene: CSTB cystatin B (stefin B)". Pavlova, Alona; Björk Ingemar (Sep 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B ... Pol, E; Björk I (Sep 2001). "Role of the single cysteine residue, Cys 3, of human and bovine cystatin B (stefin B) in the ... 1997). "Unstable insertion in the 5' flanking region of the cystatin B gene is the most common mutation in progressive ...

*Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy

... (HCCAA) is a rare, fatal amyloid disease in young people in Iceland caused by a ... Mutations in the cystatin 3 gene are responsible for the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a condition ... "Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy: genetic, clinical, and pathological aspects". Brain Pathol. 16 (1): 55-9. Jan 2006. ... Levy, E; Jaskolski, M; Grubb, A (January 2006). "The role of cystatin C in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and stroke: cell biology ...

*Evolution of snake venom

A]: crotamine and cystatin. [B]: 12 toxin families, including CRiSPs and nerve growth factors. [C]: 2 toxin families, including ...

*Peptide transporter carbon starvation family

Cystatin A Schultz, JE; Matin, A (March 5, 1991). "Molecular and functional characterization of a carbon starvation gene of ...

*Kininogen

Closely related proteins include cystatin. Stefan Offermanns; Walter Rosenthal (2008). Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology. ...

*CST7 (gene)

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST7 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. ... 2004). "Cystatin F is secreted, but artificial modification of its C-terminus can induce its endocytic targeting". Exp. Cell ...

*CSTL1

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-like 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTL1 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that ... The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located at ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. ...

*Renal function

Cystatin C is freely filtered at the glomerulus. After filtration, Cystatin C is reabsorbed and catabolized by the tubular ... Cystatin C levels are therefore measured not in the urine, but in the bloodstream. Equations have been developed linking ... One of these is cystatin C, a ubiquitous protein secreted by most cells in the body (it is an inhibitor of cysteine protease). ... The most accurate is (sex, age and race) adjusted cystatin C, followed by (sex, age and race) adjusted creatinine and then ...

*Fetuin

... s are members of a family of proteins that evolved from the protein cystatin by gene duplication and exchange of gene ... Fetuins thus belong to the cystatin superfamily of proteins. Fetuin relatives within this superfamily are the histidine-rich ...

*CST6 (gene)

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-M is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST6 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... 2006). "Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of cathepsin V and cathepsin L by a reactive site that is distinct from the ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, ...

*Unverricht-Lundborg disease

The results show that cystatin B has a polymeric structure, and that the mutated form of cystatin B, which is present in ... Current research links cystatin B to production of inhibitory neurons known as GABAergic neurons. It has shown that a lack of ... Cystatin B and its EPM1 mutants are polymeric and aggregate prone in vivo. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1783: 312-22 Ferlazzo ... The cause of ULD is known to be a mutation of the gene that produces cystatin B. The disease is autosomal recessive, so both ...

*Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides

"Functional characterization of a cystatin from the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides". Parasites & Vectors. Retrieved 11 ...

*CST4

... cystatin SN, cystatin SA, cystatin S, and two phosphorylated forms of cystatin S) in human whole saliva and determination of ... 1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST4 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in ...

*CST5

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST5 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. ...

*Cotesia congregata

The fourth group are cystatin proteins, which will inhibit cysteine proteases. These will inhibit the breakdown of the proteins ...

*CST8 (gene)

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... Cystatin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST8 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in ... "Entrez Gene: CST8 cystatin 8 (cystatin-related epididymal specific)". The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their ...

*CST11

1989). "Cystatin superfamily. Evidence that family II cystatin genes are evolutionarily related to family III cystatin genes". ... The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in ... Cystatin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST11 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that ... 2002). "Cystatin 11: a new member of the cystatin type 2 family". Endocrinology. 143 (7): 2787-96. doi:10.1210/en.143.7.2787. ...

*Staphopain A (Staphylococcus aureus)

Staphopain A is inhibited by phosphorylated cystatin α and α2-macroglobulin. Staphopain A can cleave and lower the activity α1- ... Inhibition of staphopain A by phosphorylated cystatin α did prevent colony formation in skin tissue, but the effect could also ... "Inhibition of cysteine protease and growth of Staphylococcus aureus V8 and poliovirus by phosphorylated cystatin alpha ... properties of peptidyl derivatives and cyclopeptides structurally based upon the inhibitory centre of human cystatin C. ...

*Clinical Biochemistry

Juliana F. Roos; Jenny Doust; Susan E. Tett; Carl M.J. Kirkpatrick (2007). "Diagnostic accuracy of cystatin C compared to serum ... serum cystatin C or equations?". Clinical Biochemistry. 40 (3-4): 153-161. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.10.014. ...

*Reference ranges for blood tests

Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine ...

*Cathepsin L1

Estrada, S; Nycander M; Hill N J; Craven C J; Waltho J P; Björk I (May 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A ... 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A) in the binding of target proteinases. Characterization by kinetic and ... Characterization by kinetic and equilibrium methods of the interactions of cystatin A Gly-4 mutants with papain, cathepsin B, ... CTSL1 has been shown to interact with Cystatin A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135047 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ...

*PDZD2

Lindahl P, Abrahamson M, Björk I (1992). "Interaction of recombinant human cystatin C with the cysteine proteinases papain and ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant CSTA. CSTA (AAH10379, 1 a.a. ~ 98 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00001475-M14) - Products - Abnova
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Compare cystatin A (stefin A) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
CAST, CDSN, CHST8, COL17A1, CSTA, DSP, DST, EXPH5, FERMT1, ITGA3, ITGA6, ITGB4, JUP, KLHL24, KRT14, KRT5, LAMA3, LAMB3, LAMC2, PKP1, PLEC, SERPINB8, TGM5, COL7A1 ...
P. falciparum falcipain-2 has received a great amount of attention as a target for therapeutic interventions against malaria, due to its relevant functional role [29]. This work identifies and characterizes bovipain-2, the B. bovis ortholog of falcipain-2. The biological significance of this protein is underscored by the observation that B. bovis growth can be inhibited using cysteine-proteinase inhibitors [24].. Based on their sequences, falcipain-2 and bovipain-2 are classifiable as cysteine peptidases belonging to Clan CA, subfamily C1A. This peptidase subfamily is characterized by the presence of four catalytic Q, C, H, and A residues present in three separate, well conserved regions of the primary sequence that corresponds to the mature protease, which are known as the eukaryotic thiol (cysteine) proteases cysteine, histidine, and asparagine active site regions (Figure 2). In the final tertiary conformation of the protein, the catalytic amino acids are brought together and constitute the ...
SpecificityC TerminusStorage/StabilityAliquot and store at -20°C Minimize freezing and thawing More InformationImmunogenThe immunogen was a 13-residue peptide matching a sequence from the C Terminus of Human CSTB See Accession Number s NP_000091 1 Formulation 0 5 mg/ml in TBS 0 02% NaNH3 pH7
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1N9J: Three-dimensional domain swapping in the folded and molten-globule states of cystatins, an amyloid-forming structural superfamily
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
The Buoyancy module is key to both the Degradation and the Aggregation systems. Buoyancy is required to position our bacteria in the water column, and also to enable them to buoy the plastic aggregates. This module requires driving the expression of a gas vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicles are formed within the cell, and are hollow spaces surrounded by a wall of hydrophobic protein. These gas vesicles are permeable to gases, which diffuse into the gas vesicles, increasing its partial pressure, thereby increasing buoyancy. The Buoyancy system is subject to the control of a glucose-repressible promoter, cstA (BBa_K118011). During carbon starvation, ATP is transformed into cAMP and then it binds the cAMP receptor protein, this complex activates the cstA promoter. Studies suggest that cstA promoter can be used to induce the expression of reporter genes in cultures with different glucose concentrations (Schultz and Matin, 1990). Free glucose concentration varies in the upper 300 m of the seawater ...
We all know that individuals learn differently -- some remember best the material that they hear, while others remember what they see better. Some people need to experience something hands on in order to do it, while others need to just read the directions. These needs within us are shaped both by our experiences and our biological make up. Learning styles go beyond memory style and learning preference, though. In fact, there are a LOT of things that go into making the learning environment around your child (or yourself) as successful as possible! An article published in California Journal of Science Education, Survey of Research on Learning Styles, says that learning styles are "as individual as a signature" and that understanding them can give us the ability to set up a learning environment designed exactly as a student needs. You can read the article (and the Journal its from, which is pretty interesting!) at http://marric.us/files/CSTA_learnjournal.pdf#page=76 ...
We all know that individuals learn differently -- some remember best the material that they hear, while others remember what they see better. Some people need to experience something hands on in order to do it, while others need to just read the directions. These needs within us are shaped both by our experiences and our biological make up. Learning styles go beyond memory style and learning preference, though. In fact, there are a LOT of things that go into making the learning environment around your child (or yourself) as successful as possible! An article published in California Journal of Science Education, Survey of Research on Learning Styles, says that learning styles are "as individual as a signature" and that understanding them can give us the ability to set up a learning environment designed exactly as a student needs. You can read the article (and the Journal its from, which is pretty interesting!) at http://marric.us/files/CSTA_learnjournal.pdf#page=76 ...
Cystatin C protein (recombinant) can be used as antigen in immuno-based applications. It can also be used to formulate calibrators and controls. Size: 1 mg.
The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. The specific role in these fluids is unclear but antibacterial and antiviral activity is present, consistent with a protective function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and kininogens. This gene encodes a stefin that functions as an intracellular thiol protease inhibitor. The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein is thought to play a role in protecting against the proteases leaking from lysosomes. Evidence indicates that mutations in this gene are responsible for the primary defects in patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (EPM1). One type of mutation responsible for EPM1 is the expansion in the promoter region of this gene of a CCCCGCCCCGCG repeat from 2-3 copies to 30-78 copies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor: Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor (BCPI) from the hemolymph of Bombyx mori; alpha and beta are two forms differing only in three amino acid residues at N terminal; amino acid sequence in first source
The cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors which share a sequence homology and a common tertiary structure of an alpha helix lying on top of an anti-parallel beta sheet. The family is subdivided as described below. Cystatins show similarity to fetuins, kininogens, histidine-rich glycoproteins and cystatin-related proteins. Cystatins mainly inhibit peptidase enzymes (another term for proteases) belonging to peptidase families C1 (papain family) and C13 (legumain family). They are known to mis-fold to form amyloid deposits and are implicated in several diseases.[citation needed] The cystatin family includes: The Type 1 cystatins, which are intracellular and are present in the cytosol of many cell types, but can also appear in body fluids at significant concentrations. They are single-chain polypeptides of about 100 residues, which have neither disulfide bonds nor carbohydrate side-chains. Type 1 cystatins are also known as Stefins (after the Stefan Institute where they were first ...
The median cystatin C value was 0.83 mg/L. Increasing quartiles of cystatin C were strongly associated with death and MI (6.9%, 7.1%, 9.5%, and 16.2%). The fully adjusted hazard ratios per standard deviation of cystatin C in the non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE)-ACS and STE-ACS populations were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.20) (n = 8,053) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.97-1.17) (n = 5,278), respectively. However, the overall C-statistics for the different renal function measurements were minimally different, ranging from 0.6923 (cystatin C) to 0.6941 (CKD-EPI). Neither cystatin C nor other creatinine-based equations increased the area under the curve compared to a model that did not include a renal marker. The benefit of ticagrelor tended to be greater with higher levels of cystatin C.. ...
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Cystatin-SN is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST1 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a cysteine proteinase inhibitor found in saliva, tears, urine, and seminal fluid. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170373 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CST1 cystatin SN". The MEROPS online database for ...
Alignment of cystatin superfamily domain.The domain was aligned using ClustalW and adjusted manually. (A) The three parts of the papain binding domain (G, QXVXG
Clinical disease progression (CDP) was assessed according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV-1 classification system. Category (CAT) A: one or more of the following conditions (CON), without any CON listed in Categories B and C: asymptomatic HIV infection, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, acute (primary) HIV infection with accompanying illness or history of acute HIV infection. CAT B: symptomatic CON that are attributed to HIV infection or are indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity; or that are considered by physicians to have a clinical course or to require management that is complicated by HIV infection; and not included among CON listed in clinical CAT C. CAT C: the clinical CON listed in the AIDS surveillance case definition. Indicators of CDP were defined as: CAT A at Baseline (BS) to CAT B event (EV), CAT A at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT B at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT C at BS to a new CAT C EV; or CAT A, B, or C at BS to death ...
Clinical disease progression (CDP) was assessed according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV-1 classification system. Category (CAT) A: one or more of the following conditions (CON), without any CON listed in Categories B and C: asymptomatic HIV infection, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, acute (primary) HIV infection with accompanying illness or history of acute HIV infection. CAT B: symptomatic CON that are attributed to HIV infection or are indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity; or that are considered by physicians to have a clinical course or to require management that is complicated by HIV infection; and not included among CON listed in clinical CAT C. CAT C: the clinical CON listed in the AIDS surveillance case definition. Indicators of CDP were defined as: CAT A at Baseline (BS) to CAT B event (EV), CAT A at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT B at BS to a CAT C EV; CAT C at BS to a new CAT C EV; or CAT A, B, or C at BS to death ...
Predicted to have cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. Predicted to localize to the cytosol. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in peeling skin syndrome. Orthologous to human CSTA (cystatin A ...
The precursor protein in cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys) is cystatin C, which is a cysteine protease inhibitor that contains a point mutation. This condition is clinically termed HCHWA, Icelandic type. ... more
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Adam Shardlow and colleagues investigate whether using cystatin C in addition to serum creatinine can improve diagnosis and risk prediction for progression of CKD among patients in primary care, and estimate the costs of additional testing and monitoring.
Adam Shardlow and colleagues investigate whether using cystatin C in addition to serum creatinine can improve diagnosis and risk prediction for progression of CKD among patients in primary care, and estimate the costs of additional testing and monitoring.
Background: The L68Q variant of cystatin C is highly amyloidogenic forming aggregates in individuals with HCCAA. Results: Spermatozoa from mice expressing human L68Q cystatin C exhibit fertility defects and increased levels of amyloid. Conclusion: L68Q epididymal fluid containing cystatin C amyloid is harmful for sperm function. Significance: Amyloid in the reproductive tract may contribute to male factor infertility. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, ...
We found that higher cystatin C concentrations showed a greater association with severe CMB pathology especially in patients of the highest quartile. One standard deviation increase in the log-transformation of cystatin C levels also showed a closer relationship with severe CMBs. The estimated GFR and microalbumin/creatinine ratio failed to show a significant association with the number of CMBs. Moreover, the association was sustained in patients with deep or infratentorial CMBs but not among those with strictly lobar CMBs. In addition, the correlation between the CMB grades and cystatin C in patients with lacunar stroke showed a stronger association than that in patients with non lacunar stroke. Cystatin C was the most powerful indicator for CMBs among the three renal markers. Our results corroborate previous studies showing that renal dysfunction is independently associated with CMBs [8, 29]. Furthermore, we showed that cystatin C may reflect the severity of CMBs in a dose dependent manner ...
en] Abstract Cystatin C is a low-molecular-weight protein which has been proposed as a marker of renal function that could replace creatinine. Indeed, the concentration of cystatin C is mainly determined by glomerular filtration and is particularly of interest in clinical settings where the relationship between creatinine production and muscle mass impairs the clinical performance of creatinine. Since the last decade, numerous studies have evaluated its potential use in measuring renal function in various populations. More recently, other potential developments for its clinical use have emerged. This review summarises current knowledge about the physiology of cystatin C and about its use as a renal marker, either alone or in equations developed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. This paper also reviews recent data about the other applications of cystatin C, particularly in cardiology, oncology and clinical pharmacology. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46:1664-86 ...
Computer science (CS) education needs to be retooled to address a pronounced lack of foundational computer technology knowledge among students. "We do think there is a good argument to be made that everybody should have some level of understanding of what computers can do and what they cant do," says San Diego State Universitys (SDSUs) Leland Beck. A key factor behind the dearth of students basic computational skills is the absence of a process for teachers to acquire CS certification. The goal of the CS10K program is to train 10,000 high school educators nationally to teach advanced CS courses by 2015. Meanwhile, the University of California, San Diegos San Diego Supercomputer Center and SDSU received three-year U.S. National Science Foundation grants to broaden the computer science curriculum among San Diego high schools, community colleges, and universities. A Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) study found that courses in CS basics often are not credited as general electives in ...
BACKGROUND: Human cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor produced by all nucleated cells in the body and the protein is present in all body fluids. The concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considerably higher than in plasma. Cystatin C levels seem to influence the development of Alzheimer disease (AD) and low levels in the brain are associated with an increased risk for AD. The aim of this study was to develop a high throughput assay for the quantification of cystatin C in CSF. METHODS: Antigen excess, imprecision, interference, linearity, recovery, sample stability and reference values were evaluated on Architect ci8200 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). RESULTS: The assay had an antigen-excess limit at 23 mg/L and was linear over the range of 0.84 to 8.33 mg/L. Results , 8.33 mg/L were automatically rerun in a higher dilution. Within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.71, 1.10 and 0.79%, between day CV was 1.71, 0.39 and 1.45%, between-run CV was 0.58, 0.66 and ...
References for Abcams Human Cystatin C ELISA Kit (ab119589). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 5386 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a cluster-sampled national cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Cystatin C and creatinine were measured simultaneously using standardised assays. Using generalised additive models, we modelled the distributions of creatinine and cystatin C per year of age from four distributional parameters: location, dispersion, skewness, kurtosis. Among participants with CKD stage 3a, we estimated the predicted probability of cystatin C eGFR ,60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (confirmed CKD) as a function of age. ...
4) Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.. Address for correspondence: O.N. Poteryaeva, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Novosibirsk, Russia.. Summary: Cystatin C is the best known extracellular endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitor and has been studied as a possible index of tumor growth and as a marker of the effectiveness of antitumor therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate cystatin C concentrations in murine tumor tissues (compared with other organs not directly involved with tumor development, such as the liver and spleen) during treatment with several antitumor drugs (Ukrain and/or cyclophosphane). Cystatin C concentrations in murine tissues and biological fluids was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay The cystatin C ELISA test is a sandwich immunoassay, which uses immobilized rabbit antihuman cystatin C Pab and mouse antihuman cystatin C Mab-HRP (monoclonal antibodies, conjugated with horseradish ...
Renal dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between the glomerular filtration marker cystatin C and other cardiovascular risk markers and morbidity in elderly males. Cystatin C was measured in a group of 77-year-old males (n=792) and compared cystatin C with other known risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Cystatin C values were significantly increased in individuals with diabetes (p=0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (p,0.0001). There were significant correlations between cystatin C values and body mass index, HbA1c, insulin, triglycerides and hsCRP.. ...
article{b6a0ecd9-da63-4a19-b309-0a87b322a637, abstract = {A polymorphism in the coding region of the human cystatin D gene has been detected by direct sequencing of amplified DNA from different individuals. The variation, resulting from a T/C transition in exon 1 of the gene, causes an amino acid variation, Cys/Arg, at the protein level. An allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization assay was developed and used to demonstrate this polymorphism in the population. The deduced frequencies were 0.55 and 0.45 for the Cys and Arg variant-encoding alleles, respectively.}, author = {Balbin, Milagros and Freije, José P and Abrahamson, Magnus and Velasco, Gloria and Grubb, Anders and Lopez-Otin, Carlos}, issn = {1432-1203}, language = {eng}, number = {6}, pages = {668--669}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Human Genetics}, title = {A sequence variation in the human cystatin D gene resulting in an amino acid (Cys/Arg) polymorphism at the protein level}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00202491}, ...
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Some pathogenic species of Clostridium employ the classic enzymatic "AB" binary protein toxins for poisoning cells. Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile, C. spiroforme, and C. botulinum all use similar binary toxins (iota toxin (Ia and Ib), CDT (CDTa and CDTb), CST (CSTa and CSTb), and C2 toxin (C2I and C2II), respectively). They consist of the enzymatic A component, an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase and the B component that binds to the host cell and forms a membrane-spanning pore that functions as the translocation channel for each enzymatic component. The B component translocates the A component into the host cell via the membrane in the acidic endosome. In contrast, the Bacillus anthracis species uses a different binary toxin, which consists of two enzymatic proteins: the lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors, and a protein translocation channel, PA. The PA heptameric pore structure was revealed to have extremely narrow φ-clamp passageway and a long membrane-spanning channel. ...
Cystatin B antibody for detecting human Cystatin B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
FRIDAY, Sept. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Serum cystatin C level is an excellent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhotic ascites, according to a study published online Sept. 14 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.. Yeon Seok Seo, M.D., Ph.D., from the Korea University College of Medicine in Seoul, South Korea, and colleagues prospectively enrolled 350 patients with cirrhotic ascites (mean age, 55.4 years; 76.3 percent male) from 15 hospitals (September 2009 through March 2013). The authors sought to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of serum cystatin C level in patients with cirrhotic ascites.. The researchers found that serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were 0.9 and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. International normalized ratio (INR) and serum bilirubin, sodium, and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of mortality, in multivariate analyses, while INR and serum sodium and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of the development of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome ...
A partial cystatin cDNA from rainbow trout was generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with two degenerate primers. The partial cystatin PCR product was 168 bp and used to screen trout liver λgt 11 cDNA library. Four positive clones were isolated and designated as cstl, cst2, cst3 and cst4. Only cst2 contained the full-length cystatin cDNA which was 674 bp and included 5 untranslated region and the polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA in the 3 region. Translation of the cDNA contains 132 amino acid residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with those of family II cystatin indicated that the 21 amino acids at N-terminal end is a signal peptide that leads to cystatin secretion, and the 111 amino acids are mature cystatin. Four cysteine residues in the cystatin may form two disulfide bonds for the secondary structure. Cst2 was subcloned into pGEM-3z for Northern and Southern blot experiments. Northern blot indicated that trout cystatin mRNA is about 750 bp. Cystatin ...
Background. High activity of cysteine proteases such as legumain and the cathepsins have been shown to facilitate growth and invasion of a variety of tumor types. In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis. Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied.. Methods. A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used. Cystatin E/M and C were analyzed in cell media by immunoblotting and ELISA. Legumain, cathepsin B and L were analyzed in cell lysates by immunoblotting and their enzymatic activities were analyzed by peptide substrates. Two melanoma cell lines lacking detectable secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with a cystatin E/M expression plasmid (pCST6), and migration and invasiveness were studied by a Matrigel invasion assay.. Results. Cystatin E/M was ...
Introduction: Plasma cystatin C is independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). The effect of genetic variability on cystatin C concentrations and outcome is unclear.. Methods: Plasma cystatin C concentrations were measured in blood, obtained within 24 hours of admission, in 16279 ACS patients from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes trial. 9978 patients were genome-wide genotyped with up to 2.5 million SNPs. The first occurrence of CV death or myocardial infarction (MI) within one year was evaluated by multivariable (clinical variables and biomarkers) Cox regression analysis and c-statistics both overall (all ACS) and in NSTE-ACS.. Results: We observed SNP association with cystatin C levels (up to p=7.82 x 10-16). The most significant SNP (rs6048952) was adjacent the CST3 gene with additive effect on cystatin C concentrations: 0.85mg/L, 0.80mg/L and 0.73mg/L for the A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes respectively. Multivariable ...
Comparison of estimated GFR equations based on serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine in patients with coronary artery disease Yusuf à etin Doðaner1, à mit ... ...
Reaktivität: Human, Affe, Maus and more. 76 verschiedene CST4 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
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Serum Cystatin C Predicts Mortality With Cirrhotic Ascites | Physicians Weekly for Medical News, Journals & ArticlesSerum Cystatin C Predicts Mortality With Cirrhotic Ascites | Physician's Weekly for Medical News, Journals & Articles

Serum Cystatin C Predicts Mortality With Cirrhotic Ascites by Physicians Weekly , Sep 22, 2017 , 0 comments ... "Predictive models based on serum cystatin C level instead of serum creatinine level would be more helpful in the assessment of ... The researchers found that serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were 0.9 and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. International normalized ... 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Serum cystatin C level is an excellent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhotic ascites, ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/serum-cystatin-c-predicts-mortality-with-cirrhotic-ascites/

Cystatin-BCystatin-B

The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active ... Cystatin B is a progression marker of human epithelial ovarian tumors mediated by the TGF-? signaling pathway.. ... A role for disease-causing mutations in cystatin B gene in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was not supported.. ... Cystatin B as a potential diagnostic biomarker in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.. ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P04080

Fertility Defects in Mice Expressing the L68Q Variant of Human Cystatin C A ROLE FOR AMYLOID IN MALE INFERTILITY - Lund...Fertility Defects in Mice Expressing the L68Q Variant of Human Cystatin C A ROLE FOR AMYLOID IN MALE INFERTILITY - Lund...

Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily ... Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C ... Fertility Defects in Mice Expressing the L68Q Variant of Human Cystatin C A ROLE FOR AMYLOID IN MALE INFERTILITY. Research ... L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain ...
more infohttps://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/fertility-defects-in-mice-expressing-the-l68q-variant-of-human-cystatin-c-a-role-for-amyloid-in-male-infertility

Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Is Excellent Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Septic Elderly PatientsUrinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Is Excellent Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Septic Elderly Patients

Could neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C predict the development of contrast-induced nephropathy after ...
more infohttp://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/Y2018/V9/I2/182

Cystatin - WikipediaCystatin - Wikipedia

... cystatin C, a marker of kidney function), CST4, CST5, CST6, CST7, CST8, CST9, CST11, CSTA (cystatin A), CSTB (cystatin B)[ ... Chicken cystatin quickly passed the membrane of MCF-10A neo T cells and inhibited cathepsin B when it was acylated with fatty ... Cystatin: a protein that flips out! QUite Interesting PDB Structure article at PDBe Lee C, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Sollner C, Jahnen ... These are cystatin-like proteins found in a range of organisms: plant phytocystatins, fetuin in mammals, insect cystatins, and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystatin

Cystatin A - WikipediaCystatin A - Wikipedia

Cystatin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSTA gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... 1995). "Solution structure of a human cystatin A variant, cystatin A2-98 M65L, by NMR spectroscopy. A possible role of the ... Estrada, S; Nycander M; Hill N J; Craven C J; Waltho J P; Björk I (May 1998). "The role of Gly-4 of human cystatin A (stefin A ... "Entrez Gene: CSTA cystatin A (stefin A)". Pavlova, Alona; Björk Ingemar (Sep 2003). "Grafting of features of cystatins C or B ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystatin_A

Cystatin CCystatin C

A cystatin C test may be used to screen for and monitor kidney dysfunction in special cases. ... Cystatin C is a relatively small protein that is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and broken down at a constant rate. ... Because cystatin C levels fluctuate with changes in GFR, there has been interest in the cystatin C test as one method of ... Lowry, F. (2009 February 27). Cystatin C, High Levels of Serum Cystatin C and Chronic Kidney Disease Linked to Age-Related ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/cystatin-c

What is cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys)?What is cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys)?

... is cystatin C, which is a cysteine protease inhibitor that contains a point mutation. This condition is clinically termed HCHWA ... The precursor protein in cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys) ... What is cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys)?. Updated: May 09, 2019 * ... encoded search term (What is cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys)?) and What is cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys)? What to Read Next on ... The precursor protein in cystatin C amyloidosis (ACys) is cystatin C, which is a cysteine protease inhibitor that contains a ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/335414-106004/what-is-cystatin-c-amyloidosis-acys

Cystatin-C ArticlesCystatin-C Articles

The preoperative serum cystatin-C as an independent prognostic factor for survival in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. ... Cystatin-C (Cys-C) has been reported as a valuable prognostic biomarker in various malignancies. However, its effect on upper ...
more infohttps://www.urotoday.com/tags/cystatin-c.html

Cystatin B Antibody
                
                
		        
	Cystatin B Antibody

Cystatin B Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) ... Protein Aliases: CPI-B; CST6; CSTB; cystatin B (stefin B); cystatin beta; Cystatin-B; Cystatin-beta; Liver thiol proteinase ... Cystatin A (also designated STF1, STFA, stefin A or cystatin AS) and cystatin B (also designated PME, CST6, STFB, CPI-B, stefin ... Cite Cystatin B Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cystatin B Polyclonal Antibody from ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Cystatin-B-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-36076

Mouse Cystatin C peptide (ab22916) | AbcamMouse Cystatin C peptide (ab22916) | Abcam

Buy our Mouse Cystatin C peptide. Ab22916 is a blocking peptide for ab2516 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/mouse-cystatin-c-peptide-ab22916.html

Cystatin S (CST4) AntikörperCystatin S (CST4) Antikörper

cystatin S , cystatin 4 , cystatin-4 , cystatin-S , cystatin-SA-III , salivary acidic protein 1 , LM protein , cystatin-1 , ... Cystatin S (CST4) Antigen-Profil Protein Überblick The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin ... anti-Cystatin S (CST4) Antikörper. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Cystatin S Interaktionspartner. Human Cystatin S (CST4) Interaktionspartner * Findings suggest the ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Cystatin+S+

Anti-Cystatin C antibody (ab85790) Protocols | AbcamAnti-Cystatin C antibody (ab85790) Protocols | Abcam

Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Cystatin C antibody (ab85790) : Immunoprecipitation protocols, Immunohistochemistry ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cystatin-c-antibody-ab85790-protocols.html

Cystatin B
     Summary Report | CureHunterCystatin B Summary Report | CureHunter

An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that ... Cystatin B. Subscribe to New Research on Cystatin B An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell ... caused by mutations in the cystatin B gene and in the cystatin B-deficient (Cstb-/-) mouse model and to validate imaging ... a translational diffusion-tensor imaging study in patients and cystatin B-deficient mice.". 12/01/2013 - "Cystatin B (CSTB) is ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD055313-Cystatin-B.do

NHANES 2001-2002:
						Cystatin C (Surplus) Data Documentation, Codebook, and FrequenciesNHANES 2001-2002: Cystatin C (Surplus) Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies

SSCYPC - Cystatin C (mg/L). Variable Name: SSCYPC. SAS Label: Cystatin C (mg/L). English Text: Cystatin C (mg/L). Target: Both ... Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. English Text: Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. Target: Both males and females 12 YEARS ... Cystatin C (Surplus) (SSCYST_B) Data File: SSCYST_B.xpt First Published: June 2008. Last Revised: NA ... WTSCY4YR - Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. Variable Name: WTSCY4YR. SAS Label: ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/2001-2002/SSCYST_B.htm

Cystatin C Antibody (PA5-46905)
                
                
		        
	Cystatin C Antibody (PA5-46905)

Invitrogen Anti-Cystatin C Polyclonal, Catalog # PA5-46905. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC ( ... Protein Aliases: bA218C14.4 (cystatin C); CysC; cystatin 3; Cystatin-3; Cystatin-C; epididymis secretory protein Li 2; Gamma- ... Cite Cystatin C Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cystatin C Polyclonal Antibody from ... Immunohistochemical analysis of Cystatin C was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast using 5 ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Cystatin-C-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-46905

CYSTATIN C-BASED EQUATION (2012) | National Kidney FoundationCYSTATIN C-BASED EQUATION (2012) | National Kidney Foundation

cysC (cystatin C) = mg/L. Assays. *The cystatin-C based equation utilizes the Siemens (Date Behring) method and is not yet ... CYSTATIN C-BASED EQUATION (2012). eGFR =. 70.69 x (cysC)-0.931. Abbreviations / Units. eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration ... May serve as a reasonable alternative to the multivariate cystatin C equation when there is a concern about one of the major ... Grubb A, Blirup-Jensen S, Lindstrom V, Schmidt C, Althaus H, Zegers I. First certified reference material for cystatin C in ...
more infohttps://www.kidney.org/content/cystatin-c-based-equation-2012

Immunomodulatory and Antibacterial Effects of Cystatin 9 against Francisella tularensis | SpringerLinkImmunomodulatory and Antibacterial Effects of Cystatin 9 against Francisella tularensis | SpringerLink

Cystatin 9 (CST9) is a member of the type 2 cysteine protease inhibitor family, which has been shown to have immunomodulatory ... For example, cystatin C (10,11), as well as cystatin B (8) and E/M (9) have been shown to have antitumor effects via ... Cystatin 9 (CST9) is a small, ∼18-kDa human protein and a member of the type 2 cystatin superfamily that is compromised of 14 ... For instance, cystatin C is typically secreted and acts as a strong inhibitor of papainlike proteases, while cystatin F ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.2119%2Fmolmed.2013.00081

cystatin A (stefin A) ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comcystatin A (stefin A) ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare cystatin A (stefin A) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Your search returned 48 cystatin A (stefin A) ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-1013640/Assay_Kit/ELISA_cystatin_A_stefin_A

Cystatin CCystatin C

This test measures the amount of a protein called cystatin C in your blood. This is a relatively new blood test to look at your ... Your body makes cystatin C constantly, and the protein is found in different fluids, including blood, spinal fluid, and breast ... If you have an abnormally high concentration of cystatin C in your blood, it means you may have a kidney condition, such as ... When your kidneys are healthy, they filter cystatin C out of the blood so it can be excreted in your urine. ...
more infohttp://healthlibrary.brighamandwomens.org/RelatedItems/167,cystatin_c

Cst3 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102519 - cystatin CCst3 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102519 - cystatin C

J:228141 Ji X, et al., Cystatin C attenuates insulin signaling transduction by promoting endoplasmic reticulum stress in ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:102519

Cystatin C, eGFR, Creatinine, and More - AACC.orgCystatin C, eGFR, Creatinine, and More - AACC.org

Home // ... // Clinical Laboratory News // CLN Stat // Cystatin C, eGFR, Creatinine, and More ... The principal advantage of cystatin C, Miller said, is for use in children and older adults, in whom creatinine-based eGFR is ... The 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines added a recommendation to also use cystatin C when calculating an ... "The laboratory challenge is that not all commercial methods for measuring cystatin C have calibration traceable to the ...
more infohttps://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/cln-stat/2016/july/12/cystatin-c-egfr-creatinine-and-more.aspx

NHANES 1999-2000:
						Cystatin C - Serum (Surplus) Data Documentation, Codebook, and FrequenciesNHANES 1999-2000: Cystatin C - Serum (Surplus) Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies

SSCYPC - Cystatin C (mg/L). Variable Name: SSCYPC. SAS Label: Cystatin C (mg/L). English Text: Cystatin C (mg/L). Target: Both ... Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. English Text: Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. Target: Both males and females 12 YEARS ... Cystatin C - Serum (Surplus) (SSCYST_A) Data File: SSCYST_A.xpt First Published: June 2008. Last Revised: NA ... WTSCY4YR - Surplus sera cystatin 99-02 weights. Variable Name: WTSCY4YR. SAS Label: ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/1999-2000/SSCYST_A.htm

CST7 - Cystatin-F precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CST7 gene & proteinCST7 - Cystatin-F precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CST7 gene & protein

Belongs to the cystatin family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Signal. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes: ... "Structural basis of reduction-dependent activation of human cystatin F.". Schuettelkopf A.W., Hamilton G., Watts C., van Aalten ... "Structural basis of reduction-dependent activation of human cystatin F.". Schuettelkopf A.W., Hamilton G., Watts C., van Aalten ... "Structural basis of reduction-dependent activation of human cystatin F.". Schuettelkopf A.W., Hamilton G., Watts C., van Aalten ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O76096
  • Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. (lu.se)
  • L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. (lu.se)
  • International normalized ratio (INR) and serum bilirubin, sodium, and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of mortality, in multivariate analyses, while INR and serum sodium and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of the development of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Results: Spermatozoa from mice expressing human L68Q cystatin C exhibit fertility defects and increased levels of amyloid. (lu.se)
  • Conclusion: L68Q epididymal fluid containing cystatin C amyloid is harmful for sperm function. (lu.se)
  • Examination of the epididymal fluid and spermatozoa from L68Q mice showed increased levels and distinct forms of cystatin C amyloid that were not present in WT mice. (lu.se)
  • L68Q epididymal fluid that was depleted of cystatin C amyloids, however, did not impair the motility of WT spermatozoa. (lu.se)
  • FRIDAY, Sept. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Serum cystatin C level is an excellent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhotic ascites, according to a study published online Sept. 14 in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology . (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cystatin B as a potential diagnostic biomarker in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
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