CystathionineCystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.HomocystineHydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.HomoserineMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vitamin U: A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Reflex, Abdominal: Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Amino Acids, SulfurBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.L-Serine Dehydratase: A PYRIDOXAL-phosphate containing enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration and deamination of L-serine to form pyruvate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.13.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.GlyoxylatesFolic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Amidine-Lyases: These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Keto AcidsEthionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Livedo Reticularis: A condition characterized by a reticular or fishnet pattern on the skin of lower extremities and other parts of the body. This red and blue pattern is due to deoxygenated blood in unstable dermal blood vessels. The condition is intensified by cold exposure and relieved by rewarming.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.

Inhibition of glutathione synthesis with propargylglycine enhances N-acetylmethionine protection and methylation in bromobenzene-treated Syrian hamsters. (1/252)

The finding that liver necrosis caused by the environmental glutathione (GSH)-depleting chemical, bromobenzene (BB) is associated with marked impairment in O- and S-methylation of BB metabolites in Syrian hamsters raises questions concerning the role of methyl deficiency in BB toxicity. N-Acetylmethionine (NAM) has proven to be an effective antidote against BB toxicity when given after liver GSH has been depleted extensively. The mechanism of protection by NAM may occur via a replacement of methyl donor and/or via an increase of GSH synthesis. If replacement of the methyl donor is an important process, then blocking the resynthesis of GSH in the methyl-repleted hamsters should not decrease NAM protection. This hypothesis was examined in this study. Propargylglycine (PPG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionase, was used to inhibit the utilization of NAM for GSH resynthesis. Two groups of hamsters were pretreated with an intraperitoneal (ip) dose of PPG (30 mg/kg) or saline 24 h before BB administration (800 mg/kg, ip). At 5 h after BB treatment, an ip dose of NAM (1200 mg/kg) was given. Light microscopic examinations of liver sections obtained 24 h after BB treatment indicated that NAM provided better protection (P < 0.05) in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. Liver GSH content, however, was lower in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. The Syrian hamster has a limited capability to N-deacetylated NAM. The substitution of NAM with methionine (Met; 450 mg/kg) resulted in a higher level of GSH in the BB + Met group than in the BB + NAM group (P < 0.05). The enhanced protection by PPG in the PPG + BB + NAM group was accompanied by higher (P < 0.05) urinary excretions of specificO- and S-methylated bromothiocatechols than in the BB + NAM group. The results suggest that NAM protection occurs primarily via a replacement of the methyl donor and that methyl deficiency occurring in response to GSH repletion plays a potential role in BB toxicity.  (+info)

CYS3, a hotspot of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Effects of heterozygosity and mismatch repair functions on gene conversion and recombination intermediates. (2/252)

We have examined meiotic recombination at the CYS3 locus. Genetic analysis indicates that CYS3 is a hotspot of meiotic gene conversion, with a putative 5'-3' polarity gradient of conversion frequencies. This gradient is relieved in the presence of msh2 and pms1 mutations, indicating an involvement of mismatch repair functions in meiotic recombination. To investigate the role of mismatch repair proteins in meiotic recombination, we performed a physical analysis of meiotic DNA in wild-type and msh2 pms1 strains in the presence or absence of allelic differences at CYS3. Neither the mutations in CYS3 nor the absence of mismatch repair functions affects the frequency and distribution of nearby recombination-initiating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Processing of DSBs is also similar in msh2 pms1 and wild-type strains. We conclude that mismatch repair functions do not control the distribution of meiotic gene conversion events at the initiating steps. In the MSH2 PMS1 background, strains heteroallelic for frameshift mutations in CYS3 exhibit a frequency of gene conversion greater than that observed for either marker alone. Physical analysis revealed no modification in the formation of DSBs, suggesting that this marker effect results from subsequent processing events that are not yet understood.  (+info)

Cystalysin, a 46-kDa L-cysteine desulfhydrase from Treponema denticola: biochemical and biophysical characterization. (3/252)

A 46-kDa hemolytic protein referred to as cystalysin, from Treponema denticola ATCC 35404, was characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli LC-67. Cystalysin lysed erythrocytes, hemoxidized hemoglobin to sulfhemoglobin and methemoglobin, and removed the sulfhydryl and amino group from selected S-containing compounds (e.g., cysteine) producing H2S, NH3, and pyruvate. With L-cysteine as substrate, cystalysin obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Cystathionine and s-aminoethyl-L-cysteine were also substrates. Several of the small alpha amino acids were found to be competitive inhibitors of cystalysin. The enzymatic activity was increased by beta-mercaptoethanol and was not inhibited by the proteinase inhibitor TLCK (N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone), pronase, or proteinase K, suggesting the functional site was physically protected or located in a small fragment of the polypeptide. We hypothesize that cystalysin is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate-containing enzyme with the activity of an alphaC-N and betaC-S lyase (cystathionase). Since high amounts of H2S have been reported in deep periodontal pockets, this metabolic enzyme from T. denticola may also function in vivo as an important virulence molecule.  (+info)

Kinetics and inhibition of recombinant human cystathionine gamma-lyase. Toward the rational control of transsulfuration. (4/252)

The gene encoding human cystathionine gamma-lyase was cloned from total cellular Hep G2 RNA. Fusion to a T7 promoter allowed expression in Escherichia coli, representing the first mammalian cystathionine gamma-lyase overproduced in a bacterial system. About 90% of the heterologous gene product was insoluble, and renaturation experiments from purified inclusion bodies met with limited success. About 5 mg/liter culture of human cystathionine gamma-lyase could also be extracted from the soluble lysis fraction, employing a three-step native procedure. While the enzyme showed high gamma-lyase activity toward L-cystathionine (Km = 0.5 mM, Vmax = 2.5 units/mg) with an optimum pH of 8.2, no residual cystathionine beta-lyase behavior and only marginal reactivity toward L-cystine and L-cysteine were detected. Inhibition studies were performed with the mechanism-based inactivators propargylglycine, trifluoroalanine, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Propargylglycine inactivated human cystathionine gamma-lyase much more strongly than trifluoroalanine, in agreement with the enzyme's preference for C-gamma-S bonds. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed slow and tight binding characteristics with a Ki of 10.5 microM, comparable with its effect on cystathionine beta-lyase. The results have important implications for the design of specific inhibitors for transsulfuration components.  (+info)

Elevated expression of liver gamma-cystathionase is required for the maintenance of lactation in rats. (5/252)

Liver gamma-cystathionase activity increases in rats during lactation; its inhibition due to propargylglycine is followed by a significant decrease in lactation. This is reversible by N-acetylcysteine administration. To study the role of liver gamma-cystathionase and the intertissue flux of glutathione during lactation, we used lactating and virgin rats fed liquid diets. Virgin rats were divided into two groups as follows: one group was fed daily a diet containing the same amount of protein that was consumed the previous day by lactating rats (high protein diet-fed rats); the other virgin group was fed the normal liquid diet (control). The expression and activity of liver gamma-cystathionase were significantly greater in lactating rats and in high protein diet-fed virgin rats compared with control rats. The total glutathione [reduced glutathione (GSH) + oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] released per gram of liver did not differ in lactating rats or in high protein diet-fed rats, but it was significantly higher in these two groups than in control virgin rats. Liver size and the GSH + GSSG released by total liver were significantly higher in lactating rats than in high protein diet-fed virgin rats, and this difference was similar to the amount of glutathione taken up by the mammary gland (454.2 +/- 36.0 nmol/min). The uptake of total glutathione by the lactating mammary gland was much higher than the uptakes of free L-cysteine and L-cystine, which were negligible. These data suggest that the intertissue flux of glutathione is an important mechanism of L-cysteine delivery to the lactating mammary gland, which lacks gamma-cystathionase activity. This emphasizes the physiologic importance of the increased expression and activity of liver gamma-cystathionase during lactation.  (+info)

High dietary protein and taurine increase cysteine desulfhydration in kittens. (6/252)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary protein and taurine on cysteine desulfhydration in various kitten tissues. Cysteine desulfhydration was assessed in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, spleen, brain and jejunum of kittens fed one of the following diets for 5 wk: 20% protein, 0% taurine diet (LP0T); 20% protein, 0.15% taurine diet (LPNT); 60% protein, 0% taurine diet (HP0T); and 60% protein, 0.15% taurine diet (HPNT). Cats fed LP0T and HP0T had been fed a taurine-free diet for 10 wk before the 5-wk experiment. The activity of cysteine desulfhydration was determined by measuring the production of H(2)(35)S from (35)S-cysteine in the presence and absence of alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) in the incubation medium. Liver and kidney had the highest total activities among the tissues tested (P < 0.01). Total hepatic desulfhydration activities [micromol H(2)S/(min. kg body wt)] in cats fed LP0T, LPNT, HP0T and HPNT were (mean +/- SEM) 117 +/- 6, 135 +/- 10, 137 +/- 10 and 190 +/- 9, respectively. Dietary taurine had a significant effect on activity when expressed per gram liver (P < 0.01), per gram protein (P < 0.05) and per kilogram body weight (P < 0.001). Dietary protein had a significant effect (P < 0.001) only when activity was expressed relative to body weight because of the significant effect of protein on relative liver weight. The direct pathway via cysteine desulfhydrase appears to be the major route of cysteine desulfhydration in kitten liver because the values obtained in the absence of alphaKG were 81-88% of those obtained in the presence of alphaKG.  (+info)

X-ray structure of MalY from Escherichia coli: a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme acting as a modulator in mal gene expression. (7/252)

MalY represents a bifunctional pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme acting as a beta-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose regulon. Here we present the crystal structures of wild-type and A221V mutant protein. Each subunit of the MalY dimer is composed of a large pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding domain and a small domain similar to aminotransferases. The structural alignment with related enzymes identifies residues that are generally responsible for beta-lyase activity and depicts a unique binding mode of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate correlated with a larger, more flexible substrate-binding pocket. In a screen for MalY mutants with reduced mal repressor properties, mutations occurred in three clusters: I, 83-84; II, 181-189 and III, 215-221, which constitute a clearly distinguished region in the MalY crystal structure far away from the cofactor. The tertiary structure of one of these mutants (A221V) demonstrates that positional rearrangements are indeed restricted to regions I, II and III. Therefore, we propose that a direct protein-protein interaction with MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the maltose system, underlies MalY-dependent repression of the maltose system.  (+info)

Effects of thyroxine on L-cysteine desulfuration in mouse liver. (8/252)

The effect of exogenous thyroxine (T4) administration on the activity of rhodanese, cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of mouse liver was investigated. Three groups of mice were treated for 6 consecutive days with subcutaneous injections of T4 (50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 250 micrograms per 100 g of body wt, respectively). The other 3 groups were given 100 micrograms of T4 per 100 g of body wt for 1, 2, or 3 days. The dose of 100 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt given for 6 days exerted the strongest effect on the activity of all of the investigated enzymes. In comparison to the control, rhodanese activity diminished in the mitochondrial fraction by 40% (P < 0.05), cystathionase activity diminished in the cytosolic fraction by 15% (P < 0.05), and MPST activity in the mitochondrial fraction was reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), whereas cytosolic MPST activity was unaltered. Simultaneously, in the liver homogenate, elevated levels of ATP and sulfate were observed after 6 days of T4 administration. Thus, the present results seem to suggest that in the mouse liver, after 6 days of administration of 100 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt, the desulfuration metabolism of L-cysteine is diminished, which is probably accompanied by an increase in oxidative L-cysteine metabolism. The dose of 100 micrograms per 100 g of body wt administered for a shorter period, and the use of a lower dosage (50 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt) for 6 days had a stimulatory effect upon MPST activity level, and an increased level of sulfane sulfur was observed.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of cystathionine gamma-lyase in the Medical Dictionary? cystathionine gamma-lyase explanation free. What is cystathionine gamma-lyase? Meaning of cystathionine gamma-lyase medical term. What does cystathionine gamma-lyase mean?
1N8P: Determinants of Enzymatic Specificity in the Cys-Met-Metabolism PLP-Dependent Enzymes Family: Crystal Structure of Cystathionine gamma-lyase from Yeast and Intrafamiliar Structural Comparison
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two pathways for cysteine biosynthesis in Leishmania major. AU - Williams, Roderick A. M.. AU - Westrop, Gareth D.. AU - Coombs, Graham H.. PY - 2009/6/15. Y1 - 2009/6/15. N2 - Genome mining and biochemical analyses have shown that Leishmania major possesses two pathways for cysteine synthesis - the de novo biosynthesis pathway comprising SAT (serine acetyltransferase) and CS (cysteine synthase) and the RTS (reverse trans-sulfuration) pathway comprising CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) and CGL (cystathionine gamma-lyase). The LmjCS (L. major CS) is similar to the type A CSs of bacteria and catalyses the synthesis of cysteine using O-acetylserine and Sulfide with K(m)s of 17.5 and 0.13 mm respectively. LmjCS can use sulfide provided by the action of MST (mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase) oil 3-MP (3-mercaptopyruvate). LmJCS forms a bi-enzyme complex with Leishmania SAT (and Arabidopsis SAT), with residues LYs(222), His(226) and Lys(227) of LmjCS being involved in the complex ...
Tripatara, P., Patel, N.S.A., Brancaleone, V., Renshaw, D., Rocha, J., Sepodes, B., Mota-Filipe, H., Perretti, M. and Thiemermann, C. 2009. Characterisation of cystathionine gamma-lyase/hydrogen sulphide pathway in ischaemia/reperfusion injury of the mouse kidney: an in vivo study. European Journal of Pharmacology. 606 (1-3), pp. 205-209. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.01.041 Annexin 1 mediates the rapid anti-inflammatory effects of neutrophil-derived microparticles ...
Cysteine occupies a central position in plant metabolism due to its biochemical functions. Arabidopsis thaliana cells contain different O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of cysteine. Because they are localized in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria, this results in multiple subcellular cysteine pools. Much progress has been made on the most abundant OASTL enzymes; however, information on the less abundant OASTL-like proteins has been scarce. To unequivocally establish the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by the minor cytosolic OASTL isoform CS-LIKE (AT5G28030), we expressed this enzyme in bacteria and characterized the purified recombinant protein. Our results demonstrate that CS-LIKE catalyzes the desulfuration of L-cysteine to sulfide plus ammonia and pyruvate. Thus, CS-LIKE is a novel L-cysteine desulfhydrase (EC 4.4.1.1), and we propose to designate it DES1. The impact and functionality of DES1 in cysteine metabolism was revealed by the phenotype of the T-DNA
BACKGROUND: Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was shown to have a regulatory role in glucose metabolism. Circulatory shock can induce metabolic stress, thereby leading to hyperglycemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro data suggest an effect of high glucose on CSE expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on CSE expression in resuscitated murine septic shock. METHODS: Normo- (80-150 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic (,200 mg/dl) male C57/BL6J mice (n = 5-6 per group) underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis or sham procedure (n = 6 per group) and, 15 h afterwards, were anesthetized again, surgically instrumented and received intensive care treatment, including antibiotics, lung protective mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, and intravenous (i ...
1974) Cystathionase deficiency in fibroblast cultures from a patient with primary cystathioninuria. Journal of Medical Genetics, 11 (2). pp. 121-122. ...
Although much attention has been given to the OASTL gene family of Arabidopsis in recent years (Heeg et al., 2008; López-Martín et al., 2008a; Watanabe et al., 2008a; Álvarez et al., 2010, 2011; Bermúdez et al., 2010; García et al., 2010; Wirtz et al., 2010), little importance has been assigned to the minor OASTL-like proteins with different enzyme activities of Cys biosynthesis, which can strongly affect plant metabolism when their function is disrupted (Gotor et al., 2010). This is the case for DES1, which is the only identified l-Cys desulfhydrase located in the cytosol and is involved in the degradation of Cys and the concomitant generation of H2S in this cellular compartment. The function of DES1 is evidenced by the fact that the T-DNA insertion mutants des1-1 and des1-2 exhibit 20 and 25% increases, respectively, in their total Cys content relative to their respective wild types (Álvarez et al., 2010). Accordingly, the leaf endogenous H2S concentrations in the null mutants are 30% ...
D-cysteine is an unnatural amino acid and a powerful inhibitor of Escherichia coli growth.. White to slightly off-white crystalline powder. Store at -15°C, protect from light and air.. Free Shipping within the Continental USA ...
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Product Number , 47269964. CAS Number , 921-01-7. EC , Molecular Formula , -. Molecular Weight , 121.16. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29309013. Signal Word , ...
Cystathionine β-synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and cystathionase activities were assayed in skin fibroblast cultures from five pyridoxine responsive and five pyridoxine non-responsive...
Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is hypothesized to have an important role in systemic inflammation. We investigated if endogenous H(2)S may be a crucial mediator in airway inflammation and airway remodeling in a rat model of asthma and if endogenous H(2)S may exert its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO pathway. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE; a H(2)S-synthesizing enzyme) was mainly expressed in airway and vascular smooth muscle cells in rat lung tissue. Levels of endogenous H(2)S was decreased in pulmonary tissue in ovalbumin (OVA)-treated rats. Exogenous administration of NaHS alleviated airway inflammation and airway remodeling: peak expiratory flow (PEF) increased, goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition score decreased, with decreased total cells recovered from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and influx of eosinophils and neutrophils. The H(2)S levels of serum and lung tissue were positively correlated with PEF and negatively correlated ...
We previously reported that the endogenous cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE)/hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, but the exact cellular mechanisms are not well characterized. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in alveolar epithelial cells, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. We studied whether H(2)S could attenuate EMT in cultured alveolar epithelial cells and TGF-beta 1 treatment suppressed CSE expression in A549 cells. Inhibition of endogenous CSE by DL-propargylglycine led to spontaneous EMT, as manifested by decreased E-cadherin level, increased vimentin expression and fibroblast-like morphologic features. Exogenous H(2)S applied to TGF-beta 1-treated A549 cells decreased vimentin expression, increased E-cadherin level and retained epithelial morphologic features. In addition, preincubation with H(2)S decreased Smad2/3 ...
The gas hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging as a novel regulator of important physiologic functions such as arterial diameter, blood flow and leukocyte adhesion. In addition, it may have antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. H2S has recently attracted much interest as a potent vasorelaxative substance that may establish itself alongside another gaseous signal molecule, nitric oxide (NO). In contrast to NO, the major source of H2S in blood may be production by red blood cells or by vascular smooth muscle cells. H2S is produced from cysteine, involving the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE). The importance of CSE was recently demonstrated in a mouse lacking CSE which showed reduced H2S levels and developed hypertension and reduced endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation. These data establish H2S as a new and important biologic signal molecule and as a new regulator of vascular blood flow and blood pressure. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of Hydrogen Sulfide as a Gasotransmitter in Modulating Contractile Activity of Circular Muscle of Rat Jejunum. AU - Nagao, Munenori. AU - Duenes, Judith A.. AU - Sarr, Michael G.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Aim: Our aim was to determine mechanisms of action of the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) on contractile activity in circular muscle of rat jejunum. Methods: Jejunal circular muscle strips were prepared to measure isometric contractions. Effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H 2S donor, were evaluated on spontaneous contractile activity and after pre-contraction with bethanechol. l-Cysteine was evaluated as an endogenous H 2S donor. We evaluated extrinsic nerves, enteric nervous system, visceral afferent nerves, nitric oxide, K + ATP and K + CA channels, and myosin light chain phosphatase on action of H 2S using non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic conditions, tetrodotoxin, capsaicin, l-N G-nitro arginine (l-NNA), glibenclamide, apamin, and calyculin A, ...
The possible role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cardioprotection was investigated in isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed to severe metabolic inhibition (MI) in glucose-free buffer containing 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG), an inhibitor of glycolysis. Pretreatment (30:min) with NaHS (a H 2S donor) at concentrations of 10-5 to 10-4 mol/L caused a concentration related increase in cell viability and the ratio of rod-shaped cells. A time course study showed that NaHS-induced cardioprotection occurred in 2 time windows (~1:h and 16-28:h). To observe whether endogenous H2S may be involved in the delayed cardioprotection response of IP, DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA; two inhibitors of H2S biosynthesis) were used. Both drugs significantly attenuated the cardioprotection produced by MI using cell viability, cellular injury index, and electrically-induced [Ca2+]i transients as end-points. These data suggest that endogenous H2S plays an important role in the cardioprotection ...
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae cystathionine gamma-lyase (metB), o-antigen export system permease protein RfbD, teichoic acid export ATP-binding protein TagH, hypothetical protein, glycosyl transferase, group 2 family protein, hypothetical protein, phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, mobile element protein, hypothetical proteins, phytoene desaturase, putative transmembrane oxidoreductase protein, hypothetical proteins, oxidoreductase, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, probable oxidoreductase, integral membrane proteins, and electron transfer flavoprotein, alpha subunit (etfA) genes, complete ...
Cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) is the last enzyme of the trans-sulphuration pathway, which converts methionine into cysteine. To study the possible differences in enzymic activity of the two human cystathionine γ-lyase isoforms characterized earlier, these were separately expressed in human kidney embryonic 293T cells. Furthermore, developmental changes in the expression of the two mRNA forms as well as the enzymic activity in human liver were studied, as it has been postulated that a change in the relative expression of CGL isoforms causes the postnatal increase in CGL activity. Transfection with the longer isoform increased the CGL activity 1.5-fold, while the activity of the cells transfected with the shorter form did not differ from the basal activity. In human liver samples, CGL activity was only detected in adult tissue (68±9 nmol of cysteine/h per mg of protein), whereas activity in fetal, premature and full-term neonatal liver tissue was undetectable. In contrast, strong mRNA expression ...
Abstract. Traditionally, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was simply considered as a toxic and foul smelling gas, but recently H2S been brought into the spot light of cardiovascular research and development. Since the 1990s, H2S has been mounting evidence of physiological properties such as immune modification, vascular relaxation, attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammatory mitigation, and angiogenesis. H2S has since been recognized as the third physiological gaseous signaling molecule, along with CO and NO [65, 66]. H2S is produced endogenously through several key enzymes, including cystathionine β-lyase (CBE), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST)/cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). These specific enzymes are expressed accordingly in various organ systems and CSE is the predominant H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. The cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)/H2S pathway has demonstrated various cardioprotective effects, including anti-atherosclerosis, ...
Abstract. Traditionally, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was simply considered as a toxic and foul smelling gas, but recently H2S been brought into the spot light of cardiovascular research and development. Since the 1990s, H2S has been mounting evidence of physiological properties such as immune modification, vascular relaxation, attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammatory mitigation, and angiogenesis. H2S has since been recognized as the third physiological gaseous signaling molecule, along with CO and NO [65, 66]. H2S is produced endogenously through several key enzymes, including cystathionine β-lyase (CBE), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST)/cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). These specific enzymes are expressed accordingly in various organ systems and CSE is the predominant H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. The cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)/H2S pathway has demonstrated various cardioprotective effects, including anti-atherosclerosis, ...
...Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may play a wide-ranging role in staving off agi... H2S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous ...Hydrogen sulfide is produced within the human body and has a variety ...The gene klotho which appears to be upregulated by hydrogen sulfide...,Hydrogen,sulfide:,The,next,anti-aging,agent?,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is high in CKD patients. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency plays a crucial role in progression of CKD. This leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could serve as a backup mechanism for NO deficiency in CKD. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivate of cysteine and this is the main substrate for H2S production. Therefore, NAC should enable us to stimulate H2S production in humans. Our objective is to investigate the effect of NAC on plasma H2S levels and on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in healthy volunteers, CKD patients, and dialysis patients. We hypothesize that there is an increase in H2S levels after treatment with NAC ...
Autor: Riemenschneider, A. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2005; Keywords: arabidopsis thaliana|br/|cysteine|br/|desulfhydrase|br/|h2s|br/|o-acetyl-l-serine|br/|acetylserine thiol lyase|br/|arabidopsis-thaliana|br/|brassica-oleracea|br/|atmospheric h2s|br/|sulfur source|br/|protein|br/|plants|br/|mitochondrial|br/|sulfide|br/|biosynthesis; Titel: Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism
A diverse range of effects of the intestinal microbiota on mucosal defence and injury has become increasingly clear over the past decade. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important mediator of many physiological functions, including gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair. Hydrogen sulfide is produced gastrointestinal tract tissues and by bacteria residing within the gut, and can influence the function of a wide range of cells. The microbiota also appears to be an important target of hydrogen sulfide. H2S donors can modify the gut microbiota and the gastrointestinal epithelium is a major site of oxidation of microbial-derived H2S. When administered together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, H2S can prevent some of the dysbiosis those drugs induce, possibly contributing to the observed prevention of gastrointestinal damage. Exogenous H2S can also markedly reduce the severity of experimental colitis and plays important roles in modulating epithelial cell-mucus-bacterial ...
Autism is a neurological disorder caused by dysfunctional metabolic control over methylation reactions, and thimerosal appears to be a precipitating causative factor in many cases. The methionione cycle and the trans-sulfuration pathway leading to cysteine and glutathione synthesis are abnormal in autism. Genetic polymorphisms, present in only a small subpopulation, represent risk factors for autism. As illustrated in Fig. 11, some of these genetic factors impair detoxification and clearance of heavy metals, including thimerosal, and also impair the capacity for methylation. Delayed clearance of thimerosal further impairs methylation, including both DNA methylation and dopamine-stimulated phospholipid methylation, adversely affecting growth factor-directed development and the capacity for attention, respectively. Autism can be treated, and some of the most effective treatments, such as methylcobalamin, act by improving methylation. This encouraging therapeutic development reinforces the ...
Im probably not saying this right because I really dont understand all the different pathways and their effect on the body, but Im wondering if...
Most bacteria are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide and use a trio of enzymes to do so. Classically, this gas was considered a by-product of sulfur metabolism, but knowing that nitric oxide protects Gram-positive bacteria against oxidative stress, Shatalin et al. (see the Perspective by Belenky and Collins) discovered that H2S probably does likewise. When the H2S-producing enzymes were inactivated, bacteria became more susceptible to antibiotics unless supplied with a source of H2S.. K. Shatalin, E. Shatalina, A. Mironov, E. Nudler, H2S: A universal defense against antibiotics in bacteria. Science 334, 986-990 (2011). [Abstract] [Full Text] P. Belenky, J. J. Collins, Antioxidant strategies to tolerate antibiotics. Science 334, 915-916 (2011). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
InCHi String: isomeric SMILES: C(CSC[[email protected]](C(=O)O)N)[[email protected]@H](C(=O)O)N. canonical SMILES: C(CSCC(C(=O)O)N)C(C(=O)O)N. IUPAC: IUPAC openeye: IUPAC systematic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen sulfide and cancer. AU - Hellmich, Mark. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Recent studies revealed increased expression of various hydrogen sulfide (H2S)- producing enzymes in cancer cells of various tissue types, and new roles of H2S in the pathophysiology of cancer have emerged. This is particularly evident in cancers of the colon and ovaries, where the malignant cells both overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and produce increased amounts of H2S, which enhances tumor growth and spread by (a) stimulating cellular bioenergetics, (b) activating proliferative, migratory, and invasive signaling pathways, and (c) enhancing tumor angiogenesis. Importantly, in preclinical models of these cancers, either pharmacological inhibition or genetic silencing of CBS was shown to be sufficient to suppress cancer cell bioenergetics in vitro, inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, and enhance the antitumor efficacy of frontline chemotherapeutic agents, providing ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-known poisonous gas, has been recognized as a critical endogenous gas transmitter in the past decade. To provide a quick and efficient detection method for hydrogen sulfide, a novel fluorescent probe DCI-NCN was designed based on an isophoronitrile scaffold featured with the cyanoxy g
Hydrogen Sulfide Gas. Describe H 2 S gas and where it is found:. Hydrogen Sulfide is a highly toxic gas often associated with operations involving decomposing organic material (rotting plant and animal tissues). Slideshow 6763227 by socorro-xovi
Article Hydrogen Sulfide Scrubber Systems in Hydrometallurgical Application. Hydrogen Sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas. Being heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Although very pungent at firs...
Yeast has been an important part of our portfolio ever since our predecessor company (Berkeley Yeast Laboratory) was founded in 1933. Our first commercial yeast offerings consisted of strains given to us from the collection of the University of California. The College of Agriculture at Berkeley had safeguarded them throughout the dark years of Prohibition. In each of the subsequent harvests we have learned and evolved. We are uniquely positioned to assist winemakers in meeting each years new challenges ...
Yeast has been an important part of our portfolio ever since our predecessor company (Berkeley Yeast Laboratory) was founded in 1933. Our first commercial yeast offerings consisted of strains given to us from the collection of the University of California. The College of Agriculture at Berkeley had safeguarded them throughout the dark years of Prohibition. In each of the subsequent harvests we have learned and evolved. We are uniquely positioned to assist winemakers in meeting each years new challenges ...
RealTime Laboratories, LLC announced today significant new findings regarding pervasive bacterial presence unique to contaminated drywall. RealTime has identified specific bacteria found only in symptomatic drywall and not in normal domestic drywall that are viable, pervasive and produce hydrogen sulfide and ...
Although scientists have known for centuries that many bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) it was thought to be simply a toxic by-product of cellular activity. Now, researchers at NYU School of Medicine have discovered ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has emerged as a novel and important gasotransmitter for the cardiovascular system, where it is generated mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Abnormal metabolism and functions of the H2 S/CSE ...
Hydrogen Sulfide or sour gas (H2S) is a flammable, colorless gas that is toxic at extremely low concentrations. It is heavier than air, and may accumulate in low-lying areas. It smells like rotten eggs at low concentrations and causes you to quickly lose your sense of smell. Many areas where the gas is found have been identified, but pockets of the gas can occur anywhere. Iron sulfide is a byproduct of many production operations and may spontaneously combustion with air.Flaring operations associated with H2S production will generate Sulfur Dioxide (S02), another toxic gas. Active monitoring for hydrogen sulfide gas and good planning and training programs for workers are the best ways to prevent injury and death.
The material in this post is extracted from Chapter 5 - Chemicals - of the book Plant Design and Operations. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic chemical compound that is found in a wide variety of oil processing operations. High concentrations of H2S may be present in crude oil, molten sulfur, tank and pit-bottom…
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may play a wide-ranging role in staving off ageing, according research exploring the compounds plethora of potential anti-aging pathways.
Abstract: 本文旨在观察外源性硫化氢(hydrogen sulfide,H2S)供体NaHS预处理对大鼠胃缺血再灌注(gastric ischemia-reperfusion,GI-R)损伤的影响及其可能的作用机制。实验分5组:假手术(sham)组、GI-R组、NaHS组、格列苯脲(glibenclamide)组和吡那地尔(pinacidil)组。采用夹闭雄性Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠腹腔动脉30min再灌注1h,建立GI-R损伤模型。采用Adobe ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and biothiol molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and homocysteine (Hcy), play an important role in biology. However, understanding the complicated relationship between H2S and biothiols remains an enormous challenge owing to the difficulty in sensing H2S and biothiols Recent HOT articles
Results for digester gas hydrogen sulfide services from UCI and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a colorless, flammable gas that has strong odor of rotten eggs. H2 S poisoning is a rarity, mainly observed in industrial settings.
I made this video today, while on my way to and oil drilling rig. Just some thoughts and observations. The info is in Scientific American mag., March 2010 issu…
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Theres a take-off of the industry slogan, "Beef: Its Whats For Dinner" - "Beef: Its Whats Rotting in Your Colon." I saw this on a shirt once with some friends and I was such the party pooper--no pun intended--explaining....... ...
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Marcin had one rule: work hard, play hard. Disgusted with himself, Marcin knew it was time for a change. He decided to compete & went from chunky to cut in 4 months.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been known as a noxious gas, however, we now know that H2S also acts an endogenous signaling molecule in humans. H2S has been shown to mediate a wide range of biological effects, ranging ...
Här visas alla kurser som är skapade i LTH:s system för forskarutbildningskurser, och som har tillfällen skapade i Ladok, dvs kurser som är aktuella vald termin. För innevarande och kommande terminer skapas tillfällen löpande och efter att det finns ett tillfälle i Ladok (med status komplett) dyker kursen upp i listan. ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter in human physiology and inflammatory disease, however, with limited knowledge of how signal transduction pathways are involved in immune cells. To examine the effects of sulfide on relevant intracellular signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we stimulated healthy donor PBMCs with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 1-1000 μM) to mimic H2S stimulation, and analyzed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) (pT180/pY182), NF-κB p65 (pS529), Akt (pS473) and CREB/ATF1 (pS133/pS63) with flow and mass cytometry. In contrast to transient effects in subsets of lymphocytes, classical monocytes demonstrated sustained phosphorylation of p38, Akt and CREB/ATF1. NaHS induced calcium dependent phosphorylation of p38, Akt and CREB, but not NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of Akt was partly dependent on p38, indicative of p38-Akt crosstalk. Attenuation of these effects by molecules targeting p38 and Hsp90 indicated ...
China Sodium Hydrosulfide supplier, Ammonium Thiocyanate, Sodium Sulfide Manufacturers/ Suppliers - Qixian County Dongfang Chemical Co., Ltd.
The report presented here provides a detailed and an accurate account of each aspect of the global Liquid Sodium Hydrosulfide market to help players to better face market challenges and gain a competitive edge over other market participants.
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. Simultaneously,
Please click your "Back" button to return to the previous "Upgrade Page") Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Safety Program Background: Hydrogen sulfide presents a potential hazard to workers at the work site. It usually occurs as an unwanted by-product and can result in worker exposure in many different industries or occupations. To ensure protection against exposure to hydrogen sulfide, both workers and employers must be aware of its properties, how it affects the body and what to do in emergency situations. The Safety and Health Manager shall ensure that all personnel who will be working at the job site will be properly trained in Hydrogen sulfide awareness and contingency procedures. Occurrence of Hydrogen Sulfide: Hydrogen sulfide exposures usually occur during the drilling for or production of natural gas, crude oil and petroleum products. Hydrogen sulfide is also produced by the putrefication of organic matter and may accumulate in sewers, sewage treatment plants or hide storage pits in the tanning ...
Press Release issued Dec 1, 2017: Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) has been serving as an active source to cater intelligent research report to enlighten both readers and investors. This research study titled Sodium Hydrosulfide Market
The discourse relative to the legal responsibility for using defective drywall and to the nature of the chemicals which emit the hydrogen sulfide will undoubtedly continue for a long time. However, the basic fact that hydrogen sulfide is toxic and exposure to it is harmful in not questioned. Therefore, it is incumbent on all the responsible parties to immediately stop the exposure of people to HYDROGEN SULFIDE to prevent recurring harm to their health and damage to their property.. The toxicity of hydrogen sulfide is manifested in two different mechanisms: A. HYDROGEN SULFIDE reacts with the iron in the blood and depletes it and thus can have negative impact on the respiratory function of the body and the transfer of oxygen. This effect is more dangerous when the exposed people are old, children or infants, pregnant woman and people with respiratory issues, and, B. Chronic exposure even to minute concentrations of HYDROGEN SULFIDE (and sulfur oxides) reduce the resistance of the lungs to viral ...
Hydrogen sulphide or H2S is responsible for the characteristic "sulphur" smell of Rotorua.. There has long been medical and scientific debate about the health impacts of H2S gas in the workplace and residential areas, and this study is the largest ever of associations between ambient H2S and respiratory health. Concentrations of toxic hydrogen sulphide gas can be produced in factories as a by-product of industrial processes, as well as naturally in volcanic and geothermal regions like Rotorua.. The five year study examined a variety of health effects, including asthma, amongst over 1600 adult Rotorua residents. With a population of nearly 60,000, Rotorua is the largest centre anywhere with long term exposure to hydrogen sulphide and is recognised as an ideal place to research the health effects of H2S.. Exposure to H2S was estimated from measurements taken around Rotorua in summer and winter, and then each persons exposure was estimated from where they lived and worked. H2S exposure was divided ...
Purpose: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter that has vasodilatory properties. It may be a novel therapy for intestinal I/R. We hypothesized that: 1) H2S would improve post-ischemic survival, mesenteric perfusion, mucosal injury, and inflammation compared to vehicle, and 2) the benefits of H2S would be mediated through endothelial nitric oxide. Methods: C57Bl6J wild type (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock out (eNOS KO) mice were anesthetized and a midline laparotomy performed. Intestines were eviscerated, the small bowel mesenteric root identified, and baseline intestinal perfusion determined using Laser Doppler. Intestinal ischemia was established by temporarily occluding the superior mesenteric artery. Following ischemia, the clamp was removed and the intestines were allowed to recover. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) in 250µl of PBS or the vehicle was injected into the peritoneum. Animals were allowed to recover and were assessed for survival, mesenteric ...
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Appearing during the first three hours, Prof. Peter Ward, the author of Under a Green Sky, discussed his latest work on hydrogen sulfide extinctions, and how we are creating the circumstances for extinctions in the future. His research has connected past mass extinctions and global warming. Greenhouse gases and the melting of the ice-caps could create a dangerous situation where the ocean currents stop circulating. The stagnation of the oceans waters would lead to the thriving of a type of bacteria that produces hydrogen sulfide. Killing off life in the ocean and sending toxic gases into the atmosphere, hydrogen sulfide could actually turn the sky green, he noted. The coast off of Namibia is a hydrogen sulfide hot spot and the eruptions can be seen in this NASA satellite photo. Curiously, it has been found that hydrogen sulfide can have startling medical benefits, putting injured people into a kind of suspended animation until they can be treated. For more on hydrogen sul
Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic and flammable gas. Being heavier than air, it tends to accumulate at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Although very pungent at first, it quickly deadens the sense of smell, so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until it is too late.. Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison, meaning that it can poison several different systems in the body, although the nervous system is most affected. The toxicity of H2S is comparable with that of hydrogen cyanide. It forms a complex bond with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes, thereby blocking oxygen from binding and stopping cellular respiration. Since hydrogen sulfide occurs naturally in the environment and the gut, enzymes exist in the body capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to (harmless) sulfate.[6] Hence, low levels of sulfide may be tolerated indefinitely. However, at some threshold level, the oxidative enzymes will be overwhelmed. This threshold level is believed to ...
Calculate cost per different volumes and weights of Potassium hydrosulfide. Materials, substances and compounds price conversions and cost calculator
The specific rates of absorption of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of iodides, containing dissolved iodine, were measured in a 55 mm i.d. stirred cell, with batch and semi-batch modes of operation. The specific rates of absorption exceeded the rates that may be realised in the instantaneous reaction regime by factors as high as 8. This effect appears to be due to the precipitating (product) colloidal sulfur transporting dissolved hydrogen sulfide, through strong interaction, from near the gas-liquid interface into the bulk liquid. The relative values of the enhancement factor due to precipitated sulfur decrease with an increase in the concentration of dissolved iodine. A two-parameter model, incorporating the uptake of hydrogen sulfide by sulfur and the agglomeration of sulfur particles, has been developed which provides a reasonable framework to correlate the experimental data. ...
Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely dangerous gas that naturally occurs in and around oil and natural gas wells. Removing it from the wellhead is essential to the safety of workers around the jobsite.. Arclin has engineered a triazine-based hydrogen sulfide scavenger that interacts with hydrogen sulfide gases to form a nonvolatile compound that can be removed from the job site safely and easily. And Arclins H2S scavenger contains no measurable free formaldehyde.. ...
Abhisam informs us that they have released a free course on Hydrogen Sulfide (Hydrogen Sulphide, H2S) that can be taken online on their new learning portal at Anybody can freely register and get immediate access to this excellent course. The course details are available here at https://prettygoodcourses.com/courses/hydrogen-sulfide/ The course consists of the following […]. Continue Reading ...
Information on hydrogen sulphide (also known as hydrosulphuric acid, sulphur hydride or dihydrogen monosulphide), for use in responding to chemical incidents.
Many oil fields, especially mature ones, can produce high levels of hydrogen sulphide, which is deadly at even low concentrations. As drilling and completions are often in remote locations, getting to the nearest hospital in time to respond to an exposure event could be impossible. It is always crucial to be able to detect the gas as soon as possible when a leak occurs, in even the most challenging conditions.
How the gas is prepared Topic: Production of Hydrogen sulphide where is this terrible smell coming from? It is like rotten eggs, haa is so terrible. John
Hydrogen sulphide can create ill-health effects if it is inhaled, swallowed, or if it comes in contact with eyes, skin, nose or throat ...
This highly reliable, cost effective Hydrogen Sulphide sensor, amplifier and enclosure is designed to fit into any current controller or BMS system.
What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Hydrogen Sulphide? Get in-depth details about factors influencing the market shares of the important regions like United States, Asia-Pacific, United Kingdom, France & Germany?
CHAPEL HILL, N.C., Sept. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Aquagenx Launches New Quantitative Water Quality Test for Hydrogen Sulfide Bacteria. Compartment Bag Test for Hydrogen Sulfide Bacteria Overcomes Limitations of H2S Presence/Absence Tests for Field Level Testing.
A research team at Iowa State University (ISU) has developed a wireless hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detector that successfully detects the potentially fatal gas...
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Reaktivität: Fledermaus, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 121 verschiedene CBS Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
The Model 4501-05 2-wire Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Detector from Sierra Monitor Corporation is a loop powered gas detector that provides the user with lower cost and easier installation and maintenance.
Hydrogen sulfide solubility in 50â ¯wt% and 70â ¯wt% aqueous methyldiethanolamine at temperatures from 283 to 393â ¯K and total pressures from 500 to 10000â ¯kPa | Skylogianni, Eirini; Mundal, Ingvild; Pinto, Diego D.D.; Coquelet, Christophe; Knuutila, Hanna K. | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
1200-0516 - GDS Gas Detector Calibration Gas Kit Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) 10ppm. Balance Air. Kit includes a 58L Aluminium Cylinder of Calibration Gas, fixed flow regulator, tubing, calibration cup and carrying case. Optional Zero Air Cylinder.
JP-Scavenger Hydrogen Sulfide (H₂S) Scavenger was formulated to react and neutralize H₂S gas, but also provide a pleasant odor in an environmentally friendly manner.
There are a few facts you need to know about Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) gas.. The Maximun allowable level in the atmosphere is 10ppm. Over 20ppm and up to 150ppm causes irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. At a level of 500ppm for 30 minutes exposure you will be feeling nauseus, have a bad headache, be dizzy and disoriented. At 600ppm you may die inside of 30 minutes due to upper respiratory system paralysis.. Although 10ppm is the recommended maximium allowable level, most humans will start to detect H2S at less than 1ppm. At 10ppm it will be highly offensive to most. However prolonged exposure to low levels of H2S paralyses your sense of smell so may not smell higher dose rates.. H2S as such does not accumulate in the body, but it does combine with moisture (water) to form sulphuric acid, which can accumulate and make life quite uncomfortable.. Workplace where H2S is known to be prevalent MUST be protected by use of a gas detector and should also have sufficient positive velocity ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a potent vasodilator. However, the complex mechanisms of vasoregulation by H(2)S are not fully understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1) H(2)S exerts vasodilatory effects by opening KCNQ-type voltage-dependent (K(v)) K(+) channels and (2) that H(2)S-producing cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in perivascular adipose tissue plays a major role ...
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James A. Schouten; Sangeev Bagga; Adrian J. Lloyd; Gianfranco de Pascale; Christopher G. Dowson; David I. Roper; and Timothy D. H. Bugg. Fluorescent reagents for in vitro studies of lipid-linked steps of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis: derivatives of UDPMurNAc-pentapeptide containing D-cysteine at position 4 or 5. Mol. BioSyst. 2006, 2484-491.. Shu-Li Yo; and Jeffery W. Kelly.Total Synthesis of Dendroamide A:? Oxazole and Thiazole Construction Using an Oxodiphosphonium Salt. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 66 (24), 9506-9509.. ...
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Infrared (IR) cameras have been used extensively to detect hydrocarbon leaks from process equipment for both process safety and environmental appli
Hydrogen sulfide stinks, but you knew that already, didnt you. Hydrogen sulfide is flammable, but you probably knew that too ...
El-Sayed, Ashraf and Khalaf, Salwa and Abdel-Hamid, Gamal and El-Batrik, Mohamed (2015) Screening, morphological and molecular characterization of fungi producing cystathionine γ-lyase. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 66 (1). pp. 119-132. ISSN 0236-5383 ...
L-Cysteine is a crystalline free-form amino acid that is active in many body processes. L-Cysteine works in the liver to protect the body from harmful substance
L-cysteine Hydrochloride Review, Benefits, Side Effects and Uses. Anhydrous and Monohydrate formulas for solubility plus dosages and how to take.
NAC is a more stable form of L-Cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. NAC has all the properties of L-Cysteine but is more water.... View full details ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal Structures of Cystathionine β-Synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. T2 - One Enzymatic Step at a Time. AU - Tu, Yupeng. AU - Kreinbring, Cheryl A.. AU - Hill, Megan. AU - Liu, Cynthia. AU - Petsko, Gregory A.. AU - McCune, Christopher D.. AU - Berkowitz, David B. AU - Liu, Dali. AU - Ringe, Dagmar. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a key regulator of sulfur amino acid metabolism, taking homocysteine from the methionine cycle to the biosynthesis of cysteine via the trans-sulfuration pathway. CBS is also a predominant source of H2S biogenesis. Roles for CBS have been reported for neuronal death pursuant to cerebral ischemia, promoting ovarian tumor growth, and maintaining drug-resistant phenotype by controlling redox behavior and regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics. The trans-sulfuration pathway is well-conserved in eukaryotes, but the analogous enzymes have different enzymatic behavior in different organisms. CBSs from the higher ...
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, and hot springs. It can also result from bacterial breakdown of organic matter. It is also produced by human and animal wastes. Bacteria found in your mouth and gastrointestinal tract produce hydrogen sulfide from bacteria decomposing materials that contain vegetable or animal proteins. Hydrogen sulfide can also result from industrial activities, such as food processing, coke ovens, kraft paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries. Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable, colorless gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is commonly known as hydrosulfuric acid, sewer gas, and stink damp. People can smell it at low levels.
The effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and sulfur amino acid metabolism was examined in human lung epithelial-like (A549) cells exposed to various CSE concentrations (2.5-100%) for 24 or 48h. Intracellular SAM and SAM/SAH ratio were elevated after exposure to CSE for 48h. Cell SAH content decreased, but the effect was not consistent. Cellular cystathionine, cysteine, and methionine levels were increased after CSE exposure for 48h. Sub-acute exposure to CSE induced increases in cellular SAM and SAM/SAH ratio. The transsulfuration pathway was likely activated by CSE since cystathionine increased, potentially contributing to the increased total intracellular GSH content. © 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved ...
The Mediterranean diet is known for its cardioprotective effects. Recently, its protective qualities have also been reported in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidative stress is one of the important factors responsible for the development and progression of NAFLD. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a multifaceted gasotransmitter, has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are major enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S synthesis. Since oxidative stress contributes to NAFLD pathogenesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tyrosol, a major compound in olive oil and white wine, on high fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress and the mechanisms involved. Mice (C57BL/6) were fed for 5 weeks with a control diet (10 % kcal fat), a high fat diet (60 % kcal fat, HFD) or a HFD supplemented with tyrosol. High fat diet feeding induced hepatic oxidative stress, as indicated by the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Redox control of the transsulfuration and glutathione biosynthesis pathways.. AU - Deplancke, Bart. AU - Gaskins, H. Rex. PY - 2002/1. Y1 - 2002/1. N2 - Intracellular reduction-oxidation status is increasingly recognized as a primary regulator of cellular growth and development. The relative reduction-oxidation state of the cell depends primarily on the precise balance between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and the cysteine-dependent antioxidant thiol buffers glutathione and thioredoxin, which by preferentially reacting with reactive oxygen species, protect other intracellular molecules from oxidative damage. The transsulfuration pathway constitutes the major route of cysteine biosynthesis, and may thus be central in controlling the intracellular reduction-oxidation state and the balance between self-renewal and differentiation programs. This review discusses new findings on reciprocal reduction-oxidation modulation of enzymes involved in the transsulfuration and ...
Because hydrogen sulfide is such a common contaminant in methane, natural gas processors could potentially use this method in the sweetening process, reducing their energy use and saving money on the cost of sorbent materials," said Phillip Koech, lead author and senior research scientist.. In the new work, Koech and colleagues tested how well they could swing hydrogen sulfide through a series of processing liquids without using water or heat. They began with a substance known as a recyclable binding organic liquid that could hold onto hydrogen sulfide without the addition of water. First, they dissolved hydrogen sulfide in several different recyclable binding organic liquids and found that nearly all of them could hold the chemical without added water. They found one -- DMEA -- that could hold the most hydrogen sulfide. A chemical analysis suggested that hydrogen sulfide forms a salt with DMEA, turning the DMEA from an oily liquid into something more like salty water, but not water at ...
Objective Vascular disease is associated with increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine, and both are increased in renal failure. In cystathionine β-synthase deficiency (CBS
... cystathionine beta synthase; CGL: cystathionine gamma-lyase; DHF: dihydrofolate (vitamin B9); DMG: dimethylglycine; dTMP: ...
The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, ... Cystathionine beta-synthase then combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine. ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate. The ...
... is derived from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and 3- ...
Hypoxia detection has been shown to depend upon increased hydrogen sulfide generation produced by cystathionine gamma-lyase as ... The process of detection involves the interaction of cystathionine gamma-lyase with hemeoxygenase-2 and the production of ...
The code is developed by Sandia National Laboratories Contract to hire The HGNC approved symbol for Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
The cystathionine is then converted to hypotaurine by the sequential action of three enzymes: cystathionine gamma-lyase, ... Prematurely born infants are believed to lack the enzymes needed to convert cystathionine to cysteine, and may, therefore, ... Taurine is also produced by the transsulfuration pathway, which converts homocysteine into cystathionine. ...
... an anaesthetic technique Cystathionine gamma-lyase, an enzyme Compañía Sevillana de Electricidad Communications Security ...
EC 4.3.1 Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) Category:EC 4.4.1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase Cystathionine beta-lyase ... EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3.2.13 Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase EC 2.3.2.2 Transglutaminase EC 2.3.2.13 Category:EC 2.4.2 ...
The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a ...
The gas is produced from cysteine by the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It acts as a ... Phagocytes are armed with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as a single ... Mellouk, S; Green, SJ; Nacy, CA; Hoffman, SL (1991). "IFN-gamma inhibits development of Plasmodium berghei exoerythrocytic ... of nitric oxide and clearance of interferon-gamma after BCG infection are impaired in mice that lack the interferon-gamma ...
The cystathionine is then used by the cystathionine gamma-lyase CTH, cysteine dioxygenase CDO, and cysteine sulfinic acid ... Alternately the Cysteine from the cystathionine gamma-lyase CTH gene enzyme can be used by the glutamate-cysteine ligase GCL ... It is then cleaved into cysteine and α-ketobutyrate by cystathionine gamma-lyase (lower reaction). Harris Ripps, Wen Shen (2012 ... Cystathionine is an intermediate in the synthesis of cysteine. Cystathionine is produced by the transsulfuration pathway which ...
Transsulfuration, catalyzed by CBS, converts homocysteine to cystathionine, which cystathione gamma lyase converts to cysteine ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-serine hydro-lyase (adding homocysteine; L-cystathionine-forming). Other names in ... A final transaldimination reaction releases the final product, cystathionine. The final product, L-cystathionine can also form ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, to be specific, the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. CBS is a ...
Other members include cystathionine gamma synthase, cystathionine beta lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. It is also a member ... Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH or CSE; also cystathionase) is an enzyme which breaks down cystathionine into cysteine, α- ... Cystathionine gamma lyase also shows gamma-synthase activity depending on the concentrations of reactants present. The ... resulting in the formation of a new sulfur-gamma carbon bond. Cystathionine gamma-lyase is a member of the Cys/Met metabolism ...
Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ... As shown in the mechanism below, cystathionine beta-lyase facilitates the S-C bond cleavage in cystathionine with the use of a ... crystal structure of cystathionine gamma-lyase from yeast and intrafamiliar structure comparison". Biological Chemistry. 384 (3 ... with cystathionine λ-synthase from plant and bacterial sources and cystathionine λ-lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All of ...
... cystathionine gamma-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.300.500 --- lactoylglutathione lyase MeSH D08.811.520.650.200 --- adenylate cyclase ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 --- amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 --- adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ... phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.700.700.750 --- phospholipase c gamma MeSH D08.811.277.352. ... oxo-acid-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.200 --- anthranilate synthase MeSH D08.811.520.224.600.700 --- isocitrate lyase MeSH ...
conversion to cysteine: Cystathionine beta synthase. *Cystathionine gamma-lyase. THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase ... response to interferon-gamma. • tryptophan catabolic process to acetyl-CoA. • L-kynurenine catabolic process. • tryptophan ...
conversion to cysteine: Cystathionine beta synthase. *Cystathionine gamma-lyase. THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase ...
conversion to cysteine: Cystathionine beta synthase. *Cystathionine gamma-lyase. THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase ... cystathionine-γ-synthase, Cystathionine-β-lyase (in mammals, this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or ... Aspartic acid is produced by the addition of ammonia to fumarate using a lyase.[22] ...
conversion to cysteine: Cystathionine beta synthase. *Cystathionine gamma-lyase. THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase ...
conversion to cysteine: Cystathionine beta synthase. *Cystathionine gamma-lyase. THREONINE→. *Threonine aldolase ...
Other names in common use include O-succinyl-L-homoserine succinate-lyase (adding cysteine), O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase ... In enzymology, a cystathionine gamma-synthase (EC 2.5.1.48) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction O4-succinyl-L- ... Kaplan MM, Flavin M (1966). "Cystathionine gamma-synthetase of Salmonella. Catalytic properties of a new enzyme in bacterial ... Clausen T, Huber R, Prade L, Wahl MC, Messerschmidt A (1998). "Crystal structure of Escherichia coli cystathionine gamma- ...
Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ...
The enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, ... Cysteine synthesis: Cystathionine beta synthase catalyzes the upper reaction and cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes the lower ... Cystathionine beta-synthase then combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine. ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate.[12] ...
Cystathionine beta synthase catalyzes the upper reaction and cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes the lower reaction. ...
... with cysteine to form cystathionine Cystathionine β-lyase (metC) which splits cystathionine into homocysteine and a deaminated ... Methionine gamma-lyase (mdeA) which breaks down methionine at the thioether and amine bounds Note: MetC, metB, metZ are closely ... Cystathionine γ-lyase (no common gene name) which joins an activated serine ether (acetyl or succinyl) with homocysteine to ... form cystathionine Not Cystathionine β-synthase which is a PLP enzyme type II cysteine biosynthesis from serine: O-acetyl ...
... with cysteine to form cystathionine Cystathionine β-lyase (metC) which splits cystathionine into homocysteine and a deaminated ... Methionine gamma-lyase (mdeA) which breaks down methionine at the thioether and amine bounds Note: MetC, metB, metZ are closely ... In Klebsiella pneumoniae the cystathionine β-synthase is encoded by mtcB, while the γ-lyase is encoded by mtcC. Humans are ... Cystathionine γ-lyase (no common gene name) which joins an activated serine ether (acetyl or succinyl) with homocysteine to ...
In addition, the breakdown of sphingolipids is also dependent on vitamin B6 because sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase, the enzyme ... PLP is a coenzyme needed for the proper function of the enzymes cystathionine synthase and cystathionase. These enzymes ... and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). PLP is also involved in the synthesis of histamine. ...
... cystathionine b-lyase EC 4.4.1.9: L-3-cyanoalanine synthase EC 4.4.1.10: cysteine lyase EC 4.4.1.11: methionine g-lyase EC 4.4. ... ureidoglycolate lyase EC 4.3.2.4: purine imidazole-ring cyclase EC 4.3.2.5: peptidylamidoglycolate lyase EC 4.3.2.6: gamma-L- ... pectin lyase EC 4.2.2.11: poly(a-L-guluronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.12: xanthan lyase EC 4.2.2.13: exo-(1-4)-α-D-glucan lyase EC 4.2. ... pectate lyase EC 4.2.2.3: poly(b-D-mannuronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.4: chondroitin ABC lyase EC 4.2.2.5: chondroitin AC lyase EC 4.2 ...
What is cystathionine gamma-lyase? Meaning of cystathionine gamma-lyase medical term. What does cystathionine gamma-lyase mean? ... Looking for online definition of cystathionine gamma-lyase in the Medical Dictionary? cystathionine gamma-lyase explanation ... Cystathionine gamma-lyase , definition of cystathionine gamma-lyase by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cystathionine+gamma-lyase,cystathionine gamma-lyase,/a,. *Facebook ...
Cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE; a H(2)S-synthesizing enzyme) was mainly expressed in airway and vascular smooth muscle cells in ...
Other members include cystathionine gamma synthase, cystathionine beta lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. It is also a member ... Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH or CSE; also cystathionase) is an enzyme which breaks down cystathionine into cysteine, α- ... Cystathionine gamma lyase also shows gamma-synthase activity depending on the concentrations of reactants present. The ... resulting in the formation of a new sulfur-gamma carbon bond. Cystathionine gamma-lyase is a member of the Cys/Met metabolism ...
Crystal Structure of cystathionine gamma-lyase from yeast. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1N8P/pdb ... The crystal structure of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) from yeast has been solved by molecular replacement at a resolution of ... The crystal structure of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) from yeast has been solved by molecular replacement at a resolution of ... Both CGLs and bacterial CGSs exhibit gamma-synthase and gamma-lyase activities depending on their position in the metabolic ...
Crystal Structure of Cystathionine gamma-lyase from Yeast and Intrafamiliar Structural Comparison ... Description: Cystathionine gamma-lyase protein , Length: 393 No structure alignment results are available for 1N8P.A, 1N8P.B, ...
Recombinant Protein and Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, ... Shop Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase ELISA Kit, ... Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase. Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase ELISA Kit. ... Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/cysteine synthase Antibody. Also known as Bifunctional cystathionine gamma-lyase/ ...
Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) is the major enzyme responsible for the endogenous production of H2S in pancreatic β cells and ...
Keywords: cystathionine-gamma-lyase; Hydrogen sulfide; Acute pancreatitis; Inflammation; siRNA; Macrophages Research Type: ... Effect of cystathionine-gamma-lyase gene silencing with siRNA on inflammation in acute pancreatitis. Badiei, Alireza ... Cite this item: Badiei, A. (2016). Effect of cystathionine-gamma-lyase gene silencing with siRNA on inflammation in acute ... Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by the activity of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in ...
... cystathionine beta synthase; CGL: cystathionine gamma-lyase; DHF: dihydrofolate (vitamin B9); DMG: dimethylglycine; dTMP: ...
cystathionine gamma-lyase. (redirected from homoserine dehydratase) cys·ta·thi·o·nine γ-ly·ase. (sistă-thīō-nēn līās), A ... See also: cystathionine β-lyase. Synonym(s): cystathionase, cysteine desulfhydrase, cystine desulfhydrase, γ-cystathionase, ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/homoserine+dehydratase,cystathionine gamma-lyase,/a,. *Facebook ... liver enzyme, requiring pyridoxal phosphate as coenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-cystathionine to l-cysteine and 2- ...
Nickel also repressed the mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, a H2S-generating gene) and blocked the ...
Glutathione depletion causes a JNK and p38MAPK-mediated increase in expression of cystathionine-gamma-lyase and upregulation of ... Glutathione depletion causes a JNK and p38MAPK-mediated increase in expression of cystathionine-gamma-lyase and upregulation of ... Glutathione depletion causes a JNK and p38MAPK-mediated increase in expression of cystathionine-gamma-lyase and upregulation of ... Keywords: Cystine-glutamate exchanger; Gliotoxin; Astrocyte; Transulfuration; C6 glioma; Cystathionine-g-lyase; Glutathione ...
Cystathionine gamma-lyase is t.... *tRNA Aminoacylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) tRNA Aminoacylation, ...
CCR4; CYS3; NTG1; DEP1; TPD3; carbon catabolite repressor; cystathionine gamma-lyase; protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit ... cystathionine gamma-lyase; YAL011W; Yal011wp; MDM10; Mdm10p: Mitochondria outer membrane protein. YSCNPTRPBX L11274 1838bp DNA ...
... cystathionine-beta-synthase; CTH, cystathionine gamma-lyase; AU, arbitrary units. (B) Cell lines were screened for their growth ... cystathionine), which are detected by LC-MS/MS. (C) Total ion counts of [M+4] cystathionine in MCF10A cells labeled with [U-13C ... 6A). We next labeled cells with [U-13C5]-methionine, which results in either (i) [M+4] cystathionine if the methionine carbon ... Most of the detected cystathionine was labeled at steady-state in both the empty vector-transfected and PIK3CA(H1047R) cells, ...
Detection of GSH levels in wild ype and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) silenced cells. Good Good 4/5 (Ease of Use) ...
CYStathionine gamma-lyase 1 Comparative Info. Integrated model organism details available at the Alliance of Genome Resources ... Cystathionine gamma-lyase involved in transsulfuration and cysteine biosynthesis; localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. ... Cystathionine gamma-lyase; catalyzes one of the two reactions involved in the transsulfuration pathway that yields cysteine ... from homocysteine with the intermediary formation of cystathionine; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication ...
... argininosuccinate lyase [EC:4.3.2.1] K01940 argG; argininosuccinate synthase [EC:6.3.4.5] K01758 CTH; cystathionine gamma-lyase ... CS053_06215 argH; argininosuccinate lyase CS053_06190 argininosuccinate synthase CS053_03570 PLP-dependent transferase CS053_ ... CS053_09180 pabC; aminodeoxychorismate lyase CS053_02085 queD; 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase QueD CS053_11690 4a- ... 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase [EC:4.1.3.38] K01737 queD; 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin/6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase [EC: ...
... cystathionine gamma-lyase [EC:4.4.1.1] K01464 DPYS; dihydropyrimidinase [EC:3.5.2.2] K03841 FBP; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I ... PGUG_05628 argininosuccinate lyase PGUG_00055 similar to arginino succinate synthase PGUG_04169 hypothetical protein PGUG_02864 ... argininosuccinate lyase [EC:4.3.2.1] K01940 argG; argininosuccinate synthase [EC:6.3.4.5] K02154 ATPeV0A; V-type H+- ...
Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ... As shown in the mechanism below, cystathionine beta-lyase facilitates the S-C bond cleavage in cystathionine with the use of a ... crystal structure of cystathionine gamma-lyase from yeast and intrafamiliar structure comparison". Biological Chemistry. 384 (3 ... with cystathionine λ-synthase from plant and bacterial sources and cystathionine λ-lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All of ...
s cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. Cystathionine gamma-lyase. Cystathionine gamma-lyase is an enzyme ... which breaks down cystathionine into cysteine and α-ketobutyrate. Pyridoxal phosphate is a prosthetic group of this enzyme.... ...
S. Li, G. Yang, Development of cystathionine gamma-lyase-specific microRNAs. Sci. Bull. 60, 503-510 (2015)CrossRefGoogle ...
Cystathionase (cystathionine gamma-lyase). NM_001902. NM_001190463. NM_153742. Gene Info. ... Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4. NM_001098722. NM_001098721. NM_004485. Gene Info. ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. NM_138711. NM_138712. NM_015869. NM_005037. Gene Info. ...
cystathionase (cystathionine gamma-lyase). Alleles Process NOTICE: Access to this model is conditioned on the requestors ...
Cystathionase (cystathionine gamma-lyase). NM_001902. NM_001190463. NM_153742. Gene Info. ...
  • Nickel also repressed the mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, a H 2 S-generating gene) and blocked the endogenous production of H 2 S. Exogenously applied NaHS (a H 2 S donor) had no effect on nickel-induced cell viability but significantly attenuated nickel-stimulated cell migration and the expression of αSMA and fibronectin. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we confirm the control of cystathionine γ-lyase gene expression by the CYS3 transcriptional activator through the loss of cys-16 + expression in a Δ cys-3 mutant and through the in vitro binding of CYS3 to the cys-16 + promoter at four sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fidel S, Doonan JH, Morris NR (1988) Aspergillus nidulans contains a single actin gene which has unique intron locations and encodes a gamma-actin. (springer.com)
  • This enzymatic activity accounts for the mitogenic properties of PLC-gamma 1. (jove.com)
  • We therefore hypothesized that blood and urine cystathionine levels may be increased in HD patients and that this increase might correlate with disease progression. (plos.org)
  • 4 Paralleling findings in individuals with inactivating mutations of the cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) gene which encodes CSE, a depletion of CSE might result in elevated levels of cystathionine in both blood and urine. (plos.org)
  • 6 Therefore, we hypothesized that the levels of cystathionine in both blood and urine may be increased in patients with HD compared to matched controls and that this increase might correlate with disease progression. (plos.org)
  • Phospholipase C Gamma 1 is a Physiological Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for the Nuclear GTPase PIKE Nature. (jove.com)
  • 2003. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Retinoid X Receptor Results in Net Depletion of Cellular Cholesteryl Esters in Macrophages Exposed to Oxidized Lipoproteins. (uwo.ca)
  • Incubation of C6 cells with diethylmaleate for 3 h led to a significant reduction in glutathione (63%), whereas expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase was increased by 1.5-fold. (ucd.ie)
  • The lone pair from the pyridine nitrogen pushes electron density to the gamma carbon, which is protonated by lysine. (wikipedia.org)