Biliary Tract Neoplasms
Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Hepatic Duct, Common
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Salivary Glands, Minor
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance
Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems
Radiology Department, Hospital
Overexpression of H-Ryk in mouse fibroblasts confers transforming ability in vitro and in vivo: correlation with up-regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer. (1/109)Abnormalities in the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been demonstrated to be important in the pathogenesis of cancer. H-Ryk, a new member of the RTK family, is an unusual RTK in that it is catalytically inactive because of amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the catalytic domain. We show by immunohistochemistry that it is expressed in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels of normal tissues. Evaluation of a panel of 33 primary ovarian tumors (2 benign, 8 borderline, and 23 malignant) was performed. H-Ryk was overexpressed in borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. In serous and clear cell subtypes, there was increased expression in the epithelium, stroma, and blood vessels. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of H-Ryk in the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 induces anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. This implies that overexpression of the receptor can be transforming and may therefore be significant in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. (+info)
Three dimensional ultrasound and power doppler in assessment of uterine and ovarian angiogenesis: a prospective study. (2/109)AIM: To determine whether three-dimensional power Doppler can improve the recognition of pelvic tumor morphology and angiogenesis. METHODS: Using this technique we analyzed 180 adnexal masses and 110 uterine lesions. Tumor volume, morphology, and vascularity were evaluated in each patient. Irregular and randomly dispersed vessels with complex branching depicted by comprehensive three dimensional display were suggestive of pelvic malignancy, while linear-like vascular morphology, single vessel arrangement and regular branching were typical for benign structures. RESULTS: Addition of qualitative analysis of vascular architecture of adnexal tumor to morphological parameters reached 96.15% sensitivity and 98.73% specificity. When endometrial lesions were prospectively analyzed, sensitivity and specificity were 91.67% and 98.49%, respectively. Because the lowest positive predictive value of 16.67% was obtained for myometrial lesions, this method should not be advised for their eva luation. CONCLUSION: Good results achieved by three dimensional ultrasound can be explained by improved recognition of the pelvic lesion anatomy, characterization of the surface features, detection of the tumor infiltration, and precise depiction of the size and volume. Three dimensional power Doppler imaging can detect structural abnormalities of the malignant tumor vessels, such as arteriovenous shunts, microaneurysms, tumoral lakes, disproportional calibration, coiling, and dichotomous branching. Therefore it enhances and facilitates the morphologic and functional evaluation of both benign and malignant pelvic tumors. (+info)
Clinical significance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography. (3/109)BACKGROUND: Cystic tumor of the pancreas has been investigated by a variety of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is being widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for investigation of the biliary tree and pancreatic duct system. The purpose of this study was to compare MRCP images with those of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the diagnostic efficacy of MRCP for cystic tumor of the pancreas. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with cystic tumor of the pancreas that had been surgically resected and histopathologically confirmed. There were five cases of intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma, five of intraductal papillary adenoma, two of serous cyst adenoma, two of retention cyst associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma and one of solid cystic tumor. RESULTS: In all cases MRCP correctly identified the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and showed the entire cystic tumor and the communication between the tumor and the MPD. On the other hand, the detection rate by ERCP of the cystic tumor and the communication between the cystic tumor and the MPD was only 60%. Although the detection rates by CT for the septum and solid components inside the cystic tumor were 100 and 90.0%, respectively, those of MRCP for each were 58.3 and 20.0%. CONCLUSION: MRCP is capable of providing diagnostic information superior to ERCP for the diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas. Although MRCP may provide complementary information about the whole lesion of interest, the characteristic internal features of cystic tumor of the pancrease should be carefully diagnosed in combination with CT. (+info)
Cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas of the pancreas: a multiinstitutional retrospective study of 398 cases. French Surgical Association. (4/109)OBJECTIVE: To review the features of patients with benign and malignant cystadenomas of the pancreas, focusing on preoperative diagnostic accuracy and long-term outcome, especially for nonoperated serous cystadenomas and resected cystadenocarcinomas. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Serous cystadenomas (SCAs) are benign tumors. Mucinous cystic neoplasms should be resected because of the risk of malignant progression. A correct preoperative diagnosis of tumor type is based on morphologic criteria. Despite the high quality of recent imaging procedures, the diagnosis frequently remains uncertain. Invasive investigations such as endosonography and diagnostic aspiration of cystic fluid may be helpful, but their assessment is limited to small series. The management of typical SCA may require resection or observation. Survival after pancreatic resection seems better for cystadenocarcinomas (MCACs) than for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. METHODS: Three hundred ninety-eight cases of cystadenomas of the pancreas were collected between 1984 and 1996 in 73 institutions of the French Surgical Association. Clinical presentation, radiologic evaluation, and surgical procedures were analyzed for 144 operated SCAs, 150 mucinous cystadenomas (MCAs), and 78 MCACs. The outcome of 372 operated patients and 26 nonoperated patients with SCA was analyzed. RESULTS: Cystadenomas represented 76% of all primary pancreatic cystic tumors (398/522). An asymptomatic tumor was discovered in 32% of patients with SCA, 26% of those with MCA, and 13% of those with MCAC. The tumor was located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas in 38% of those with SCA, 27% of those with MCA, and 49% of those with MCAC. A communication between the cyst and pancreatic duct was discovered in 0.6% of those with SCA, 6% of those with MCA, and 10% of those with MCAC. The main investigations were ultrasonography and computed tomography (94% for SCA, MCA, and MCAC), endosonography (34%, 28%, and 22% for SCA, MCA, and MCAC respectively), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (16%, 14%, 22%), and cyst fluid analysis (22%, 31%, 35%). An accurate preoperative diagnosis of tumor type was proposed for 20% of those with SCA (144 cases), 30% of those with MCA, and 29% of those with MCAC. An atypical unilocular macrocyst was observed in 10% of SCA cases. The most common misdiagnosis for mucinous cystic tumors was pseudocyst (9% of MCAs, 15% of MCACs). Intraoperative frozen sections (126 cases) allowed a diagnosis according to definitive histologic examination in 50% of those with SCA and MCA and 62% of those with MCAC. For management, 93% of patients underwent surgery. Nonoperated patients (7%) had exclusively typical SCA. A complete cyst excision was performed in 94% of benign cystadenomas, with an operative mortality rate of 2% for SCA and 1.4% for MCA. Resection was possible in 74% of cases of MCAC. Mean follow-up of 26 patients with nonresected SCAs was 38 months, and no patients required surgery. For resected MCACs, the actuarial 5-year survival rate was 63%. CONCLUSIONS: Spiral computed tomography is the examination of choice for a correct prediction of tumor type. Endosonography may be useful to detect the morphologic criteria of small tumors. Diagnostic aspiration of the cyst allows differentiation of the macrocystic form of SCA (10% of cases) and the unilocular type of mucinous cystic neoplasm from a pseudocyst. Surgical resection should be performed for symptomatic SCAs, all mucinous cystic neoplasms, and cystic tumors that are not clearly defined. Conservative management is wholly justified for a well-documented SCA with no symptoms. An extensive resection is warranted for MCAC because the 5-year survival rate may exceed 60%. (+info)
Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization. (5/109)OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. METHODS: A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. CONCLUSION: Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of neoangiogenesis. The clinical relevance remains to be determined. (+info)
Cystic struma ovarii: a rare presentation of an infrequent tumor. (6/109)CONTEXT: Struma ovarii, a rare neoplasm, is a monophyletic teratoma composed of thyroid tissue. It is generally considered to account for less than 5% of mature teratomas. CASE REPORT: A diagnosis of struma ovarii may be the source of many diagnostic problems. It may be cystic and microscopic examination may only reveal a few typical thyroid follicles, resulting in confusion with other cystic ovarian tumors. Extensive sampling should be undertaken and immunohistochemistry may be decisive in establishing the thyroid nature of the epithelial lining. The authors report two cases of cystic struma ovarii, and discuss diagnostic criteria and the limitations of frozen biopsies in these tumors. (+info)
Expression of a homeobox gene (SIX5) in borderline ovarian tumours. (7/109)AIMS: To assess the expression of SIX5 (a homeobox gene) mRNA in surface coelomic epithelium, endocervical epithelium, Fallopian tube epithelium, and benign, borderline, and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. METHODS: 10 normal premenopausal ovaries, 10 normal Fallopian tubes, 10 normal cervices, 10 normal postmenopausal ovaries, 10 benign epithelial ovarian tumours, 10 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours, and 40 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours were studied retrospectively. The tissues had been fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. The tumours had previously been typed into mucinous, serous, or mixed tumours and assigned to the borderline category according to the FIGO/WHO criteria. Expression was assessed by in situ binding of SIX5 specific sense and antisense riboprobes. Hybridization of the riboprobes was detected using a standard immunohistochemical technique and the results correlated with expression in the normal epithelium of the endocervix, Fallopian tube, surface coelomic epithelium, and ovarian tumours. RESULTS: Expression of SIX5 mRNA was demonstrated in normal Fallopian tube epithelium and normal endocervical epithelium. SIX5 mRNA was not detected in normal ovarian epithelial tissue at any of the times studied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of SIX5 was not shown in benign epithelial ovarian tumours or in any of the malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. In 31 of 37 borderline epithelial ovarian tumours (84%), SIX5 expression was found in the epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: SIX5 expression is present in the normal epithelium throughout most of the female reproductive tract, suggesting it may have a role in maintaining epithelial differentiation in these tissues. SIX5 expression appears to be restricted to borderline epithelial ovarian tumours and may be a marker of epithelial differentiation in these tumours; thus borderline ovarian tumours may not be part of a continuum of disease between benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Further investigation of expression of SIX5 may clarify the molecular processes that promote differentiation of the ovarian surface epithelium. (+info)
Pancreatic duct cell carcinomas express high levels of high mobility group I(Y) proteins. (8/109)The high mobility group I (HMGI) family of proteins in mammals belongs to a group of nonhistone nuclear proteins known as architectural transcriptional factors. They function in vivo as both structural components of chromatin and auxiliary gene transcription factors. In an earlier study (N. Abe et al, Cancer Res., 59: 1169-1174, 1999), we demonstrated that the expression level of the HMGI(Y) gene/proteins was significantly increased in colorectal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenoma with severe cellular atypia. In the current study, we analyzed HMGI(Y) expression in several human pancreatic lesions to investigate (a) whether HMGI(Y) overexpression is also observed in pancreatic carcinoma, and (b) the role of HMGI(Y) in the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. To this end, HMGI(Y) expression was determined at the protein level by immunohistochemistry using a HMGI(Y)-specific antibody in 6 surgically resected specimens of nonneoplastic tissue (4 specimens of normal pancreatic tissue and 2 specimens of chronic pancreatitis tissue), 8 pancreatic cystic neoplasms (5 intraductal papillary mucinous adenomas, 1 serous cystadenoma, and 2 solid pseudopapillary tumors), and 15 duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense nuclear staining in the pancreatic carcinoma cells, whereas only very faint nuclear staining was seen in the nonneoplastic cells. There was a strong correlation between HMGI(Y) protein overexpression and a diagnosis of carcinoma (P = 0.000018). Thus, an increased expression level of the HMGI(Y) proteins was clearly associated with the malignant phenotype in pancreatic tissue. In addition, a low level of protein expression was also apparent in two of the cystic neoplasms that exhibited cellular atypia, but not in those that did not exhibit cellular atypia. Based on these findings, we propose that the HMGI(Y) proteins could be closely associated with tumorigenesis in the pancreas and that HMGI(Y) could serve as a potential diagnostic molecular marker for distinguishing pancreatic malignancies unambiguously from normal tissue or benign lesions. (+info)
Note: The above definition is intended to provide a general understanding of the term 'Cystadenoma' and should not be considered as medical advice or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about your health, please consult a qualified medical professional for proper evaluation and care.
* Mucinous cystadenomas are typically slow-growing and asymptomatic, but can occasionally cause pelvic pain or discomfort due to their size.
* They are usually unilateral (affecting one ovary), but can rarely occur bilaterally (affecting both ovaries).
* The tumor is composed of mucin-secreting epithelial cells that form glands or cysts within a fibrous stroma.
* Cystadenomas are typically encapsulated, but can rarely become invasive and infiltrate surrounding tissues.
* Mucinous cystadenomas are usually small (less than 5 cm in diameter), but can occasionally be larger.
* Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans may be used to detect the presence of a cystic mass in the ovary, but a definitive diagnosis is usually made through surgical exploration and histopathologic examination of the tumor tissue.
* A preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cystadenoma can be challenging, as the imaging features are not specific and may resemble other ovarian tumors, such as serous cystadenomas or borderline tumors.
* Surgical excision is the primary treatment for mucinous cystadenoma, and the procedure is usually performed through a laparotomy or laparoscopy.
* The surgical approach depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and fertility status.
* In some cases, the tumor may be removed through a staged approach, with initial cytoreduction followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the remaining tumor burden.
* Mucinous cystadenoma is generally considered a benign tumor, and the prognosis is excellent for most patients.
* The overall survival rate is high, and the majority of patients can expect to be cured with surgical excision alone.
* However, in rare cases, mucinous cystadenoma can recur or progress to more aggressive types of ovarian cancer, such as serous carcinoma.
* After surgical excision, patients with mucinous cystadenoma should be followed up with regular pelvic examinations, imaging studies, and serum CA 125 levels to monitor for any signs of recurrence or progression.
* The frequency of follow-up appointments may vary depending on the patient's age, tumor size, and other factors, but annual pelvic examinations and imaging studies are generally recommended for at least 5 years after surgery.
1. Kurman RJ, et al. The origin and pathology of ovarian borderline tumors. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology. 2014;33(2):197-211.
2. Di Cerbo A, et al. Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary: a review of the literature. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 2018;40(6):753-763.
3. Chung H, et al. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecologic Oncology Reports. 2018;20:135-143.
The term "cystadenoma" refers to a benign tumor that grows from glandular tissue, and "serous" indicates that the tumor is derived from the serous (fluid-producing) cells of the ovary. The tumor typically forms a cystic mass filled with a clear or cloudy liquid, and can range in size from small to several centimeters in diameter.
CS usually affects women during their reproductive years, and the peak incidence is between 20 and 40 years of age. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and vaginal bleeding, but many cases are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally during pelvic examination or imaging studies.
The exact cause of CS is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations and hormonal factors. The tumor cells have a characteristic immunophenotype, with expression of markers such as cytokeratin 7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
The diagnosis of CS is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT), and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through laparoscopy or surgery. Treatment options for CS include watchful waiting, fertility-sparing surgery, and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (THBSO).
In summary, cystadenoma, serous is a common type of benign ovarian tumor that originates from the serous cells of the ovary. It typically affects women during their reproductive years and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. The exact cause is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations and hormonal factors. Diagnosis is based on a combination of imaging studies and histopathological examination of tissue samples, and treatment options include watchful waiting, fertility-sparing surgery, and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
Example sentence: "After undergoing surgery to remove the papillary cystadenoma, the patient made a full recovery."
Cystadenocarcinoma can occur in various parts of the body, but it is most common in the ovary and breast. In the ovary, it is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for about 70% of all ovarian cancers. In the breast, it is a rare type of breast cancer, accounting for less than 5% of all breast cancers.
The symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Abdominal swelling or bloating
* Painful urination
* Weakness and fatigue
Cystadenocarcinoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer.
The prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome. However, cystadenocarcinoma can be an aggressive cancer, and the 5-year survival rate is lower for advanced stages of the disease.
In summary, cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular cells in various parts of the body, but most commonly in the ovary and breast. It can cause a range of symptoms and is diagnosed through imaging tests and biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis.
Appendiceal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant appendiceal neoplasms are rare, but they can spread quickly to other parts of the body if left untreated.
Types of Appendiceal Neoplasms:
There are several types of appendiceal neoplasms, including:
1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix.
2. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from epithelial cells in the appendix.
3. Mucinous cystadenoma: A benign tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix and typically contains mucin, a type of protein.
4. Goblet cell carcinoid: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from goblet cells, which are specialized cells that produce mucin in the appendix.
5. Signet ring cell carcinoma: A rare and aggressive type of malignant tumor that arises from glandular cells in the appendix.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of appendiceal neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI, and biopsy.
Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms usually involves surgical removal of the affected appendix, which may involve a laparoscopic or open procedure. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended to destroy any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor at the time of diagnosis.
The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms is generally good if the tumor is detected early and treated appropriately. However, if the tumor is not diagnosed until a later stage, the prognosis may be poorer. The 5-year survival rate for patients with appendiceal cancer is approximately 70-80%.
Appendiceal neoplasms are rare and aggressive tumors that can arise in the appendix. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving outcomes. Imaging tests such as CT scans and MRI can help identify these tumors, and surgical removal of the affected appendix is usually the first line of treatment. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended in some cases. The prognosis for patients with appendiceal neoplasms is generally good if the tumor is detected early, but can be poorer if not diagnosed until a later stage.
A mucocele is a type of benign growth that occurs on the mucous membranes, such as those found in the mouth, nose, or throat. It is a soft, painless tumor that is typically filled with mucus. Mucoceles are usually small and can be either pedunculated (attached to the surrounding tissue by a stalk) or exophytic (growing outward from the surface of the mucous membrane).
Synonyms: mucous cyst, mucinous cyst, mucous tumor, benign mucosal tumor.
Etymology: From Latin muco- (mucus) + cele (cyst, sac).
Examples of Mucocele in a sentence:
1. The patient presented with a painless mucocele on her lower lip that had been present for several months.
2. The otolaryngologist removed the mucocele from the patient's nasal cavity using a surgical shaver.
3. The pathology report confirmed that the growth was a benign mucocele and not a malignancy.
Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the biliary tract, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
There are several types of biliary tract neoplasms, including:
1. Cholangiocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts. It can occur in the liver or outside the liver.
2. Gallbladder cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the gallbladder and is relatively rare.
3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer, which means it originates in the liver rather than spreading from another part of the body.
4. Bile duct cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine.
Biliary tract neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), weight loss, fatigue, and itching. These symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble those of other conditions, making diagnosis challenging.
Diagnosis of biliary tract neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, and PET scans, as well as biopsies to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for biliary tract neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Bile Duct Neoplasms:
There are several types of bile duct neoplasms, including:
1. Bile duct adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the bile ducts.
2. Bile duct carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows in the bile ducts and can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare type of bile duct cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Gallbladder cancer: A type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder, which is a small organ located under the liver that stores bile.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of bile duct neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing these tumors, including:
1. Age: Bile duct neoplasms are more common in people over the age of 50.
2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop bile duct neoplasms than men.
3. Family history: People with a family history of bile duct cancer or other liver diseases may be at increased risk.
4. Previous exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium, has been linked to an increased risk of developing bile duct neoplasms.
The symptoms of bile duct neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain or discomfort
6. Weight loss
7. Itching all over the body
8. Dark urine
9. Pale stools
Diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests and biopsy. The following tests may be used to diagnose bile duct neoplasms:
1. Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver and bile ducts.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
4. Endoscopic ultrasound: This test involves inserting an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a small ultrasound probe) into the bile ducts through the mouth or stomach to obtain images and samples of the bile ducts.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed during an endoscopic ultrasound or during surgery to remove the tumor. The sample is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of bile duct neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the patient's preferences. The following are some common treatment options for bile duct neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor or a portion of the bile duct. This may involve a Whipple procedure (a surgical procedure to remove the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and a portion of the bile duct), a bile duct resection, or a liver transplant.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed by surgery or to relieve symptoms such as pain or blockage of the bile duct.
4. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile duct to help keep it open and improve blood flow to the liver.
5. Ablation therapy: Ablation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells by freezing or heating them with a probe inserted through an endoscope.
6. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat certain types of bile duct cancer, such as cholangiocarcinoma, by targeting specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of the cancer cells.
7. Clinical trials: Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments for bile duct neoplasms. These may be an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have advanced cancer.
Prevalence: Adenomas account for approximately 10% to 20% of all primary liver tumors.
Risk Factors: Risk factors for developing adenoma include age (>60 years old), cirrhosis, and a family history of hepatocellular carcinoma or polycystic liver disease.
Pathology: Adenomas are typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. They can grow large enough to obstruct bile flow and cause abdominal pain, jaundice, and pruritus.
Diagnosis: Adenomas are diagnosed via imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic ultrasound may also be used to evaluate the tumor and assess for invasive features.
Treatment: Surgical resection is the primary treatment for adenomas. In some cases, liver transplantation may be considered if the tumor is large or multiple and surgical resection is not feasible. Ablation therapies such as radiofrequency ablation or chemoembolization may also be used to control symptoms and slow tumor growth.
Prognosis: The prognosis for patients with adenoma is generally good, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 90%. However, the risk of malignant transformation (cancer) is present, particularly in cases where there are multiple adenomas or invasive features.
In conclusion, adenoma of the bile ducts is a benign tumor that can occur within the liver. While the prognosis is generally good, early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and minimize the risk of malignant transformation.
There are many different types of cysts that can occur in the body, including:
1. Sebaceous cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form in the skin, particularly on the face, neck, or torso. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
2. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They are common in women of childbearing age and can cause pelvic pain, bloating, and other symptoms.
3. Kidney cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form in the kidneys. They are usually benign but can cause problems if they become large or infected.
4. Dermoid cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form in the skin or organs. They are filled with skin cells, hair follicles, and other tissue and can become inflamed or infected.
5. Pilar cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form on the scalp. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
6. Epidermoid cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form just under the skin. They are filled with a thick, cheesy material and can become inflamed or infected.
7. Mucous cysts: These are small, usually painless cysts that form on the fingers or toes. They are filled with a clear, sticky fluid and can become inflamed or infected.
8. Baker's cyst: This is a fluid-filled cyst that forms behind the knee. It can cause swelling and pain in the knee and is more common in women than men.
9. Tarlov cysts: These are small, fluid-filled cysts that form in the spine. They can cause back pain and other symptoms, such as sciatica.
10. ganglion cysts: These are noncancerous lumps that form on the joints or tendons. They are filled with a thick, clear fluid and can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other types of cysts that are not included here. If you suspect that you have a cyst, it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors account for less than 1% of all testicular tumors, and they are more common in older men, typically between the ages of 40 and 60. They can be either cystic or solid, and they may or may not produce hormones that can affect blood tests.
The symptoms of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
* Pain in the testicle, scrotum, or lower abdomen
* Swelling or enlargement of the testicle
* Abnormalities in semen production, such as decreased volume or changes in consistency
* Discomfort or pain during ejaculation
* Enlargement of the epididymis (a tube that runs along the back of the testicle)
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for proper evaluation and diagnosis. A physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan can help to identify the presence of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors typically involves surgery to remove the affected testicle, followed by hormone therapy to reduce the levels of male hormones that can stimulate the growth of remaining testicular tissue. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be recommended to ensure complete removal of the tumor.
Overall, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare and relatively benign types of testicular cancer, but they can still cause significant symptoms and require proper medical attention for diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.
Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.
The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.
The tumor typically grows slowly, and symptoms may include painless lumps or swelling in the neck, face, or jaw. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, and the prognosis is generally good, with a low risk of recurrence. However, some cases may be difficult to diagnose correctly, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions, such as a thyroid nodule or a salivary gland tumor.
The exact cause of adenolymphoma is not known, but it is believed to arise from genetic mutations that occur during embryonic development. The condition usually affects adults between 30 and 50 years old, with a slight predilection for women.
Adenolymphoma is a rare tumor, and there is limited research on its incidence and prevalence. However, it is estimated that approximately 1 in 1 million people develop this condition each year. The diagnosis of adenolymphoma can be challenging, and the tumor may be mistaken for other benign or malignant conditions. Therefore, proper clinical evaluation and imaging studies are essential to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment.
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of primary ovarian cancer, meaning it originates in the ovary rather than spreading from another part of the body. It accounts for only about 2% to 5% of all ovarian cancers and tends to affect women in their later reproductive years or postmenopausal age.
The exact cause of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is not known, but it may be related to genetic mutations or hormonal imbalances. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer or those with certain inherited genetic syndromes are at higher risk for developing this type of cancer.
The diagnosis of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, and tissue biopsy. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the affected ovary and any other involved organs or tissues, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. Prognosis for this type of cancer is generally good if it is detected early and treated appropriately.
In summary, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a rare type of ovarian cancer that develops in the mucin-secreting cells of the ovary. It tends to affect older women and may be related to genetic or hormonal factors. Diagnosis is based on imaging studies and tissue biopsy, and treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally good if caught early.
There are several types of cecal diseases that can affect humans, including:
1. Cecal volvulus: This is a condition where the cecum becomes twisted or looped, leading to abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Cecal cancer: This is a type of colon cancer that originates in the cecum. It is rare and often symptomless in its early stages.
3. Cecal diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches or sacs form in the wall of the cecum, leading to abdominal pain and other symptoms.
4. Cecal inflammatory polyps: These are growths that occur in the lining of the cecum and can cause bleeding, pain, and other symptoms.
5. Cecal strictures: This is a condition where the cecum becomes narrowed or constricted, leading to abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
6. Cecal ulcers: These are open sores that occur in the lining of the cecum, often caused by inflammation or infection.
7. Cecal tuberculosis: This is a type of tuberculosis that affects the cecum, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss.
8. Cecal abscesses: These are pockets of pus that form in the cecum, often caused by bacterial infection.
9. Cecal fistulae: These are abnormal connections between the cecum and other organs or structures in the abdominal cavity.
These are just a few examples of cecal diseases that can affect humans. It's important to note that many of these conditions are rare and may not be well-known to the general public. If you suspect you have a cecal disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Spermatoceles are usually small and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they can cause discomfort or pain in the scrotum or testicles. They may also affect fertility by blocking the flow of sperm from the epididymis into the vas deferens.
Spermatocele is a type of hydrocele, which means that it is caused by an accumulation of fluid within a closed sac-like structure. Hydroceles can occur in other parts of the body, such as the groin or abdomen, but spermatocele specifically affects the epididymis.
The exact cause of spermatocele is not known, but it may be related to inflammation or blockage of the epididymis. It can also occur as a result of surgery or trauma to the groin area.
Diagnosis of spermatocele is usually made through ultrasound or scrotal imaging. Treatment for spermatocele may involve draining the fluid from the cyst, or in some cases, surgical removal of the affected portion of the epididymis.
In conclusion, a spermatocele is a benign cyst that forms in the epididymis and can cause discomfort, pain, or fertility issues in men. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Types of Endocrine Gland Neoplasms:
1. Thyroid Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the thyroid gland, which can cause an overproduction or underproduction of thyroid hormones.
2. Adrenal Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which can produce excess hormones that can cause various symptoms.
3. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNETs): Tumors that develop in the pancreas and produce excess hormones that can cause a variety of symptoms.
4. Parathyroid Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium levels in the blood.
5. Pituitary Tumors: Benign or malignant growths that develop in the pituitary gland, which can affect hormone production and cause various symptoms.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations
2. Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation
3. Family history of endocrine disorders
4. Previous radiation therapy
5. Age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 40
1. Thyroid cancer: A lump in the neck, difficulty swallowing, or shortness of breath
2. Adrenal cancer: High blood pressure, weight gain, or muscle weakness
3. PNETs: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, or weight loss
4. Parathyroid cancer: High calcium levels in the blood, kidney stones, or osteoporosis
5. Pituitary tumors: Headaches, vision changes, or hormonal imbalances
Treatment options for endocrine cancers depend on the specific type of cancer, its location, and its stage. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy may also be necessary.
The prognosis for endocrine cancers varies by type. In general, the earlier the cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the prognosis. Thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of around 97%. Adrenal cancer has a lower survival rate of around 60%, while PNETs have a poorer prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of around 30%. Parathyroid cancer and pituitary tumors have better prognoses, with 5-year survival rates of around 90% and 80%, respectively.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent endocrine cancers, but certain measures may help reduce the risk. These include:
* Reducing exposure to radiation: Minimizing exposure to radiation, such as from CT scans, can help reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer.
* Avoiding certain chemicals: Avoiding certain chemicals, such as pesticides and herbicides, may help reduce the risk of developing endocrine cancers.
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly, may help reduce the risk of developing endocrine cancers.
* Early detection: Early detection and treatment of endocrine cancers can improve prognosis. Regular check-ups with an endocrinologist can help identify any abnormalities early on.
In conclusion, endocrine cancers are a diverse group of tumors that can affect various parts of the endocrine system. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving prognosis, and prevention measures such as reducing exposure to radiation and maintaining a healthy lifestyle may also be helpful. It is important to seek medical attention if any symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Benign ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.
Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.
Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
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Definition of Aspermia: Aspermia is a condition where a man does not produce any semen during ejaculation. This can be due to various causes such as blockage in the reproductive tract, hormonal imbalance, or certain medical conditions like diabetes or hypogonadism. Aspermia can make it difficult or impossible for a man to father a child naturally.
Aspermia is also known as:
* Dry ejaculation
* American Urological Association. (2019). Aspermia. Retrieved from
* MedlinePlus. (2020). Aspermia. Retrieved from
Pseudomyxoma peritonei can occur in anyone, but it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 50. The exact cause of this condition is not known, but it may be linked to genetic changes or previous abdominal surgery.
Symptoms of pseudomyxoma peritonei can include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are often persistent and can worsen over time. In some cases, the tumors can become large enough to compress nearby organs, leading to additional complications such as bowel obstruction or kidney damage.
If you suspect that you may have pseudomyxoma peritonei, your doctor will begin by performing a physical exam and taking a medical history. Imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans may also be ordered to help visualize the tumors and determine their extent. A diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei is typically made based on the presence of mucin-secreting tumors on the peritoneum, along with other characteristic features such as the absence of a primary tumor site.
Treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei usually involves surgery to remove as many of the tumors as possible. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended to help shrink the tumors before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
The prognosis for pseudomyxoma peritonei is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if the tumors are allowed to grow and spread, the outlook can be poorer. In rare cases, the tumors may recur even after successful treatment.
1. Parotid gland tumors: These are the most common type of salivary gland tumor and can be benign or malignant.
2. Submandibular gland tumors: These are less common than parotid gland tumors but can also be benign or malignant.
3. Sublingual gland tumors: These are rare and usually benign.
4. Warthin's tumor: This is a type of benign tumor that affects the parotid gland.
5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a type of malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
6. Acinic cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of malignant tumor that usually occurs in the parotid gland.
7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This is a slow-growing malignant tumor that can occur in any of the major salivary glands.
8. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the salivary glands from another part of the body.
Salivary gland neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including painless lumps or swelling in the neck or face, difficulty swallowing, and numbness or weakness in the face. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
In conclusion, salivary gland neoplasms are a diverse group of cancers that affect the salivary glands, and it's important to be aware of the different types, symptoms, and treatment options in order to provide effective care for patients with these tumors.
1. Pancreatic mucinous cysts: These are the most common type of pancreatic cyst and are usually benign (non-cancerous). They can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters and may contain mucin, a type of protein.
2. Pancreatic pseudocysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop after pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas. Pseudocysts are usually more solid than mucinous cysts and can be filled with pancreatic tissue, blood, and other debris.
3. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs): These are precancerous growths that develop in the pancreatic ducts and can progress to pancreatic cancer if left untreated.
4. Other rare types of pancreatic cysts include serous cystic neoplasms, clear cell cysts, and oncocytic cysts.
Pancreatic cysts may not cause any symptoms in their early stages, but as they grow, they can press on nearby organs and cause pain, nausea, vomiting, and other digestive problems. Large cysts can also block the pancreatic ducts, leading to pancreatitis.
Diagnosis of pancreatic cysts typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or endoscopic ultrasound. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy may also be performed to collect a sample of the cyst fluid for further examination.
Treatment of pancreatic cysts depends on their type, size, and location. Small, benign cysts may not require treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging tests. Larger cysts may need to be drained or removed surgically, especially if they are causing symptoms or increasing in size.
It is essential for individuals with a history of pancreatic cysts to follow up regularly with their healthcare provider to monitor for any changes in the cysts and to ensure early detection of any potential cancerous changes.
Multiple primary neoplasms can arise in different organs or tissues throughout the body, such as the breast, colon, prostate, lung, or skin. Each tumor is considered a separate entity, with its own unique characteristics, including size, location, and aggressiveness. Treatment for multiple primary neoplasms typically involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these modalities.
The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms can be challenging due to the overlapping symptoms and radiological findings between the different tumors. Therefore, it is essential to have a thorough clinical evaluation and diagnostic workup to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms and confirm the presence of multiple primary neoplasms.
Multiple primary neoplasms are more common than previously thought, with an estimated prevalence of 2% to 5% in some populations. The prognosis for patients with multiple primary neoplasms varies depending on the location, size, and aggressiveness of each tumor, as well as the patient's overall health status.
It is important to note that multiple primary neoplasms are not the same as metastatic cancer, in which a single primary tumor spreads to other parts of the body. Multiple primary neoplasms are distinct tumors that arise independently from different primary sites within the body.
Retroperitoneal neoplasms can occur in various locations, including the kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, spleen, and small intestine. These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms, such as abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, and difficulty urinating or passing stool.
The diagnosis of retroperitoneal neoplasms is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope.
Treatment options for retroperitoneal neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the tumor and any affected surrounding tissue or organs. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
Some common types of retroperitoneal neoplasms include:
1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a type of kidney cancer that originates in the cells that line the renal tubules.
2. Adrenocortical carcinoma: a type of cancer that arises in the adrenal gland.
3. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: tumors that arise in the pancreas and produce excess hormones.
4. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): a type of cancer that originates in the liver cells.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): tumors that arise in the digestive system, usually in the stomach or small intestine.
6. Soft tissue sarcomas: tumors that arise in the soft tissues of the body, such as the muscles, fat, and connective tissue.
7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: a condition where the tissue in the retroperitoneum becomes scarred and thickened.
8. Metastatic tumors: tumors that have spread to the retroperitoneum from another part of the body, such as the lung, breast, or colon.
It is important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other types of retroperitoneal neoplasms not mentioned here. If you suspect you may have a retroperitoneal neoplasm, it is important to consult with a qualified medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Pseudocysts are typically caused by inflammation or injury to the pancreas, which can lead to the formation of fluid-filled spaces within the organ. These spaces are not surrounded by a layer of epithelial cells, as is the case with true pancreatic cysts.
Pancreatic pseudocysts may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during diagnostic imaging studies. However, they can also cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and other symptoms depending on their size and location.
Treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts is usually conservative, involving observation, fluid drainage, and management of any underlying causes such as infection or inflammation. Surgical intervention may be necessary if the pseudocyst becomes infected, bleeds, or causes other complications.
It's important to note that while pancreatic pseudocysts are generally less serious than true cysts, they can still cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated or if there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it's important for healthcare providers to be aware of the differences between pseudocysts and true pancreatic cysts, as well as the appropriate diagnostic and treatment approaches for each condition.
Types of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Functional cysts: These cysts form during the menstrual cycle and are usually small and disappear on their own within a few days or weeks.
2. Follicular cysts: These cysts form when a follicle (a tiny sac containing an egg) does not release an egg and instead fills with fluid.
3. Corpus luteum cysts: These cysts form when the corpus luteum (the sac that holds an egg after it's released from the ovary) does not dissolve after pregnancy or does not produce hormones properly.
4. Endometrioid cysts: These cysts are formed when endometrial tissue (tissue that lines the uterus) grows outside of the uterus and forms a cyst.
5. Cystadenomas: These cysts are benign tumors that grow on the surface of an ovary or inside an ovary. They can be filled with a clear liquid or a thick, sticky substance.
6. Dermoid cysts: These cysts are formed when cells from the skin or other organs grow inside an ovary. They can contain hair follicles, sweat glands, and other tissues.
Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Pelvic pain or cramping
2. Bloating or discomfort in the abdomen
3. Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding
4. Pain during sex
5. Frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder
6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cysts:
1. Pelvic examination: A doctor will check for any abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can help identify the presence of a cyst and determine its size, location, and composition.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to check hormone levels and rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
4. Laparoscopy: A laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera and light) is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the ovaries and remove any cysts.
5. Surgical removal of cysts: Cysts can be removed by surgery, either through laparoscopy or open surgery.
6. Medications: Hormonal medications may be prescribed to shrink the cyst and alleviate symptoms.
It is important to note that not all ovarian cysts cause symptoms, and some may go away on their own without treatment. However, if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above or have concerns about an ovarian cyst, it is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Exocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce digestive enzymes, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and malnutrition. The most common exocrine disorder is chronic pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring. Other exocrine disorders include acute pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, and pancreatic cancer.
Endocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce hormones, leading to symptoms such as diabetes, hypoglycemia, and Cushing's syndrome. The most common endocrine disorder is diabetes mellitus, which is caused by a deficiency of insulin production or insulin resistance. Other endocrine disorders include hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors.
Pancreatic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment options for pancreatic diseases vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with pancreatic diseases.
Some of the most common types of pancreatic diseases include:
1. Diabetes mellitus: a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels.
2. Chronic pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring.
3. Acute pancreatitis: sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas, often caused by gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption.
4. Pancreatic cancer: a malignancy that can arise in the pancreas and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs): tumors that arise in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms.
6. Pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors: rare tumors that produce excessive amounts of pancreatic polypeptide, leading to hypoglycemia and other symptoms.
7. Glucagonoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of glucagon, leading to high blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
8. Insulinoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1: an inherited disorder characterized by multiple endocrine tumors, including those in the pancreas.
10. Familial pancreatico-ductal adenocarcinoma (FPDA): an inherited disorder characterized by a high risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
These are just some of the possible causes of pancreatic disease, and there may be others not listed here. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The term "serous" refers to the fact that the tumor produces a fluid-filled cyst, which typically contains a clear, serous (watery) liquid. The cancer cells are typically found in the outer layer of the ovary, near the surface of the organ.
Cystadenocarcinoma, serous is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for about 50-60% of all cases. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, as it can be difficult to detect in its early stages. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits.
Treatment for cystadenocarcinoma, serous usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery may involve removing the uterus, ovaries, and other affected tissues, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, radiation therapy may also be used.
Prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma, serous varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis. Women with early-stage disease have a good prognosis, while those with advanced-stage disease have a poorer outlook. However, overall survival rates have improved in recent years due to advances in treatment and screening.
In summary, cystadenocarcinoma, serous is a type of ovarian cancer that originates in the lining of the ovary and grows slowly over time. It can be difficult to detect in its early stages, but treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the cancer at diagnosis.
Examples of 'Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous' in medical literature:
* The patient was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, in their colon after undergoing a colonoscopy and biopsy. (From the Journal of Clinical Oncology)
* The patient had a history of adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, in their breast and was being monitored for potential recurrence. (From the Journal of Surgical Oncology)
* The tumor was found to be an adenocarcinoma, mucinous type, with a high grade and was treated with surgery and chemotherapy. (From the Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology)
Synonyms for 'Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous' include:
* Mucinous adenocarcinoma
* Colon adenocarcinoma, mucinous type
* Rectal adenocarcinoma, mucinous type
* Adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, mucinous type.
Pancreatic serous cystadenoma
Ovarian serous cystadenoma
Papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma
Surgical Outcomes Analysis and Research
Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm
Solid pseudopapillary tumour
List of MeSH codes (C04)
Pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma
Von Hippel-Lindau disease
Cystic lesions of the pancreas
International Classification of Diseases for Oncology
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- The important point to remember is that serous cystadenoma is benign, whereas the biologic behavior of the mucinous cystic neoplasm and the IPMT ranges from benign to malignant. (medscape.com)
- Careful examination of benign serous cystadenoma should be kept in mind during clinical practice, to rule out the possibility of combined malignant endocrine tumor. (nih.gov)
- Serous cystadenoma is a benign neoplasm that is usually present either in ovaries or in pancreas. (cancerwall.com)
- Pancreatic serous cystadenoma is the most common benign lesion of the pancreas. (cancerwall.com)
- In this scheme, low-grade OSC arises in a stepwise fashion from a benign serous cystadenoma through a usual serous borderline tumor through a micropapillary variant of serous borderline tumor. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Serous cystadenoma (52.7%) was the commonest benign tumor followed by Mucinous Modi D, Rathod GB, Delwadia KN, Goswami HM. (who.int)
- Serous cystadenoma was the most common ovarian tumor overall as well as the most common benign tumor, whereas serous cystadenocarcinoma was the most common ovarian malignancy. (who.int)
- In this study, we used an integrated proteomics and glycoproteomics approach to analyze global glycoprotein abundance and glycosylation occupancy for proteins from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma (HGSC) and serous cystadenoma, a benign epithelial ovarian tumor, by using LC-MS/MS-based technique. (nih.gov)
- Fresh-frozen ovarian HGSC tissues and benign serous cystadenoma cases were quantitatively analyzed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation for both global and glycoproteomic analyses by two dimensional fractionation followed by LC-MS/MS analysis using a Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we presented an integrated proteomics and glycoproteomics approach to identify changes of glycoproteins in protein expression and glycosylation occupancy in HGSC and serous cystadenoma and determined the changes of glycosylation occupancy that are associated with malignant and benign tumor tissues. (nih.gov)
- Laparoscopy to remove a 10" paratubal cyst (benign serous cystadenoma). (cradlesandgraves.com)
- The 2 most common cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystic neoplasm. (medscape.com)
- Microcystic serous cystadenoma mimicking pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm: report of a resected case with preoperative diagnostic difficulty and review of the literature. (bvsalud.org)
- In particular, mucinous CPNs include mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), while non-mucinous CPNs include serous cystic neoplasm (SCN), solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN), cystic neuroendocrine neoplasm (CPNET), the rarer acinar cell cystic neoplasm (ACCN), ductal adenocarcinoma with cystic degeneration and other rarer lesions (Table 1 ). (springeropen.com)
- Women with serous cystadenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and endometrioid cystadenocarcinoma had significantly higher PF RANTES levels than patients with undifferentiated carcinoma. (hilarispublisher.com)
- Warthin tumor 's other name, papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, is long and technical but describes the disease pretty well. (osmosis.org)
- Cystadenoma refers to the fact that the ducts grow in size and fill up with serous fluid and cellular debris which forms a large cyst. (osmosis.org)
- The other case was a 28-year-old woman with von Hippel-Lindau disease with combined pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma and well-differentiated malignant endocrine carcinoma. (nih.gov)
- Ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) is the most common ovarian epithelial malignancy. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Serous carcinoma is the most common type. (nih.gov)
- Serous cystadenomas are more common than mucinous cystic neoplasms, at a ratio of about 2:1. (medscape.com)
- Pancreatic serous cystadenomas are commonly found in women 60 years of age or older (approximately 75% of cases). (medscape.com)
- [ 7 ] These lesions are generally small (mean diameter, 31 mm), but giant pancreatic serous cystadenomas (≥10 cm) have been reported. (medscape.com)
- surgery is generally indicated only for large serous cystadenomas. (medscape.com)
- Pancreatic serous cystadenomas account for 1-2% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors, and endocrine tumors account for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. (nih.gov)
- Serous cystadenomas are caused by abnormal growth of the cells. (cancerwall.com)
- The combination of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumor is even rarer. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report two cases of combined pancreatic serous adenoma and endocrine tumor. (nih.gov)
- One was a 64-year-old woman with serous cystadenoma and pancreatic endocrine tumor. (nih.gov)
- In addition, von Hippel-Lindau disease should also be suspected when a young adult presents with combination of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumor. (nih.gov)
- A cystadenoma, an epithelial tumor, that originates within the head of the epididymis. (nih.gov)
- Serous borderline tumor of the paratestis: a report of seven cases. (nih.gov)
- A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma ( CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS ). (nih.gov)
- The study was undertaken to evaluate Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) levels in the peritoneal fluid (PF) and plasma of patients with different stage, grade and histological type of ovarian cancer (n=73) or serous cystadenoma (n=32) in relation to PF and peripheral blood (PB) myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells (DCs). (hilarispublisher.com)
- Low-grade serous ovarian cancer is a serious disease that can be seriously misunderstood. (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- Low-grade serous ovarian cancer (also known as LGSOC) is a rare type of cancer. (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- It is distinct from the more common high-grade serous ovarian cancer (also known as HGSOC) and grows and spreads more slowly. (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- What is low-grade serous ovarian cancer? (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- Low-grade serous is a type of ovarian cancer that starts in the thin layer of tissue around the ovaries (also known as the epithelium). (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- How common is a diagnosis of low-grade serous ovarian cancer? (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- What are the symptoms of low-grade serous ovarian cancer? (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- How is low-grade serous ovarian cancer different from high-grade serous ovarian cancer? (letstalkaboutlgsoc.com)
- Because of significant overlap in the imaging findings of mucinous and serous pancreatic tumors, these tumors should be followed up with surveillance CT scanning to assess interval growth if aspiration is not performed. (medscape.com)
- Recently, a dualistic pathway of ovarian serous carcinogenesis has been proposed based on morphologic observations and molecular genetic analysis. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Abdominal Pain was commonest symptom.11 cases of Mucious cystadenoma and 4 Serous cystadenoma were operated. (sages.org)
- To avoid serious complications of pancreatic surgery, serous cystadenoma should be diagnosed accurately at the preoperative level. (medscape.com)
- Looking at histology, we can see the papilla, the lymphocytes, and the cystic space where the serous fluid and cellular debris are. (osmosis.org)
- A serous cystadenoma should be diagnosed with caution unless the lesion has all of the typical findings. (medscape.com)
- There are no specific laboratory findings that can lead to diagnosis of ovarian serous cystadenoma. (cancerwall.com)
- Findings from plain radiography and upper GI series are nondiagnostic, except the finding of a classic sunburst central calcification, which is suggestive of a serous cystadenoma. (medscape.com)
- In a study of 2622 patients with serous cystadenoma, 74% were women, with a mean age of 58 years. (medscape.com)
- 10. [A case of giant pseudomucinous cystadenoma in adolescents]. (nih.gov)
- 1. [Virilisation due to an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma]. (nih.gov)
- 9. Giant, benign, mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary: case study and literature review. (nih.gov)
- 11. Mucinous cystadenoma and virilization during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- 12. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to a borderline mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. (nih.gov)
- 13. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, with an associated mucinous cystadenoma. (nih.gov)
- 16. Virilization in pregnancy associated with an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. (nih.gov)
- 17. A mucinous cystadenoma associated with testosterone production. (nih.gov)
- 20. Virilization in pregnancy coexisting with an (ovarian) mucinous cystadenoma: A case report and review of virilizing ovarian tumors in pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Twenty patients with the diagnosis of endometrioma and 30 control subjects consisting of ovarian serous cystadenoma (n=10), ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (n=10) and normal ovarian tissue (n=10) were included. (nih.gov)
- Tissues with mucinous cystadenoma were significantly more stained with PAS and VanGieson, when compared to women with endometrioma. (nih.gov)
- Macrophage deposition was higher in cyst samples with endometrioma and in normal ovarian tissue when compared to serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma. (nih.gov)
- A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma ( CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS ). (nih.gov)
- compared with the serous variety, they rarely are associated with true papillae. (medscape.com)
- 10. Ovarian cystadenoma with stromal cell hyperplasia and postmenopausal virilization: a case report. (nih.gov)
- In a study of 2622 patients with serous cystadenoma, 74% were women, with a mean age of 58 years. (medscape.com)
- Serous carcinoma is the most common type. (nih.gov)